Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 83

Search results for: SNPs

83 Performance of High Density Genotyping in Sahiwal Cattle Breed

Authors: Hamid Mustafa, Huson J. Heather, Kim Eiusoo, Adeela Ajmal, Tad S. Sonstegard


The objective of this study was to evaluate the informativeness of Bovine high density SNPs genotyping in Sahiwal cattle population. This is a first attempt to assess the Bovine HD SNP genotyping array in any Pakistani indigenous cattle population. To evaluate these SNPs on genome wide scale, we considered 777,962 SNPs spanning the whole autosomal and X chromosomes in Sahiwal cattle population. Fifteen (15) non related gDNA samples were genotyped with the bovine HD infinium. Approximately 500,939 SNPs were found polymorphic (MAF > 0.05) in Sahiwal cattle population. The results of this study indicate potential application of Bovine High Density SNP genotyping in Pakistani indigenous cattle population. The information generated from this array can be applied in genetic prediction, characterization and genome wide association studies of Pakistani Sahiwal cattle population.

Keywords: Sahiwal cattle, polymorphic SNPs, genotyping, Pakistan

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82 Genetic Polymorphisms of the Human Organic Cation Transporter 2 gene, SLC22A2, in the Zulu population

Authors: N. Hoosain, S. Nene, B. Pearce, C. Jacobs, M. Du Plessis, M. Benjeddou


Organic Cation Transporters play a vital role in the absorption, tissue distribution and elimination of various substrates. Numerous studies have suggested that variations in non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of SLC22A2 could influence an individual’s response to various treatments, including clinically important drugs. This study is the first to determine the baseline frequency distribution for twenty SNPs of SLC22A2in the Zulu population. DNA was collected from 101 unrelated “healthy” Zulu participants. Genotypes of all samples were determined using a multiplex PCR and SNaPshot assay followed by the generation of the haplotype structure. This is the first time that the baseline frequency distribution of SNPs is reported for the Zulu population. Data from this study could be used in in vitro and in vivo pharmacogenetic and pharmacokinetic studies to evaluate the potential role the studied SNPs play in the therapeutic efficacy of clinically important drugs.

Keywords: SLC22A2 gene, SNaPshot assay, PCR, Zulu population

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81 Computational Analyses of Persian Walnut Genetic Data: Notes on Genetic Diversity and Cultivar Phylogeny

Authors: Masoud Sheidaei, Melica Tabasi, Fahimeh Koohdar, Mona Sheidaei


Juglans regia L. is an economically important species of edible nuts. Iran is known as a center of origin of genetically rich walnut germplasm and expected to be found a large diversity within Iranian walnut populations. A detailed population genetic of local populations is useful for developing an optimal strategy for in situ conservation and can assist the breeders in crop improvement programs. Different phylogenetic studies have been carried out in this genus, but none has been concerned with genetic changes associated with geographical divergence and the identification of adaptive SNPs. Therefore, we carried out the present study to identify discriminating ITS nucleotides among Juglans species and also reveal association between ITS SNPs and geographical variables. We used different computations approaches like DAPC, CCA, and RDA analyses for the above-mentioned tasks. We also performed population genetics analyses for population effective size changes associated with the species expansion. The results obtained suggest that latitudinal distribution has a more profound effect on the species genetic changes. Similarly, multiple analytical approaches utilized for the identification of both discriminating DNA nucleotides/ SNPs almost produced congruent results. The SNPs with different phylogenetic importance were also identified by using a parsimony approach.

Keywords: Persian walnut, adaptive SNPs, data analyses, genetic diversity

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80 Effects of the SNPS on rs855791 and rs3811647 on the Levels of SF and sTFR in the Group of 8-14

Authors: Piao Wei, Sun Jing, Huang Jian, Wang Lijuan, Tang Yanbin, Li Jin, Huo Junsheng


Objective: To investigate effects on the levels of SF and sTfR by the SNPs of rs855791on TMPRSS6 and rs3811647 on TF in adolescent. Methods: DNA was extracted from venous blood which were drawn from 50 subjects, and then the two SNPs of each sample were identified by Sequenom MassArray. T test and chi-square test were selected to identify the relationship between the levels of SF and sTfR in each allele carriers, and then the effects of each SNP on the levels of SF and sTfR would be assessed. Results: The level of SF of A allele carriers on rs855791 (54±28.2 ng/ml) was higher than GG carriers (33.1±20.2 ng/ml) (P<0.05), and the discrimination of the level of sTfR between each allele carrier was not observed (P>0.05); the discriminations of the different levels of SF and sTfR among each SNP on rs3811647 were not observed (P>0.05). Conclusions: The level of SF may be affected by the SNP of rs855791on TMPRSS6, and the effect of rs3811647 on TF may be weakened by the former one.

Keywords: SNP, SF, sTfR, adolescent

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79 Genetic Diversity and Discovery of Unique SNPs in Five Country Cultivars of Sesamum indicum by Next-Generation Sequencing

Authors: Nam-Kuk Kim, Jin Kim, Soomin Park, Changhee Lee, Mijin Chu, Seong-Hun Lee


In this study, we conducted whole genome re-sequencing of 10 cultivars originated from five countries including Korea, China, India, Pakistan and Ethiopia with Sesamum indicum (Zhongzho No. 13) genome as a reference. Almost 80% of the whole genome sequences of the reference genome could be covered by sequenced reads. Numerous SNP and InDel were detected by bioinformatic analysis. Among these variants, 266,051 SNPs were identified as unique to countries. Pakistan and Ethiopia had high densities of SNPs compared to other countries. Three main clusters (cluster 1: Korea, cluster 2: Pakistan and India, cluster 3: Ethiopia and China) were recovered by neighbor-joining analysis using all variants. Interestingly, some variants were detected in DGAT1 (diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 1) and FADS (fatty acid desaturase) genes, which are known to be related with fatty acid synthesis and metabolism. These results can provide useful information to understand the regional characteristics and develop DNA markers for origin discrimination of sesame.

