Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 112

Search results for: goat

112 Addition of Phosphates on Stability of Sterilized Goat Milk in Different Seasons

Authors: Mei-Jen Lin, Yuan-Yuan Yu

Abstract:

Low heat stability of goat milk limited the application of ultra-high temperature (UHT) sterilization on producing sterilized goat milk in order to keep excess goat milk in summer for producing goat dairy products in winter in Taiwan. Therefore, this study aimed to add stabilizers in goat milk to increase the heat stability for producing UHT sterilized goat milk preserved for making goat dairy products in winter. The amounts of 0.05-0.11% blend of sodium phosphates (Na) and blend of sodium/potassium phosphates (Sp) were added in raw goat milk at different seasons a night before autoclaved sterilization at 135°C 4 sec. The coagulation, ion calcium concentration and ethanol stability of sterilized goat milk were analyzed. Results showed that there were seasonal differences on choosing the optimal stabilizers and the addition levels. Addition of 0.05% and 0.22% of both Na and Sp salts in Spring goat milk, 0.10-0.11% of both Na and Sp salts in Summer goat milk, and 0.05%Na Sp group in Autumn goat milk were coagulated after autoclaved, respectively. There was no coagulation found with the addition of 0.08-0.09% both Na and Sp salts in goat milk; furthermore, the ionic calcium concentration were lower than 2.00 mM and ethanol stability higher than 70% in both 0.08-0.09% Na and Sp salts added goat milk. Therefore, the optimal addition level of blend of sodium phosphates and blend of sodium/potassium phosphates were 0.08-0.09% for producing sterilized goat milk at different seasons in Taiwan.

Keywords: coagulation, goat milk, phosphates, stability

Procedia PDF Downloads 224
111 Manure Management Systems in Sheep and Goat Farms in Konya, Türkiye

Authors: Selda Uzal Seyfi

Abstract:

Goat and sheep milk is quite significant in human nutrition. It is considered as more important day by day. This study was carried out in order to determine applied manure management system and their possibilities of improvement in goat and sheep farm in between 2012 and 2013 years. In the study, it was investigated manure management systems of 25 pieces of sheep and goat farms. It was analyzed the manure collecting, storage and treatment features of farms and whether or not they are suitable for animal breeding. As a result of the study, it was determined that the applied manure management systems in the farm were insufficient. Planning the manure management systems in goat and sheep breeding is appropriate technical criteria is useful in respect of the animal welfare, animal health, the health of workers in the barn and environmental pollution.

Keywords: goat farm, sheep farm, manure storage, manure management

Procedia PDF Downloads 274
110 The Role of Entrepreneurial Orientation in Strengthening Goat Farm Competitiveness in Banjarnegara District, Indonesia

Authors: Mochamad Sugiarto, Yusmi Nw

Abstract:

Goat farming became an important alternative in eradicating poverty in Banjarnegara District. The success of goat farming in delivering products through efficient business management will improve business competitiveness. Entrepreneurship based farming has been able to survive in an ever-changing and increasingly complex global economy. Entrepreneurial farmers characterized by the ability to provide products of goats by applying the principles of efficient business. To achieve, this requires an understanding and a positive outlook related to entrepreneurship involving the values of courage to take risks, creativity and innovation as well as management's ability to find and read the opportunities. Entrepreneurial orientation owned by farmers is an important spirit of farmers to make decision for developing the goat farming. Entrepreneurial orientation is the view of farmers against the values of confidence, result-oriented, future-oriented, and creativity/innovation in goat farming. This study aims to (1) identify the entrepreneurial orientation of goat farmers in Banjarnegara District (2) analyze business competitiveness (cost efficiency) of goat farming in the Banjarnegara District and (3) analyze the relationship between the entrepreneurial perception and cost efficiency of goat farming in the Banjarnegara District. 178 respondents (goat farmers) were taken using stratified random sampling based on altitude. Banjarnegara district with heterogeneous topography grouped into areas of high ( > 1500m), moderate (500m-1000m) and low ( < 500m). The goat farmers in Banjarnegara District has a moderate entrepreneurial orientation. The manage their goat farming efficiently by having R/C = 2.58. Strengthening the entrepreneurial orientation will significantly increase the cost efficiency, which has an impact on strengthening the competitiveness of goat farming in Banjarnegara District.

Keywords: entrepreneurial orientation, cost efficiency, farm competitiveness, goat farming

Procedia PDF Downloads 189
109 Influence of Race and Lactation Stage on the Composition of Traditional Cheese Goat Type Kamaria Manufactured by Protease of Original Replacement Goat, Statistical Approach

Authors: Bounmediene Farida, Nouani Abdelouahab, Bellal Mouloud

Abstract:

The present study examined the influence of two production parameters namely genetic factor (race) and physiological factors (stage of lactation) on the composition of the traditional goat cheese made using the enzyme extract of caprine origin and commercial rennet. The results obtained show that the goat cheese of the Alpine race is richer in fat and protein than Saanen and Local breeds. Similar variations were observed depending on the stage of lactation for the third stage. Thus, analysis of the products obtained show that there is no difference in quality between the cheeses obtained with rennet and those obtained with goat coagulase. In addition, principal component analysis (PCA) made from individuals (races and stages of lactation) and variables (physicochemical parameters goat cheese) divides people into two groups: The first group includes cheeses races Alpine, Saanen and local third stages of lactation. This group corresponds to samples of the richest cheese in a useful matter. The second group includes cheeses from the three races in the second stage of lactation. This group corresponds to cheeses that have low contents in a useful matter.

Keywords: goat cheese, goat coagulase, rennet, coagulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 204
108 Structural Analysis of Sheep and Goat Farms in Konya Province

Authors: Selda Uzal Seyfi

Abstract:

Goat milk is a quite important in human nutrition. In order to meet the demand to the goat and sheep milk occurring in the recent years, an increase is seen in the demand to housing projects, which will enable animals to be sheltered in the suitable environments. This study was carried out in between 2012 and 2013, in order to identify the existing cases of sheep and goat housings in the province Konya and their possibilities to be developed. In the study, in the province Konya, 25 pieces of sheep and goat farms and 46 pieces of sheep and goat housings (14 sheep housings, 3 goat housings, and 29 housings, in which both sheep and goat are bred ) that are present in the farm were investigated as material. In the study, examining the general features of the farms that are present in the region and structural features of housings that are present in the farms, it is studied whether or not they are suitable for animal breeding. As a result of the study, the barns were evaluated as insufficient in terms of barn design, although 48% of they were built after 2000. In 63% of housings examined, stocking density of resting area was below the value of 1 m2/animal and in 59% of the housings, stocking density of courtyard area was below the 2 m2/animal. Feeding length, in 57% of housings has a value of 0.30 m and below. In the region, it will be possible to obtain the desired productivity level by building new barn designs, developed in accordance with the animal behaviors and welfare. Carrying out the necessary works is an important issue in terms of country and regional economy.

