Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 135

Search results for: synchronization

135 Some Results on Cluster Synchronization

Authors: Shahed Vahedi, Mohd Salmi Md Noorani


This paper investigates cluster synchronization phenomena between community networks. We focus on the situation where a variety of dynamics occur in the clusters. In particular, we show that different synchronization states simultaneously occur between the networks. The controller is designed having an adaptive control gain, and theoretical results are derived via Lyapunov stability. Simulations on well-known dynamical systems are provided to elucidate our results.

Keywords: cluster synchronization, adaptive control, community network, simulation

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134 Impulsive Synchronization of Periodically Forced Complex Duffing's Oscillators

Authors: Shaban Aly, Ali Al-Qahtani, Houari B. Khenous


Synchronization is an important phenomenon commonly observed in nature. A system of periodically forced complex Duffings oscillators was introduced and shown to display chaotic behavior and possess strange attractors. Such complex oscillators appear in many problems of physics and engineering, as, for example, nonlinear optics, deep-water wave theory, plasma physics and bimolecular dynamics. In this paper, we study the remarkable phenomenon of chaotic synchronization on these oscillator systems, using impulsive synchronization techniques. We derive analytical expressions for impulsive control functions and show that the dynamics of error evolution is globally stable, by constructing appropriate Lyapunov functions. This means that, for a relatively large set initial conditions, the differences between the drive and response systems vanish exponentially and synchronization is achieved. Numerical results are obtained to test the validity of the analytical expressions and illustrate the efficiency of these techniques for inducing chaos synchronization in our nonlinear oscillators.

Keywords: complex nonlinear oscillators, impulsive synchronization, chaotic systems, global exponential synchronization

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133 A Golay Pair Based Synchronization Algorithm for Distributed Multiple-Input Multiple-Output System

Authors: Weizhi Zhong, Xiaoyi Lu, Lei Xu


In order to solve the problem of inaccurate synchronization for distributed multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) system in multipath environment, a golay pair aided timing synchronization method is proposed in this paper. A new synchronous training sequence based on golay pair is designed. By utilizing the aperiodic auto-correlation complementary property of the new training sequence, the fine timing point is obtained at the receiver. Simulation results show that, compared with the tradition timing synchronization approaches, the proposed algorithm can provide high accuracy in synchronization, especially under multipath condition.

Keywords: distributed MIMO system, golay pair, multipath, synchronization

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132 Synchronization of a Perturbed Satellite Attitude Motion

Authors: Sadaoui Djaouida


In this paper, the predictive control method is proposed to control the synchronization of two perturbed satellites attitude motion. Based on delayed feedback control of continuous-time systems combines with the prediction-based method of discrete-time systems, this approach only needs a single controller to realize synchronization, which has considerable significance in reducing the cost and complexity for controller implementation.

Keywords: predictive control, synchronization, satellite attitude, control engineering

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131 Time Synchronization between the eNBs in E-UTRAN under the Asymmetric IP Network

Authors: M. Kollar, A. Zieba


In this paper, we present a method for a time synchronization between the two eNodeBs (eNBs) in E-UTRAN (Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access) network. The two eNBs are cooperating in so-called inter eNB CA (Carrier Aggregation) case and connected via asymmetrical IP network. We solve the problem by using broadcasting signals generated in E-UTRAN as synchronization signals. The results show that the time synchronization with the proposed method is possible with the error significantly less than 1 ms which is sufficient considering the time transmission interval is 1 ms in E-UTRAN. This makes this method (with low complexity) more suitable than Network Time Protocol (NTP) in the mobile applications with generated broadcasting signals where time synchronization in asymmetrical network is required.