Keywords: Sesamum indicum, NGS, SNP, DNA marker

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78 Genomic Prediction Reliability Using Haplotypes Defined by Different Methods

Authors: Sohyoung Won, Heebal Kim, Dajeong Lim


Genomic prediction is an effective way to measure the abilities of livestock for breeding based on genomic estimated breeding values, statistically predicted values from genotype data using best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP). Using haplotypes, clusters of linked single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), as markers instead of individual SNPs can improve the reliability of genomic prediction since the probability of a quantitative trait loci to be in strong linkage disequilibrium (LD) with markers is higher. To efficiently use haplotypes in genomic prediction, finding optimal ways to define haplotypes is needed. In this study, 770K SNP chip data was collected from Hanwoo (Korean cattle) population consisted of 2506 cattle. Haplotypes were first defined in three different ways using 770K SNP chip data: haplotypes were defined based on 1) length of haplotypes (bp), 2) the number of SNPs, and 3) k-medoids clustering by LD. To compare the methods in parallel, haplotypes defined by all methods were set to have comparable sizes; in each method, haplotypes defined to have an average number of 5, 10, 20 or 50 SNPs were tested respectively. A modified GBLUP method using haplotype alleles as predictor variables was implemented for testing the prediction reliability of each haplotype set. Also, conventional genomic BLUP (GBLUP) method, which uses individual SNPs were tested to evaluate the performance of the haplotype sets on genomic prediction. Carcass weight was used as the phenotype for testing. As a result, using haplotypes defined by all three methods showed increased reliability compared to conventional GBLUP. There were not many differences in the reliability between different haplotype defining methods. The reliability of genomic prediction was highest when the average number of SNPs per haplotype was 20 in all three methods, implying that haplotypes including around 20 SNPs can be optimal to use as markers for genomic prediction. When the number of alleles generated by each haplotype defining methods was compared, clustering by LD generated the least number of alleles. Using haplotype alleles for genomic prediction showed better performance, suggesting improved accuracy in genomic selection. The number of predictor variables was decreased when the LD-based method was used while all three haplotype defining methods showed similar performances. This suggests that defining haplotypes based on LD can reduce computational costs and allows efficient prediction. Finding optimal ways to define haplotypes and using the haplotype alleles as markers can provide improved performance and efficiency in genomic prediction.

Keywords: best linear unbiased predictor, genomic prediction, haplotype, linkage disequilibrium

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77 Applying EzRAD Method for SNPs Discovery in Population Genetics of Freshwater and Marine Fish in the South of Vietnam

Authors: Quyen Vu Dang Ha, Oanh Truong Thi, Thuoc Tran Linh, Kent Carpenter, Thinh Doan Vu, Binh Dang Thuy


Enzyme restriction site associated DNA (EzRAD) has recently emerged as a promising genomic approach for exploring fish genetic diversity on a genome-wide scale. This is a simplified method for genomic genotyping in non-model organisms and applied for SNPs discovery in the population genetics of freshwater and marine fish in the South of Vietnam. The observations of regional-scale differentiation of commercial freshwater fish (smallscale croakers Boesemania microlepis) and marine fish (emperor Lethrinus lentjan) are clarified. Samples were collected along Hau River and coastal area in the south and center Vietnam. 52 DNA samples from Tra Vinh, An Giang Province for Boesemania microlepis and 34 DNA samples of Lethrinus lentjan from Phu Quoc, Nha Trang, Da Nang Province were used to prepare EzRAD libraries from genomic DNA digested with MboI and Sau3AI. A pooled sample of regional EzRAD libraries was sequenced using the HiSeq 2500 Illumina platform. For Boesemania microlepis, the small scale population different from upstream to downstream of Hau river were detected, An Giang population exhibited less genetic diversity (SNPs per individual from 14 to 926), in comparison to Tra Vinh population (from 11 to 2172). For Lethrinus lentjan, the result showed the minor difference between populations in the Northern and the Southern Mekong River. The numbers of contigs and SNPs vary from 1315 to 2455 and from 7122 to 8594, respectively (P ≤ 0.01). The current preliminary study reveals regional scale population disconnection probably reflecting environmental changing. Additional sampling and EzRad libraries need to be implemented for resource management in the Mekong Delta.

Keywords: Boesemania microlepis, EzRAD, Lethrinus lentjan, SNPs

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76 Generalized Correlation Coefficient in Genome-Wide Association Analysis of Cognitive Ability in Twins

Authors: Afsaneh Mohammadnejad, Marianne Nygaard, Jan Baumbach, Shuxia Li, Weilong Li, Jesper Lund, Jacob v. B. Hjelmborg, Lene Christensen, Qihua Tan


Cognitive impairment in the elderly is a key issue affecting the quality of life. Despite a strong genetic background in cognition, only a limited number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been found. These explain a small proportion of the genetic component of cognitive function, thus leaving a large proportion unaccounted for. We hypothesize that one reason for this missing heritability is the misspecified modeling in data analysis concerning phenotype distribution as well as the relationship between SNP dosage and the phenotype of interest. In an attempt to overcome these issues, we introduced a model-free method based on the generalized correlation coefficient (GCC) in a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of cognitive function in twin samples and compared its performance with two popular linear regression models. The GCC-based GWAS identified two genome-wide significant (P-value < 5e-8) SNPs; rs2904650 near ZDHHC2 on chromosome 8 and rs111256489 near CD6 on chromosome 11. The kinship model also detected two genome-wide significant SNPs, rs112169253 on chromosome 4 and rs17417920 on chromosome 7, whereas no genome-wide significant SNPs were found by the linear mixed model (LME). Compared to the linear models, more meaningful biological pathways like GABA receptor activation, ion channel transport, neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction, and the renin-angiotensin system were found to be enriched by SNPs from GCC. The GCC model outperformed the linear regression models by identifying more genome-wide significant genetic variants and more meaningful biological pathways related to cognitive function. Moreover, GCC-based GWAS was robust in handling genetically related twin samples, which is an important feature in handling genetic confounding in association studies.

Keywords: cognition, generalized correlation coefficient, GWAS, twins

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75 Association of Non Synonymous SNP in DC-SIGN Receptor Gene with Tuberculosis (Tb)

Authors: Saima Suleman, Kalsoom Sughra, Naeem Mahmood Ashraf


Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a communicable chronic illness. This disease is being highly focused by researchers as it is present approximately in one third of world population either in active or latent form. The genetic makeup of a person plays an important part in producing immunity against disease. And one important factor association is single nucleotide polymorphism of relevant gene. In this study, we have studied association between single nucleotide polymorphism of CD-209 gene (encode DC-SIGN receptor) and patients of tuberculosis. Dry lab (in silico) and wet lab (RFLP) analysis have been carried out. GWAS catalogue and GEO database have been searched to find out previous association data. No association study has been found related to CD-209 nsSNPs but role of CD-209 in pulmonary tuberculosis have been addressed in GEO database.Therefore, CD-209 has been selected for this study. Different databases like ENSEMBLE and 1000 Genome Project has been used to retrieve SNP data in form of VCF file which is further submitted to different software to sort SNPs into benign and deleterious. Selected SNPs are further annotated by using 3-D modeling techniques using I-TASSER online software. Furthermore, selected nsSNPs were checked in Gujrat and Faisalabad population through RFLP analysis. In this study population two SNPs are found to be associated with tuberculosis while one nsSNP is not found to be associated with the disease.