Keywords: barn design, goat housing, sheep housing, structural analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 172
107 Biochemical Characterization of Meat Goat in Algeria

Authors: Hafid Nadia, Meziane Toufik

Abstract:

The aim of this study was the characterization of the goat meat by the determination of quantity and the quality in Batna region. The first part was the evaluation of production and consumption. The investigations show that the goat meat third after mutton and beef, it’s especially consumed by the indigenous population located in the Mountain and steep area. The second part of this review treats nutritional quality of this meat by the quantification of the chemical composition, including fat profile, and establishes a link between animal age and the values of these parameters. Moisture, fat contents, and cholesterol levels varied with age. Because of the decreasing level of cholesterol in the Chevon meat, it is more recommended for consumption to prevent or reduce the incidence of coronary disease and heart attack.

Keywords: biochemical composition, cholesterol, goat meat, heart attack

Procedia PDF Downloads 538
106 Effect of Goat Milk Kefir and Soy Milk Kefir on IL-6 in Diabetes Mellitus Wistar Mice Models Induced by Streptozotocin and Nicotinamide

Authors: Agatha Swasti Ayuning Tyas

Abstract:

Hyperglycemia in Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is an important factor in cellular and vascular damage, which is caused by activation of C Protein Kinase, polyol and hexosamine track, and production of Advanced Glycation End-Products (AGE). Those mentioned before causes the accumulation of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS). Oxidative stress increases the expression of proinflammatory factors IL-6 as one of many signs of endothelial disfunction. Genistein in soy milk has a high immunomodulator potential. Goat milk contains amino acids which have antioxidative potential. Fermented kefir has an anti-inflammatory activity which believed will also contribute in potentiating goat milk and soy milk. This study is a quasi-experimental posttest-only research to 30 Wistar mice. This study compared the levels of IL-6 between healthy Wistar mice group (G1) and 4 DM Wistar mice with intervention and grouped as follows: mice without treatment (G2), mice treated with 100% goat milk kefir (G3), mice treated with combination of 50% goat milk kefir and 50% soy milk kefir (G4), and mice treated with 100% soy milk kefir (G5). DM animal models were induced with Streptozotocin & Nicotinamide to achieve hyperglycemic condition. Goat milk kefir and soy milk kefir are given at a dose of 2 mL/kg body weight/day for four weeks to intervention groups. Blood glucose was analyzed by the GOD-POD principle. IL-6 was analyzed by enzyme-linked sandwich ELISA. The level of IL-6 in DM untreated control group (G2) showed a significant difference from the group treated with the combination of 50% goat milk kefir and 50% soy milk kefir (G3) (p=0,006) and the group treated with 100% soy milk kefir (G5) (p=0,009). Whereas the difference of IL-6 in group treated with 100% goat milk kefir (G3) was not significant (p=0,131). There is also synergism between glucose level and IL-6 in intervention groups treated with combination of 50% goat milk kefir and 50% soy milk kefir (G3) and the group treated with 100% soy milk kefir (G5). Combination of 50 % goat milk kefir and 50% soy milk kefir and administration of 100% soy milk kefir alone can control the level of IL-6 remained low in DM Wistar mice induced with streptozocin and nicotinamide.

Keywords: diabetes mellitus, goat milk kefir, soy milk kefir, interleukin 6

Procedia PDF Downloads 159
105 A Review on the Challenge and Need of Goat Semen Production and Artificial Insemination in Nepal

Authors: Pankaj K. Jha, Ajeet K. Jha, Pravin Mishra

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Goat raising is a popular livestock sub-commodity of mixed farming system in Nepal. Besides food and nutritional security, it has an important role in the economy of many peoples. Goat breeding through AI is commonly practiced worldwide. It is a very basic tool to speed up genetic improvement and increase productivity. For the goat genetic improvement program, the government of Nepal has imported some specialized exotic goat breeds and semen. Some progress has been made in the initiation of selective breeding within the local breeds and practice of AI with imported semen. Importance of AI in goats has drawn more attention among goat farmers. However, importing semen is not a permanent solution at national level; rather, it is more important to develop and establish its own frozen semen production technique. Semen quality and its relationship with fertility are said to be a major concern in animal production, hence accurate measurement of semen fertilizing potential is of great importance. The survivability of sperm cells depends on semen quality. Survivability of sperm cells is assessed through visual and microscopic evaluation of spermatozoal progressive motility and morphology. In Nepal, there is lack of scientific information on seminal attributes of buck semen, its dilution, cooling and freezing technique under management conditions of Nepal. Therefore, the objective of this review was to provide brief information about breeding system, semen production and artificial insemination in Nepalese goat.

Keywords: artificial insemination, goat, Nepal, semen

Procedia PDF Downloads 89
104 Animal Welfare Assessment Method through Stockmanship Competence: The Context of Backyard Goat Production in the Philippines

Authors: M. J. Alcedo, K. Ito, K. Maeda

Abstract:

Measuring animal welfare is a newly emerging area of research and it needs multi-disciplinary way to do it. Due to the diversity of what constitutes the definition of animal welfare, different methods and models were developed and mostly conducted in semi and commercial farms in developed countries. Few studies have been conducted in developing countries and in backyard livestock operation. Recognizing that majority of livestock operations are categorized as backyard in developing countries, it is crucial to come up with parameters that can assess the welfare of the animal in the backyard level. This research had made use of stockmanship competence as the proxy indicator to assess animal welfare. Stockmanship competence in this study refers to the capacity of the animal owner to ensure the welfare of their animal by providing their needs for growth and reproduction. The Philippine recommend on goat production, tips on goat raising and goat scientific literatures were used as references to come up with indicators that are known to be important in meeting the needs of the animal and ensuring its welfare. Scores from -1 to +2 were assigned depending on how close it is of satisfying the animal’s need. It is hoped that this assessment method could contribute to the growing body of knowledge on animal welfare and can be utilized as logical and scientific framework in assessing welfare in backyard goat operation. It is suggested that further study needs to be conducted to refine and standardize indicators and identify other indicators for goat welfare assessment.

