Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 101

Search results for: interleukin 6

101 Cloning and Expression of Human Interleukin 15: A Promising Candidate for Cytokine Immunotherapy

Authors: Sadaf Ilyas

Abstract:

Recombinant cytokines have been employed successfully as potential therapeutic agent. Some cytokine therapies are already used as a part of clinical practice, ranging from early exploratory trials to well established therapies that have already received approval. Interleukin 15 is a pleiotropic cytokine having multiple roles in peripheral innate and adaptive immune cell function. It regulates the activation, proliferation and maturation of NK cells, T-cells, monocytes/macrophages and granulocytes, and the interactions between them thus acting as a bridge between innate and adaptive immune responses. Unraveling the biology of IL-15 has revealed some interesting surprises that may point toward some of the first therapeutic applications for this cytokine. In this study, the human interleukin 15 gene was isolated, amplified and ligated to a TA vector which was then transfected to a bacterial host, E. coli Top10F’. The sequence of cloned gene was confirmed and it showed 100% homology with the reported sequence. The confirmed gene was then subcloned in pET Expression system to study the IPTG induced expression of IL-15 gene. Positive expression was obtained for number of clones that showed 15 kd band of IL-15 in SDS-PAGE analysis, indicating the successful strain development that can be studied further to assess the potential therapeutic intervention of this cytokine in relevance to human diseases.

Keywords: Interleukin 15, pET expression system, immune therapy, protein purification

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100 The Effect of Six Weeks Aerobic Training and Taxol Consumption on Interleukin 8 and Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 on Mice with Cervical Cancer

Authors: Alireza Barari, Maryam Firoozi, Maryam Ebrahimzadeh, Romina Roohan Ardeshiri, Maryam Kamarloeei

Abstract:

Background: The The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of six-week aerobic training and taxol consumption on interleukin 8 and Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) in mice with cervical cancer. Material and method: In this experimental study, 40 female C57 mice, eight weeks old, were randomly divided into 4 groups: cancer, cancer-taxol complement, cancer-training and cancer-training - taxol complement with 10 mice in each group. The implantation of cancerous tumors was performed under the skin of the upper pelvis. The training group completed the endurance training protocol, which included 3 sessions per week, 50 minutes per session, at a speed of 14-18 m/s for six weeks. A dose of 60 mg/ kg/day, a pure extract of Taxol was injected peritoneal Data were analyzed by t-test, One-way ANOVA and post hoc Bonferron's at the significant level P<0. 05. Results: The results showed that there was a significant difference between mean values of interleukin-8 (P < 0.05, F = 12.25) and the plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (P < 0.05, P=0.10737) in four groups. A significance level of less than 0.05 in Tukey test for both variables also showed a significant difference between the "control" group and the complementary "exercise" group. Namely, six weeks of aerobic training, along with taxol, have a significant effect on the level of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and interleukin-8 mice with cervical cancer. Conclusion: Considering the effect of training on these variables, this type of exercise can be used as a complementary therapeutic approach along with other therapies for cervical cancer.

Keywords: cervical cancer, taxol, endurance training, interleukin 8, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1

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99 Antiviral Activity of Interleukin-11 in Response to Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus Infection

Authors: Li Yuchen, Wu Qingxin, Jin Yuxing, Yang Qian

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Interleukin-11 (IL-11), a well-known anti-inflammatory factor, helps to protect against intestinal epithelium damage caused by physical or chemical factors. However, little is known about the role of IL-11 during viral infection. Herein, high mRNA and protein levels of IL-11 were found in epithelial cells and jejunum of piglets during porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) infection, and IL-11 expression was positively correlated with the level of viral infection. Pretreatment with recombinant porcine IL-11 (pIL-11) suppressed PEDV replication in Vero E6 cells, while IL-11 knockdown promoted viral infection. Furthermore, pIL-11 inhibited viral infection by preventing PEDV-mediated apoptosis of cells through activating the IL-11/STAT3 signal pathway. Conversely, application of a STAT3 phosphorylation inhibitor significantly antagonized the anti-apoptosis function of pIL-11 and counteracted its inhibition of PEDV. Our data suggested that that IL-11 is a novel PEDV-inducible cytokine, and its production enhances the anti-apoptosis ability of epithelial cells against PEDV infection. The potential uses of IL-11 as a novel therapeutic against devastating viral diarrhea in piglets deserves more attention and study.