Keywords: association, CD209, DC-SIGN, tuberculosis

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74 Linkage Disequilibrium and Haplotype Blocks Study from Two High-Density Panels and a Combined Panel in Nelore Beef Cattle

Authors: Priscila A. Bernardes, Marcos E. Buzanskas, Luciana C. A. Regitano, Ricardo V. Ventura, Danisio P. Munari


Genotype imputation has been used to reduce genomic selections costs. In order to increase haplotype detection accuracy in methods that considers the linkage disequilibrium, another approach could be used, such as combined genotype data from different panels. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the linkage disequilibrium and haplotype blocks in two high-density panels before and after the imputation to a combined panel in Nelore beef cattle. A total of 814 animals were genotyped with the Illumina BovineHD BeadChip (IHD), wherein 93 animals (23 bulls and 70 progenies) were also genotyped with the Affymetrix Axion Genome-Wide BOS 1 Array Plate (AHD). After the quality control, 809 IHD animals (509,107 SNPs) and 93 AHD (427,875 SNPs) remained for analyses. The combined genotype panel (CP) was constructed by merging both panels after quality control, resulting in 880,336 SNPs. Imputation analysis was conducted using software FImpute v.2.2b. The reference (CP) and target (IHD) populations consisted of 23 bulls and 786 animals, respectively. The linkage disequilibrium and haplotype blocks studies were carried out for IHD, AHD, and imputed CP. Two linkage disequilibrium measures were considered; the correlation coefficient between alleles from two loci (r²) and the |D’|. Both measures were calculated using the software PLINK. The haplotypes' blocks were estimated using the software Haploview. The r² measurement presented different decay when compared to |D’|, wherein AHD and IHD had almost the same decay. For r², even with possible overestimation by the sample size for AHD (93 animals), the IHD presented higher values when compared to AHD for shorter distances, but with the increase of distance, both panels presented similar values. The r² measurement is influenced by the minor allele frequency of the pair of SNPs, which can cause the observed difference comparing the r² decay and |D’| decay. As a sum of the combinations between Illumina and Affymetrix panels, the CP presented a decay equivalent to a mean of these combinations. The estimated haplotype blocks detected for IHD, AHD, and CP were 84,529, 63,967, and 140,336, respectively. The IHD were composed by haplotype blocks with mean of 137.70 ± 219.05kb, the AHD with mean of 102.10kb ± 155.47, and the CP with mean of 107.10kb ± 169.14. The majority of the haplotype blocks of these three panels were composed by less than 10 SNPs, with only 3,882 (IHD), 193 (AHD) and 8,462 (CP) haplotype blocks composed by 10 SNPs or more. There was an increase in the number of chromosomes covered with long haplotypes when CP was used as well as an increase in haplotype coverage for short chromosomes (23-29), which can contribute for studies that explore haplotype blocks. In general, using CP could be an alternative to increase density and number of haplotype blocks, increasing the probability to obtain a marker close to a quantitative trait loci of interest.

Keywords: Bos taurus indicus, decay, genotype imputation, single nucleotide polymorphism

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73 Investigation on Single Nucleotide Polymorphism in Candidate Genes and Their Association with Occurrence of Mycobacterium avium Subspecies Paratuberculosis Infection in Cattle

Authors: Ran Vir Singh, Anuj Chauhan, Subhodh Kumar, Rajesh Rathore, Satish Kumar, B Gopi, Sushil Kumar, Tarun Kumar, Ramji Yadav, Donna Phangchopi, Shoor Vir Singh


Paratuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) is a chronic granulomatous enteritis affecting ruminants. It is responsible for significant economic losses in livestock industry worldwide. This organism is also of public health concern due to an unconfirmed link to Crohn’s disease. Susceptibility to paratuberculosis has been suggested to have genetic component with low to moderate heritability. Number of SNPs in various candidates genes have been observed to be affecting the susceptibility toward paratuberculosis. The objective of this study was to explore the association of various SNPs in the candidate genes and QTL region with MAP. A total of 117 SNPs from SLC11A1, IFNG, CARD15, TLR2, TLR4, CLEC7A, CD209, SP110, ANKARA2, PGLYRP1 and one QTL were selected for study. A total of 1222 cattle from various organized herds, gauhsalas and farmer herds were screened for MAP infection by Johnin intradermal skin test, AGID, serum ELISA, fecal microscopy, fecal culture and IS900 blood PCR. Based on the results of these tests, a case and control population of 200 and 183 respectively was established for study. A total of 117 SNPs from 10 candidate genes and one QTL were selected and validated/tested in our case and control population by PCR-RFLP technique. Data was analyzed using SAS 9.3 software. Statistical analysis revealed that, 107 out of 117 SNPs were not significantly associated with occurrence of MAP. Only SNP rs55617172 of TLR2, rs8193046 and rs8193060 of TLR4, rs110353594 and rs41654445 of CLEC7A, rs208814257of CD209, rs41933863 of ANKRA2, two loci {SLC11A1(53C/G)} and {IFNG (185 G/r) } and SNP rs41945014 in QTL region was significantly associated with MAP. Six SNP from 10 significant SNPs viz., rs110353594 and rs41654445 from CLEC7A, rs8193046 and rs8193060 from TLR4, rs109453173 from SLC11A1 rs208814257 from CD209 were validated in new case and control population. Out of these only one SNP rs8193046 of TLR4 gene was found significantly associated with occurrence of MAP in cattle. ODD ratio indicates that animals with AG genotype were more susceptible to MAP and this finding is in accordance with the earlier report. Hence it reaffirms that AG genotype can serve as a reliable genetic marker for indentifying more susceptible cattle in future selection against MAP infection in cattle.

Keywords: SNP, candidate genes, paratuberculosis, cattle

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72 Breast Cancer and BRCA Gene: A Study on Genetic and Environmental Interaction

Authors: Abhishikta Ghosh Roy


Breast cancer is the most common malignancy among women globally, including India. Human breast cancer results from the genetic and environmental interaction. The present study attempts to understand the molecular heterogeneity of BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes, as well as to understand the association of various lifestyle and reproductive variables for the Breast Cancer risk. The study was conducted amongst 110 patients and 128 controls with total DNA sequencing of flanking and coding regions of BRCA1 BRCA2 genes that revealed ten Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) (6 novels). The controls selected for the study were age, sex and ethnic group matched. After written and informed consent biological samples were collected from the subjects. After detailed molecular analysis, significant (p < 0.005) molecular heterogeneity is revealed in terms of SNPs in BRCA1 (4 Exonic & 1 Intronic) and BRCA2 (2exonic and 3 Intronic) genes. The augmentation study investigated significant (p < 0.05) association with positive family history, early age at menarche, irregular menstrual periods, menopause, prolong contraceptive use, nulliparity, history of abortions, consumption of alcohol and smoking for breast cancer risk. To the best of authors knowledge, this study is the first of its kind, envisaged that the identification of the SNPs and modification of the lifestyle factors might aid to minimize the risk among the Bengalee Hindu females.

