Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 90

Search results for: goats

90 Prevalence of Sarcocystosis in Slaughtered Sheep and Goats

Authors: Shivan N. Hussein, Ihsan K. Zangana


A total of 2358 sheep and 532 goats were examined for the presence of macrocystis of Sarcocystis. For microcysts, different muscle tissues were randomly taken from 118 sheep and 110 goats. Macrocystis were examined through naked eye inspection, while microcysts were examined microscopically by using histopathology, pepsin digestion, mincing & squeezing, and muscle squash method. Overall prevalence of macrocystis was 1.2% in sheep and 2.6% in goats. The intensity rate of the cysts was 4 cysts/ gram in sheep & 3 cysts/ gram in goats, respectively, while the overall prevalence of microcysts in sheep and goats was 96.5%. The infection rate in sheep was 96.6% and in goats was 96.4%. The total intensity rate of microcysts was 32.4 cysts/ field in sheep and 16.8 cysts/ field in goats, respectively. Histopathological examination found different shapes, size, wall thickness, and intensity rates of microcysts in muscle tissues of sheep & goats. The pathological reaction showed mild to moderate granulocytosis, and mononuclear cells infiltrated surrounding the microcysts with necrotizing and degeneration of myofibrils. The largest average size of spindle and round shaped cysts (290 ± 89.7 x 76.1 ± 10 µm and 88.8 ± 10.3 µm) in goats and (127.2 ± 18.9 x 53.3 ± 5.4 µm and 74.4 ± 7.5 µm) in sheep, was detected in the esophageal muscle. Statistically, there was a significant difference (p < 0.05) in the prevalence of macrocystis in sheep and goats, while no significant difference (p > 0.05) was observed in the prevalence of microcysts between both animal species.

Keywords: macrocystis, microcysts, intensity rate, measurement size

Procedia PDF Downloads 37
89 Effects of Cassava Pulp Fermentation by Yeast on Meat Goats Performances and Nitrogen Retention

Authors: S. Paengkoum, P. Paengkoum, W. Kaewwongsa


Twenty-four male growing goats were randomly assigned to a Randomized Complete Block Design. Dietary treatments were different level of feeding concentrate diet at 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5% of body weight (BW). The results showed that average daily gain, microbial N supply, N retention of meat goats in the group of feeding level at 2.0% BW and 2.5% BW were significantly higher (P<0.05) than those goats fed with feeding levels of 1.0% BW and 1.5% BW. Based on this result the conclusion can be made that using 75% fermented cassava pulp by Saccharomyces cerevisiae as the main source of protein to completely replace soybean meal was beneficial to meat goats in terms of feed intake. The feeding concentrate at levels between 2.0-2.5% BW gives highest in the growth of meat goat in this experiment.

Keywords: cassava pulp, yeast, goat, nitrogen retention

Procedia PDF Downloads 168
88 Water Intake and Influence of Ambient Temperature on Carcass Characteristics of Savannah Brown Goats Fed Graded Levels of Maize Cob Diets Supplemented with Cowpea Husk

Authors: A. H. Dikko, D. N. Tsado, T. Z. Adama, Y. M. Ishiaku, S. U. Oyibo


This study investigated water intake and influence of ambient temperature on carcass characteristics of Savannah Brown goats fed graded levels of maize cob diets. A total of sixteen (16) Savannah Brown goats aged between 8-12 weeks with an average body weight of 10.19+0.19 kg were used. The goats were randomly allotted to four (4) dietary treatments, T1 (0 % maize cob diet), T2 (10% maize cob diet), T3 (20% maize cob diet) and T4 (30% maize cob diet) respectively. The goats were also fed cowpea husk as supplement. A complete randomized design was used. Each treatment was allotted four (4) goats and replicated twice with two (2) goats per replicate. The goats were kept under feedlot management and were allowed 7 days adjustment period during which the animals were dewormed using albendzole and treated with antibiotics against any sign of disease(s). The goats were each offered 500 g of experimental diet between 7.00 am-8.00 am daily and the supplement was given to them between 4.00 pm-5.00 pm daily. The goats were offered three (3) litters of water daily without restriction. The experiment lasted for nine (9) weeks. Two (2) goats were randomly selected from each treatment and slaughtered for carcass characteristic and sensory evaluation. The result showed that ambient temperature had significant (P<0.05) correlations with water intake and feed intake among the treatment groups. There was a strongly positive significant (P<0.01) correlations between feed intake, water intake and ambient temperatures. The result on carcass characteristics showed significant (P<0.05) differences among all the treatment groups. The goats fed 20% maize cob performed significantly (P<0.05) better in most carcass cuts than those fed 0% inclusion level. Also, the result on sensory evaluation showed that colour, tenderness, juiciness and flavor for both cooked and fried meat were significantly (P<0.05) different among all the treatment groups. It can be concluded that 20 % inclusion of maize cob in the diet of Savanna Brown goats will improve meat yield and water intake. Therefore, inclusion of maize cob into the diet of Savanna Brown goats up to 20% is here by recommended.

Keywords: water intake, ambient temperature, savannah brown goats, carcass

Procedia PDF Downloads 342
87 Evaluation of Rhus lancea and Celtis africana as Browse for Mixed-Feeders in Captivity

Authors: France Phiri, Arnold Kanengoni, Dawood Hattas, Khanyisile Mbatha


A study was carried out to determine seasonal changes in fiber composition and condensed tannin (CT) concentrations in Rhus lancea and Celtis africana and their effects on feed intake and blood metabolites in mixed-feeders. Rhus lancea and C. africana were analysed for dry matter (DM), acid detergent lignin (ADL), acid detergent fiber (ADF), neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and CT concentrations over four seasons; early wet (EWS), late wet (LWS), early dry (EDS) and late dry (LDS). Twelve indigenous male goats were kept in metabolic crates for periods of 21 days per season and fed one of two diet combinations; the test diet comprised R. lancea and C. africana (denoted as BROWSE) and the lucerne diet comprised lucerne (Medicago sativa and concentrates (CON). Feed intake, body weight and blood metabolites were determined in all goats over each study period. Goats fed BROWSE in the EDS, LDS and LWS lost weight while goats fed CON gained weight (P < 0.05). Goats fed CON had higher urea, alkaline phosphatase and gamma-glutamyl transferase concentrations than those fed BROWSE (P < 0.05). Creatinine and cholesterol concentrations in all goats across LWS, EDS and LDS were lower than the normal range, while total protein and globulin concentrations were higher. The goats fed BROWSE had higher creatinine concentrations (P < 0.05) than those fed CON. Cholesterol concentrations were higher (P < 0.05) in goats fed BROWSE than in those on CON fed. It was concluded that goats fed BROWSE lost weight, indicating insufficient nutrients for maintenance requirements.

