Search results for: bioactive compounds
2289 Future Trends in Sources of Natural Antioxidants from Indigenous Foods
Authors: Ahmed El-Ghorab
Abstract:Indigenous foods are promising sources of various chemical bioactive compounds such as vitamins, phenolic compounds and carotenoids. Therefore, the presence o different bioactive compounds in fruits could be used to retard or prevent various diseases such as cardiovascular and cancer. This is an update report on nutritional compositions and health promoting phytochemicals of different indigenous food . This different type of fruits and/ or other sources such as spices, aromatic plants, grains by-products, which containing bioactive compounds might be used as functional foods or for nutraceutical purposes. most common bioactive compounds are vitamin C, polyphenol, β- carotene and lycopene contents. In recent years, there has been a global trend toward the use of natural phytochemical as antioxidants and functional ingredients, which are present in natural resources such as vegetables, fruits, oilseeds and herbs.. Our future trend the Use of Natural antioxidants as a promising alternative to use of synthetic antioxidants and the Production of natural antioxidant on commercial scale to maximize the value addition of indigenous food waste as a good source of bioactive compounds such as antioxidants.
Keywords: bioactive compounds, antioxidants, by-product, indigenous foods, phenolic compoundsProcedia PDF Downloads 403
2288 Preliminary Phytochemical Screening and Comparison of Different Extracts of Capparidaceae Family
Authors: Noshaba Dilbar, Maria Jabbar
Abstract:Medicinal plants are considered to be the richest source of drug discovery. The main cause of medicinal properties of plants is the presence of bioactive compounds in them. Phytochemical screening is the valuable process that detects bioactive compounds(secondary metabolites) in plants. The present study was carried out to determine phytochemical profile and ethnobotanical importance of Capparidaceae species. ( Capparis spinosa and Dipterygium glaucum). The selection of plants was made on basis of traditional knowledge of their usage in ayurvedic medicines. Different type of solvents(ethanol, methanol, chloroform, benzene and petroleum ether) were used to make extracts of dry and fresh plants. Phytochemical screening was made by using various standard techniques. Results reveal the presence of large range of bioactive compounds i.e alakloids, saponins, flavonoids, terpenoids, glycosides, phenols and steroids. Methanol, petroleum ether and chloroform extracts showed high extractability of bioactive compounds. The results obtained ensure these plants a reliable source of pharmacological industry and can be used in making of various biological friendly drugs.
Keywords: bioactive compounds, Capparidaceae, phytochemical screening, secondary metabolitesProcedia PDF Downloads 100
2287 Effect of Brewing on the Bioactive Compounds of Coffee
Authors: Ceyda Dadali, Yeşim Elmaci
Abstract:Coffee was introduced as an economic crop during the fifteenth century; nowadays it is the most important food commodity ranking second after crude oil. Desirable sensory properties make coffee one of the most often consumed and most popular beverages in the world. The coffee preparation method has a significant effect on flavor and composition of coffee brews. Three different extraction methodologies namely decoction, infusion and pressure methods have been used for coffee brew preparation. Each of these methods is related to specific granulation (coffee grind) of coffee powder, water-coffee ratio temperature and brewing time. Coffee is a mixture of 1500 chemical compounds. Chemical composition of coffee highly depends on brewing methods, coffee bean species and roasting time-temperature. Coffee contains a wide number of very important bioactive compounds, such as diterpenes: cafestol and kahweol, alkaloids: caffeine, theobromine and trigonelline, melanoidins, phenolic compounds. The phenolic compounds of coffee include chlorogenic acids (quinyl esters of hidroxycinnamic acids), caffeic, ferulic, p-coumaric acid. In coffee caffeoylquinic acids, feruloylquinic acids and di-caffeoylquinic acids are three main groups of chlorogenic acids constitues 6% -10% of dry weight of coffee. The bioavailability of chlorogenic acids in coffee depends on the absorption and metabolization to biomarkers in individuals. Also, the interaction of coffee polyphenols with other compounds such as dietary proteins affects the biomarkers. Since bioactive composition of coffee depends on brewing methods effect of coffee brewing method on bioactive compounds of coffee will be discussed in this study.
Keywords: bioactive compounds of coffee, biomarkers, coffee brew, effect of brewingProcedia PDF Downloads 136
2286 Mechanisms of Ginger Bioactive Compounds Extract Using Soxhlet and Accelerated Water Extraction
Authors: M. N. Azian, A. N. Ilia Anisa, Y. Iwai
Abstract:The mechanism for extraction bioactive compounds from plant matrix is essential for optimizing the extraction process. As a benchmark technique, a soxhlet extraction has been utilized for discussing the mechanism and compared with an accelerated water extraction. The trends of both techniques show that the process involves extraction and degradation. The highest yields of 6-, 8-, 10-gingerols and 6-shogaol in soxhlet extraction were 13.948, 7.12, 10.312 and 2.306 mg/g, respectively. The optimum 6-, 8-, 10-gingerols and 6-shogaol extracted by the accelerated water extraction at 140oC were 68.97±3.95 mg/g at 3min, 18.98±3.04 mg/g at 5min, 5.167±2.35 mg/g at 3min and 14.57±6.27 mg/g at 3min, respectively. The effect of temperature at 3mins shows that the concentration of 6-shogaol increased rapidly as decreasing the recovery of 6-gingerol.
Keywords: mechanism, ginger bioactive compounds, soxhlet extraction, accelerated water extractionProcedia PDF Downloads 362
2285 Antihyperglycaemic and Antihyperlipidemic Activities of Pleiogynium timorense Seeds and Identification of Bioactive Compounds
Authors: Ataa A. Said, Elsayed A. Abuotabl, Gehan F. Abdel Raoof, Khaled Y. Mohamed
Abstract:The aim of this study is to evaluate antihyperglycaemic and antihyperlipidemic activities of Pleiogynium timorense (DC.) Leenh (Anacardiaceae) seeds as well as to isolate and identify the bioactive compounds. Antihyperglycaemic effect was evaluated by measuring the effect of two dose levels (150 and 300 mg/kg) of 70% methanol extract of Pleiogynium timorense seeds on blood glucose level when administered 45 minutes before glucose loading. In addition, the effect of the plant extract on the lipid profile was determined by measuring serum total lipids (TL), total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Furthermore, the bioactive compounds were isolated and identified by chromatographic and spectrometric methods.The results showed that the methanolic extract of the seeds significantly reduced the levels of blood glucose,(TL), (TC), (TG) and (LDL-C) but no significant effect on (HDL-C) comparing with control group. Furthermore, four phenolic compound were isolated which were identified as; catechin, gallic acid, para methoxy benzaldehyde and pyrogallol which were isolated for the first time from the plant. In addition sulphur -containing compound (sulpholane) was isolated for the first time from the plant and from the family. To our knowledge, this is the ﬁrst study about antihyperglycaemicand antihyperlipidemic activities of the seeds of Pleiogyniumtimorense and its bioactive compounds. So, the methanolic extract of the seeds of Pleiogynium timorense could be a step towards the development of new antihyperglycaemic and antihyperlipidemic drugs.