Keywords: breast cancer, BRCA, lifestyle, India

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71 Bioremediation of Disposed X-Ray Film for Nanoparticles Production

Authors: Essam A. Makky, Siti H. Mohd Rasdi, J. B. Al-Dabbagh, G. F. Najmuldeen


The synthesis of silver nano particles (SNPs) extensively studied by using chemical and physical methods. Here, the biological methods were used and give benefits in research field in the aspect of very low cost (from waste to wealth) and safe time as well. The study aims to isolate and exploit the microbial power in the production of industrially important by-products in nano-size with high economic value, to extract highly valuable materials from hazardous waste, to quantify nano particle size, and characterization of SNPs by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis. Disposal X-ray films were used as substrate because it consumes about 1000 tons of total silver chemically produced worldwide annually. This silver is being wasted when these films are used and disposed. Different bacterial isolates were obtained from various sources. Silver was extracted as nano particles by microbial power degradation from disposal X-ray film as the sole carbon source for ten days incubation period in darkness. The protein content was done and all the samples were analyzed using XRD, to characterize of silver (Ag) nano particles size in the form of silver nitrite. Bacterial isolates CL4C showed the average size of SNPs about 19.53 nm, GL7 showed average size about 52.35 nm and JF Outer 2A (PDA) showed 13.52 nm. All bacterial isolates partially identified using Gram’s reaction and the results obtained exhibited that belonging to Bacillus sp.

Keywords: nanotechnology, bioremediation, disposal X-ray film, nanoparticle, waste, XRD

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70 Introgressive Hybridisation between Two Widespread Sharks in the East Pacific Region

Authors: Diana A. Pazmino, Lynne vanHerwerden, Colin A. Simpfendorfer, Claudia Junge, Stephen C. Donnellan, Mauricio Hoyos-Padilla, Clinton A. J. Duffy, Charlie Huveneers, Bronwyn Gillanders, Paul A. Butcher, Gregory E. Maes


With just a handful of documented cases of hybridisation in cartilaginous fishes, shark hybridisation remains poorly investigated. Small amounts of admixture have been detected between Galapagos (Carcharhinus galapagensis) and dusky (Carcharhinus obscurus) sharks previously, generating a hypothesis of ongoing hybridisation. We sampled a large number of individuals from areas where both species co-occur (contact zones) across the Pacific Ocean and used both mitochondrial and nuclear-encoded SNPs to examine genetic admixture and introgression between the two species. Using empirical, analytical approaches and simulations, we first developed a set of 1,873 highly informative and reliable diagnostic SNPs for these two species to evaluate the degree of admixture between them. Overall, results indicate a high discriminatory power of nuclear SNPs (FST=0.47, p < 0.05) between the two species, unlike mitochondrial DNA (ΦST = 0.00 p > 0.05), which failed to differentiate between these species. We identified four hybrid individuals (~1%) and detected bi-directional introgression between C. galapagensis and C. obscurus in the Gulf of California along the eastern Pacific coast of the Americas. We emphasize the importance of including a combination of mtDNA and diagnostic nuclear markers to properly assess species identification, detect patterns of hybridisation, and better inform management and conservation of these sharks, especially given the morphological similarities within the genus Carcharhinus.

Keywords: elasmobranchs, single nucleotide polymorphisms, hybridisation, introgression, misidentification

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69 The Role of MAOA Gene in the Etiology of Autism Spectrum Disorder in Males

Authors: Jana Kisková, Dana Gabriková


Monoamine oxidase A gene (MAOA) is suggested to be a candidate gene implicated in many neuropsychiatric disorders, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This meta-analytic review evaluates the relationship between ASD and MAOA markers such as 30 bp variable number tandem repeats in the promoter region (uVNTR) and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) by using findings from recently published studies. It seems that in Caucasian males, the risk of developing ASD increase with the presence of 4-repeat allele in the promoter region of MAOA gene whereas no differences were found between autistic patients and controls in Egyptian, West Bengal and Korean population. Some studies point to the importance specific haplotype groups of SNPs and interaction of MAOA with others genes (e.g. FOXP2 or SRY). The results of existing studies are insufficient and further research is needed.

Keywords: autism spectrum disorder, MAOA, uVNTR, single nucleotide polymorphism

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68 A Study of Interleukin-1β Genetic Polymorphisms in Gastric Carcinoma and Colorectal Carcinoma in Egyptian Patients

Authors: Mariam Khaled, Noha Farag, Ghada Mohamed Abdel Salam, Khaled Abu-Aisha, Mohamed El-Azizi


Gastric and colorectal cancers are among the most frequent causes of cancer-associated mortalities in Africa. They have been considered as a global public health concern, as nearly one million new cases are reported per year. IL-1β is a pro-inflammatory cytokine-produced by activated macrophages and monocytes- and a member of the IL-1 family. The inactive IL-1β precursor is cleaved and activated by caspase-1 enzyme, which itself is activated by the assembly of intracellular structures defined as NLRP3 (Nod Like receptor P3) inflammasomes. Activated IL-1β stimulates the Interleukin-1 receptor type-1 (IL-1R1), which is responsible for the initiation of a signal transduction pathway leading to cell proliferation. It has been proven that the IL-1β gene is a highly polymorphic gene in which single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) may affect its expression. It has been previously reported that SNPs including base transitions between C and T at positions, -511 (C-T; dbSNP: rs16944) and -31 (C-T; dbSNP: rs1143627), from the transcriptional start site, contribute to the pathogenesis of gastric and colorectal cancers by affecting IL-1β levels. Altered production of IL-1β due to such polymorphisms is suspected to stimulate an amplified inflammatory response and promote Epithelial Mesenchymal Transition leading to malignancy. Allele frequency distribution of the IL-1β-31 and -511 SNPs, in different populations, and their correlation to the incidence of gastric and colorectal cancers, has been intriguing to researchers worldwide. The current study aims to investigate allele distributions of the IL-1β SNPs among gastric and colorectal cancers Egyptian patients. In order to achieve to that, 89 Biopsy and surgical specimens from the antrum and corpus mucosa of chronic gastritis subjects and gastric and colorectal carcinoma patients was collected for DNA extraction followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism polymerase chain reaction (RFLP-PCR). The amplified PCR products of IL-1β-31C > T and IL-1β-511T > C were digested by incubation with the restriction endonuclease enzymes ALu1 and Ava1. Statistical analysis was carried out to determine the allele frequency distribution in the three studied groups. Also, the effect of the IL-1β -31 and -511 SNPs on nuclear factor binding was analyzed using Fluorescence Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay (EMSA), preceded by nuclear factor extraction from gastric and colorectal tissue samples and LPS stimulated monocytes. The results of this study showed that a significantly higher percentage of Egyptian gastric cancer patients have a homozygous CC genotype at the IL-1β-31 position and a heterozygous TC genotype at the IL-1β-511 position. Moreover, a significantly higher percentage of the colorectal cancer patients have a homozygous CC genotype at the IL-1β-31 and -511 positions as compared to the control group. In addition, the EMSA results showed that IL-1β-31C/T and IL-1β-511T/C SNPs do not affect nuclear factor binding. Results of this study suggest that the IL-1β-31 C/T and IL-1β-511 T/C may be correlated to the incidence of gastric cancer in Egyptian patients; however, similar findings couldn’t be proven in the colorectal cancer patients group for the IL-1β-511 T/C SNP. This is the first study to investigate IL-1β -31 and -511 SNPs in the Egyptian population.