Keywords: fiber, maintenance, condense tannins, blood metabolites

Procedia PDF Downloads 65
86 Sulfur-Containing Diet Shift Hydrogen Metabolism and Reduce Methane Emission and Modulated Gut Microbiome in Goats

Authors: Tsegay Teklebrhan Gebremariam, Zhiliang, Arjan Jonker


The study investigated that using corn gluten (CG) instead of cornmeal (CM) increased dietary sulfur shifted H₂ metabolism from methanogenesis to alternative sink and modulated microbiome in the rumen as well as hindgut segments of goats. Ruminal fermentation, CH₄ emissions and microbial abundance in goats (n = 24). The experiment was performed using a randomized block design with two dietary treatments (CM and CG with 400 g/kg DM each). Goats in CG increased sulfur, NDF and CP intake and decreased starch intake as compared with those in CM. Goats that received CG diet had decreased dissolved hydrogen (dH₂) (P = 0.01) and dissolved methane yield and emission (dCH₄) (P = 0.001), while increased dH₂S both in the rumen and hindgut segments than those fed CM. Goats fed CG had higher (p < 0.01) gene copies of microbiota and cellulolytic bacteria, whereas starch utilizing bacterial species were less in the rumen and hindgut than those fed CM. Higher (P < 0.05) methanogenic diversity and abundances of Methanimicrococcus and Methanomicrobium were observed in goats that consumed CG, whilst containing lower Methanobrevibacter populations than those receiving CM. The study suggested that goats fed corn gluten improved the gene copies of microbiota and fibrolytic bacterial species while reducing starch utilizing species in the rumen and hindgut segments as compared with that fed cornmeal. Goats consuming corn gluten had a more enriched methanogenic diversity and reduced Methanobrevibacter, a contributor to CH₄ emissions, as compared with goats fed CM. Corn gluten could be used as an alternative feed to decrease the enteric CH₄ emission in ruminant production.

Keywords: dissolved gasses, methanogenesis, microbial community, metagenomics

Procedia PDF Downloads 65
85 A Pilot Epidemiological Survey of Parasitic Problems of Goats in and Around Derawar Fort Area, Cholistan, Pakistan

Authors: Muhammad Tahir Riaz, Khalid Mehmood, Ahmad Waseem Akhtar, Tariq Abbas, Sadaqat Ali, Muhammad Altaf


Livestock sector contributes around 55.9 and 11.8% to agriculture and GDP respectively, according to economic survey of Pakistan 2013-2014. The goats population has been estimated about 66.6 million (M). Parasitic infestation is a major health problem in goats causing loss in body weight, poor body condition, low birth weights, and difficulty in kidding. Keeping in view the utilization of these animals in the country, a pilot epidemiological survey was conducted to find out the major parasitic problems of goats in and around Derawar fort area, Cholistan. Data regarding 662 fecal samples of goats was collected from 25 tobas of Cholistan during June 2012 to June 2013. All the fecal samples were examined through Direct Smear Method and Salt Flotation Technique for the presence of helminth eggs. External parasites were taken from the various components of the carcass of goat and were conserved in 70% alcohol in hygienic, properly enclosed glass jars that were tagged thoroughly. The collected date was analyzed statistically by Chi-square test to find out the prevalence in goats. Out of 662 goats, 261 (39.42%) were found positive for parasites. 233 (35.20%) goats were found positive for gastrointestinal parasites while 28 (4.23%) were positive for external parasites including ticks 20 (3.02%) and mange 8 (1.21%). The higher prevalence of parasites in the study area may be due to pasture grazing, poor management and lack of extension work. In this regards proper management and control measures should be adopted to minimize the Parasitic Problems.

Keywords: Cholistan, goats, parasite, surveillance

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84 The Haemoglobin, Transferrin, Ceruloplasmin and Glutathione Polymorphism of Native Goat Breeds of Turkey, I-Angora and Hair

Authors: Ayse Ozge Demir, Nihat Mert


This study has been carried out in order to determine the polymorphic traits of various biochemical parameters in goat breeds which are native to Turkey. For this purpose, Angora and Hair goats breeds were chosen as live materials. Two different herds for each breed were selected from Ankara and Antalya, respectively. Blood samples were taken from a total of 120 goats aged between 2 and 4 which was made up of 60 Angora goats and 60 Hair goats. All which derived equally from 4 lots of herds. Analyses were performed for the polymorphic determination of the Haemoglobin (Hb), Transferrine (Tf), Ceruloplasmin (Cp) and Glutathione (GSH). Hb types were determined by starch gel electrophoresis and Tf types were detected by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. Furthermore, Cp and GSH analyses were performed by spectrophotometrically. Following the analysis, Hb types were found as 3 genotypes (AA, AB, BB) controlled by 2 allel genes. Tf types were found as 6 genotypes (AA, AB, AC, BB, BC, CC) controlled by 3 allele genes. Findings for Hb was in line with the Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium (HWE) in Angora goats while the Hair goat was not found to be in line. Moreover, Tf was found in line with the HWE for 2 separate goat breeds. The levels of Cp and GSH of two breeds were significantly different from other (P<0.0001). The findings are recorded as a source of reference for prospective polymorphism studies.

Keywords: electrophoresis, genetic resources, goats, spectrophotometer

Procedia PDF Downloads 226
83 Toxicity of Acacia nilotica ( Garad) to Nubian Goats

Authors: B. Medani Amna, M. A. Elbadwi Samia, E. Amin Ahmed


Variable plants present in nature are used by simple rural and urban people, researchers and drug manufacturers for medicinal purposes. Garad is one of the most commonly used in Sudan for both treatment and prophylaxis of infections in the respiratory, urinogenital tracts and the skin. Water exctracts from Acacia nilotica bods were used in this very experiment to test for their toxicity to Nubian goats at two dose rates under proper experimental conditions. The clinical, pathological, haematological and biological changes in Nubian goats given daily oral doses of 1 and 5 g/kg body weight of Acacia nilotica to two groups of test goats. The goats of the control group were undosed with Acacia nilotica.Other than the dose co-related mortality rates, the clinical signs were observed to be salivation, staggered gait, intermittent loss of voice and low appetite. On histopathological testing, the main lesions were hepatic centrolobular necrosis and fatty changes associated with the significant changes in GGT and ALP are indicating hepatic dysfunction.Renal malfunction is indicated by haemorrhages in addition to the change in the urea concentration. The congested, haemorrhagic, emphysematous, edematous and cyanotic lungs may contribute to the development of dyspnea. Acacia nilotica poisoning may lead to an immunosuppression pointed out by the lymphocyte infiltration. On evaluation of the above results, Acacia nilotica was considered toxic to Nubian goats at the above mentioned doses. Future work for Acacia nilotica was forwarded and practical implications of the result were highlighted.

Keywords: Acaia nilotica, toxicity data, Nubian goats, Garad

Procedia PDF Downloads 367
82 Meat Potential Indicators of Red Sokoto, Sahel and West African Dwarf Goat Based on Morphometrical Measurements

Authors: Ozioma Beauty Nwaodu, Adebowale E Salako, Omolara Mabel Akinyemi, Nkechi Uche, Isuama Isu, Uchechi Jane Elechi


Goats form an integral part of livestock production in the tropics. Meat potential is determined subjectively by resource poor livestock keepers, using hand to measure the rump width (RW). Objective evaluation of meat potential in different breads of goats can overcome problems associated with subjective evaluation. Hence, the objectives were to predict meatiness in Red Sokoto (RS), Sahel and the West African Dwarf (WAD) goats, using product of the body length (BL), wither height (WH) and (RW) and to indicate the inherent size of each breed, using WH: BL ratio. These three parameters were used because they are less environmentally sensitive. A total of 2849 goats were sampled purposefully from the Akinyele and Oranyan markets in Ibadan, Oyo State Nigeria. RS showed no significant difference for BL and WH but different from the RW of both sexes (p < 0.01). Similarly WAD showed no significant difference for the BL and WH, but differed (p < 0.01) between sexes for RW. Using the ANOVA, BL:WH ratio showed no significant difference between the breeds. WAD goats have the highest mean for BL:WH ratio. Western meat livestock is primarily identified using BL:WH. The combinations of these body parameters as indicator for meat type in meat animals showed that WAD goat has more potential to lay down meat, than RS and Sahel.