Keywords: antihyperglycaemic, bioactive compounds, phenolic, Pleiogynium timorense, seedsProcedia PDF Downloads 145
2284 Quality Evaluation of Bread Enriched with Red Sweet Pepper Powder (Capsicum annuum)
Authors: Ramandeep Kaur, Kamaljit Kaur, Preeti Ahluwalia, Poonam A. Sachdev
Abstract:Bread is an ideal vehicle to impart bioactive compounds to the consumers in a convenient manner. This study evaluated bread enriched with red sweet pepper powder (RSP) at 2, 4, 6, 8, 10% and compared to control bread (without RSP). The bread crumbs were assayed for bioactive, physical, nutritional, textural, color, and sensory properties. Bread supplemented with RSP improved its color, nutritional, and bioactive properties. The low moisture content and increased hardness were observed at higher levels of RSP. Color intensity (expressed as L*, a*, b* values) of bread with 2 and 4% RSP were lower than those of high levels, and the same trend was observed for protein, fibre and ash content of bread. Significant (p < 0.05) increases were recorded for bioactive compounds such as total phenols (0.145 to 235 mg GAE/g), antioxidant activity (56% to 78%) and flavonoids (0.112 to 0.379 mg/g) as the level of powder increased. Bread enriched with 8% RSP showed improved sensory profile as compared to control, whereas a further increase in RSP decreased the sensory and textural properties. Thus, RSP act as a natural colorant and functional food that enhanced the functional and nutritional properties of bread and can be used to customize bread for specific health needs.
Keywords: breads, bioactive compounds, red sweet pepper powder, sensory scoresProcedia PDF Downloads 89
2283 Secondary Metabolite Profiling and Antimicrobial Activity of Leaf Extract of Tecomella undulata (Sm.) Seem
Authors: Richa Bhardwaj
Abstract:Tecomella undulata (Sm.) Seem is a monotypic genus belonging to family Bignoniaceae. The plant holds tremendous potential of medicinal value and has been traditionally used in various ailments like syphilis, leukoderma, blood disorders to name a few. The plant has gained prominence due to the presence of some prominent secondary metabolites. The present study focuses on the GC-MS analysis of leaf extracts of T. undulata which revealed the presence of certain bioactive compounds like stigmasterol, sitosterol, thiazoline, phytol, pthalic acid, methyl alpha ketopalmitate and so forth. A total of about 20 bioactive compounds were identified from the leaf extract spectra. Antimicrobial activity of the leaf extract was assayed against pathogenic bacteria and fungi. The alkaloids from leaf extracts showed antimicrobial activity against E.coli and B.subtilis. The flavonoids from leaves showed positive activity against Penicillium species and Candida albicans. The study thus infers that the presence of bioactive components may be the principle behind the antimicrobial property of different plant parts and therefore Tecomella forms a potential plant for herbal drug formulation.
Keywords: Tecomella undulata, bioactive compounds, GC-MS, antimicrobial activityProcedia PDF Downloads 87
2282 The Effect of Ultrasound Pretreatment on Bioactive Compounds of Freeze-Dried Carrots
Authors: Gulcin Yildiz
Abstract:Although drying is one of the most prevalent techniques applied to enhance food stability, it is a complicated method covering simultaneous coupled heat and mass transfer phenomena and the theoretical application of these phenomena to food products becomes challenging because of the complex structure and to the physical and chemical changes that happen at drying. Pretreatment of materials before drying has been shown to be effective in solving drying problems such as long drying times and poor product quality. The study was conducted to examine the effect of ultrasound (US) pre-treatment on physical and chemical/nutritional attributes of freeze-dried carrot slices. The carrots were washed, hand-peeled, and cut with dimensions of 1 cm (L) x 0.2 (W) cm x 1 cm (H). The carrot samples were treated in an ultrasonic bath in two different times, which were 15 and 30 minutes. Untreated and ultrasound pre-treated carrot samples were dried in a freeze dryer. Freeze-dried samples were analyzed in terms of bioactive compounds, including total phenols, ascorbic acid, and antioxidant capacity. Significant differences were found among dried carrot samples with and without ultrasound. The freeze-dried carrot slices treated with a US (especially 30 minutes - treatment) showed higher preservation of bioactive compounds. In overall, US pretreatment is a promising process, as demonstrated in current research by its capability to better retain freeze-dried carrot quality.
Keywords: bioactive compounds, carrot, freeze drying, ultrasound-pretreatmentProcedia PDF Downloads 60
2281 Phytochemical Composition and Characterization of Bioactive Compounds of the Green Seaweed Ulva lactuca: A Phytotherapeutic Approach
Authors: Mariame Taibi, Marouane Aouiji, Rachid Bengueddour
Abstract:The Moroccan coastline is particularly rich in algae and constitutes a reserve of species with considerable economic, social and ecological potential. This work focuses on the research and characterization of algae bioactive compounds that can be used in pharmacology or phytopathology. The biochemical composition of the green alga Ulva lactuca (Ulvophyceae) was studied by determining the content of moisture, ash, phenols, flavonoids, total tannins, and chlorophyll. Seven solvents: distilled water, methanol, ethyl acetate, chloroform, benzene, petroleum ether, and hexane, were tested for their effectiveness in recovering chemical compounds. The identification of functional groupings, as well as the bioactive chemical compounds, was determined by FT-IR and GC-MS. The moisture content of the alga was 77%, while the ash content was 15%. Phenol content differed from one solvent studied to another, while chlorophyll a, b, and total chlorophyll were determined at 14%, 9.52%, and 25%, respectively. Carotenoid was present in a considerable amount (8.17%). The experimental results show that methanol is the most effective solvent for recovering bioactive compounds, followed by water. Moreover, the green alga Ulva lactuca is characterized by a high level of total polyphenols (45±3.24 mg GAE/gDM), average levels of total tannins and flavonoids (22.52±8.23 mg CE/gDM, 15.49±0.064 mg QE/gDM) respectively. The results of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) confirmed the presence of alcohol/phenol and amide functions in Ulva lactuca. The GC-MS analysis gave precisely the compounds contained in the various extracts, such as phenolic compounds, fatty acids, terpenoids, alcohols, alkanes, hydrocarbons, and steroids. All these results represent only a first step in the search for biologically active natural substances from seaweed. Additional tests are envisaged to confirm the bioactivity of seaweed.