Keywords: backyard goat production, stockmanship competence, animal welfare, Philippines

Procedia PDF Downloads 329
103 Oestrous Synchronization: A Technical Note for Nepalese Goat Farmers

Authors: Pravin Mishra, Ajeet K. Jha, Pankaj K. Jha

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This technical note is aimed at providing a brief information on goat breeds, its breeding seasonality and different methods of oestrous synchronization for Nepalese goat farmers. It was observed that, these goats are seasonal breeder and showed oestrous during mainly two season; December- February and March-May. This leads to an irregular supply of goat to market and a wide variations in market price. Oestrus synchronization is only an alternative reproductive tool to overcome this scarcity by enhancing production and productivity. This technique enables goat producers breed their animals within a short pre-determined period and permits breeding round the year. The principle of oestrus synchronisation is based on controlling of the luteal phase of the oestrous cycle. There are two basic mechanisms; one by shortening the luteal life (premature luteolysis) using prostaglandins or its analogues and the other by prolonging the luteal life (simulating the activity of natural progesterone produced by the corpus luteum) using exogenous progesterone source. The former is easy to apply and only effective during breeding season, whereas the latter is advantageous when the reproductive status of the goat flock is unknown. The common hormonal products easily available in Nepal includes; prostaglandins or its analogues (Oviprost® Dinoprost® Lutalyse® and Estrumate®), exogenous progesterone (Fluorogestone acetate® and Controlled Internal Drug Release®, CIDR) devices). However, before practicing the oestrous synchronization protocol, it needs to be validated for oestrous response rate, time to onset of oestrous, duration of oestrous and pregnancy rates at farmer’s field. In conclusion, application of oestrus synchronisation practice enhanced goat production and surplus the goat meat demand in Nepal.

Keywords: goat, Nepal, oestrous, synchronization

Procedia PDF Downloads 58
102 Slaughter and Carcass Characterization, and Sensory Qualities of Native, Pure, and Upgraded Breeds of Goat Raised in the Philippines

Authors: Jonathan N. Nayga, Emelita B. Valdez, Mila R. Andres, Beulah B. Estrada, Emelina A. Lopez, Rogelio B. Tamayo, Aubrey Joy M. Balbin

Abstract:

Goat production is one of the activities included in integrated farming in the Philippines. Goats are raised for its meat and regardless of breed the animal is slaughtered for this purpose. In order to document the carcass yield of different goats slaughtered, five (5) different breeds of goats to include Purebred Boer and Anglo-nubian, Crossbred Boer and Anglo-nubian and Philippine Native goat were used in the study. Data on slaughter parameters, carcass characteristics, and sensory evaluation were gathered and analyzed using Complete Random Design (CRD) at 5% level of significance and the results of carcass conformation were assessed descriptively. Results showed that slaughter data such as slaughter/live weight, hot and chilled carcass weights, dressing percentage and percentage drip loss were significantly different (P>0.05) among breeds. On carcass and meat characteristics, pure breed and upgraded Boer were found to be moderately muscular while Native goat was rated as thin muscular. The color of the carcass also revealed that Purebred and crossbred Boer were described dark red, while Native goat was noted to be slightly pale. On sensory evaluation, the results indicated that there was no significant difference (P>0.05) among breeds evaluated. It is therefore concluded that purebred goat has heavier carcass, while both purebred Boer and upgrade are rated slightly muscular. It is further confirms that regardless of breed, goat will have the same sensory characteristics. Thus, it is recommended to slaughter heavier goats to obtain more carcasses with better conformation and quality.

Keywords: carcass quality, goat, sensory evaluation, slaughter

Procedia PDF Downloads 196
101 Animal Welfare through Stockmanship Competence and Its Relationship to Productivity and Economic Profitability: The Case of Backyard Goat Production in the Philippines

Authors: M. J. Alcedo, K. Ito, K. Maeda

Abstract:

A stockperson has a significant influence on the productivity and welfare of their animals. This influence may be good or bad depending on their stockmanship competence. In this study, stockmanship competence (SC) is defined as the capacity of the stockperson to ensure the welfare of their animals by providing their animal’s needs. The study was conducted to evaluate the stockmanship competence of backyard goat raisers and to examine its relationship to productivity and economic profitability. This was made possible by interviewing 101 backyard goat raisers who have undergone farmer livestock school on integrated goat management (FLS IGM) in Region I, Philippines on September 3-30, 2012 and March 4-17, 2013. Secondary data needed were gathered from the local government agencies involved. Data on stockmanship, goat productivity and farmer’s income before and after attending FLS-IGM were gathered through a semi-structured interview. Questions for stockamnship were based on the Philippine recommends on goat production, tips on goat raising and other scientific literature. Stockmanship competence index score (SCIS) was computed by summing the raw scores derived from each components of SC divided by the total number of components. Pearson correlation through SPSS was used to see the relationship between SC, productivity and income. Result showed that majority raised native and upgraded goats. The computed mean SCIS before and after undergoing FLS-IGM was 38.53% and 75.81%, respectively, an improvement of 49.17%. Both index scores resulted in significant differences in productivity and income. The median mature weight and mortality rate of goats before FLS-IGM, where SC was low, was 14 kg and 50% respectively. On the other hand, after stockmanship had improved, the median mature weight increased to 19 kgs and mortality rate decreased to 11.11%. Likewise, fewer goat diseases were observed by farmers as compared before. With regards to income, there was 127.34% difference on the median net income derived by farmers. Result implies that improved stockmanship competence can lead not only to increased productivity and income of backyard goat raisers but also welfare of the animal.