Keywords: quantitative, morphologial traits, descriptive analysis, goats

Procedia PDF Downloads 97
81 Influence of Improved Roughage Quality and Period of Meal Termination on Digesta Load in the Digestive Organs of Goats

Authors: Rasheed A. Adebayo, Mehluli M. Moyo, Ignatius V. Nsahlai


Ruminants are known to relish roughage for productivity but the effect of its quality on digesta load in rumen, omasum, abomasum and other distal organs of the digestive tract is yet unknown. Reticulorumen fill is a strong indicator for long-term control of intake in ruminants. As such, the measurement and prediction of digesta load in these compartments may be crucial to productivity in the ruminant industry. The current study aimed at determining the effect of (a) diet quality on digesta load in digestive organs of goats, and (b) period of meal termination on the reticulorumen fill and digesta load in other distal compartments of the digestive tract of goats. Goats were fed with urea-treated hay (UTH), urea-sprayed hay (USH) and non-treated hay (NTH). At the end of eight weeks of a feeding trial period, upon termination of a meal in the morning, afternoon or evening, all goats were slaughtered in random groups of three per day to measure reticulorumen fill and digesta loads in other distal compartments of the digestive tract. Both diet quality and period affected (P < 0.05) the measure of reticulorumen fill. However, reticulorumen fill in the evening was larger (P < 0.05) than afternoon, while afternoon was similar (P > 0.05) to morning. Also, diet quality affected (P < 0.05) the wet omasal digesta load, wet abomasum, dry abomasum and dry caecum digesta loads but did not affect (P > 0.05) both wet and dry digesta loads in other compartments of the digestive tract. Period of measurement did not affect (P > 0.05) the wet omasal digesta load, and both wet and dry digesta loads in other compartments of the digestive tract except wet abomasum digesta load (P < 0.05) and dry caecum digesta load (P < 0.05). Both wet and dry reticulorumen fill were correlated (P < 0.05) with omasum (r = 0.623) and (r = 0.723), respectively. In conclusion, reticulorumen fill of goats decreased by improving the roughage quality; and the period of meal termination and measurement of the fill is a key factor to the quantity of digesta load.

Keywords: digesta, goats, meal termination, reticulo-rumen fill

Procedia PDF Downloads 289
80 Evaluation of Genetic Resistance to Haemonchus Contortus in Teddy and Beetal Goat Breeds of Punjab, Pakistan

Authors: Muhammad S. Sajid, Asim Shamim, Muhammad Nisar Khan, Ashfaq A. Chatta, Muhammad Saqib


Goats (Capra hircus) are a valued asset for resource poor farmers globally. But the parasitic infection especially Haemonchus contortus (Trichostrongylid), impact the health and production of goats globally. The present study intended to evaluate resilient and resistance to Haemonchus contortus in indigenous goat breeds (Teddy and Beetal) of Punjab, Pakistan. Out of 60, 30 goats of each breed were divided into 6 groups and each group contain five goats. Two group of each breed received challenged infection with 12000 and 18000 L3 (third stage) larvae of Haemonchus contortus under two infection protocol that is early and trickle and remaining two group of each breed was kept as control. Resilient and resistance of each breed was then measured on the basis of their phenotypic markers like: faecal egg counts, packed cell volume, FAMACHA score system, body weight, total protein, albumin and worm count on 2nd, 4th, 6th, and 8th week of post infection. Variation in response of each goat breeds to Haemonchus contortus was observed. Teddy breed showed significant (P < 0.05)resistance as compared to Beetal. It is probably first attempt to report an evaluation of goat breed response towards Haemonchus contortus in Pakistan. It was concluded that Teddy goats have a greater genetic tendency to resist against to the Haemonchus contortus infection and this breed could be kept and bred from the economic point of view. Evaluation of genetic markers are like: gene, protein expression, Immunoglobulin, Histamines and interleukins determination are recommended for future studies which can be helpful to be fined resistant breed of goats.

Keywords: goat, beetal, teddy, haemonchus contortus, resistance, resilience, phenotypic markers

Procedia PDF Downloads 286
79 Effect of Yeast Culture (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) Supplementation on Growth Performance, Nutrients Digestibility, and Blood Metabolites in Beetal Male Goats

Authors: Saeed Ahmed, Tamoor Abbas, M. Amir, M. S. Iqbal, D. Hussain


This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of supplementation of different levels of yeast culture (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) in Beetal male goats diets on growth performance, digestibility of nutrients and selected blood metabolites. Another objective was to determine the inclusion level of yeast culture for optimal growth performance of Beetal male goats. Eighteen (n=18) Beetal male goats were randomly assigned to three total mixed ration treatments (n=6 goats/treatment): T1, T2 and T3 containing 0gm, 3gm and 6gm/day yeast culture (YC) mixed with total mixed ration (TMR). The diets were iso-nitrogenous and iso-caloric having crude protein 15.2% and ME 2.6Mcal/kg. The total duration of the experiment was 8 weeks. Beetal bucks were fed on TMR diets (T1, T2 and T3) having blend of oat silage, Lucerne hay and concentrate mixed with yeast culture (YC). Bucks were housed individually and feed was offered @ 4% of body weight on dry matter basis. Samples of fresh feed and refusal were collected twice weekly of moisture percentage using hot air oven. Data for daily dry matter intake, body weight gain, nutrient digestibility and selected blood metabolites were analyzed through one-way ANOVA technique under Complete randomised design (SAS Institute Inc, 2002-03). Results were declared significant at P≤0.05. Overall, DMI was not affected (P≥0.05) by dietary treatments. Body weight gain, digestibility of crude protein and crude fibre were improved. Blood glucose concentration was detected higher in the group having supplementation of yeast culture (YC) 6gm/day compared to other two dietary treatments. This study suggested the positive impact of inclusion of yeast culture (YC) up to 6gm/day in the TMR diet for optimal growth performance and digestibility of nutrients in Beetal male goats.