Keywords: algae, Ulva lactuca, phenolic compounds, FTIR, GC-MSProcedia PDF Downloads 47
2280 Effect of Ethanol Concentration and Enzyme Pre-Treatment on Bioactive Compounds from Ginger Extract
Authors: S. Lekhavat, T. Kajsongkram, S. Sang-han
Abstract:Dried ginger was extracted and investigated the effect of ethanol concentration and enzyme pre-treatment on its bioactive compounds in solvent extraction process. Sliced fresh gingers were dried by oven dryer at 70 °C for 24 hours and ground to powder using grinder which their size were controlled by passing through a 20-mesh sieve. In enzyme pre-treatment process, ginger powder was sprayed with 1 % (w/w) cellulase and then was incubated at 45 °C for 2 hours following by extraction process using ethanol at concentration of 0, 20, 40, 60 and 80 % (v/v), respectively. The ratio of ginger powder and ethanol are 1:9 and extracting conditions were controlled at 80 °C for 2 hours. Bioactive compounds extracted from ginger, either enzyme-treated or non enzyme-treated samples, such as total phenolic content (TPC), 6-Gingerol (6 G), 6-Shogaols (6 S) and antioxidant activity (IC50 using DPPH assay), were examined. Regardless of enzyme treatment, the results showed that 60 % ethanol provided the highest TPC (20.36 GAE mg /g. dried ginger), 6G (0.77%), 6S (0.036 %) and the lowest IC50 (625 μg/ml) compared to other ratios of ethanol. Considering the effect of enzyme on bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity, it was found that enzyme-treated sample has more 6G (0.17-0.77 %) and 6S (0.020-0.036 %) than non enzyme-treated samples (0.13-0.77 % 6G, 0.015-0.036 % 6S). However, the results showed that non enzyme-treated extracts provided higher TPC (6.76-20.36 GAE mg /g. dried ginger) and Lowest IC50 (625-1494 μg/ml ) than enzyme-treated extracts (TPC 5.36-17.50 GAE mg /g. dried ginger, IC50 793-2146 μg/ml).
Keywords: antioxidant activity, enzyme, extraction, gingerProcedia PDF Downloads 194
2279 New Evaluation of the Richness of Cactus (Opuntia) in Active Biomolecules and their Use in Agri-Food, Cosmetic, and Pharmaceutical
Authors: Lazhar Zourgui
Abstract:Opuntia species are used as local medicinal interventions for chronic diseases and as food sources, mainly because they possess nutritional properties and biological activities. Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill, commonly known as prickly pear or nopal cactus, is the most economically valuable plant in the Cactaceae family worldwide. It is a tropical or subtropical plant native to tropical and subtropical America, which can grow in arid and semi-arid climates. It belongs to the family of angiosperms dicotyledons Cactaceae of which about 1500 species of cacti are known. The Opuntia plant is distributed throughout the world and has great economic potential. There are differences in the phytochemical composition of Opuntia species between wild and domesticated species and within the same species. It is an interesting source of plant bioactive compounds. Bioactive compounds are compounds with nutritional benefits and are generally classified into phenolic and non-phenolic compounds and pigments. Opuntia species are able to grow in almost all climates, for example, arid, temperate, and tropical climates, and their bioactive compound profiles change depending on the species, cultivar, and climatic conditions. Therefore, there is an opportunity for the discovery of new compounds from different Opuntia cultivars. Health benefits of prickly pear are widely demonstrated: There is ample evidence of the health benefits of consuming prickly pear due to its source of nutrients and vitamins and its antioxidant properties due to its content of bioactive compounds. In addition, prickly pear is used in the treatment of hyperglycemia and high cholesterol levels, and its consumption is linked to a lower incidence of coronary heart disease and certain types of cancer. It may be effective in insulin-independent type 2 diabetes mellitus. Opuntia ficus-Indica seed oil has shown potent antioxidant and prophylactic effects. Industrial applications of these bioactive compounds are increasing. In addition to their application in the pharmaceutical industries, bioactive compounds are used in the food industry for the production of nutraceuticals and new food formulations (juices, drinks, jams, sweeteners). In my lecture, I will review in a comprehensive way the phytochemical, nutritional, and bioactive compound composition of the different aerial and underground parts of Opuntia species. The biological activities and applications of Opuntia compounds are also discussed.
Keywords: medicinal plants, cactus, Opuntia, actives biomolecules, biological activitiesProcedia PDF Downloads 9
2278 Effect of Roasting Treatment on Milling Quality, Physicochemical, and Bioactive Compounds of Dough Stage Rice Grains
Authors: Chularat Leewuttanakul, Khanitta Ruttarattanamongkol, Sasivimon Chittrakorn
Abstract:Rice during grain development stage is a rich source of many bioactive compounds. Dough stage rice contains high amounts of photochemical and can be used for rice milling industries. However, rice grain at dough stage had low milling quality due to high moisture content. Thermal processing can be applied to rice grain for improving milled rice yield. This experiment was conducted to study the chemical and physic properties of dough stage rice grain after roasting treatment. Rice were roasted with two different methods including traditional pan roasting at 140 °C for 60 minutes and using the electrical roasting machine at 140 °C for 30, 40, and 50 minutes. The chemical, physical properties, and bioactive compounds of brown rice and milled rice were evaluated. The result of this experiment showed that moisture content of brown and milled rice was less than 10 % and amylose contents were in the range of 26-28 %. Rice grains roasting for 30 min using electrical roasting machine had high head rice yield and length and breadth of grain after milling were close to traditional pan roasting (p > 0.05). The lightness (L*) of rice did not affect by roasting treatment (p > 0.05) and the a* indicated the yellowness of milled rice was lower than brown rice. The bioactive compounds of brown and milled rice significantly decreased with increasing of drying time. Brown rice roasted for 30 minutes had the highest of total phenolic content, antioxidant activity, α-tocopherol, and ɤ-oryzanol content. Volume expansion and elongation of cooked rice decreased as roasting time increased and quality of cooked rice roasted for 30 min was comparable to traditional pan roasting. Hardness of cooked rice as measured by texture analyzer increased with increasing roasting time. The results indicated that rice grains at dough stage, containing a high amount of bioactive compounds, have a great potential for rice milling industries and the electrical roasting machine can be used as an alternative to pan roasting which decreases processing time and labor costs.