Keywords: stockmanship, backyard goat production, animal welfare, Philippines

Procedia PDF Downloads 164
100 Place and Importance of Goats in the Milk Sector in Algeria

Authors: Tennah Safia, Azzag Naouelle, Derdour Salima, Hafsi Fella, Laouadi Mourad, Laamari Abdalouahab, Ghalmi Farida, Kafidi Nacerredine

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Currently, goat farming is widely practiced among the rural population of Algeria. Although milk yield of goats is low (110 liters per goat and per year on average), this milk partly ensures the feeding of small children and provides raw milk, curd, and fermented milk to the whole family. In addition, given its investment cost, which is ten times lower than that of a cow, this level of production is still of interest. This interest is reinforced by the qualities of goat's milk, highly sought after for its nutritional value superior to that of cow's milk. In the same way, its aptitude for the transformation, in particular in quality cheeses, is very sought after. The objective of this study is to give the situation of goat milk production in rural areas of Algeria and to establish a classification of goat breeds according to their production potential. For this, a survey was carried out with goat farmers in Algerian steppe. Three indigenous breeds were encountered in this study: the breed Arabia, Mozabite, and Mekatia; Arabia being the most dominant. The Mekatia breed and the Mozabite breed appear to have higher production and milking abilities than other local breeds. They are therefore indicated to play the role of local dairy breeds par excellence. The other breed that could be improved milk performance is the Arabia breed. There, however, the milk performance of this breed is low. However, in order to increase milk production, uncontrolled crosses with imported breeds (mainly Saanen and Alpine) were carried out. The third population that can be included in the category for dairy production is the dairy breed group of imported origin. There are farms in Algeria composed of Alpine and Saanen breeds born locally. Improved milk performance of local goats, Crusader population, and dairy breeds of imported origin could be done by selection. For this, it is necessary to set up a milk control to detect the best animals. This control could be carried out among interested farmers in each large goat breeding area. In conclusion, sustained efforts must be made to enable the sustainable development of the goat sector in Algeria. It will, therefore, be necessary to deepen the reflection on a national strategy to valorize goat's milk, taking into account the specificities of the environment, the genetic biodiversity, and the eating habits of the Algerian consumer.

Keywords: goat, milk, Algeria, biodiversity

Procedia PDF Downloads 29
99 Genetic Variation of Lactoferrin Gene and Its Association with Productive Traits in Egyptian Goats

Authors: Othman E. Othman, Hassan R. Darwish, Amira M. Nowier

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Lactoferrin (LF) is a multifunctional protein involved in economically production traits like milk protein composition and skeletal structure in small ruminants including sheep and goat. So, LF gene - with its genetic polymorphisms associated with production traits - is considered a candidate genetic marker used in marker-assisted selection in goats. This study aimed to identify the different alleles and genotypes of this gene in three Egyptian goat breeds using PCR-SSCP (polymerase chain reaction-single-strand conformation polymorphism) and DNA sequencing. Genomic DNA was extracted from 120 animals belonging to Barki, Zaraibi, and Damascus goat breeds. Using specific primers, PCR amplified 247-bp fragments from exon 2 of LF goat gene. The PCR products were subjected to Single-Strand Conformation Polymorphism (SSCP) technique. The results showed the presence of two genotypes GG and AG in the tested animals. The frequencies of both genotypes varied among the three tested breeds with the highest frequencies of GG genotype in all tested goat breeds. The sequence analysis of PCR products representing these two detected genotypes declared the presence of an SNP (single nucleotide polymorphisms) substitution (G/A) among G and A alleles of this gene. The association between different LF genotypes and milk composition as well as body measurement was estimated. The comparison showed that the animals possess AG genotypes are superior over those with GG genotypes for different parameters of milk protein compositions and skeletal structures. This finding declared that allele A of LF gene is considered the promising marker for the productive traits in goat. In conclusion, the Egyptian goat breeds will be needed to enhance their milk protein composition and growth trait parameters through the increasing of allele A frequency in their herds depending on the superior production traits of this allele in goats.

Keywords: lLactoferrin gene, PCR-SSCP, SNPs, Egyptian goat

Procedia PDF Downloads 48
98 Assessment of Base Station Radiation Pollution in Areas of Sheep and Goat Farms in Konya-Turkey

Authors: Selda Uzal Seyfi, Levent Seyfi

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The technological devices are more often being used days by day. Thus, electro magnetic pollution is being more important now than last decades. Especially mobile phones and their base stations are subject to assessment in respect of all living beings health as well as of human beings. In this context, it is worth to evaluate the situation of electromagnetic radiation exposing living beings such as animals. In this study, electromagnetic radiation levels to which sheep are exposed in Konya/Turkey are presented. The electromagnetic radiation is measured at 1800 MHz for GSM base stations. 1085 sheep farms are determined in areas of Konya center region (Selçuklu, Meram, and Karatay) in which sheep and goat breeding is widely carried out. In this study, 790 sheep and goat farms, 10.8 % for total farms in Konya region (7276), having more than 100 animals are assessed. Then, the data obtained are depicted. As a conclusion, the results should be evaluated together with the future measurements to determine the exact effect on health of sheep and their productivity.

Keywords: electromagnetic pollution, sheep housing, sheep and goat farm, environmental pollution

Procedia PDF Downloads 375
97 Recent Advances in the Valorization of Goat Milk: Nutritional Properties and Production Sustainability

Authors: A. M. Tarola, R. Preti, A. M. Girelli, P. Campana

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Goat dairy products are gaining popularity worldwide. In developing countries, but also in many marginal regions of the Mediterranean area, goats represent a great part of the economy and ensure food security. In fact, these small ruminants are able to convert efficiently poor weedy plants and small trees into traditional products of high nutritional quality, showing great resilience to different climatic and environmental conditions. In developed countries, goat milk is appreciated for the presence of health-promoting compounds, bioactive compounds such as conjugated linoleic acids, oligosaccharides, sphingolipids and polyammines. This paper focuses on the recent advances in literature on the nutritional properties of goat milk and on innovative techniques to improve its quality as to become a promising functional food. The environmental sustainability of different methodologies of production has also been examined. Goat milk is valued today as a food of high nutritional value and functional properties as well as small environmental footprint. It is widely consumed in many countries due to high nutritional value, lower allergenic potential, and better digestibility when compared to bovine milk, that makes this product suitable for infants, elderly or sensitive patients. The main differences in chemical composition between a cow and goat milk rely on fat globules that in goat milk are smaller and in fatty acids that present a smaller chain length, while protein, fat, and lactose concentration are comparable. Milk nutritional properties have demonstrated to be strongly influenced by animal diet, genotype, and welfare, but also by season and production systems. Furthermore, there is a growing interest in the dairy industry in goat milk for its relatively high concentration of prebiotics and a good amount of probiotics, which have recently gained importance for their therapeutic potential. Therefore, goat milk is studied as a promising matrix to develop innovative functional foods. In addition to the economic and nutritional value, goat milk is considered a sustainable product for its small environmental footprint, as they require relatively little water and land, and less medical treatments, compared to cow, these characteristics make its production naturally vocated to organic farming. Organic goat milk production has becoming more and more interesting both for farmers and consumers as it can answer to several concerns like environment protection, animal welfare and economical sustainment of rural populations living in marginal lands. These evidences make goat milk an ancient food with novel properties and advantages to be valorized and exploited.