Keywords: IP scheduled throughput, E-UTRAN, Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access Network, NTP, Network Time Protocol, assymetric network, delay

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130 Synchronization of Traveling Waves within a Hollow-Core Vortex

Authors: H. Ait Abderrahmane, M. Fayed, H. D. Ng, G. H. Vatistas


The present paper expands details and confirms the transition mechanism between two subsequent polygonal patterns of the hollow-core vortex. Using power spectral analysis, we confirm in this work that the transition from any N-gon to (N+1)-gon pattern observed within a hollow-core vortex of shallow rotating flows occurs in two steps. The regime was quasi-periodic before the frequencies lock (synchronization). The ratios of locking frequencies were found to be equal to (N-1)/N.

Keywords: patterns, swirling, quasi-periodic, synchronization

Procedia PDF Downloads 124
129 Synchronization of a Perturbed Satellite Attitude Motion using Active Sliding Mode Controller

Authors: Djaouida Sadaoui


In this paper, the design procedure of the active sliding mode controller which is a combination of the active controller and the sliding mode controller is given first and then the problem of synchronization of two satellites systems is discussed for the proposed method. Finally, numerical results are presented to evaluate the robustness and effectiveness of the proposed control strategy.

Keywords: active control, sliding mode control, synchronization, satellite attitude

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128 Anti-Phase Synchronization of Complex Delayed Networks with Output Coupling via Pinning Control

Authors: Chanyuan Gu, Shouming Zhong


Synchronization is a fundamental phenomenon that enables coherent behavior in networks as a result of interactions. The purpose of this research had been to investigate the problem of anti-phase synchronization for complex delayed dynamical networks with output coupling. The coupling configuration is general, with the coupling matrix not assumed to be symmetric or irreducible. The amount of the coupling variables between two connected nodes is flexible, the nodes in the drive and response systems need not to be identical and there is not any extra constraint on the coupling matrix. Some pinning controllers are designed to make the drive-response system achieve the anti-phase synchronization. For the convenience of description, we applied the matrix Kronecker product. Some new criteria are proposed based on the Lyapunov stability theory, linear matrix inequalities (LMI) and Schur complement. Lastly, some simulation examples are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of our proposed conditions.

Keywords: anti-phase synchronization, complex networks, output coupling, pinning control

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127 Experimental Networks Synchronization of Chua’s Circuit in Different Topologies

Authors: Manuel Meranza-Castillon, Rolando Diaz-Castillo, Adrian Arellano-Delgado, Cesar Cruz-Hernandez, Rosa Martha Lopez-Gutierrez


In this work, we deal with experimental network synchronization of chaotic nodes with different topologies. Our approach is based on complex system theory, and we use a master-slave configuration to couple the nodes in the networks. In particular, we design and implement electronically complex dynamical networks composed by nine coupled chaotic Chua’s circuits with topologies: in nearest-neighbor, small-world, open ring, star, and global. Also, network synchronization is evaluated according to a particular coupling strength for each topology. This study is important by the possible applications to private transmission of information in a chaotic communication network of multiple users.

Keywords: complex networks, Chua's circuit, experimental synchronization, multiple users

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126 Synchronization of Semiconductor Laser Networks

Authors: R. M. López-Gutiérrez, L. Cardoza-Avendaño, H. Cervantes-de Ávila, J. A. Michel-Macarty, C. Cruz-Hernández, A. Arellano-Delgado, R. Carmona-Rodríguez


In this paper, synchronization of multiple chaotic semiconductor lasers is achieved by appealing to complex system theory. In particular, we consider dynamical networks composed by semiconductor laser, as interconnected nodes, where the interaction in the networks are defined by coupling the first state of each node. An interesting case is synchronized with master-slave configuration in star topology. Nodes of these networks are modeled for the laser and simulated by Matlab. These results are applicable to private communication.

Keywords: chaotic laser, network, star topology, synchronization

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125 Coexistence of Two Different Types of Intermittency near the Boundary of Phase Synchronization in the Presence of Noise

Authors: Olga I. Moskalenko, Maksim O. Zhuravlev, Alexey A. Koronovskii, Alexander E. Hramov


Intermittent behavior near the boundary of phase synchronization in the presence of noise is studied. In certain range of the coupling parameter and noise intensity the intermittency of eyelet and ring intermittencies is shown to take place. Main results are illustrated using the example of two unidirectionally coupled Rössler systems. Similar behavior is shown to take place in two hydrodynamical models of Pierce diode coupled unidirectionally.