Keywords: bioactive compounds, cooked rice, dough stage rice grain, grain development, roastingProcedia PDF Downloads 106
2277 GC-MS Analysis of Bioactive Compounds in the Ethanolic Extract of Nest Material of Mud Wasp, Sceliphron caementarium
Authors: P. Susheela, Mary Rosaline, R. Radha
Abstract:This research was designed to determine the bioactive compounds present in the nest samples of the mud dauber wasp, Sceliophron caementarium. Insects and insect-based products have been used for the treatment of various ailments from a very long time. It has been found that all over the world including the western societies and the indigenous populations, the usage of insect-based medicine plays an important role in various healing practices and magic rituals. Studies on the therapeutic usage of insects are negligible when compared to plants, the. In the present scenario, it is important to explore bioactive compounds from natural sources rather than depending on synthetic drugs that have adverse effects on human body. Keeping this in view, an attempt was made to analyze and identify bioactive components from the nest sample of the mud dauber wasp, Sceliophron caementarium. The nests of the mud dauber wasp, Sceliophron caementarium were collected from Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India. The nest sample was extracted with ethanol for 6-8 hours using Soxhlet apparatus. The final residue was obtained by filtering the extract through Whatman filter paper No.41. The GCMS analysis of the nest sample was performed using Perkin Elmer Elite - 5 capillary column. The resultant compounds were compared with the database of National Institute Standard and Technology (NIST), WILEY8, FAME. The GC-MS analysis of the concentrated ethanol extract revealed the presence of eight constituents like Methylene chloride, Eicosanoic acid, 1, 1’:3’, 1’’-Terphenyl, 5'-Phenyl, Di-N-Decylsulfone, 1, 2-Bis (Trimethylsilyl) Benzene, Androstane-11, 17-Dione, 3-[(Trimethylsilyl) Oxy]-, 17-[O-(Phenylmethyl) O. Most of the identified compounds were reported as having biological activities viz. anti-inflammatory, antibacterial and antifungal properties that can be of pharmaceutical importance and further study of these isolated compounds may prove their medicinal importance in future.
Keywords: Sceliophron caementarium, Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, ethanol extract, bioactive compoundsProcedia PDF Downloads 223
2276 Identification of Phenolic Compounds with Antibacterial Activity in Raisin Extract
Authors: Yousef M. Abouzeed A. Elfahem, F. Zgheel, M. A. Saad, Mohamed O. Ahmed
Abstract:The bioactive properties of phytochemicals indicate their potential as natural drug products to prevent and treat human disease; in particular, compounds with antioxidant and antimicrobial activities may represent a novel class of safe and effective drugs. Following desiccation, grapes (Vitis vinifera) become more resistant to microbial-based degradation, suggesting that raisins may be a source of antimicrobial compounds. To investigate this hypothesis, total phenolic extracts were obtained from common raisins, local market-sourced. The acetone extract was tested for antibacterial activity against four prevalent bacterial pathogens (Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli). Antibiotic sensitivity and the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) were determined for each bacterium. High performance liquid chromatography was used to identify compounds in the total phenolic extract. The raisin phenolic extract inhibited growth of all the tested bacteria; the greatest inhibitive effect (normalized to cefotaxime sodium control antibiotic) occurred against P. aeruginosa, followed by S. aureus > Salmonella spp.= E. coli. The phenolic extracts contained the bioactive compounds catechin, quercetin, and rutin. Thus, phytochemicals in raisin extract have antibacterial properties; this plant-based extract, or its bioactive constituents, may represent a promising natural preservative or antimicrobial agent for the food industry or anti-infective drug.
Keywords: Vitis vinifera raisin, extraction, phenolic compounds, antibacterial activityProcedia PDF Downloads 539
2275 Comparison of Bioactive Compound Content in Egg Yolk Oil Extracted from Eggs Obtained from Different Laying Hen Housing Systems
Authors: Aleksandrs Kovalcuks
Abstract:Egg yolk oil is a natural source of bioactive compounds such as unsaturated fatty acids, oil soluble vitamins, pigments and others. Bioactive compound content in egg yolk oil depends from its content in eggs, from which oil was extracted. Many studies show that bioactive compound content in egg is correlated to the content of these compounds in hen feed, but there is also an opinion that hen housing systems also have influence on egg chemical content. The aim of this study was to determine which factor, laying hen housing system or hen diet, has a primary influence on bioactive compound content in egg yolk oil. The egg yolk oil was extracted from eggs obtained from 4 different hen housing systems: cage, barn and two groups of free range. All hens were fed with commercially produced compound feed except one group of free range hens which get free diet – pastured hens. Extracted egg yolk oils were analyzed for fatty acids, oil soluble vitamins and β-carotene content. α-tocopherol, ergocalcipherol and polyunsaturated fatty acid content in egg yolk oil was higher from eggs obtained from all housing systems where hens were fed with commercial compound feed. β-carotene and retinol content in egg yolk oils from free range free diet eggs was significantly (p>0.05) higher that from other eggs because hens have access to green forage. Hen physical activity in free range housing systems decreases content of some bioactive compound in egg yolk oil.