Keywords: goat milk, nutritional quality, bioactive compounds, sustainable production, animal welfare

Procedia PDF Downloads 45
96 Comparative Gross Anatomical Studies of the Long Bones of the Adult Chinkara and in the Adult Beetal Goat

Authors: Salahud Din, Saima Masood, Hafsa Zaneb, Habib –ur- Rehman, Imad Khan, Muqader Shah

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The objective of this study was to examine the osteomorphological differences between the long bones of adult Chinkara and an adult Beetal goat, using visual observation, which has still not studied. The osseous remains of these small-sized ungulates often encountered, but cannot distinguish, because of the lack of literature. Specimens of the adult Chinkara of known age and sex for osteomorphological studies are collected from the Manglot Wildlife Park and Ungulate Breeding Centre, Nizampur, Pakistan, while the bones of adult Beetal goats are obtained after slaughtering in a slaughterhouse. The research is carried out at the University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan. In this research, the main morphological features recorded in the long bones of thoracic limb and pelvic limb of the adult Chinkara, by comparing them to those of the Beetal goat. The most important differences between the two species are noted in the scapula, the humerus, the radius and ulna, the metacarpal, femur, tibia metatarsal and phalanges. In conclusion, the present study suggests that the morphology of the long bones of adult Chinkara has different from the Beetal goat in various points of view. Based on these recorded points, long bones of these two species can easily be differentiated. The study is helpful in zooarcheological, comparative osteometric studies, for forensic specialists and veterinary anatomists.

Keywords: Beetal goat, Chinkara, comparative morphological features, long bones, osteology

Procedia PDF Downloads 24
95 Effect of Addition Cinnamon Extract (Cinnamomum burmannii) to Water Content, pH Value, Total Lactid Acid Bacteria Colonies, Antioxidant Activity and Cholesterol Levels of Goat Milk Yoghurt Isolates Dadih (Pediococcus pentosaceus)

Authors: Endang Purwati, Ely Vebriyanti, R. Puji Hartini, Hendri Purwanto

Abstract:

This study aimed to determine the effect of addition cinnamon extract (Cinnamomum burmannii) in making goat milk yogurt product isolates dadih (Pediococcus pentosaceus) to antioxidant activity and cholesterol levels. The method of research was the experimental method by using a Randomized Block Design (RBD), which consists of 5 treatments with 4 groups as replication. Treatment in this study was used of cinnamon extract as A (0%), B (1%), C (2%), D (3%), E (4%) in a goat’s milk yoghurt. This study was used 4200 ml of Peranakan Etawa goat’s milk and 80 ml of cinnamon extract. The variable analyzed were water content, pH value, total lactic acid bacterial colonies, antioxidant activity and cholesterol levels. The average water content ranged from 81.2-85.56%. Mean pH values rang between 4.74–4.30. Mean total lactic acid bacteria colonies ranged from 3.87 x 10⁸ - 7.95 x 10⁸ CFU/ml. The average of the antioxidant activity ranged between 10.98%-27.88%. Average of cholesterol levels ranged from 14.0 mg/ml–17.5 mg/ml. The results showed that the addition of cinnamon extract in making goat milk yoghurt product isolates dadih (Pediococcus pentosaceus) significantly different (P < 0.05) to water content, pH value, total lactic acid bacterial colonies, antioxidant activity and cholesterol levels. In conclusion, the study shows that using of cinnamon extract 4% is the best in making goat milk yoghurt.

Keywords: antioxidant, cholesterol, cinnamon, Pediococcus pentosaceus, yoghurt

Procedia PDF Downloads 135
94 The Haemoglobin, Transferrin, Ceruloplasmin and Glutathione Polymorphism of Native Goat Breeds of Turkey, I-Angora and Hair

Authors: Ayse Ozge Demir, Nihat Mert

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This study has been carried out in order to determine the polymorphic traits of various biochemical parameters in goat breeds which are native to Turkey. For this purpose, Angora and Hair goats breeds were chosen as live materials. Two different herds for each breed were selected from Ankara and Antalya, respectively. Blood samples were taken from a total of 120 goats aged between 2 and 4 which was made up of 60 Angora goats and 60 Hair goats. All which derived equally from 4 lots of herds. Analyses were performed for the polymorphic determination of the Haemoglobin (Hb), Transferrine (Tf), Ceruloplasmin (Cp) and Glutathione (GSH). Hb types were determined by starch gel electrophoresis and Tf types were detected by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. Furthermore, Cp and GSH analyses were performed by spectrophotometrically. Following the analysis, Hb types were found as 3 genotypes (AA, AB, BB) controlled by 2 allel genes. Tf types were found as 6 genotypes (AA, AB, AC, BB, BC, CC) controlled by 3 allele genes. Findings for Hb was in line with the Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium (HWE) in Angora goats while the Hair goat was not found to be in line. Moreover, Tf was found in line with the HWE for 2 separate goat breeds. The levels of Cp and GSH of two breeds were significantly different from other (P<0.0001). The findings are recorded as a source of reference for prospective polymorphism studies.

Keywords: electrophoresis, genetic resources, goats, spectrophotometer

Procedia PDF Downloads 197
93 Identification and Antibiotic Susceptibility of Bacteria Isolated from the Intestines of Slaughtered Goat and Cattle