Keywords: chaotic oscillators, phase synchronization, noise, intermittency of intermittencies

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124 Synchronization of Chaotic T-System via Optimal Control as an Adaptive Controller

Authors: Hossein Kheiri, Bashir Naderi, Mohamad Reza Niknam


In this paper we study the optimal synchronization of chaotic T-system with complete uncertain parameter. Optimal control laws and parameter estimation rules are obtained by using Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman (HJB) technique and Lyapunov stability theorem. The derived control laws are optimal adaptive control and make the states of drive and response systems asymptotically synchronized. Numerical simulation shows the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed method.

Keywords: Lyapunov stability, synchronization, chaos, optimal control, adaptive control

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123 Penguins Search Optimization Algorithm for Chaotic Synchronization System

Authors: Sofiane Bououden, Ilyes Boulkaibet


In terms of security of the information signal, the meta-heuristic Penguins Search Optimization Algorithm (PeSOA) is applied to synchronize chaotic encryption communications in the case of sensitive dependence on initial conditions in chaotic generator oscillator. The objective of this paper is the use of the PeSOA algorithm to exploring search space with random and iterative processes for synchronization of symmetric keys in both transmission and reception. Simulation results show the effectiveness of the PeSOA algorithm in generating symmetric keys of the encryption process and synchronizing.

Keywords: meta-heuristic, PeSOA, chaotic systems, encryption, synchronization optimization

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122 Android Graphics System: Study of Dual-Software VSync Synchronization Architecture and Optimization

Authors: Prafulla Kumar Choubey, Krishna Kishor Jha, S. B. Vaisakh Punnekkattu Chirayil


In Graphics-display subsystem, frame buffers are shared between producer i.e. content rendering and consumer i.e. display. If a common buffer is operated by both producer and consumer simultaneously, their processing rates mismatch can cause tearing effect in displayed content. Therefore, Android OS employs triple buffered system, taking in to account an additional composition stage. Three stages-rendering, composition and display refresh, operate synchronously on three different buffers, which is achieved by using vsync pulses. This synchronization, however, brings in to the pipeline an additional latency of up to 26ms. The present study details about the existing synchronization mechanism of android graphics-display pipeline and discusses a new adaptive architecture which reduces the wait time to 5ms-16ms in all the use-cases. The proposed method uses two adaptive software vsyncs (PLL) for achieving the same result.

Keywords: Android graphics system, vertical synchronization, atrace, adaptive system

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121 Cross Coupling Sliding Mode Synchronization Control of Dual-Driving Feed System

Authors: Hong Lu, Wei Fan, Yongquan Zhang, Junbo Zhang


A cross coupling sliding synchronization control strategy is proposed for the dual-driving feed system. This technology will minimize the position error oscillation and achieve the precise synchronization performance in the high speed and high precision drive system, especially some high speed and high precision machine. Moreover, a cross coupling compensation matrix is provided to offset the mismatched disturbance and the disturbance observer is established to eliminate the chattering phenomenon. Performance comparisons of proposed dual-driving cross coupling sliding mode control (CCSMC), normal cross coupling control (CCC) strategy with PID control, and electronic virtual main shaft control (EVMSC) strategy with SMC control are investigated by simulation and a dual-driving control system; the results show the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme.