Keywords: egg yolk oil, vitamins, caged eggs, free rangeProcedia PDF Downloads 396
2274 Enhancement of Biomass and Bioactive Compounds in Kale Subjected to UV-A LED Lights
Authors: Jin-Hui Lee, Myung-Min Oh
Abstract:The application of temporary abiotic stresses before crop harvest is a potential strategy to enhance phytochemical content. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of various UV-A LED lights on the growth and content of bioactive compounds in kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala). Fourteen-day-old kale seedlings were cultivated in a plant factory with artificial lighting (air temperature of 20℃, relative humidity of 60%, photosynthesis photon flux density (PPFD) of 125 µmol·m⁻²·s⁻¹) for 3 weeks. Kale plants were irradiated by four types of UV-A LEDs (peak wavelength; 365, 375, 385, and 395 nm) with 30 W/m² for 7 days. As a result, image chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv/Fm) value of kale leaves was lower as the UV-A LEDs peak wavelength was shorter. Fresh and dry weights of shoots and roots of kale plants were significantly higher in the plants under UV-A than the control at 7 days of treatment. In particular, the growth was significantly increased with a longer peak wavelength of the UV-A LEDs. The results of leaf area and specific leaf weight showed a similar pattern with those of growth characteristics. Chlorophyll content was highest in kale leaves subjected to UV-A LEDs with the peak wavelength of 395 nm at 3 days of treatment compared with the control. Total phenolic contents of UV-A LEDs with the peak wavelength of 395 nm at 5 and 6 days of treatment were 44% and 47% higher than those of the control, respectively. Antioxidant capacity showed almost the same pattern as the results of total phenol content. The activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase was approximately 11% and 8% higher in the UV-A LEDs with the peak wavelength of 395 nm compared to the control at 5 and 6 days of treatment, respectively. Our results imply that the UV-A LEDs with relative longer peak wavelength were effective to improve growth as well as the content of bioactive compounds of kale plants.
Keywords: bioactive compounds, growth, Kale, UV-A LEDsProcedia PDF Downloads 81
2273 Antibiotic Potential of Bioactive Compounds from a Marine Streptomyces Isolated from South Pacific Sediments
Authors: Ilaisa Kacivakanadina, Samson Viulu, Brad Carte, Katy Soapi
Abstract:Two bioactive compounds namely Vulgamycin (also known as enterocin A) and 5-deoxyenterocin were purified from a marine bacterial strain 1903. Strain 1903 was isolated from marine sediments collected from the Solomon Islands. Morphological features of strain 1903 showed that it belongs to the genus Streptomyces. The two secondary metabolites were extracted using EtOAc and purified by chromatographic methods using EtOAc and hexane solvents. Mass spectrum and NMR data of pure compounds were used to elucidate the chemical structures. In this study, results showed that both compounds were strongly active against Wild Type Staphylococcus aureus (WTSA) (MIC < 1 µg/mL) and in Brine shrimp assays (BSA) (MIC < 1 µg/mL). 5-deoxyenterocin was also active against Rifamycin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (RRSA) (MIC, 250 µg/mL) while vulgamycin showed bioactivity against Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) (MIC 250 µg/mL). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that showed the bio-activity of 5-deoxyenterocin. This is also the first time that Vulgamycin has been reported to be active in a BSA. There has not been any mechanism of action studies for these two compounds against pathogens. This warrants further studies on their mechanism of action against microbial pathogens.
Keywords: 5-deoxyenterocin, bioactivity, brine shrimp assay (BSA), vulgamycinProcedia PDF Downloads 126
2272 Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Bioactive Compounds Derived from Thunbergia laurifolia Aqueous Leave Extract
Authors: Marasri Junsi, Sunisa Siripongvutikorn, Chutha Takahashi Yupanqui, Worrapong Usawakesmanee
Abstract:Thunbergia laurifolia has been used for folklore medicine purposes and consumed in the form of herbal tea in Thailand since ancient times. To evaluate the bioactive compounds of aqueous leave extract possessed antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. The antioxidant activities were examined by total extractable phenolic content (TPC), total extractable flavonoid content (TFC), ABTS radical scavenging, DPPH radical scavenging, FRAP reducing antioxidant power expressed as mg of gallic acid trolox and caffeic acid for the equivalents. Results indicated that the extract had high TPC and antioxidant activities. In addition, the HPLC-DAD analysis of phenolics and flavonoids indicated the presence of caffeic acid and rutin as bioactive compounds. Exposure of cells with the extract using nitric oxide (NO) production in RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cell line induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was significantly reduced NO production and increased cell proliferation. The obtained results demonstrated that the extract contains a high potential to be used as anti-inflammatory and antioxidant substances.
Keywords: Thunbergia laurifolia, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant activities, RAW264.7Procedia PDF Downloads 242
2271 Distribution of Phospholipids, Cholesterol and Carotenoids in Two-Solvent System during Egg Yolk Oil Solvent Extraction
Authors: Aleksandrs Kovalcuks, Mara Duma
Abstract:Egg yolk oil is a concentrated source of egg bioactive compounds, such as fat-soluble vitamins, phospholipids, cholesterol, carotenoids and others. To extract lipids and other fat-soluble nutrients from liquid egg yolk, a two-step extraction process involving polar (ethanol) and non-polar (hexane) solvents were used. This extraction technique was based on egg yolk bioactive compounds polarities, where non-polar compound was extracted into non-polar hexane, but polar in to polar alcohol/water phase. But many egg yolk bioactive compounds are not strongly polar or non-polar. Egg yolk phospholipids, cholesterol and pigments are amphipatic (have both polar and non-polar regions) and their behavior in ethanol/hexane solvent system is not clear. The aim of this study was to clarify the behavior of phospholipids, cholesterol and carotenoids during extraction of egg yolk oil with ethanol and hexane and determine the loss of these compounds in egg yolk oil. Egg yolks and egg yolk oil were analyzed for phospholipids (phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE)), cholesterol and carotenoids (lutein, zeaxanthin, canthaxanthin and β-carotene) content using GC-FID and HPLC methods. PC and PE are polar lipids and were extracted into polar ethanol phase. Concentration of PC in ethanol was 97.89% and PE 99.81% from total egg yolk phospholipids. Due to cholesterol’s partial extraction into ethanol, cholesterol content in egg yolk oil was reduced in comparison to its total content presented in egg yolk lipids. The highest amount of lutein and zeaxanthin was concentrated in ethanol extract. The opposite situation was observed with canthaxanthin and β-carotene, which became the main pigments of egg yolk oil.