Authors: Latifat Afolake Ogunfolabo, Hakeem Babafemi Ogunfolabo

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The gastrointestinal tract is densely populated with micro-organism which closely and intensively interacts with the host and ingested feed. Food borne infections are some of the major international challenges that lead to high mortality and also, antimicrobial resistance, which has been classified as a serious threat by World Health Organization. Samples of slaughtered cattle and goats intestines were collected and standard culture methods were used for bacteria isolation and identification. Minimum inhibitory concentration of commonly used antibiotic using modification of the disk diffusion method was carried out on isolates. The samples cultured were all positive to Pseudomonas aeruginosa (95% and 90%), Escherichia coli (85%), Salmonella typhi (70% and 60%), Staphylococcus aureus (75%and 100%), Micrococcus luteus (55% and35%), Bacillus macerans (60% and 5%), Bacillus cereus (25% and 20%), Clostridium perfringens (20% and 5%), Micrococcus varians (20% and 5%), Bacillus subtilis (25% and 5%), Streptococcus faecalis (40% and 25%) and Streptococcus faecium (15% and 10%) in goat and cattle respectively. Also, Proteus mirabilis (40%), Micrococcus luteus (35%), Proteus vulgaris (30%), Klebsiella aerogenes(15%) were isolated from cattle. The total coliform (13.55 x10⁵cfu/gm ± 1.77) and (20.30 x10⁵cfu/gm ± 1.27) counts were significantly higher than the total bacteria count (8.3 x10⁵cfu/gm ± 1.41) and (16.60 x10⁵cfu/gm ±0.49) for goat and cattle respectively. Selected Bacteria count of isolates showed that Staphylococcus aureus had the highest significant value (6.9 x10⁵cfu/gm ± 0.57) and (16.80 x10⁵cfu/gm ± 0.57) Escherichia coli (4.60 x10⁵cfu/gm ± 0.42) and (7.05 x10⁵cfu/gm ± 0.64) while the lowest significant value was obtained in Salmonella/Shigella (1.7 x10⁵cfu/gm ± 0.00) and (1.5 x10⁵cfu/gm ± 0.00) for goat and cattle respectively. Susceptibility of bacteria isolated from slaughtered goat and cattle intestine to commonly used antibiotics showed that the highest statistical significant value for zone of inhibition for goat was obtained for Ciprofloxacin (30.00 ± 2.25, 23.75 ± 2.49, 17.17 ± 1.40) followed by Augmentin (28.33 ± 1.22, 21. 83 ± 2.44, 16.67 ± 1.49), Erythromycin (27.75 ±1.48, 20.25 ± 1.29, 16.67 ± 1.26) while the lowest values were obtained for Ofloxacin (27.17 ± 1.89, 21.42 ± 2.19, 16.83 ± 1.26) respectively and values obtained for cattle are Ciprofloxacin (30.64 ± 1.6, 25.79 ± 1.76, 8.07 ± 11.49) followed by Augmentin (28.29 ± 1.33, 22.64 ± 1.82, 17.43 ± 1.55) Ofloxacin (26.57 ± 2.02, 20.79 ± 2.75, 16.21 ± 1.19) while the lowest values were obtained for Erythromycin (26.64 ± 1.49, 20.29 ± 1.49, 16.29 ± 1.33) at different dilution factor (10⁻¹, 10⁻², 10⁻³) respectively. The isolates from goat and cattle were all susceptible to Augmentin at the three different dilution factors. Some goat isolates are intermediate to Ciprofloxacin and Erythromycin at 10⁻² and 10⁻³, while resistance to Ciprofloxacin at 10⁻³ dilution factor. Ciprofloxacin and Ofloxacin at the dilution factors of 10⁻³ and 10⁻¹ for some cattle isolate and resistance were observed for Ofloxacin and Erythromycin at dilution of 10⁻³. These results indicate the susceptibilities and the antimicrobial resistance to commonly used antibiotic.

Keywords: antibiotic susceptibility, bacteria, cattle, goat, identification

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92 Formulation and in vitro Evaluation of Transdermal Delivery of Articaine

Authors: Dinakaran Venkatachalam, Paul Chambers, Kavitha Kongara, Preet Singh

Abstract:

The objective of this study is to formulate different topical preparations containing articaine and to investigate their permeation through goat skin. Initially, articaine and its hydrochloride salt were compared for in vitro permeation using Franz cell model. Goat skin samples were collected after euthanizing male goat kids purchased from the dairy goat farmers. Subcutaneous fat was removed and the skin was mounted on the donor chamber (orifice area 1.00 cm²) and drugs were applied onto the epidermis. Phosphate buffer saline (pH 7.4) was used to maintain sink condition in the receptor chamber (8 ml) of the Franz cell. Samples (0.4 ml) were collected at various intervals over 24 hours after each sampling equal volume of PBS was replaced in the receptor chamber. Articaine in the collected samples were quantified using LC/MS. The results suggested that articaine free base permeates better than its hydrochloride salt through goat skin. This study results support the fact that local anesthetics in its base form are lipophilic and thus penetrates faster through cell membranes than their salts. Later, articaine free base was formulated either using ethanol and octyl salicylate or dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as penetration enhancers and was compared for in vitro permeation. The transdermal flux of articaine in the formulation containing DMSO was approximately 3.8 times higher than that of the formulation containing ethanol and octyl salicylate. Further studies to evaluate the local anesthetic efficacy of the topical formulation containing articaine for dermal anesthesia in animals have been planned.

Keywords: articaine, dermal anesthesia, local anesthetic, transdermal

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91 Anatomical and Histological Analysis of Salpinx and Ovary in Anatolian Wild Goat (Capra aegagrus aegagrus)

Authors: Gulseren Kirbas, Mushap Kuru, Buket Bakir, Ebru Karadag Sari

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Capra (mountain goat) is a genus comprising nine species. The domestic goat (C. aegagrus hircus) is a subspecies of the wild goat that is domesticated. This study aimed to determine the anatomical structure of the salpinx and ovary of the Anatolian wild goat (C. aegagrus aegagrus). Animals that were taken to the Kafkas University Wildlife Rescue and Rehabilitation Center, Kars, Turkey, because of various reasons, such as traffic accidents and firearm injuries, were used in this study. The salpinges and ovaries of four wild goats of similar ages, which could not be rescued by the Center despite all interventions, were dissected. Measurements were taken from the right-left salpinx and ovary using digital calipers. The weights of each ovary and salpinx were measured using a precision scale (min: 0.0001 g − max: 220 g, code: XB220A; Precisa, Swiss). The histological structure of the tissues was examined after weighing the organs. The tissue samples were fixed in 10% formaldehyde for 24 h. Then a routine procedure was applied, and the tissues were embedded in paraffin. Mallory’s modified triple staining was used to demonstrate the general structure of the salpinx. The salpinx was found to consist of three different regions (infundibulum, ampulla, and isthmus). These regions consisted of tunica mucosa, tunica muscularis, and tunica serosa. The prismatic epithelial cells were observed in the lamina epithelialis of tunica mucosa in every region, but the prismatic fimbrae cells occurred most in the infundibulum. The ampulla was distinguished by its many mucosal folds. It was the longest region of the salpinx and was joined to the isthmus via the ampullary–isthmus junction. Isthmus was the caudal end of the salpinx joined to the uterus and had the thickest tunica muscularis compared with the other regions. The mean length of the ovary was 13.22 ± 1.27 mm, width was 8.46 ± 0.88 mm, the thickness was 5.67 ± 0.79 mm, and weight was 0.59 ± 0.17 g. The average length of the salpinx was 58.11 ± 14.02 mm, width was 0.80 ± 0.22 mm, the thickness was 0.41 ± 0.01 mm, and weight was 0.30 ± 0.08 g. In conclusion, the Anatolian wild goat, which is included in wildlife diversity in Turkey, has been disappearing due to illegal and uncontrolled hunting as well as traffic accidents in recent years. These findings are believed to contribute to the literature.