Keywords: cross coupling matrix, dual motors, synchronization control, sliding mode control

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120 Virtual Reality Based 3D Video Games and Speech-Lip Synchronization Superseding Algebraic Code Excited Linear Prediction

Authors: P. S. Jagadeesh Kumar, S. Meenakshi Sundaram, Wenli Hu, Yang Yung


In 3D video games, the dominance of production is unceasingly growing with a protruding level of affordability in terms of budget. Afterward, the automation of speech-lip synchronization technique is customarily onerous and has advanced a critical research subject in virtual reality based 3D video games. This paper presents one of these automatic tools, precisely riveted on the synchronization of the speech and the lip movement of the game characters. A robust and precise speech recognition segment that systematized with Algebraic Code Excited Linear Prediction method is developed which unconventionally delivers lip sync results. The Algebraic Code Excited Linear Prediction algorithm is constructed on that used in code-excited linear prediction, but Algebraic Code Excited Linear Prediction codebooks have an explicit algebraic structure levied upon them. This affords a quicker substitute to the software enactments of lip sync algorithms and thus advances the superiority of service factors abridged production cost.

Keywords: algebraic code excited linear prediction, speech-lip synchronization, video games, virtual reality

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119 Projective Lag Synchronization in Drive-Response Dynamical Networks via Hybrid Feedback Control

Authors: Mohd Salmi Md Noorani, Ghada Al-Mahbashi, Sakhinah Abu Bakar


This paper investigates projective lag synchronization (PLS) behavior in drive response dynamical networks (DRDNs) model with identical nodes. A hybrid feedback control method is designed to achieve the PLS with mismatch and without mismatch terms. The stability of the error dynamics is proven theoretically using the Lyapunov stability theory. Finally, analytical results show that the states of the dynamical network with non-delayed coupling can be asymptotically synchronized onto a desired scaling factor under the designed controller. Moreover, the numerical simulations results demonstrate the validity of the proposed method.

Keywords: drive-response dynamical network, projective lag synchronization, hybrid feedback control, stability theory

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118 Balancing and Synchronization Control of a Two Wheel Inverted Pendulum Vehicle

Authors: Shiuh-Jer Huang, Shin-Ham Lee, Sheam-Chyun Lin


A two wheel inverted pendulum (TWIP) vehicle is built with two hub DC motors for motion control evaluation. Arduino Nano micro-processor is chosen as the control kernel for this electric test plant. Accelerometer and gyroscope sensors are built in to measure the tilt angle and angular velocity of the inverted pendulum vehicle. Since the TWIP has significantly hub motor dead zone and nonlinear system dynamics characteristics, the vehicle system is difficult to control by traditional model based controller. The intelligent model-free fuzzy sliding mode controller (FSMC) was employed as the main control algorithm. Then, intelligent controllers are designed for TWIP balance control, and two wheels synchronization control purposes.

Keywords: balance control, synchronization control, two-wheel inverted pendulum, TWIP

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117 DCASH: Dynamic Cache Synchronization Algorithm for Heterogeneous Reverse Y Synchronizing Mobile Database Systems

Authors: Gunasekaran Raja, Kottilingam Kottursamy, Rajakumar Arul, Ramkumar Jayaraman, Krithika Sairam, Lakshmi Ravi


The synchronization server maintains a dynamically changing cache, which contains the data items which were requested and collected by the mobile node from the server. The order and presence of tuples in the cache changes dynamically according to the frequency of updates performed on the data, by the server and client. To synchronize, the data which has been modified by client and the server at an instant are collected, batched together by the type of modification (insert/ update/ delete), and sorted according to their update frequencies. This ensures that the DCASH (Dynamic Cache Synchronization Algorithm for Heterogeneous Reverse Y synchronizing Mobile Database Systems) gives priority to the frequently accessed data with high usage. The optimal memory management algorithm is proposed to manage data items according to their frequency, theorems were written to show the current mobile data activity is reverse Y in nature and the experiments were tested with 2g and 3g networks for various mobile devices to show the reduced response time and energy consumption.