Keywords: cholesterol, egg yolk oil, lutein, phospholipids, solvent extractionProcedia PDF Downloads 441
2270 The Collagen and Glycosaminoglycnas Isolated from Salmo Salar Skin
Authors: Beata Kaczmarek-Szczepańska, Lidia Zasada
Abstract:Marine collagens such as fish skin, bone, cartilage, and scales, including both marine vertebrates and invertebrates sources, are more bioavailable compared to bovine or porcine collagen and have a higher absorption capability and more rapid bloodstream circulation due to their low molecular weight and small particle size. Fish skin may be used as a source of bioactive compounds. The advantage is that fish skin is a by-product of the food industry. The subject of the study is a lyophilizate consisting of a mixture of compounds from the group of glycosaminoglycans and collagen obtained as a result of processing fish skins. Bioactive compounds may find biomedical use in the production of dressing materials for wounds or in tissue engineering for the production of scaffolds for cells. Collagen and glycosaminoglycans were isolated from Salmo salar skin. The final mixture was obtained by the freeze-drying method. In the obtained lyophilizate, the content of amino acids was studied as well as the presence of polysaccharides. The studies showed the presence of glycine, proline, and hydroxyproline, which are the main amino acids of collagen. The HPLC analysis showed the presence of glucose which is a product of polysaccharides hydrolyzation and then reduction of glucuronic acid. It may be assumed that the lyophilizate contains both collagen and polysaccharide, which is probably hyaluronic acid. Acknowledgment: This work was carried out as a result of research project no. TANGO-V-A/0020/2021 financed by the National Centre for Research and Development.
Keywords: collagen, glycosaminoglycans, bioactive compounds, fish skinProcedia PDF Downloads 51
2269 Quantitative Analysis of the High-Value Bioactive Components of Pre-Germinated and Germinated Pigmented Rice (Oryza sativa L. Cv. Superjami and Superhongmi)
Authors: Lara Marie Pangan Lo, Soo Im Chung, Yao Cheng Zhang, Xingyue Jin, Mi Young Kang
Abstract:Being the world’s most consumed grain crop, rice (Oryza sativa L.) demands’ have increase and this prompted the development of new rice cultivars with high bio-functional properties than the commonly used white rice. Ordinary rice variety is already known to be a potential source for a number of nutritional as well as bioactive compounds. To further enhance the rice’s nutritive values, germination is done in addition to making it more tasty and palatable when cooked. Pigmented rice, on the other hand, has become increasingly popular in the recent years for their greater antioxidant potential and other nutraceutical properties which can help alleviate the occurrence of the increasing incidence of metabolic diseases. Combining these two (2) parameters, this research study is sought to quantitatively determine the pre-germinated and germinated quantities of the major bioactive compounds of South Korea’s newly developed purplish pigmented rice grain cultivar Superjami (SJ) and red pigmented rice grain Superhongmi (SH) and compare them against the non-pigmented Normal Brown (NB) rice variety. Powdered rice grain cultivars were subjected to 72-hour germination period and the quantities of GABA, γ-oryzanol, ferulic acid, tocopherol and tocotrienol homologues were compared against their pre-germinated condition using γ- amino butyric acid (GABA) analysis and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Results revealed the effectiveness of germination in enhancing the bioactive components in all rice samples. GABA contents in germinated rice cultivars increased by more than 10-fold following the order: SJ >SH >NB. In addition, purple rice variety (SJ) has higher total γ-oryzanol and ferulic acid contents which increased by > 2-fold after germination followed by the red cultivar SH then the control, NB. Germinated varieties also possess higher total tocotrienol content than their pre-germinated state. As for the total tocopherol content, SJ has higher quantity, but the red-pigmented SH (0.16 mg/kg) is shown to have lower total tocopherol content than the control rice NB (0.86 mg/kg). However, all tocopherol and tocotrienol homologues were present only in small amounts ( < 3.0 mg/kg) in all pre-germinated and germinated samples. In general, all of the analyzed pigmented rice cultivars were found to possess higher bioactive compounds than the control NB rice variety. Also, regardless of their strain, germinated rice samples have higher bioactive compounds than their pre-germinated counterparts. This only shows the effectiveness of germinating rice in enhancing bioactive constituents. Overall, these results suggest the potential of the pigmented rice varieties as natural source of nutraceuticals in bio-functional food development.
Keywords: bioactive compounds, germinated rice, superhongmi, superjamiProcedia PDF Downloads 327
2268 Isolation and Identification of Cytotoxic Compounds from Fruticose Lichen Roccella montagnei, and It’s in Silico Docking Study against CDK-10
Authors: Tripti Mishra, Shipra Shukla, Sanjeev Meena, , Ruchi Singh, Mahesh Pal, D. K. Upreti, Dipak Datta
Abstract:Roccella montagnei belongs to lichen family Roccelleceae growing luxuriantly along the coastal regions of India. As Roccella has been shown to be bioactive, we prepared methanolic extract and assessed its anticancer potential. The methanolic extract showed significant in vitro cytotoxic activity against four human cancer cell lines such as Colon (DLD-1, SW-620), Breast (MCF-7), Head and Neck (FaDu). This prompted us to isolate bioactive compounds through column chromatography. Two compounds Roccellic acid and Everninic acid have been isolated, out of which Everninic acid is reported for the first time. Both the compounds have been tested for in vitro cytotoxic activity in which Roccellic acid showed strong anticancer activity as compared to the Everninic acid. CDK-10 (Cyclin-dependent kinase) contributes to proliferation of cancer cells, and aberrant activity of these kinases has been reported in a wide variety of human cancers. These kinases, therefore, constitute biomarkers of proliferation and attractive pharmacological targets for the development of anticancer therapeutics. Therefore both the isolated compounds were tested for in silico molecular docking study against CDK-10 isomer enzyme to support the cytotoxic activity.