Keywords: yeast culture, growth performance, digestibility, beetle goat

Procedia PDF Downloads 80
78 Utilization of Torula Yeast (Zymomonas mobilis) as Main/Reciprocal for Degradation of Municipal Organic Waste as Feed for Goats

Authors: Nkutere Chikezie Kanu, Nnamdi M. Anigbogu, Johnson C. Ezike


The study was carried out to investigate the performance of Red Sokoto goats fed Municipal Oranic Wastes (MOW) subjected to two methods of in vivo degradation by Torula Yeast and Zymomonas mobilis. Two combination, Torula Yeast + Zymomonas mobilis (main degradation), and Zymomonas mobilis + Torula Yeast (Reciprocal degradation) were used to degrade MOW. Eighteen Red Sokoto goats of both sexes (9 males and 9 females) of ages between 6-8 were used for the study. The goats were randomly assigned into 3 treatments groups A, B and C respectively with 6 goats per treatment. The experiment was laid in a Completely Randomized Design and replicated 3 times. Treatment A groups were fed 30% Undegraded MOW base diet +concentrate mixture, Treatment B groups were fed 30% Main degraded MOW base diet +concentrate mixture, Treatment C groups were fed 30% Reciprocal degraded MOW base diet +concentrate mixture. The result of the daily weight gain was significantly (P<0.05) better than on the other Treatments. There was significant improvement (P<0.05) on the daily feed consumption in Treatment B than on the Treatments A and C. The feed conversion ratio revealed no significant (P>0.05) differences among the treatment groups but much better in the treatment B and C, the cost of feed consumed was much higher (P>0.05) in Treatment B followed by Treatment C, while Treatment A had the lowest. The cost/ kg weight gain that was recorded in Treatment A was better (P<0.05) than the Treatment B, followed by Treatment C, while the cost of production was high (P<0.05) in Treatment B than in other treatments. The gross profit was observed best (P<0.05) on the Treatment B, followed by Treatment C while Treatment A had the lowest. The net profit as noted in this study was much better (P<0.05) in Treatment B, and Treatment C, while the least was observed in Treatment A, where the return on investment was high in Treatments B and C, while Treatment A had the lowest.

Keywords: reciprocal, torula yeast, Zymomonas mobilis, organic waste

Procedia PDF Downloads 208
77 Immunologically Non-Treated Vascular Xenografts in Long-Term Survival Animals

Authors: W. G. Kim, J. M. Chang, W. S. Kim


Immunologically non-treated and acellularized porcine xenografts were implanted as an arterial graft in goats and comparatively analyzed for the explanted grafts with gross observation, as well as light microscopy and immunohistochemistry, following the predetermined periods. For immunologically non-treated xenografts, bilateral porcine carotid arteries were harvested, and after short-term freezing at -70°C, were implanted into goats. The preparation of acellularized xenograft vessels has been performed with Nacl-SDS solution and stored at the freezer until use. The goats were randomly assigned for three periods of observation (3, 6, and 12 months after implantation), four animals were observed at each of these times. Periodic ultrasonographic examinations were performed during observation period. Following the predetermined periods, the explanted grafts were analyzed. Among 12 animals, one goat died prematurely, and a total of 22 grafts were evaluated. Gross observations revealed non-thrombotic patent smooth lumens. Microscopic examinations of the explanted grafts showed satisfactory cellular reconstruction up to the 12-month observation period. The proportions of CD3 positive T lymphocytes among inflammatory cells infiltrations were very low. In conclusion, these findings, as a whole, suggest that porcine vessel xenografts can be clinically acceptably implanted in the goats as a form of small-diameter vascular graft, regardless of the acellularized xenograft or immunologically non-treated xenograft.

Keywords: xenograft, arterial graft, long-term survival animals, immunology

Procedia PDF Downloads 281
76 Improvement of Plantain Leaves Nutritive Value in Goats by Urea Treatment and Nitrogen Supplements

Authors: Marie Lesly Fontin, Audalbert Bien-Aimé, Didier Marlier, Yves Beckers


Fecal digestibility of mature plantain leaves was determined in castrated Creolegoatsin order to better assess them. Five diets made from plantain leaves were used in an in vivo digestibility study on 20 castrated Creole goats over three periods using a completely random design in order to assess their apparent fecal digestibility (Dg). These diets consisted of sun-dried leaves (DL), sun-dried urea treated leaves (DUTL, 5kg of urea per 100kg of raw product ensilaged during 90 days with 60 kg of water), sun-dried leaves + hoopvine (Trichostigma octandrum, L)(DLH, DL: 61.4% + Hoopvine: 38.6%), sun-dried leaves + urea (DLU, DL: 98.2%+ U: 1.8%), and fresh leaves. (FL).0.5% of salt diluted with water was added to diets before distribution to the goats. A mineral lick block was available for each goat in its digestibility cage. During each period, diets were distributed to meet the maintenance needs of the goats for 21 days, including 14 days of adaptation and 7 days of measurement. Offered and refused diets and feces were weighed every day, and samples were taken for laboratory analysis. Results showed that the urea treatment increasedCP (Crude Protein) content of DL by 44% (from 10.4% for DL to 15.0% for DUTL) and decreased their NDF (Neutral Detergent Fiber) content (55.5% to 52.4%). Large amounts of refused feed (around 40%) were observed in goats fed with FL, DLU, and DL diets, for which no significant difference was observed for DM (Dry Matter) intakes (40.3; 36.6 and 35.1g/kg0.75 respectively) (p>0.05). DM intakes of DUTL (59.9 g/kg0.75) were significantly (p<0.05) greater than DLH (50.2 g/kg0.75). DM Dg of DL was very low (29.2%). However, supplementation with hoopvine and urea treatment resulted in a significant increase of DM Dg (40.3% and 42.1%, respectively), but the addition of urea (DLU) had no effect on it. FL showed a DM Dg similar to DHL and DUTL diets (39.0%). OM (Organic Matter)Dg was higher for the DUTL diet (45.1%), followed by DLH (40.9%), then by DLU and FL (32.9% and 40.7% respectively) and finally by DL (29.8%). CP Dg was higher for the FL diet (65.7%) and lower for the DL diet (39.9%). NDF Dg was also increased with urea treatment (54.8% for DUTL) and with the addition of hoopvine (41.4%) compared to the DL diet (31.0% for DLH). In conclusion, urea treatment and complementation with hoopvine of plantain leaves are the best treatments among those tested for increasing the nutritive value of this foragein the castrated Creole goats.

Keywords: apparent fecal digestibility, nitrogen supplements, plantain leaves, urea treatment

Procedia PDF Downloads 108
75 Large-scale Foraging Behaviour of Free-ranging Goats: Influence of Herd Size, Landscape Quality and Season

Authors: Manqhai Kraai, Adrian M. Shrader, Peter F. Scogings


For animals living in herds, competition between group members increases as herd size increases. The intensity of this competition is likely greater across poor quality landscapes and during the dry season. In contrast to wild herbivores, herd size in domestic livestock is determined by their owners. This then raises the question, how do domestic livestock, like goats, reduce competition for food within these defined herds? To explore this question, large-scale foraging behaviour of both small (12 to 28 individuals) and large (42 to 83 individuals) herds of free-ranging goats were recorded in Tugela Ferry, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The study was conducted on three different landscapes that varied in both food quality and availability, during the wet and dry seasons of 2013-2014. The goats were housed in kraals overnight and let out in the mornings to forage unattended. Thus, foraging decisions were made by the goats and not by herders. The large-scale foraging behaviours focussed on included, (i) total distance travelled by goats while foraging, (ii) distance travelled before starting to feed, (iii) travel speed, and (iv) feeding duration. This was done using Garmin Foretrex 401 GPS devices harnessed to two goats per herd. Irrespective of season, there was no difference in the total distance travelled by the different sized herds across the different quality landscapes. However, both small and large herds started feeding farther from the kraal in the dry compared to the wet season. Despite this, there was no significant seasonal difference in total amount of time the herds spent feeding across the different landscapes. Finally, both small and large herds increased their travel speed across all the landscapes in the dry season, but large herds travelled faster than small herds. This increase was likely to maximise the time that large herds could spend feeding in good areas. Ultimately, these results indicate that both small and large herds were affected by declines in food quality and quantity during the dry season. However, as large herds made greater behavioural adjustments compared to smaller herds (i.e., feeding farther away from the kraal and travelling faster), it appeared that they were more affected by the seasonal increases in intra-herd competition.