Keywords: mobile databases, synchronization, cache, response time

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116 Design Fractional-Order Terminal Sliding Mode Control for Synchronization of a Class of Fractional-Order Chaotic Systems with Uncertainty and External Disturbances

Authors: Shabnam Pashaei, Mohammadali Badamchizadeh


This paper presents a new fractional-order terminal sliding mode control for synchronization of two different fractional-order chaotic systems with uncertainty and external disturbances. A fractional-order integral type nonlinear switching surface is presented. Then, using the Lyapunov stability theory and sliding mode theory, a fractional-order control law is designed to synchronize two different fractional-order chaotic systems. Finally, a simulation example is presented to illustrate the performance and applicability of the proposed method. Based on numerical results, the proposed controller ensures that the states of the controlled fractional-order chaotic response system are asymptotically synchronized with the states of the drive system.

Keywords: terminal sliding mode control, fractional-order calculus, chaotic systems, synchronization

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115 Network Based Speed Synchronization Control for Multi-Motor via Consensus Theory

Authors: Liqin Zhang, Liang Yan


This paper addresses the speed synchronization control problem for a network-based multi-motor system from the perspective of cluster consensus theory. Each motor is considered as a single agent connected through fixed and undirected network. This paper presents an improved control protocol from three aspects. First, for the purpose of improving both tracking and synchronization performance, this paper presents a distributed leader-following method. The improved control protocol takes the importance of each motor’s speed into consideration, and all motors are divided into different groups according to speed weights. Specifically, by using control parameters optimization, the synchronization error and tracking error can be regulated and decoupled to some extent. The simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness and superiority of the proposed strategy. In practical engineering, the simplified models are unrealistic, such as single-integrator and double-integrator. And previous algorithms require the acceleration information of the leader available to all followers if the leader has a varying velocity, which is also difficult to realize. Therefore, the method focuses on an observer-based variable structure algorithm for consensus tracking, which gets rid of the leader acceleration. The presented scheme optimizes synchronization performance, as well as provides satisfactory robustness. What’s more, the existing algorithms can obtain a stable synchronous system; however, the obtained stable system may encounter some disturbances that may destroy the synchronization. Focus on this challenging technological problem, a state-dependent-switching approach is introduced. In the presence of unmeasured angular speed and unknown failures, this paper investigates a distributed fault-tolerant consensus tracking algorithm for a group non-identical motors. The failures are modeled by nonlinear functions, and the sliding mode observer is designed to estimate the angular speed and nonlinear failures. The convergence and stability of the given multi-motor system are proved. Simulation results have shown that all followers asymptotically converge to a consistent state when one follower fails to follow the virtual leader during a large enough disturbance, which illustrates the good performance of synchronization control accuracy.

Keywords: consensus control, distributed follow, fault-tolerant control, multi-motor system, speed synchronization

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114 Oestrous Synchronization: A Technical Note for Nepalese Goat Farmers

Authors: Pravin Mishra, Ajeet K. Jha, Pankaj K. Jha


This technical note is aimed at providing a brief information on goat breeds, its breeding seasonality and different methods of oestrous synchronization for Nepalese goat farmers. It was observed that, these goats are seasonal breeder and showed oestrous during mainly two season; December- February and March-May. This leads to an irregular supply of goat to market and a wide variations in market price. Oestrus synchronization is only an alternative reproductive tool to overcome this scarcity by enhancing production and productivity. This technique enables goat producers breed their animals within a short pre-determined period and permits breeding round the year. The principle of oestrus synchronisation is based on controlling of the luteal phase of the oestrous cycle. There are two basic mechanisms; one by shortening the luteal life (premature luteolysis) using prostaglandins or its analogues and the other by prolonging the luteal life (simulating the activity of natural progesterone produced by the corpus luteum) using exogenous progesterone source. The former is easy to apply and only effective during breeding season, whereas the latter is advantageous when the reproductive status of the goat flock is unknown. The common hormonal products easily available in Nepal includes; prostaglandins or its analogues (Oviprost® Dinoprost® Lutalyse® and Estrumate®), exogenous progesterone (Fluorogestone acetate® and Controlled Internal Drug Release®, CIDR) devices). However, before practicing the oestrous synchronization protocol, it needs to be validated for oestrous response rate, time to onset of oestrous, duration of oestrous and pregnancy rates at farmer’s field. In conclusion, application of oestrus synchronisation practice enhanced goat production and surplus the goat meat demand in Nepal.