Keywords: cytotoxic activity, everninic acid, roccellic acid, R. montagneiProcedia PDF Downloads 244
2267 Extraction of Nutraceutical Bioactive Compounds from the Native Algae Using Solvents with a Deep Natural Eutectic Point and Ultrasonic-assisted Extraction
Authors: Seyedeh Bahar Hashemi, Alireza Rahimi, Mehdi Arjmand
Abstract:Food is the source of energy and growth through the breakdown of its vital components and plays a vital role in human health and nutrition. Many natural compounds found in plant and animal materials play a special role in biological systems and the origin of many such compounds directly or indirectly is algae. Algae is an enormous source of polysaccharides and have gained much interest in human flourishing. In this study, algae biomass extraction is conducted using deep eutectic-based solvents (NADES) and Ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE). The aim of this research is to extract bioactive compounds including total carotenoid, antioxidant activity, and polyphenolic contents. For this purpose, the influence of three important extraction parameters namely, biomass-to-solvent ratio, temperature, and time are studied with respect to their impact on the recovery of carotenoids, and phenolics, and on the extracts’ antioxidant activity. Here we employ the Response Surface Methodology for the process optimization. The influence of the independent parameters on each dependent is determined through Analysis of Variance. Our results show that Ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) for 50 min is the best extraction condition, and proline:lactic acid (1:1) and choline chloride:urea (1:2) extracts show the highest total phenolic contents (50.00 ± 0.70 mgGAE/gdw) and antioxidant activity [60.00 ± 1.70 mgTE/gdw, 70.00 ± 0.90 mgTE/gdw in 2.2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), and 2.2′-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS)]. Our results confirm that the combination of UAE and NADES provides an excellent alternative to organic solvents for sustainable and green extraction and has huge potential for use in industrial applications involving the extraction of bioactive compounds from algae. This study is among the first attempts to optimize the effects of ultrasonic-assisted extraction, ultrasonic devices, and deep natural eutectic point and investigate their application in bioactive compounds extraction from algae. We also study the future perspective of ultrasound technology which helps to understand the complex mechanism of ultrasonic-assisted extraction and further guide its application in algae.
Keywords: natural deep eutectic solvents, ultrasound-assisted extraction, algae, antioxidant activity, phenolic compounds, carotenoidsProcedia PDF Downloads 46
2266 Recovery and Εncapsulation of Μarine Derived Antifouling Agents
Authors: Marina Stramarkou, Sofia Papadaki, Maria Kaloupi, Ioannis Batzakas
Abstract:Biofouling is a complex problem of the aquaculture industry, as it reduces the efficiency of the equipment and causes significant losses of cultured organisms. Nowadays, the current antifouling methods are proved to be labor intensive, have limited lifetime and use toxic substances that result in fish mortality. Several species of marine algae produce a wide variety of biogenic compounds with antibacterial and antifouling properties, which are effective in the prevention and control of biofouling and can be incorporated in antifouling coatings. In the present work, Fucus spiralis, a species of macro algae, and Chlorella vulgaris, a well-known species of microalgae, were used for the isolation and recovery of bioactive compounds, belonging to groups of fatty acids, lipopeptides and amides. The recovery of the compounds was achieved through the application of the ultrasound- assisted extraction, an environmentally friendly method, using green, non-toxic solvents. Moreover, the coating of the antifouling agents was done by innovative encapsulation and coating methods, such as electro-hydrodynamic process. For the encapsulation of the bioactive compounds natural matrices were used, such as polysaccharides and proteins. Water extracts that were incorporated in protein matrices were considered the most efficient antifouling coating.
Keywords: algae, electrospinning, fatty acids, ultrasound-assisted extractionProcedia PDF Downloads 282
2265 Antimicrobial Activity of Sour Cherry Pomace
Authors: Sonja Djilas, Aleksandra Velićanski, Dragoljub Cvetković, Siniša Markov, Eva Lončar, Vesna Tumbas Šaponjac, Milica Vinčić
Abstract:Due to high content of bioactive compounds, sour cherry possesses antioxidant and antimicrobial activity. Additionally, waste material from industrial processing of sour cherry is also a good source of bioactive compounds. The aim of this study was to screen the antimicrobial activity and determine the minimal inhibitory (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBC) of sour cherry pomace extract. Tested strains were Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Salmonella typhimurium ATCC 14028 and wild isolates Escherichia coli and Salmonella sp.), Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 11632, Bacillus cereus ATCC 10876 and wild isolates Staphylococcus saprophyticus and Bacillus sp.) and yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae 112, Hefebank Weihenstephan and Candida albicans ATCC 10231). Antimicrobial activity was tested by disc-diffusion method and agar-well diffusion method. MIC and MBC were determined by microdilution method. Screening tests showed that Gram-negative bacteria were resistant to tested extract, with exception of Salmonella typhimurium and Salmonella sp. for which only zones of reduced growth appeared. However, Gram-positive bacteria were more sensitive where the highest clear zones appeared with 100 µl of extract applied. There was no activity against tested yeasts. MIC and MBC values were in the range 3.125-37.5 mg/ml and 6.25-100 mg/ml, respectively. The most susceptible strain was Staphylococcus aureus while the most resistant was Bacillus sp. where MBC was not found in tested concentration range. Sour cherry pomace possesses high antibacterial potential, which indicates that this waste material is a promising source of bioactive compounds and could be used as a functional food ingredient.
Keywords: antimicrobial activity, sour cherry, pomace, bioactive compoundsProcedia PDF Downloads 273
2264 Management Prospects of Winery By-Products Based on Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Grape Skins: The Case of Greek Ionian Islands
Authors: Marinos Xagoraris, Iliada K. Lappa, Charalambos Kanakis, Dimitra Daferera, Christina Papadopoulou, Georgios Sourounis, Charilaos Giotis, Pavlos Bouchagier, Christos S. Pappas, Petros A. Tarantilis, Efstathia Skotti
Abstract:The aim of this work was to recover phenolic compounds from grape skins produced in Greek varieties of the Ionian Islands in order to form the basis of calculations for their further utilization in the context of the circular economy. Isolation and further utilization of phenolic compounds is an important issue in winery by-products. For this purpose, 37 samples were collected, extracted, and analyzed in an attempt to provide the appropriate basis for their sustainable exploitation. Extraction of the bioactive compounds was held using an eco-friendly, non-toxic, and highly effective water-glycerol solvent system. Then, extracts were analyzed using UV-Vis, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), FTIR, and Raman spectroscopy. Also, total phenolic content and antioxidant activity were measured. LC-MS chromatography showed qualitative differences between different varieties. Peaks were attributed to monomeric 3-flavanols as well as monomeric, dimeric, and trimeric proanthocyanidins. The FT-IR and Raman spectra agreed with the chromatographic data and contributed to identifying phenolic compounds. Grape skins exhibited high total phenolic content (TPC), and it was proved that during vinification, a large number of polyphenols remained in the pomace. This study confirmed that grape skins from Ionian Islands are a promising source of bioactive compounds, suggesting their utilization under a bio-economic and environmental strategic framework.