Keywords: distance, feeding duration, food availability, food quality, travel speed

Procedia PDF Downloads 53
74 Serological Evidence of Brucella spp, Coxiella burnetti, Chlamydophila abortus, and Toxoplasma gondii Infections in Sheep and Goat Herds in the United Arab Emirates

Authors: Nabeeha Hassan Abdel Jalil, Robert Barigye, Hamda Al Alawi, Afra Al Dhaheri, Fatma Graiban Al Muhairi, Maryam Al Khateri, Nouf Al Alalawi, Susan Olet, Khaja Mohteshamuddin, Ahmad Al Aiyan, Mohamed Elfatih Hamad


A serological survey was carried out to determine the seroprevalence of Brucella spp, Coxiella burnetii, Chlamydophila abortus, and Toxoplasma gondii in sheep and goat herds in the UAE. A total of 915 blood samples [n= 222, [sheep]; n= 215, [goats]) were collected from livestock farms in the Emirates of Abu Dhabi, Dubai, Sharjah and Ras Al-Khaimah (RAK). An additional 478 samples (n= 244, [sheep]; n= 234, (goats]) were collected from the Al Ain livestock central market and tested by indirect ELISA for pathogen-specific antibodies with the Brucella antibodies being further corroborated by the Rose-Bengal agglutination test. Seropositivity for the four pathogens is variably documented in sheep and goats from the study area. Respectively, the overall livestock farm prevalence rates for Brucella spp, C. burnetii, C. abortus, and T. gondii were 2.7%, 27.9%, 8.1%, and 16.7% for sheep, and 0.0%, 31.6%, 9.3%, and 5.1% for goats. Additionally, the seroprevalence rates Brucella spp, C. burnetii, C. abortus, and T. gondii in samples from the livestock market were 7.4%, 21.7%, 16.4%, and 7.0% for sheep, and 0.9%, 32.5%, 19.2%, and 11.1% for goats respectively. Overall, sheep had 12.59 more chances than goats of testing seropositive for Brucella spp (OR, 12.59 [95% CI 2.96-53.6]) but less likely to be positive for C. burnetii-antibodies (OR, 0.73 [95% CI 0.54-0.97]). Notably, the differences in the seroprevalence rates of C. abortus and T. gondii in sheep and goats were not statistically significant (p > 0.0500). The present data indicate that all the four study pathogens are present in sheep and goat populations in the UAE where coxiellosis is apparently the most seroprevalent followed by chlamydophilosis, toxoplasmosis, and brucellosis. While sheep from the livestock market were more likely than those from farms to be Brucella-seropositive than those, the overall exposure risk of C. burnetii appears to be greater for goats than sheep. As more animals from the livestock market were more likely to be seropositive to Chlamydophila spp, it is possible that under the UAE animal production conditions, at least, coxiellosis and chlamydophilosis are more likely to increase the culling rate of domesticated small ruminants than toxoplasmosis and brucellosis. While anecdotal reports have previously insinuated that brucellosis may be a significant animal health risk in the UAE, the present data suggest C. burnetii, C. abortus and T. gondii to be more significant pathogens of sheep and goats in the country. Despite this possibility, the extent to which these pathogens may nationally be contributing to reproductive failure in sheep and goat herds is not known and needs to be investigated. Potentially, these agents may also carry a potentially zoonotic risk that needs to be investigated in risk groups like farm workers, and slaughter house personnel. An ongoing study is evaluating the seroprevalence of bovine coxiellosis in the Emirate of Abu Dhabi and the data thereof will further elucidate on the broader epidemiological dynamics of the disease in the national herd.

Keywords: Brucella spp, Chlamydophila abortus, goat, sheep, Toxoplasma gondii, UAE

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73 Leather Quality of Some Sudan Goats under Range Condition

Authors: Mohammed Alhadi Ebrahiem


This study was designed to investigate the effect of breed and feeding level before slaughter on the skin\leather quality of the three main breeds of Sudan goats. Thirty (30) pieces of fresh skins from the three goat breeds (an average age 1-1.5 years) were chosen for the study purpose. For whole variations between the three breeds in two levels of feeding (poor and rich pastures) Complete Randomized Design (CRD) was used for data analysis. The results revealed that, leather weight (kg), elongation%, tensile strength (kg/cm2), cracking load (kg), thickness (mm), tear load (kg/cm) and chrome% findings were significantly affected (P≥0.05) by breed variation. Flexibility, moisture%, Ash% and fat % were not significantly affected (P ≥ 0.05) by breed. On the other hand, skin weight (kg), Cracking load (kg), Tear load (kg/cm) and Ash% were significantly affected (P≥0.05) by pasture quality. While Leather Elongation%, Tensile strength (kg/cm2), Thickness (mm), Flexibility, Moisture%, Fat % and Chrome% were not statistically (P ≥ 0.05) affected by pastures quality.

Keywords: skin\leather quality, goats leather, natural pasture, Sudan

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72 Physiological Response of Water-Restricted Xhosa Goats Supplemented with Vitamin C

Authors: O.F. Akinmoladun, F.N. Fon, C.T. Mpendulo, O. Okoh


The sustainability of livestock production is under threat as a result of water scarcity, fluctuating precipitation, and high environmental temperature. These combined stressors have impacted negatively on general animal production and welfare, necessitating a very reliable and cost-effective management practices, especially in arid and water-limited regions of the world. Instead of the above, this study was designed to investigate the growth performance and physiological response of water-restricted Xhosa ear-lobe goats fed diets supplemented with single or multiple vitamin C (VC) during summer. The total forty-eight goats used for the experiment were balanced for body weight and randomly assigned to the seven treatment groups (seven goats/treatment): GI (W100%); GII (W70%); GIII (W50%); GIV (W70%+3g/day VC); GV ((W50% +3g/day VC); GVI (W70%+3g/d VC+extra 5g on every eight-day); GVII (W50%+3g/d VC+extra 5g on every eight-day). The design was a complete randomized design and VC was administered per os. At the end of the 75-day feeding trial, GIII (W50%) animals were the most affected (P<0.05) and the effect was more pronounced in their body condition scores (BCs). Weight loss and depression in feed intake due to water restriction (P<0.05) were attenuated by VC treated groups (GIV-GVII). Changes in body thermal gradient (BTG) and rectal temperature (RcT) were similar (P>0.05) across the various experimental groups. The attenuation effect of VC was significant in responses to respiratory rate (RR) and cortisol. Supplementation of VC (either single or multiple) did not significantly (P>0.05) improve water restriction effect on body condition scores (BCs) and FAMACHA©. The current study found out that Xhosa ear lobe goats can adapt to the prevailing bioclimatic changes and limited water intake. However, supplementation of vitamin C can be beneficial at modulating these stressful stimuli. Continuous consistencies in the outcome of vitamin C on water-stressed animals can help validate recommendations especially to farmers in the arid and water-limited regions across the globe.