Keywords: Anatolian wild goat, anatomy, ovary, salpinx

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90 Mutational and Evolutionary Analysis of Interleukin-2 Gene in Four Pakistani Goat Breeds

Authors: Tanveer Hussain, Misbah Hussain, Masroor Ellahi Babar, Muhammad Traiq Pervez, Fiaz Hussain, Sana Zahoor, Rashid Saif

Abstract:

Interleukin 2 (IL-2) is a cytokine which is produced by activated T cells, play important role in immune response against antigen. It act in both autocrine and paracrine manner. It can stimulate B cells and various other phagocytic cells like monocytes, lymphokine-activated killer cells and natural killer cells. Acting in autocrine fashion, IL-2 protein plays a crucial role in proliferation of T cells. IL-2 triggers the release of pro and anti- inflammatory cytokines by activating several pathways. In present study, exon 1 of IL-2 gene of four local Pakistani breeds (Dera Din Panah, Beetal, Nachi and Kamori) from two provinces was amplified by using reported Ovine IL-2 primers, yielding PCR product of 501 bp. The sequencing of all samples was done to identify the polymorphisms in amplified region of IL-2 gene. Analysis of sequencing data resulted in identification of one novel nucleotide substitution (T→A) in amplified non-coding region of IL-2 gene. Comparison of IL-2 gene sequence of all four breeds with other goat breeds showed high similarity in sequence. While phylogenetic analysis of our local breeds with other mammals showed that IL-2 is a variable gene which has undergone many substitutions. This high substitution rate can be due to the decreased or increased changed selective pressure. These rapid changes can also lead to the change in function of immune system. This pioneering study of Pakistani goat breeds urge for further studies on immune system of each targeted breed for fully understanding the functional role of IL-2 in goat immunity.

Keywords: interleukin 2, mutational analysis, phylogeny, goat breeds, Pakistan

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89 Acrosomal Integrity, DNA Integrity and Post-Thawing Motility of Goat Semen after Methionine Supplementation

Authors: K. A. El-Battawy, W. S. El-Nattat

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The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the impact of methionine on the preservation, acrosomal integrity, DNA integrity and post thawing motility of extended goat semen. Semen samples were diluted with a Tris-based extender containing the additive methionine 1.5, 2.5 and 5mM then the diluted samples were kept in glass tubes and cooled from 37°C to 5°C in a cold cabinet, and maintained at 5°C. Sperm motility (SM%), alive sperm (AS%), sperm abnormalities (SA%) acrosomal integrity and DNA integrity were determined at 5°C for periods of 0,24, 48and 72 h of liquid storage. Furthermore, the influence of methionine on post-thawing motility was assessed. The results elaborated that the addition of methionine and L-tyrosine particularly 2.5mM of methionine significantly improved SM% and reduced dead sperm %. Furthermore, the addition of 2.5mM methionine improved post-thawing motility (43.75 ± 1.25% vs. 32.50 ± 3.23 in the control group). Moreover, the frequency of acrosomal defects was lower in treated groups than in control. In conclusion, the addition of methionine induced remarkable physiological effects on goat semen quality during conservation for 7-days-long period at 5°C and improved its freezability.

Keywords: methionine, acrosome, semen, cryopreservation

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88 Evaluation of Genetic Resistance to Haemonchus Contortus in Teddy and Beetal Goat Breeds of Punjab, Pakistan

Authors: Muhammad S. Sajid, Asim Shamim, Muhammad Nisar Khan, Ashfaq A. Chatta, Muhammad Saqib

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Goats (Capra hircus) are a valued asset for resource poor farmers globally. But the parasitic infection especially Haemonchus contortus (Trichostrongylid), impact the health and production of goats globally. The present study intended to evaluate resilient and resistance to Haemonchus contortus in indigenous goat breeds (Teddy and Beetal) of Punjab, Pakistan. Out of 60, 30 goats of each breed were divided into 6 groups and each group contain five goats. Two group of each breed received challenged infection with 12000 and 18000 L3 (third stage) larvae of Haemonchus contortus under two infection protocol that is early and trickle and remaining two group of each breed was kept as control. Resilient and resistance of each breed was then measured on the basis of their phenotypic markers like: faecal egg counts, packed cell volume, FAMACHA score system, body weight, total protein, albumin and worm count on 2nd, 4th, 6th, and 8th week of post infection. Variation in response of each goat breeds to Haemonchus contortus was observed. Teddy breed showed significant (P < 0.05)resistance as compared to Beetal. It is probably first attempt to report an evaluation of goat breed response towards Haemonchus contortus in Pakistan. It was concluded that Teddy goats have a greater genetic tendency to resist against to the Haemonchus contortus infection and this breed could be kept and bred from the economic point of view. Evaluation of genetic markers are like: gene, protein expression, Immunoglobulin, Histamines and interleukins determination are recommended for future studies which can be helpful to be fined resistant breed of goats.

Keywords: goat, beetal, teddy, haemonchus contortus, resistance, resilience, phenotypic markers

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87 Effect of Probiotic Feeding on Weight Gain, Blood Biochemical and Hematological Indices of Crossbred Dairy Goat Kids

Authors: Claire B. Salvedia, Enrico P. Supangco, Francisco B. Eligado, Renato Sa Vega, Antonio A. Rayos

Abstract:

The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of probiotic feeding on weight gain, blood biochemical and hematological indices of crossbred dairy goat kids. Sixteen (16) crossbred Anglo-Nubian x Saanen dairy goat kids, 3 to 4 months old, ranging from 19 to 23kg were randomly assigned into four treatments fed with 5x109 cfu/ml probiotic supplements; Treatment 1 – control; Treatment 2 – lactic acid bacteria (L. plantarum BS and P. acidilactici 3G3); treatment 3 – S. cerevisiae 2030; Treatment 4 – multi-strain probiotics (L. plantarum BS, P. acidilactici 3G3, and S.cerevisiae 2030). Feed ration provided daily for each of the experimental animals were composed of 1kg mixed concentrate feed ((Leucaena leucocephala dried leaves and pollard), and 4 kg fresh Pennisetum purpureum and Gliciridia sepium leaves (50:50). The experimental feeding trial lasted for 9 weeks. Result revealed that treatments fed with probiotics had significantly (P≤0.05) higher weight gain compared to the control. Significant effect on plasma urea nitrogen (PUN) and triglyceride were noted during 30th and 60th day of probiotic feeding. White blood cell counts were significantly affected by probiotic feeding during the 60th day. Concentrations of glucose and cholesterol remained unchanged throughout the experimental period. The findings suggests, under the condition of the experiment, that live probiotic feeding could have a significant role in improving weight gain and metabolism of crossbred dairy goat kids.