Keywords: goat, Nepal, oestrous, synchronization

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113 Voltage and Current Control of Microgrid in Grid Connected and Islanded Modes

Authors: Megha Chavda, Parth Thummar, Rahul Ghetia


This paper presents the voltage and current control of microgrid accompanied by the synchronization of microgrid with the main utility grid in both islanded and grid-connected modes. Distributed Energy Resources (DERs) satisfy the wide-spread power demand of consumer by behaving as a micro source for a low voltage (LV) grid or microgrid. Synchronization of the microgrid with the main utility grid is done using PLL and PWM gate pulse generation technique is used for the Voltage Source Converter. Potential Function method achieves the voltage and current control of this microgrid in both islanded and grid-connected modes. A low voltage grid consisting of three distributed generators (DG) is considered for the study and is simulated in time-domain using PSCAD/EMTDC software. The simulation results depict the appropriateness of voltage and current control of microgrid and synchronization of microgrid with the medium voltage (MV) grid.

Keywords: microgrid, distributed energy resources, voltage and current control, voltage source converter, pulse width modulation, phase locked loop

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112 Synchronization of Two Mobile Robots

Authors: R. M. López-Gutiérrez, J. A. Michel-Macarty, H. Cervantes-De Avila, J. I. Nieto-Hipólito, C. Cruz-Hernández, L. Cardoza-Avendaño, S. Cortiant-Velez


It is well know that mankind benefits from the application of robot control by virtual handlers in industrial environments. In recent years, great interest has emerged in the control of multiple robots in order to carry out collective tasks. One main trend is to copy the natural organization that some organisms have, such as, ants, bees, school of fish, birds’ migration, etc. Surely, this collaborative work, results in better outcomes than those obtain in an isolated or individual effort. This topic has a great drive because collaboration between several robots has the potential capability of carrying out more complicated tasks, doing so, with better efficiency, resiliency and fault tolerance, in cases such as: coordinate navigation towards a target, terrain exploration, and search-rescue operations. In this work, synchronization of multiple autonomous robots is shown over a variety of coupling topologies: star, ring, chain, and global. In all cases, collective synchronous behavior is achieved, in the complex networks formed with mobile robots. Nodes of these networks are modeled by a mass using Matlab to simulate them.

Keywords: robots, synchronization, bidirectional, coordinate navigation

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111 The Co-Simulation Interface SystemC/Matlab Applied in JPEG and SDR Application

Authors: Walid Hassairi, Moncef Bousselmi, Mohamed Abid


Functional verification is a major part of today’s system design task. Several approaches are available for verification on a high abstraction level, where designs are often modeled using MATLAB/Simulink. However, different approaches are a barrier to a unified verification flow. In this paper, we propose a co-simulation interface between SystemC and MATLAB and Simulink to enable functional verification of multi-abstraction levels designs. The resulting verification flow is tested on JPEG compression algorithm. The required synchronization of both simulation environments, as well as data type conversion is solved using the proposed co-simulation flow. We divided into two encoder jpeg parts. First implemented in SystemC which is the DCT is representing the HW part. Second, consisted of quantization and entropy encoding which is implemented in Matlab is the SW part. For communication and synchronization between these two parts we use S-Function and engine in Simulink matlab. With this research premise, this study introduces a new implementation of a Hardware SystemC of DCT. We compare the result of our simulation compared to SW / SW. We observe a reduction in simulation time you have 88.15% in JPEG and the design efficiency of the supply design is 90% in SDR.