Keywords: colorectal cancer, Egyptian patients, gastric cancer, interleukin-1β, single nucleotide polymorphisms

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67 Genomic Surveillance of Bacillus Anthracis in South Africa Revealed a Unique Genetic Cluster of B- Clade Strains

Authors: Kgaugelo Lekota, Ayesha Hassim, Henriette Van Heerden


Bacillus anthracis is the causative agent of anthrax that is composed of three genetic groups, namely A, B, and C. Clade-A is distributed world-wide, while sub-clades B has been identified in Kruger National Park (KNP), South Africa. KNP is one of the endemic anthrax regions in South Africa with distinctive genetic diversity. Genomic surveillance of KNP B. anthracis strains was employed on the historical culture collection isolates (n=67) dated from the 1990’s to 2015 using a whole genome sequencing approach. Whole genome single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) and pan-genomics analysis were used to define the B. anthracis genetic population structure. This study showed that KNP has heterologous B. anthracis strains grouping in the A-clade with more prominent ABr.005/006 (Ancient A) SNP lineage. The 2012 and 2015 anthrax isolates are dispersed amongst minor sub-clades that prevail in non-stabilized genetic evolution strains. This was augmented with non-parsimony informative SNPs of the B. anthracis strains across minor sub-clades of the Ancient A clade. Pan-genomics of B. anthracis showed a clear distinction between A and B-clade genomes with 11 374 predicted clusters of protein coding genes. Unique accessory genes of B-clade genomes that included biosynthetic cell wall genes and multidrug resistant of Fosfomycin. South Africa consists of diverse B. anthracis strains with unique defined SNPs. The sequenced B. anthracis strains in this study will serve as a means to further trace the dissemination of B. anthracis outbreaks globally and especially in South Africa.

Keywords: bacillus anthracis, whole genome single nucleotide polymorphisms, pangenomics, kruger national park

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66 Polymorphisms of Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor (MIF) and Susceptibility to Endometriosis

Authors: Z. Chekini, P. Afsharian, F. Ramezanali, A. A. Akhlaghi, R. Aflatoonian


Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a key pro-inflammatory cytokine that involves in pathophysiological events of endometriosis. We aimed to evaluate the association between mRNA expression levels and polymorphisms of MIF in endometriosis. Seventy endometriosis patients and 70 volunteer fertile women were recruited. RFLP was applied to determine -173G/C polymorphism. ORF polymorphisms and -794(CATT)5-8 were detected by sequencing. Q-PCR was used for expression study of 14 ectopic tissues of patients. Homozygote of CATT5 was observed only in controls. The CATT5/G haplotype related to controls (p=0.094, OR=0.61). Expression level of MIF with -794(CATT)6,7/-173GC was significantly more than the other haplotypes (p=0.00). We identified four SNPs including: +254rs2096525 (p=0.843), +626rs33958703 (p=0.029), +656rs2070766 (p=0.703) and +509rs182012324 (p=1.00). In conclusion, increased repeat of CATT and presence of C allele in promoter of MIF were significantly associated with mRNA level in patients. It seems that +509rs182012324 and +626rs33958703 SNPs were significantly correlated with susceptibility to endometriosis.

Keywords: endometriosis, haplotype, macrophage migration inhibitory factor, polymorphism

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65 Assesment of SNP Variation and Distribution in Pakistani Cattle Breeds using High Density SNP Genotyping

Authors: Hamid Mustafa, Heather J. Huson, Adeela Ajmal, Kim Euisoo, Tad S. Sonstegard


In this study, 67 animals, representing six different cattle breeds of Pakistan, were genotyped with the Bovine high density (777K) SNP Beadchip. These include 13 Sahiwal, 09 Red Sindhi, 13 Tharparkar, 08 Achi, 13 Cholistani and 10 Dhanni cattle breeds. Analysis of 500, 939 SNP markers revealed that the mean minor allele frequency (MAF) was 0.21, 0.22, 0.18, 0.23, 0.22 and 0.22 for Sahiwal, Red Sindhi, Tharparkar, Achi, Cholistani and Dhanni respectively. Significant differences of minor allele frequency (MAF) were observed between the indigenous Pakistani cattle population (P<0.001). Across these Pakistani cattle breeds, a common variant MAF (≥0.10 and ≤0.5) accounted for an overall estimated 75.71 % of the 500,939 SNPs and on the average 19.58 % of the markers were monomorphic. Mean observed (HO) and expected (HE) heterozygosities were 0.656 and 0.638, respectively. This primarily study of Pakistani indigenous cattle breeds indicate that this level of SNPs variation can potentially be used for genomic studies for future breeding plans and for farm animal conservation strategies.

Keywords: Pakistan, cattle, minor allele frequency, SNP, variation

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64 Searching SNPs Variants in Myod-1 and Myod-2 Genes Linked to Body Weight in Gilthead Seabream, Sparus aurata L.

Authors: G. Blanco-Lizana, C. García-Fernández, J. A. Sánchez


Growth is a productive trait regulated by a large and complex gene network with very different effect. Some of they (candidate genes) have a higher effect and are excellent resources to search in them polymorphisms correlated with differences in growth rates. This study was focused on the identification of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in MyoD-1 and MyoD-2 genes, members of the family of myogenic regulatory genes with a key role in the differentiation and development of muscular tissue.(MFRs), and its evaluation as potential markers in genetic selection programs for growth in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata). Through a sequencing in 30 seabream (classified as unrelated by microsatellite markers) of 1.968bp in MyoD-1 gene [AF478568 .1] and 1.963bp in MyoD-2 gene [AF478569.1], three SNPs were identified in each gene (SaMyoD-1 D2100A (D indicate a deletion) SaMyoD-1 A2143G and SaMyoD-1 A2404G and SaMyoD-2_A785C, SaMyoD-2_C1982T and SaMyoD-2_A2031T). The relationships between SNPs and body weight were evaluated by SNP genotyping of 53 breeders from two broodstocks (A:18♀-9♂; B:16♀-10♂) and 389 offspring divided into two groups (slow- and fast-growth) with significant differences in growth at 18 months of development (A18Slow: N=107, A18Fast: N=103, B18Slow: N=92 and B18Fast: N=87) (Borrell et al., 2011). Haplotype and diplotype were reconstructed from genotype data by Phase 2.1 software. Differences among means of different diplotypes were calculated by one-way ANOVA followed by post-hoc Tukey test. Association analysis indicated that single SNP did not show significant effect on body weight. However, when the analysis is carried out considering haplotype data it was observed that the DGG haplotipe of MyoD-1 gen and CCA haplotipe of MyoD- 2gen were associated to with lower body weight. This haplotype combination always showed the lowest mean body weight (P<0.05) in three (A18Slow, A18Fast & B18Slow) of the four groups tested. Individuals with DGG haplotipe of MyoD-1 gen have a 25,5% and those with CCA haplotipe of MyoD- 2gen showed 14-18% less on mean body weight. Although further studies are need to validate the role of these 3 SNPs as marker for body weight, the polymorphism-trait association established in this work create promising expectations on the use of these variants as genetic tool for future giltead seabream breeding programs.