Keywords: vitamin C, Xhosa ear-lobe, thermotolerance, water stress

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71 Current Status and Prospects of Further Control of Brucellosis in Humans and Domestic Ruminants in Bangladesh

Authors: A. K. M. Anisur Rahman


Brucellosis is an ancient and one of the world's most widespread zoonotic diseases affecting both, public health and animal production. Its current status in humans and domestic ruminants along with probable means to control further in Bangladesh are described. The true exposure prevalence of brucellosis in cattle, goats, and sheep seems to be low: 0.3% in cattle, 1% in goats and 1.2% in sheep. The true prevalence of brucellosis in humans was also reported to be around 2%. In such a low prevalence scenario both in humans and animals, the positive predictive values of the diagnostic tests were very low. The role Brucella species in the abortion of domestic ruminants is less likely. Still now, no Brucella spp. was isolated from animal and human samples. However, Brucella abortus DNA was detected from seropositive humans, cattle, and buffalo; milk of cow, goats, and gayals and semen of an infected bull. Consuming raw milk and unpasteurized milk products by Bangladeshi people are not common. Close contact with animals, artificial insemination using semen from infected bulls, grazing mixed species of animals together in the field and transboundary animal movement are important factors, which should be considered for the further control of this zoonosis in Bangladesh.

Keywords: brucellosis, control, human, zoonosis

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70 Across-Breed Genetic Evaluation of New Zealand Dairy Goats

Authors: Nicolas Lopez-Villalobos, Dorian J. Garrick, Hugh T. Blair


Many dairy goat farmers of New Zealand milk herds of mixed breed does. Simultaneous evaluation of sires and does across breed is required to select the best animals for breeding on a common basis. Across-breed estimated breeding values (EBV) and estimated producing values for 208-day lactation yields of milk (MY), fat (FY), protein (PY) and somatic cell score (SCS; LOG2(SCC) of Saanen, Nubian, Alpine, Toggenburg and crossbred dairy goats from 75 herds were estimated using a test day model. Evaluations were based on 248,734 herd-test records representing 125,374 lactations from 65,514 does sired by 930 sires over 9 generations. Averages of MY, FY and PY were 642 kg, 21.6 kg and 19.8 kg, respectively. Average SCC and SCS were 936,518 cells/ml milk and 9.12. Pure-bred Saanen does out-produced other breeds in MY, FY and PY. Average EBV for MY, FY and PY compared to a Saanen base were Nubian -98 kg, 0.1 kg and -1.2 kg; Alpine -64 kg, -1.0 kg and -1.7 kg; and Toggenburg -42 kg, -1.0 kg and -0.5 kg. First-cross heterosis estimates were 29 kg MY, 1.1 kg FY and 1.2 kg PY. Average EBV for SCS compared to a Saanen base were Nubian 0.041, Alpine -0.083 and Toggenburg 0.094. Heterosis for SCS was 0.03. Breeding values are combined with respective economic values to calculate an economic index used for ranking sires and does to reflect farm profit.

Keywords: breed effects, dairy goats, milk traits, test-day model

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69 Relationship between Mannheimia haemolytica and the Fertility Characteristics of Boer Goats

Authors: Muhammad Naveed Ali


A study was conducted to determine the effects on the severity of pneumonia due to Mannheimia haemolytica and its relation with the fertility of bucks. A total of 12 crossbred Boer bucks of 3 treatment groups of equal number (4 goats per group, aged 12-14 months) were selected in this study. Group A was intranasally inoculated live M. haemolytica 1 × 105 (cfu). Group B was first immunized subcutaneously M. haemolytica killed vaccine (2 ml) two week before intranasal inoculation of M. haemolytica 1 × 105 (cfu). Group C was treated with normal saline (PBS) as control. Electro-ejaculator was used for semen collection once per week whilst scrotal circumference was measured before and after challenge. The semen volume, sperm concentration, sperm motility, live/dead percentage and morphology were evaluated. From the semen evaluation, goats in Group A exhibited significant decrease in the semen volume, sperm concentration, motility and live/dead sperm compared with vaccinated group B. The scrotal circumference was significantly decreased in group A compared to B. There were non-significant differences in scrotal circumferences of group B and C. The results suggested that M. haemolytica infection has negative effects on the fertility of Boer bucks.

Keywords: Boer bucks, Mannheimia haemolytica, semen evaluation, vaccination

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68 Slaughter and Carcass Characterization, and Sensory Qualities of Native, Pure, and Upgraded Breeds of Goat Raised in the Philippines

Authors: Jonathan N. Nayga, Emelita B. Valdez, Mila R. Andres, Beulah B. Estrada, Emelina A. Lopez, Rogelio B. Tamayo, Aubrey Joy M. Balbin


Goat production is one of the activities included in integrated farming in the Philippines. Goats are raised for its meat and regardless of breed the animal is slaughtered for this purpose. In order to document the carcass yield of different goats slaughtered, five (5) different breeds of goats to include Purebred Boer and Anglo-nubian, Crossbred Boer and Anglo-nubian and Philippine Native goat were used in the study. Data on slaughter parameters, carcass characteristics, and sensory evaluation were gathered and analyzed using Complete Random Design (CRD) at 5% level of significance and the results of carcass conformation were assessed descriptively. Results showed that slaughter data such as slaughter/live weight, hot and chilled carcass weights, dressing percentage and percentage drip loss were significantly different (P>0.05) among breeds. On carcass and meat characteristics, pure breed and upgraded Boer were found to be moderately muscular while Native goat was rated as thin muscular. The color of the carcass also revealed that Purebred and crossbred Boer were described dark red, while Native goat was noted to be slightly pale. On sensory evaluation, the results indicated that there was no significant difference (P>0.05) among breeds evaluated. It is therefore concluded that purebred goat has heavier carcass, while both purebred Boer and upgrade are rated slightly muscular. It is further confirms that regardless of breed, goat will have the same sensory characteristics. Thus, it is recommended to slaughter heavier goats to obtain more carcasses with better conformation and quality.

Keywords: carcass quality, goat, sensory evaluation, slaughter

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67 Toxicity of Solenstemma Argel (Hargal ) on Nubian Goats