Keywords: antioxidant activity, grape skin, phenolic compounds, waste recoveryProcedia PDF Downloads 74
2263 Study of Chemical Compounds of Garlic
Authors: A. B. Bazaralieva, A. A. Turgumbayeva
Abstract:The phytosubstance from garlic was obtained by extraction with liquid carbon dioxide under critical conditions. Methods of processing raw materials are proposed, and the chemical composition of garlic is studied by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The garlic extract's composition was determined using gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometry (GC-MS). The phytosubstance had 54 constituents. The extract included the following main compounds: Manool (39.56%), Viridifrolol (7%), Podocarpa-1,8,11,13-tetraen-3-one, 14-isopropyl-1,13-dimethoxy- 5,15 percent, (+)-2-Bornanone (4.29%), Thujone (3.49%), Linolic acid ethyl ester (3.41%), and 12-O-Methylcarn.
Keywords: Allium sativum, bioactive compounds of garlic, carbon dioxide extraction of garlic, GS-MS methodProcedia PDF Downloads 31
2262 Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity of Instant Fruit Green Tea Powders
Authors: Akanit Pisalwadcharin, Komate Satayawut, Virachnee Lohachoompol
Abstract:Green tea, mangosteen and pomegranate contain high levels of bioactive compounds which have antioxidant effects and great potential in food applications. The aim of this study was to produce and determine catechin contents, total phenolic contents, antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds of two instant fruit green tea powders which were green tea fortified with mangosteen juice and green tea fortified with pomegranate juice. Seventy percent of hot water extract of green tea was mixed with 30% of mangosteen juice or pomegranate juice, and then spray-dried using a spray dryer. The results showed that the drying conditions optimized for the highest total phenolic contents, catechin contents and antioxidant activity of both powders were the inlet air temperature of 170°C, outlet air temperatures of 90°C and maltodextrin concentration of 30%. The instant green tea with mangosteen powder had total phenolic contents, catechin contents and antioxidant activity of 19.18 (mg gallic acid/kg), 85.44 (mg/kg) and 4,334 (µmoles TE/100 g), respectively. The instant green tea with pomegranate powder had total phenolic contents, catechin contents and antioxidant activity of 32.72 (mg gallic acid/kg), 156.36 (mg/kg) and 6,283 (µmoles TE/100 g), respectively. The phenolic compounds in instant green tea with mangosteen powder comprised of tannic acid (2,156.87 mg/kg), epigallocatechin-3-gallate (898.23 mg/kg) and rutin (13.74 mg/kg). Also, the phenolic compounds in instant green tea with pomegranate powder comprised of tannic acid (2,275.82 mg/kg), epigallocatechin-3-gallate (981.23 mg/kg), rutin (14.97 mg/kg) and i-quercetin (5.86 mg/kg).
Keywords: green tea, mangosteen, pomegranate, antioxidant activityProcedia PDF Downloads 296
2261 In vitro Bioacessibility of Phenolic Compounds from Fruit Spray Dried and Lyophilized Powder
Authors: Carolina Beres, Laurine Da Silva, Danielle Pereira, Ana Ribeiro, Renata Tonon, Caroline Mellinger-Silva, Karina Dos Santos, Flavia Gomes, Lourdes Cabral
Abstract:The health benefits of bioactive compounds such as phenolics are well known. The main source of these compounds are fruits and derivates. This study had the objective to study the bioacessibility of phenolic compounds from grape pomace and juçara dried extracts. For this purpose both characterized extracts were submitted to a simulated human digestion and the total phenolic content, total anthocyanins and antioxidant scavenging capacity was determinate in digestive fractions (oral, gastric, intestinal and colonic). Juçara had a higher anthocianins bioacessibility (17.16%) when compared to grape pomace (2.08%). The opposite result was found for total phenolic compound, where the higher bioacessibility was for grape (400%). The phenolic compound increase indicates a more accessible compound in the human gut. The lyophilized process had a beneficial impact in the final accessibility of the phenolic compounds being a more promising technique.
Keywords: bioacessibility, phenolic compounds, grape, juçaraProcedia PDF Downloads 143
2260 Bioprospecting of Marine Actinobacteria: The Leading Way for Industrially Important Enzymes and Bioactive Natural Products
Authors: Ramesh Subramani, Mathivanan Narayanasamy, William Aalbersberg
Abstract:It is well accepted by last 35 years of research and on-going programmes that marine environment harbours abundant and unique biodiversity, which is currently playing as an important source in bioprospecting. It has become apparent that marine microorganisms are lead in the biodiscovery. Among marine organisms, actinobacteria are a target phylum for discovering novel antibiotics against increasing the multi-drug resistant human pathogens because of these taxa representing for novel genera and species. Marine actinomycetes are a proven source of new antibiotic leads and novel enzymes with important industrial applications. A total of 183 streptomycete and 25 non-streptomycete strains were isolated from different marine samples collected from north-eastern part of the Indian Ocean. Among them, 111 isolates displayed antibacterial activity against human pathogens and 151 exhibited antifungal activity against phytopathogens. Importantly, most of them produced various extracellular enzymes and 58 of them produced exopolysaccharides. Totally eight small bioactive compounds and a thermostable alkaline protease have been purified from a selected strain, Streptomyces fungicidicus. Besides, our on-going studies on non-streptomycete strains (rare actinomycetes) are most likely promising resource for new and unique compounds against current emerging drug-resistant pathogens. We have just recognised the chemical diversity in marine microorganisms. Therefore it is worthwhile to continue the exploration of marine microorganisms for new drug leads, novel enzymes and other bioprospecting research.
Keywords: bioactive compounds, industrial enzymes, marine actinobacteria, microbial metabolites, marine natural productsProcedia PDF Downloads 218