Keywords: growth, MyoD-1 and MyoD-2 genes, selective breeding, SNP-haplotype

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63 Inbreeding Study Using Runs of Homozygosity in Nelore Beef Cattle

Authors: Priscila A. Bernardes, Marcos E. Buzanskas, Luciana C. A. Regitano, Ricardo V. Ventura, Danisio P. Munari


The best linear unbiased predictor (BLUP) is a method commonly used in genetic evaluations of breeding programs. However, this approach can lead to higher inbreeding coefficients in the population due to the intensive use of few bulls with higher genetic potential, usually presenting some degree of relatedness. High levels of inbreeding are associated to low genetic viability, fertility, and performance for some economically important traits and therefore, should be constantly monitored. Unreliable pedigree data can also lead to misleading results. Genomic information (i.e., single nucleotide polymorphism – SNP) is a useful tool to estimate the inbreeding coefficient. Runs of homozygosity have been used to evaluate homozygous segments inherited due to direct or collateral inbreeding and allows inferring population selection history. This study aimed to evaluate runs of homozygosity (ROH) and inbreeding in a population of Nelore beef cattle. A total of 814 animals were genotyped with the Illumina BovineHD BeadChip and the quality control was carried out excluding SNPs located in non-autosomal regions, with unknown position, with a p-value in the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium lower than 10⁻⁵, call rate lower than 0.98 and samples with the call rate lower than 0.90. After the quality control, 809 animals and 509,107 SNPs remained for analyses. For the ROH analysis, PLINK software was used considering segments with at least 50 SNPs with a minimum length of 1Mb in each animal. The inbreeding coefficient was calculated using the ratio between the sum of all ROH sizes and the size of the whole genome (2,548,724kb). A total of 25.711 ROH were observed, presenting mean, median, minimum, and maximum length of 3.34Mb, 2Mb, 1Mb, and 80.8Mb, respectively. The number of SNPs present in ROH segments varied from 50 to 14.954. The longest ROH length was observed in one animal, which presented a length of 634Mb (24.88% of the genome). Four bulls were among the 10 animals with the longest extension of ROH, presenting 11% of ROH with length higher than 10Mb. Segments longer than 10Mb indicate recent inbreeding. Therefore, the results indicate an intensive use of few sires in the studied data. The distribution of ROH along the chromosomes showed that chromosomes 5 and 6 presented a large number of segments when compared to other chromosomes. The mean, median, minimum, and maximum inbreeding coefficients were 5.84%, 5.40%, 0.00%, and 24.88%, respectively. Although the mean inbreeding was considered low, the ROH indicates a recent and intensive use of few sires, which should be avoided for the genetic progress of breed.

Keywords: autozygosity, Bos taurus indicus, genomic information, single nucleotide polymorphism

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62 Association Analysis of Putative Loci with Coronary Artery Disease

Authors: Asma Naseer Cheema, Attya Bhatti, Jabar Ali, John Peter


Background: High cholesterol levels, endothelial dysfunction, inefficient coagulation cascade and hyper inflammatory response all are the basis of coronary artery disease (CAD). Several studies are carried out to see the genetic influence of these factors on disease outcome. Objective: The objective of our study was to see the association of 10 putative loci with coronary artery disease in our population. Materials & Methods: We screened our population for 10 putative loci of CAD showing significant association (p < 5x10-8) with candidate genes (regulating the cholesterol metabolism, endothelial function, coagulation cascade and inflammatory response of body). Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and linkage disequilibrium in cases and controls s were estimated separately. Approximately 5-10 ng of dried DNA in 384 well plate format was used to genotype each sample on the Sequenom iPLEX assay at University of Pittsburgh Genomics and Proteomics Core Laboratories. It was built on single-base primer extension with the MALDI-TOF MS detection possessing high sensitivity and specificity. The SNPs were genotyped through Taqman assay. Hardy Weinberg test was applied. The 10 SNPs were selected as genetic markers for this study (rs579459, rs1561198, rs2954029, rs1122608, rs17114036, rs9515203, rs10947789, rs7173743, rs2895811, rs2075650). Results: Mean age of the patient was 52 ± 11 years. Blood pressure and positive family history was found a significant risk factor for CAD. None of the selected SNPs showed significant association with coronary artery disease in our population (p>0.05). Conclusion: rs579459, rs1561198, rs2954029, rs1122608, rs17114036, rs9515203, rs10947789, rs7173743, rs2895811, rs2075650 are not significant genetic markers for CAD in our population.

Keywords: CAD, genetic markers, loci, risk factors

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61 Correlation of IFNL4 ss469415590 and IL28B rs12979860 with the Hepatitis C Virus Treatment Response among Tunisian Patients

Authors: Khaoula Azraiel, Mohamed Mehdi Abassi, Amel Sadraoui, Walid Hammami, Azouz Msaddek, Imed Cheikh, Maria Mancebo, Elisabet Perez-Navarro, Antonio Caruz, Henda Triki, Ahlem Djebbi


IL28B rs12979860 genotype is confirmed as an important predictor of response to peginterferon/ribavirin therapy in patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC). IFNL4 ss469415590 is a newly discovered polymorphism that could also affect the sustained virological response (SVR). The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of IL28B and IFNL4 genotypes with peginterferon/ribavirin treatment response in Tunisians patients with CHC and to determine which of these SNPs, was the stronger marker. A total of 120 patients were genotyped for both rs12979860 and ss469415590 polymorphisms. The association of each genetic marker with SVR was analyzed and comparison between the two SNPs was calculated by logistic regression models. For rs12979860, 69.6% of patients with CC, 41.8% with CT and 42.8% with TT achieved SVR (p = 0.003). Regarding ss469415590, 70.4% of patients with TT/TT genotype achieved SVR compared to 42.8% with TT/ΔG and 37.5% with ΔG /ΔG (p = 0.002). The presence of CC and TT/TT genotypes was independently associated with treatment response with an OR of 3.86 for each. In conclusion, both IL28B rs12979860 and IFNL4 ss469415590 variants were associated with response to pegIFN/RBV in Tunisian patients, without any additional benefit in performance for IFNL4. Our results are different from those detected in Sub-Saharan Africa countries.