Authors: Amna B. Medani, M. A. Elbadwi Samia, Hassan A. Khalid


In our study, nine Nubian goat kids were obtained, allotted into three groups, and healthily adapted in pens within the premises of the Veterinary Teaching Hospital, University of Khartoum to be given the oral doses of the dried herb shoots at daily doses of 1 and 5 gm/kg/day with drinking water, while the kids of the control group were left undosed. All goats were slaughtered,if not died, after 35 days. S. argel at the given doses caused signs of arched posture, ruffled hair, shivering and paralysis of limbs. On post mortem, lesions were seen to be hepatic fatty changes, renal necrosis, congested lungs and inflamed intestines. Serum chemistry investigations revealed significant increase (P< 0.05-0.01) in the activities of ALP(alkaline phosphates) and AST( aspartate-aminotransferase) in goats dosed with 5 gm /kg/ day. Also observed were significant increases in inorganic phosphorus and urea concentrations (P < 0.05-0.01) in both dosed goat groups. .Other investigations including the activity of GGT( gamma glutamyltransferase), creatinine, calcium, total protein and albumin illustrated no significant difference from that of the undosed controls. On haematological evaluation , the goat kids dosed with 5 gm/kg/dayshowed a decrease in haemoglobin concentration and red blood cells count of (P < 0.05-0.01).Both groups of dosed goats showed a higher packed cell volume values of (P < 0.05) when compared to the control goats .Mean corpuscular haemoglobin values were not different from those of the control kids. S. argel at the given doses caused signs of arched posture, ruffled hair, shivering and paralysis of limbs. On post mortem, lesions were seen to be hepatic fatty changes, renal necrosis, congested lungs and inflamed intestines. Serum chemistry investigations revealed significant increase (P < 0.05-0.01) in the activities of ALP(alkaline phosphates) and AST( aspartate-aminotransferase) in goats dosed with 5 gm /kg/ day. Also observed were significant increases in inorganic phosphorus and urea concentrations (P < 0.05-0.01) in both dosed goat groups. .Other investigations including the activity of GGT( gamma-glutamyltransferase), creatinine, calcium, total protein and albumin illustrated no significant difference from that of the undosed controls. calcium, total protein and albumin illustrated no significant difference from that of the undosed controls. On haematological evaluation , the goat kids dosed with 5 gm/kg/dayshowed a decrease in haemoglobin concentration and red blood cells count of (P < 0.05-0.01).Both groups of dosed goats showed a higher packed cell volume values of (P < 0.05) when compared to the control goats .Mean corpuscular haemoglobin values were not different from those of the control kids. Data obtained were then discussed to find S. argel irritable to intestines , toxic to the kidney and liver and a haematological mild toxin.Suggestions for future were forwarded.

Keywords: hargal, nubian goats, solenstemma argel, toxicity

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66 Growth Performance, Body Linear Measurements and Body Condition Score of Savanna Brown Goats Fed Enzyme Treated Sawdust Diets as Replacement for Maize Offal and Managed Semi-intensively

Authors: Alabi Olushola John, Ogbiko Anthonia, Tsado Daniel Nma, Mbajiorgu Ejike Felix, Adama Theophilus Zubairu


A total of thirty (30) goats weighting between 5.8 and 7.3 kg were used to determine the growth performance, body linear measurements and body condition score of Semi intensively manged Savanna Brown goats fed enzyme treated sawdust diets (ETSD). They divided into five dietary treatments (T) groups with three replications using a completely randomized design. Treatment one (1) comprises of animals fed diet on 0 % enzyme treated sawdust while Treatment 2 (T2), Treatment 3 (T3), Treatment 4 (T4) and Treatment 5 (T5) comprises of animals fed diets containing 10, 20, 30 and 40 % enzyme treated sawdust diets, respectively. The study lasted 16 weeks. Data on growth performance parameters, body linear measurement (height at wither, body length, chest girth, hind leg length, foreleg length, facial length) and body condition score were collected and analyzed using one way analysis of variance. No significant difference (p>0.05) was observed in the all growth performance parameters and linear body measurements. However, significant difference was observed in body length and daily body length gains with highest value observed in animals fed the control diets (7.38 and 0.08 cm respectively) and animals on 30 % ETSD (7.25 and 0.07 cm respectively) and lowest values (4.75 and 0.05 cm respectively) were observed in animals fed 10 % ETSD among the treatment groups. It was, therefore, concluded that enzyme treated sawdust can be used in the diets of Savanna Brown goats up to 40 % replacement for maize offal since this treatment improved the body length and daily body length gains.

Keywords: performance, sawdust, enzyme treated, semi-intensively, replacement

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65 Reproduction Characteristics of Saanen Goats Raised under Intensive Conditions in Konya Province

Authors: Vahdettin Sariyel, Birol Dag


In this research, it is aimed to determine the effects of several environmental factors on adaptation and some yield parameters of Saanen goats reared under intensive conditions at a private farm in Konya province. Gestation rate, twins rate and litter size were evaluated as reproductive traits. Gestation rate was determined as 93.8% and 90.5% for 2011 and 2012 years respectively. Twins rate was determined as 59.35 % and 70.00 % for 2011 and 2012 years respectively. Litter size was 1.49 and 1.46 for 2011 and 2012 years respectively. Survival rates of kids from birth to weaning at three months of age were found as 87.74 % and 98.54 % for 2011 and 2012 years respectively.

Keywords: gestation rate, reproduction, saanen, twins rate, vitality

Procedia PDF Downloads 458
64 Effects of Environmental and Genetic Factors on Growth Performance, Fertility Traits and Milk Yield/Composition in Saanen Goats

Authors: Deniz Dincel, Sena Ardicli, Hale Samli, Mustafa Ogan, Faruk Balci


The aim of the study was to determine the effects of some environmental and genetic factors on growth, fertility traits, milk yield and composition in Saanen goats. For this purpose, the total of 173 Saanen goats and kids were investigated for growth, fertility and milk traits in Marmara Region of Turkey. Fertility parameters (n=70) were evaluated during two years. Milk samples were collected during the lactation and the milk yield/components (n=59) of each goat were calculated. In terms of CSN3 and AGPAT6 gene; the genotypes were defined by PCR-RFLP. Saanen kids (n=86-112) were measured from birth to 6 months of life. The birth, weaning, 60ᵗʰ, 90ᵗʰ, 120ᵗʰ and 180tᵗʰ days of average live weights were calculated. The effects of maternal age on pregnancy rate (p < 0.05), birth rate (p < 0.05), infertility rate (p < 0.05), single born kidding (p < 0.001), twinning rate (p < 0.05), triplet rate (p < 0.05), survival rate of kids until weaning (p < 0.05), number of kids per parturition (p < 0.01) and number of kids per mating (p < 0.01) were found significant. The impacts of year on birth rate (p < 0.05), abortion rate (p < 0.001), single born kidding (p < 0.01), survival rate of kids until weaning (p < 0.01), number of kids per mating (p < 0.01) were found significant for fertility traits. The impacts of lactation length on all milk yield parameters (lactation milk, protein, fat, totally solid, solid not fat, casein and lactose yield) (p < 0.001) were found significant. The effects of age on all milk yield parameters (lactation milk, protein, fat, total solid, solid not fat, casein and lactose yield) (p < 0.001), protein rate (p < 0.05), fat rate (p < 0.05), total solid rate (p < 0.01), solid not fat rate (p < 0.05), casein rate (p < 0.05) and lactation length (p < 0.01), were found significant too. However, the effect of AGPAT6 gene on milk yield and composition was not found significant in Saanen goats. The herd was found monomorphic (FF) for CSN3 gene. The effects of sex on live weights until 90ᵗʰ days of life (birth, weaning and 60ᵗʰ day of average weight) were found significant statistically (p < 0.001). The maternal age affected only birth weight (p < 0,001). The effects month at birth on all of the investigated day [the birth, 120ᵗʰ, 180ᵗʰ days (p < 0.05); the weaning, 60ᵗʰ, 90ᵗʰ days (p < 0,001)] were found significant. The birth type was found significant on the birth (p < 0,001), weaning (p < 0,01), 60ᵗʰ (p < 0,01) and 90ᵗʰ (p < 0,01) days of average live weights. As a result, screening the other regions of CSN3, AGPAT6 gene and also investigation the phenotypic association of them should be useful to clarify the efficiency of target genes. Environmental factors such as maternal age, year, sex and birth type were found significant on some growth, fertility and milk traits in Saanen goats. So consideration of these factors could be used as selection criteria in dairy goat breeding.