Keywords: hardware/software, co-design, co-simulation, systemc, matlab, s-function, communication, synchronization

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110 Theory of Constraints: Approach for Performance Enhancement and Boosting Overhaul Activities

Authors: Sunil Dutta


Synchronization is defined as ‘the sequencing and re-sequencing of all relative and absolute activities in time and space and continuous alignment of those actions with purposeful objective in a complex and dynamic atmosphere. In a complex and dynamic production / maintenance setup, no single group can work in isolation for long. In addition, many activities in projects take place simultaneously at the same time. Work of every section / group is interwoven with work of others. The various activities / interactions which take place in production / overhaul workshops are interlinked because of physical requirements (information, material, workforces, equipment, and space) and dependencies. The activity sequencing is determined by physical dependencies of various department / sections / units (e.g., inventory availability must be ensured before stripping and disassembling of equipment), whereas resource dependencies do not. Theory of constraint facilitates identification, analyses and exploitation of the constraint in methodical manner. These constraints (equipment, manpower, policies etc.) prevent the department / sections / units from getting optimum exploitation of available resources. The significance of theory of constraints for achieving synchronization at overhaul workshop is illustrated in this paper.

Keywords: synchronization, overhaul, throughput, obsolescence, uncertainty

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109 Epileptic Seizure Onset Detection via Energy and Neural Synchronization Decision Fusion

Authors: Marwa Qaraqe, Muhammad Ismail, Erchin Serpedin


This paper presents a novel architecture for a patient-specific epileptic seizure onset detector using scalp electroencephalography (EEG). The proposed architecture is based on the decision fusion calculated from energy and neural synchronization related features. Specifically, one level of the detector calculates the condition number (CN) of an EEG matrix to evaluate the amount of neural synchronization present within the EEG channels. On a parallel level, the detector evaluates the energy contained in four EEG frequency subbands. The information is then fed into two independent (parallel) classification units based on support vector machines to determine the onset of a seizure event. The decisions from the two classifiers are then combined together according to two fusion techniques to determine a global decision. Experimental results demonstrate that the detector based on the AND fusion technique outperforms existing detectors with a sensitivity of 100%, detection latency of 3 seconds, while it achieves a 2:76 false alarm rate per hour. The OR fusion technique achieves a sensitivity of 100%, and significantly improves delay latency (0:17 seconds), yet it achieves 12 false alarms per hour.

Keywords: epilepsy, EEG, seizure onset, electroencephalography, neuron, detection

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108 Phase Synchronization of Skin Blood Flow Oscillations under Deep Controlled Breathing in Human

Authors: Arina V. Tankanag, Gennady V. Krasnikov, Nikolai K. Chemeris


The development of respiration-dependent oscillations in the peripheral blood flow may occur by at least two mechanisms. The first mechanism is related to the change of venous pressure due to mechanical activity of lungs. This phenomenon is known as ‘respiratory pump’ and is one of the mechanisms of venous return of blood from the peripheral vessels to the heart. The second mechanism is related to the vasomotor reflexes controlled by the respiratory modulation of the activity of centers of the vegetative nervous system. Early high phase synchronization of respiration-dependent blood flow oscillations of left and right forearm skin in healthy volunteers at rest was shown. The aim of the work was to study the effect of deep controlled breathing on the phase synchronization of skin blood flow oscillations. 29 normotensive non-smoking young women (18-25 years old) of the normal constitution without diagnosed pathologies of skin, cardiovascular and respiratory systems participated in the study. For each of the participants six recording sessions were carried out: first, at the spontaneous breathing rate; and the next five, in the regimes of controlled breathing with fixed breathing depth and different rates of enforced breathing regime. The following rates of controlled breathing regime were used: 0.25, 0.16, 0.10, 0.07 and 0.05 Hz. The breathing depth amounted to 40% of the maximal chest excursion. Blood perfusion was registered by laser flowmeter LAKK-02 (LAZMA, Russia) with two identical channels (wavelength 0.63 µm; emission power, 0.5 mW). The first probe was fastened to the palmar surface of the distal phalanx of left forefinger; the second probe was attached to the external surface of the left forearm near the wrist joint. These skin zones were chosen as zones with different dominant mechanisms of vascular tonus regulation. The degree of phase synchronization of the registered signals was estimated from the value of the wavelet phase coherence. The duration of all recording was 5 min. The sampling frequency of the signals was 16 Hz. The increasing of synchronization of the respiratory-dependent skin blood flow oscillations for all controlled breathing regimes was obtained. Since the formation of respiration-dependent oscillations in the peripheral blood flow is mainly caused by the respiratory modulation of system blood pressure, the observed effects are most likely dependent on the breathing depth. It should be noted that with spontaneous breathing depth does not exceed 15% of the maximal chest excursion, while in the present study the breathing depth was 40%. Therefore it has been suggested that the observed significant increase of the phase synchronization of blood flow oscillations in our conditions is primarily due to an increase of breathing depth. This is due to the enhancement of both potential mechanisms of respiratory oscillation generation: venous pressure and sympathetic modulation of vascular tone.