Keywords: Hepatitis C virus, IFNL4, IL28B, Peginterferon/ribavirin, polymorphism

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60 Genome-Wide Significant SNPs Proximal to Nicotinic Receptor Genes Impact Cognition in Schizophrenia

Authors: Mohammad Ahangari


Schizophrenia is a psychiatric disorder with symptoms that include cognitive deficits and nicotine has been suggested to have an effect on cognition. In recent years, the advents of Genome-Wide Association Studies(GWAS) has evolved our understanding about the genetic causes of complex disorders such as schizophrenia and studying the role of genome-wide significant genes could potentially lead to the development of new therapeutic agents for treatment of cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. The current study identified six Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNP) from schizophrenia and smoking GWAS that are located on or in close proximity to the nicotinic receptor gene cluster (CHRN) and studied their association with cognition in an Irish sample of 1297 cases and controls using linear regression analysis. Further on, the interaction between CHRN gene cluster and Dopamine receptor D2 gene (DRD2) during working memory was investigated. The effect of these polymorphisms on nicotinic and dopaminergic neurotransmission, which is disrupted in schizophrenia, have been characterized in terms of their effects on memory, attention, social cognition and IQ as measured by a neuropsychological test battery and significant effects in two polymorphisms were found across global IQ domain of the test battery.

Keywords: cognition, dopamine, GWAS, nicotine, schizophrenia, SNPs

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59 Identification of Biological Pathways Causative for Breast Cancer Using Unsupervised Machine Learning

Authors: Karthik Mittal


This study performs an unsupervised machine learning analysis to find clusters of related SNPs which highlight biological pathways that are important for the biological mechanisms of breast cancer. Studying genetic variations in isolation is illogical because these genetic variations are known to modulate protein production and function; the downstream effects of these modifications on biological outcomes are highly interconnected. After extracting the SNPs and their effect on different types of breast cancer using the MRBase library, two unsupervised machine learning clustering algorithms were implemented on the genetic variants: a k-means clustering algorithm and a hierarchical clustering algorithm; furthermore, principal component analysis was executed to visually represent the data. These algorithms specifically used the SNP’s beta value on the three different types of breast cancer tested in this project (estrogen-receptor positive breast cancer, estrogen-receptor negative breast cancer, and breast cancer in general) to perform this clustering. Two significant genetic pathways validated the clustering produced by this project: the MAPK signaling pathway and the connection between the BRCA2 gene and the ESR1 gene. This study provides the first proof of concept showing the importance of unsupervised machine learning in interpreting GWAS summary statistics.

Keywords: breast cancer, computational biology, unsupervised machine learning, k-means, PCA

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58 Association between Single Nucleotide Polymorphism of Calpain1 Gene and Meat Tenderness Traits in Different Genotypes of Chicken: Malaysian Native and Commercial Broiler Line

Authors: Abtehal Y. Anaas, Mohd. Nazmi Bin Abd. Manap


Meat Tenderness is one of the most important factors affecting consumers' assessment of meat quality. Variation in meat tenderness is genetically controlled and varies among breeds, and it is also influenced by environmental factors that can affect its creation during rigor mortis and postmortem. The final postmortem meat tenderization relies on the extent of proteolysis of myofibrillar proteins caused by the endogenous activity of the proteolytic calpain system. This calpain system includes different calcium-dependent cysteine proteases, and an inhibitor, calpastatin. It is widely accepted that in farm animals including chickens, the μ-calpain gene (CAPN1) is a physiological candidate gene for meat tenderness. This study aimed to identify the association of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers in the CAPN1 gene with the tenderness of chicken breast meat from two Malaysian native and commercial broiler breed crosses. Ten, five months old native chickens and ten, 42 days commercial broilers were collected from the local market and breast muscles were removed two hours after slaughter, packed separately in plastic bags and kept at -20ºC for 24 h. The tenderness phenotype for all chickens’ breast meats was determined by Warner-Bratzler Shear Force (WBSF). Thawing and cooking losses were also measured in the same breast samples before using in WBSF determination. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to identify the previously reported C7198A and G9950A SNPs in the CAPN1 gene and assess their associations with meat tenderness in the two breeds. The broiler breast meat showed lower shear force values and lower thawing loss rates than the native chickens (p<0.05), whereas there were similar in the rates of cooking loss. The study confirms some previous results that the markers CAPN1 C7198A and G9950A were not significantly associated with the variation in meat tenderness in chickens. Therefore, further study is needed to confirm the functional molecular mechanism of these SNPs and evaluate their associations in different chicken populations.

Keywords: CAPNl, chicken, meat tenderness, meat quality, SNPs

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57 In Silico Analysis of Deleterious nsSNPs (Missense) of Dihydrolipoamide Branched-Chain Transacylase E2 Gene Associated with Maple Syrup Urine Disease Type II

Authors: Zainab S. Ahmed, Mohammed S. Ali, Nadia A. Elshiekh, Sami Adam Ibrahim, Ghada M. El-Tayeb, Ahmed H. Elsadig, Rihab A. Omer, Sofia B. Mohamed


Maple syrup urine (MSUD) is an autosomal recessive disease that causes a deficiency in the enzyme branched-chain alpha-keto acid (BCKA) dehydrogenase. The development of disease has been associated with SNPs in the DBT gene. Despite that, the computational analysis of SNPs in coding and noncoding and their functional impacts on protein level still remains unknown. Hence, in this study, we carried out a comprehensive in silico analysis of missense that was predicted to have a harmful influence on DBT structure and function. In this study, eight different in silico prediction algorithms; SIFT, PROVEAN, MutPred, SNP&GO, PhD-SNP, PANTHER, I-Mutant 2.0 and MUpo were used for screening nsSNPs in DBT including. Additionally, to understand the effect of mutations in the strength of the interactions that bind protein together the ELASPIC servers were used. Finally, the 3D structure of DBT was formed using Mutation3D and Chimera servers respectively. Our result showed that a total of 15 nsSNPs confirmed by 4 software (R301C, R376H, W84R, S268F, W84C, F276C, H452R, R178H, I355T, V191G, M444T, T174A, I200T, R113H, and R178C) were found damaging and can lead to a shift in DBT gene structure. Moreover, we found 7 nsSNPs located on the 2-oxoacid_dh catalytic domain, 5 nsSNPs on the E_3 binding domain and 3 nsSNPs on the Biotin Domain. So these nsSNPs may alter the putative structure of DBT’s domain. Furthermore, we detected all these nsSNPs are on the core residues of the protein and have the ability to change the stability of the protein. Additionally, we found W84R, S268F, and M444T have high significance, and they affected Leucine, Isoleucine, and Valine, which reduces or disrupt the function of BCKD complex, E2-subunit which the DBT gene encodes. In conclusion, based on our extensive in-silico analysis, we report 15 nsSNPs that have possible association with protein deteriorating and disease-causing abilities. These candidate SNPs can aid in future studies on Maple Syrup Urine Disease type II base in the genetic level.