Keywords: fertility, growth, milk yield, Saanen goats

Procedia PDF Downloads 93
63 Prevalence of Haemo and Gastrointestinal Parasites of Small Ruminants in Akwanga Local Government Area of Nasarawa State

Authors: Victoria Adamu Pam, Victor Ameh Adejoh, Akwashiki Ombugadu


The prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites of ruminant has been on the increase leading to great economic and production losses with more fatal cases occurring in developing countries. This study was conducted to investigate and provide data on the prevalence and impact of haemo and gastro intestinal parasites of small ruminants in Akwanga LGA of Nasarawa State. One hundred fecal and blood samples were collected from goats and sheep. The fecal and blood samples were examined using floatation method and thin blood smear method respectively. Four gastro intestinal parasites were identified in the study, these are; Strongyloides spp, Paramphistome spp, Coccidia spp and Moniezia spp. while 2 heamo parasites were identified; Babesia spp. and Anaplasma spp. The most prevalent gastro intestinal parasite encountered was Strongyloide pp with 48(64.86%) and 48(77.42%) in sheep and goat respectively. This is followed by Paramphistome spp with 18(24.32%) in sheep only. The least prevalent was Coccidia spp with 8(10.8%) in sheep and Moniezia spp with 2 (3.23%) in goats. The most prevalent heamo parasites was Babesia spp with 10(71.43%) and 10(100.00%) in sheep and goat respectively while the least prevalent was Anaplasma spp with 4(28.57%) in sheep only. Statistically, there is no significant difference between haemo and gastrointestinal parasites of sheep and goats in the study area. (P > 0.05). The prevalence of gastrointestinal and haemo parasites in relation to sex showed that female had the highest prevalence of 50% than in the male 2.00% while In relation to age the prevalence was higher in adult 58% than in the Young 2.00%. Statistically, there is a significant difference (P < 0.05) between adult and young. The study indicates that parasitic infections are prevalent in ruminants in the study area.

Keywords: akwanga, gastrointestinal, haemo, parasites

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62 Supply Chain Improvement of the Halal Goat Industry in the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao

Authors: Josephine R. Migalbin


Halal is an Arabic word meaning "lawful" or "permitted". When it comes to food and consumables, Halal is the dietary standard of Muslims. The Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (ARMM) has a comparative advantage when it comes to Halal Industry because it is the only Muslim region in the Philippines and the natural starting point for the establishment of a halal industry in the country. The region has identified goat production not only for domestic consumption but for export market. Goat production is one of its strengths due to cultural compatibility. There is a high demand for goats during Ramadhan and Eid ul-Adha. The study aimed to provide an overview of the ARMM Halal Goat Industry; to map out the specific supply chain of halal goat, and to analyze the performance of the halal goat supply chain in terms of efficiency, flexibility, and overall responsiveness. It also aimed to identify areas for improvement in the supply chain such as behavioural, institutional, and process to provide recommendations for improvement in the supply chain towards efficient and effective production and marketing of halal goats, subsequently improving the plight of the actors in the supply chain. Generally, the raising of goats is characterized by backyard production (92.02%). There are four interrelated factors affecting significantly the production of goats which are breeding prolificacy, prevalence of diseases, feed abundance and pre-weaning mortality rate. The institutional buyers are mostly traders, restaurants/eateries, supermarkets, and meat shops, among others. The municipalities of Midsayap and Pikit in another region and Parang are the major goat sources and the municipalities in ARMM among others. In addition to the major supply centers, Siquijor, an island province in the Visayas is becoming a key source of goats. Goats are usually gathered by traders/middlemen and brought to the public markets. Meat vendors purchase them directly from raisers, slaughtered and sold fresh in wet markets. It was observed that there is increased demand at 2%/year and that supply is not enough to meet the demand. Farm gate price is 2.04 USD to 2.11 USD/kg liveweight. Industry information is shared by three key participants - raisers, traders and buyers. All respondents reported that information is through personal built-upon past experiences and that there is no full disclosure of information among the key participants in the chain. The information flow in the industry is fragmented in nature such that no total industry picture exists. In the last five years, numerous local and foreign agencies had undertaken several initiatives for the development of the halal goat industry in ARMM. The major issues include productivity which is the greatest challenge, difficulties in accessing technical support channels and lack of market linkage and consolidation. To address the various issues and concerns of the various industry players, there is a need to intensify appropriate technology transfer through extension activities, improve marketing channels by grouping producers, strengthen veterinary services and provide capital windows to improve facilities and reduce logistics and transaction costs in the entire supply chain.

Keywords: autonomous region in Muslim Mindanao, halal, halal goat industry, supply chain improvement

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61 Use of Real Time Ultrasound for the Prediction of Carcass Composition in Serrana Goats

Authors: Antonio Monteiro, Jorge Azevedo, Severiano Silva, Alfredo Teixeira


The objective of this study was to compare the carcass and in vivo real-time ultrasound measurements (RTU) and their capacity to predict the composition of Serrana goats up to 40% of maturity. Twenty one females (11.1 ± 3.97 kg) and Twenty one males (15.6 ± 5.38 kg) were utilized to made in vivo measurements with a 5 MHz probe (ALOKA 500V scanner) at the 9th-10th, 10th-11th thoracic vertebrae (uT910 and uT1011, respectively), at the 1st- 2nd, 3rd-4th, and 4th-5th lumbar vertebrae (uL12, ul34 and uL45, respectively) and also at the 3rd-4th sternebrae (EEST). It was recorded the images of RTU measurements of Longissimus thoracis et lumborum muscle (LTL) depth (EM), width (LM), perimeter (PM), area (AM) and subcutaneous fat thickness (SFD) above the LTL, as well as the depth of tissues of the sternum (EEST) between the 3rd-4th sternebrae. All RTU images were analyzed using the ImageJ software. After slaughter, the carcasses were stored at 4 ºC for 24 h. After this period the carcasses were divided and the left half was entirely dissected into muscle, dissected fat (subcutaneous fat plus intermuscular fat) and bone. Prior to the dissection measurements equivalent to those obtained in vivo with RTU were recorded. Using the Statistica 5, correlation and regression analyses were performed. The prediction of carcass composition was achieved by stepwise regression procedure, with live weight and RTU measurements with and without transformation of variables to the same dimension. The RTU and carcass measurements, except for SFD measurements, showed high correlation (r > 0.60, P < 0.001). The RTU measurements and the live weight, showed ability to predict carcass composition on muscle (R2 = 0.99, P < 0.001), subcutaneous fat (R2 = 0.41, P < 0.001), intermuscular fat (R2 = 0.84, P < 0.001), dissected fat (R2 = 0.71, P < 0.001) and bone (R2 = 0.94, P < 0.001). The transformation of variables allowed a slight increase of precision, but with the increase in the number of variables, with the exception of subcutaneous fat prediction. In vivo measurements by RTU can be applied to predict kid goat carcass composition, from 5 measurements of RTU and the live weight.

Keywords: carcass, goats, real time, ultrasound

Procedia PDF Downloads 194