Keywords: probiotics, weight gain, blood biochemical indices, crossbred dairy goat kids

Procedia PDF Downloads 343
86 Polymorphisms of STAT5A and DGAT1 Genes and Their Associations with Milk Trait in Egyptian Goats

Authors: Othman Elmahdy Othman

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The objectives of this study were to identify polymorphisms in the STAT5A using Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism and DGAT1 using Single-Strand Conformation Polymorphism genes among three Egyptian goat breeds (Barki, Zaraibi, and Damascus) as well as investigate the effect of their genotypes on milk composition traits of Zaraibi goats. One hundred and fifty blood samples were collected for DNA extraction, 60 from Zaraibi, 40 from Damascus and 50 from Barki breeds. Fat, protein and lactose percentages were determined in Zaraibi goat milk using an automatic milk analyzer. Two genotypes, CC and CT (for STAT5A) and C-C- and C-C+ (for DGAT1), were identified in the three Egyptian goat breeds with different frequencies. The associations between these genotypes and milk fat, protein and lactose were determined in Zaraibi breed. The results showed that the STAT5A genotypes had significant effects on milk yield, protein, fat and lactose with the superiority of CT genotype over CC. Regarding DGAT1 polymorphism, the result showed the only association between it with milk fat where the animals with C-C+ genotype had greater milk fat than animals possess C-C- genotype. The association of combined genotypes with milk trait declared that the does with heterozygous genotypes for both genes are preferred than does with homozygous genotypes where the animals with CTC-C+ have more milk yield, fat and protein than those with CCC-C- genotype. In conclusion, the result showed that C/T and C-/C+ SNPs of STAT5A and DGAT1 genes respectively may be useful markers for assisted selection programs to improve goat milk composition

Keywords: DGAT1, genetic polymorphism, milk trait, STAT5A

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85 Preliminary Evaluation of the Probiotic Potential of Leuconostoc mesonteroides Strain Isolated from Goat's Milk

Authors: Benyoucef Amel, Benmechernene Zineb, Kihal Mebrouk

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One strain (V1) of Leuconostoc mesonteroides was isolated from goat’s milk collected from El Bayadh which is located in the west of Algeria and was characterized by phenotypic and biochemical methods. This strain was tested for their antimicrobial activity against indicator bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 43300, Listeria innocua ATCC 33090, Listeria ivanovii ATCC 19119) and was evaluated for certain properties relevant to probiotic including acid resistance (pH 2 ; 3and 4), bile tolerance at 0.5%, 1% and 2%, pepsin resistance 3mg/ml at pH 2 and 3, hemolytic activity and antibiotics sensitivity. Our results revealed the strain V1 showed antagonistic activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria innocua and Listeria ivanovii, due to a production of proteinous nature substances. The strain was resistant to pH 3 and 4, bile salts at 0.5%, 1% and 2% and pepsin at pH 3; and was γ-hemolytic and susceptible to four antibiotics: Chloramphenicol, pristinamycin, Clindamycin and Lincomycin. These results may be considered the strain V1 as suitable probiotic candidate.

Keywords: antimicrobial, goat‘s milk, Leuconostoc, probiotic

Procedia PDF Downloads 131
84 Molecular Characterization of Ardi Goat Assisted by Microsatellite Markers

Authors: M. F. Elzarei, A. M. Alseaf

Abstract:

Hundred uncorrelated animal and thirty six markers were used in this study to study the molecular characterization of Saudi native Ardi goat (BM18189, ILSTS030, INRA005, OarFCB48, BM2113, ILSTS033, INRA023, RM088, CSRD247, ILSTS034, INRA063, SRCRSP1, ILSTS002, ILSTS044, INRA172, SRCRSP5, ILSTS005, ILSTS049, MAF70, SRCRSP8, ILSTS011, ILSTS058, OarAE54, SRCRSP9, ILSTS019, ILSTS059, OARCP34, TGLA53, ILSTS022, ILSTS082, OARE129, TGLA73, ILSTS029, ILSTS087, OARE193, and RM004). Ardi goat showed high variability. The mean number of alleles per locus ranged from 5 in SRCRSP1 locus to 13.5 in CSRD247 locus. Gene diversities varied within a wide range, from 0.53 in ILSTS002 locus to 0.86 in RM088 locus. Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was tested in order to evaluate the significance of inbreeding occurring in each locus in Ardi population. Only SRCRSP9, INRA005, ILSTS030 loci showed significance in this way.

Keywords: molecular characterization, microsatellite markers, Ardi goats, Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium

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83 Identification of Babesia ovis Through Polymerase Chain Reaction in Sheep and Goat in District Muzaffargarh, Pakistan

Authors: Muhammad SAFDAR, Mehmet Ozaslan, Musarrat Abbas Khan

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Babesiosis is a haemoparasitic disease due to the multiplication of protozoan’s parasite, Babesia ovis in the red blood cells of the host, and contributes numerous economical losses, including sheep and goat ruminants. The early identification and successful treatment of Babesia Ovis spp. belong to the key steps of control and health management of livestock resources. The objective of this study was to construct a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based method for the detection of Babesia spp. in small ruminants and to determine the risk factors involved in the spreading of babesiosis infections. A total of 100 blood samples were collected from 50 sheep and 50 goats along with different areas of Muzaffargarh, Pakistan, from randomly selected herds. Data on the characteristics of sheep and goats were collected through questionnaires. Of 100 blood samples examined, 18 were positive for Babesia ovis upon microscopic studies, whereas 11 were positive for the presence of Babesia spp. by PCR assay. For the recognition of parasitic DNA, a set of 500bp oligonucleotide was designed by PCR amplification with sequence 18S rRNA gene for B. ovis. The prevalence of babesiosis in small ruminant’s sheep and goat detected by PCR was significantly higher in female animals (28%) than male herds (08%). PCR analysis of the reference samples showed that the detection limit of the PCR assay was 0.01%. Taken together, all data indicated that this PCR assay was a simple, fast, specific detection method for Babesia ovis species in small ruminants compared to other available methods.

Keywords: Babesia ovis, PCR amplification, 18S rRNA, sheep and goat

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