Keywords: deep controlled breathing, peripheral blood flow oscillations, phase synchronization, wavelet phase coherence

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107 A Grid Synchronization Method Based On Adaptive Notch Filter for SPV System with Modified MPPT

Authors: Priyanka Chaudhary, M. Rizwan


This paper presents a grid synchronization technique based on adaptive notch filter for SPV (Solar Photovoltaic) system along with MPPT (Maximum Power Point Tracking) techniques. An efficient grid synchronization technique offers proficient detection of various components of grid signal like phase and frequency. It also acts as a barrier for harmonics and other disturbances in grid signal. A reference phase signal synchronized with the grid voltage is provided by the grid synchronization technique to standardize the system with grid codes and power quality standards. Hence, grid synchronization unit plays important role for grid connected SPV systems. As the output of the PV array is fluctuating in nature with the meteorological parameters like irradiance, temperature, wind etc. In order to maintain a constant DC voltage at VSC (Voltage Source Converter) input, MPPT control is required to track the maximum power point from PV array. In this work, a variable step size P & O (Perturb and Observe) MPPT technique with DC/DC boost converter has been used at first stage of the system. This algorithm divides the dPpv/dVpv curve of PV panel into three separate zones i.e. zone 0, zone 1 and zone 2. A fine value of tracking step size is used in zone 0 while zone 1 and zone 2 requires a large value of step size in order to obtain a high tracking speed. Further, adaptive notch filter based control technique is proposed for VSC in PV generation system. Adaptive notch filter (ANF) approach is used to synchronize the interfaced PV system with grid to maintain the amplitude, phase and frequency parameters as well as power quality improvement. This technique offers the compensation of harmonics current and reactive power with both linear and nonlinear loads. To maintain constant DC link voltage a PI controller is also implemented and presented in this paper. The complete system has been designed, developed and simulated using SimPower System and Simulink toolbox of MATLAB. The performance analysis of three phase grid connected solar photovoltaic system has been carried out on the basis of various parameters like PV output power, PV voltage, PV current, DC link voltage, PCC (Point of Common Coupling) voltage, grid voltage, grid current, voltage source converter current, power supplied by the voltage source converter etc. The results obtained from the proposed system are found satisfactory.

Keywords: solar photovoltaic systems, MPPT, voltage source converter, grid synchronization technique

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106 Chaotic Control, Masking and Secure Communication Approach of Supply Chain Attractor

Authors: Unal Atakan Kahraman, Yilmaz Uyaroğlu


The chaotic signals generated by chaotic systems have some properties such as randomness, complexity and sensitive dependence on initial conditions, which make them particularly suitable for secure communications. Since the 1990s, the problem of secure communication, based on chaos synchronization, has been thoroughly investigated and many methods, for instance, robust and adaptive control approaches, have been proposed to realize the chaos synchronization. In this paper, an improved secure communication model is proposed based on control of supply chain management system. Control and masking communication simulation results are used to visualize the effectiveness of chaotic supply chain system also performed on the application of secure communication to the chaotic system. So, we discover the secure phenomenon of chaos-amplification in supply chain system

Keywords: chaotic analyze, control, secure communication, supply chain attractor

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