Keywords: DBT gene, ELASPIC, in silico analysis, UCSF chimer

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56 Studies on Phylogeny of Helicoverpa armigera Populations from North Western Himalaya Region with Help of Cytochromeoxidase I Sequence

Authors: R. M. Srivastava, Subbanna A.R.N.S, Md Abbas Ahmad, S. P.More, Shivashankar, B. Kalyanbabu


The similar morphology associated with high genetic variability poses problems in phylogenetic studies of Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner). To identify genetic variation of North Western Himalayan population’s, partial (Mid to terminal region) cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COX-1) gene was amplified and sequenced for three populations collected from Pantnagar, Almora, and Chinyalisaur. The alignment of sequences with other two populations, Nagpur representing central India population and Anhui, China representing complete COX-1 sequence revealed unanimity in middle region with eleven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in Nagpur populations. However, the consensus is missing when approaching towards terminal region, which is associated with 15 each SNPs and pair base substitutions in Chinyalisaur populations. In minimum evolution tree, all the five populations were majorly separated into two clades, one comprising of only Nagpur population and the other with rest. Amongst, North Western populations, Chinyalisaur one is promising by farming a separate clade. The pairwise genetic distance ranges from 0.025 to 0.192 with the maximum between H. armigera populations of Nagpur and Chinyalisaur. This genetic isolation of populations can be attributed to a key role of topological barriers of weather and mountain ranges and temporal barriers due to cropping patterns.

Keywords: cytochrome c oxidase subunit I, northwestern Himalayan population, Helicoverpa armigera (Noctuidae: Lepidoptera), phylogenetic relationship, genetic variation

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55 Association of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Leptin and Leptin Receptors with Oral Cancer

Authors: Chiung-Man Tsai, Chia-Jui Weng


Leptin (LEP) and leptin receptor (LEPR) both play a crucial role in the mediation of physiological reactions and carcinogenesis and may serve as a candidate biomarker of oral cancer. The present case-control study aimed to examine the effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of LEP -2548 G/A (rs7799039), LEPR K109R (rs1137100), and LEPR Q223R (rs1137101) with or without interacting to environmental carcinogens on the risk for oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The SNPs of three genetic allele, from 567 patients with oral cancer and 560 healthy controls in Taiwan were analyzed. All of The three genetic polymorphisms exhibited insignificant (P > .05) effects on the risk to have oral cancer. However, the patients with polymorphic allele of LEP -2548 have a significant low risk for the development of clinical stage (A/G, AOR = 0.670, 95% CI = 0.454–0.988, P < .05; A/G+G/G, AOR = 0.676, 95% CI = 0.467–0.978, P < .05) compared to patients with ancestral homozygous A/A genotype. Additionally, an interesting result was found that the impact of LEP -2548 G/A SNP on oral carcinogenesis in subjects without tobacco consumption (A/G, AOR=2.078, 95% CI: 1.161-3.720, p=0.014; A/G+G/G, AOR=2.002, 95% CI: 1.143-3.505, p=0.015) is higher than subjects with tobacco consumption. These results suggest that the genetic polymorphism of LEP -2548 G/A (rs7799039), LEPR K109R (rs1137100), and LEPR Q223R (rs1137101) were not associated with the susceptibility of oral cancer; SNP in LEP -2548 G/A showed a poor clinicopathological development of oral cancer; Population without tobacco consumption and with polymorphic LEP -2548 G/A gene may significantly increase the risk to have oral cancer.

Keywords: carcinogen, leptin, leptin receptor, oral squamous cell carcinoma, single nucleotide polymorphism

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54 Investigation of the IL23R Psoriasis/PsA Susceptibility Locus

Authors: Shraddha Rane, Richard Warren, Stephen Eyre


L-23 is a pro-inflammatory molecule that signals T cells to release cytokines such as IL-17A and IL-22. Psoriasis is driven by a dysregulated immune response, within which IL-23 is now thought to play a key role. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified a number of genetic risk loci that support the involvement of IL-23 signalling in psoriasis; in particular a robust susceptibility locus at a gene encoding a subunit of the IL-23 receptor (IL23R) (Stuart et al., 2015; Tsoi et al., 2012). The lead psoriasis-associated SNP rs9988642 is located approximately 500 bp downstream of IL23R but is in tight linkage disequilibrium (LD) with a missense SNP rs11209026 (R381Q) within IL23R (r2 = 0.85). The minor (G) allele of rs11209026 is present in approximately 7% of the population and is protective for psoriasis and several other autoimmune diseases including IBD, ankylosing spondylitis, RA and asthma. The psoriasis-associated missense SNP R381Q causes an arginine to glutamine substitution in a region of the IL23R protein between the transmembrane domain and the putative JAK2 binding site in the cytoplasmic portion. This substitution is expected to affect the receptor’s surface localisation or signalling ability, rather than IL23R expression. Recent studies have also identified a psoriatic arthritis (PsA)-specific signal at IL23R; thought to be independent from the psoriasis association (Bowes et al., 2015; Budu-Aggrey et al., 2016). The lead PsA-associated SNP rs12044149 is intronic to IL23R and is in LD with likely causal SNPs intersecting promoter and enhancer marks in memory CD8+ T cells (Budu-Aggrey et al., 2016). It is therefore likely that the PsA-specific SNPs affect IL23R function via a different mechanism compared with the psoriasis-specific SNPs. It could be hypothesised that the risk allele for PsA located within the IL23R promoter causes an increase IL23R expression, relative to the protective allele. An increased expression of IL23R might then lead to an exaggerated immune response. The independent genetic signals identified for psoriasis and PsA in this locus indicate that different mechanisms underlie these two conditions; although likely both affecting the function of IL23R. It is very important to further characterise these mechanisms in order to better understand how the IL-23 receptor and its downstream signalling is affected in both diseases. This will help to determine how psoriasis and PsA patients might differentially respond to therapies, particularly IL-23 biologics. To investigate this further we have developed an in vitro model using CD4 T cells which express either wild type IL23R and IL12Rβ1 or mutant IL23R (R381Q) and IL12Rβ1. Model expressing different isotypes of IL23R is also underway to investigate the effects on IL23R expression. We propose to further investigate the variants for Ps and PsA and characterise key intracellular processes related to the variants.

Keywords: IL23R, psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, SNP

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