Keywords: Interleukin-11, Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus, STAT3, anti-apoptosis

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98 Effect of Probiotics and Vitamin B on Plasma Interferon-Gamma and Interleukin-6 Levels in Active Pulmonary Tuberculosis

Authors: Yulistiani Yulistiani, Zamrotul Izzah, Lintang Bismantara, Wenny Putri Nilamsari, Arif Bachtiar, Budi Suprapti

Abstract:

Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) are pro-inflammatory cytokines, which have the protective immune response against Tuberculosis (TB). Indeed, pro-inflammatory cytokines Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigen-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and NK cells increase the level of production of IFN-γ, a cytokine critical for augmenting the microbicidal activity of phagocytes. On the other hand, M. tuberculosis reduces the effects of IFN-γ by inhibiting the transcription of IFN-γ- responsive genes and by inducing the secretion of IL-6, which inhibits IFN-γ signaling. Probiotics Lactobacillus sp. and Bifidobacterium sp. were known to increase IFN-γ production in vivo, while vitamin B1, B6, and B12 worked on macrophages and releasing cytokines. Therefore, the present study was to evaluate the effect of probiotics and vitamin B supplement on changes of plasma cytokine levels in active pulmonary TB. From October to November 2016, twelve M. tuberculosis-infected patients starting anti-TB drugs were recruited, then divided into two groups. Seven patients were given a combination of probiotics and vitamin B, while five patients were in the control group. Plasma IFN-γ and IL-6 levels were measured by the ELISA kit before and a month after treatment. IFN-γ levels raised in four patients receiving the supplement (P = 0.743), while IL-6 increased in three patients in this group until day 30 of treatment (P = 0.298). Taken together, these results show the promising effect of probiotics and vitamin B on stimulation of IFN-γ and IL-6 production during intensive therapy of TB.

Keywords: interferon-gamma, interleukin-6, probiotic, tuberculosis

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97 Effects of a Bacteria-Based Probiotic on Subpopulations of Peripheral Leukocytes and Their Interleukin mRNA Expression in Calves

Authors: Abdul Qadir Qadis, Satoru Goya, Minoru Yatsu, Yu-uki Yoshida, Toshihiro Ichijo, Shigeru Sato

Abstract:

Bacterial probiotics are known to modulate the gut-associated lymphoid and epithelial tissue response to enhance the activities of intestinal and systemic immune system in human and animals. In cattle, the immune-stimulatory effects of probiotics have been evaluated during intestinal disorders. To investigate the effects of probiotic on the function of peripheral blood mononuclear cells, eight healthy Holstein calves (10 ± 3 weeks) were assigned to a 4 × 2 experimental design. The probiotic, consisting of Lactobacillus plantarum, Enterococcus faecium and Clostridium butyricum, was administered orally at 3.0 g/100 kg body weight to calves once daily for 5 consecutive days. Calves given no probiotic served as the control. In the treatment group, increases in numbers of CD282+ monocytes, CD3+ T-cells and CD4+, CD8+ and WC1+ γδ T- cell subsets were noted on day 7 post-placement compared to pre-dose day and the control group. Expression of interleukin-6, interferon-gamma and tumor necrosis factor-alpha was elevated in peripheral leukocytes on days 7 and 14. These results suggest that peripheral blood leukocytes in healthy calves may be stimulated via the gastrointestinal microbiota, which was increased by the oral probiotic treatment. The 5-day repeated administration of a bacterial probiotic may enhance cellular immune function in weaned calves.

Keywords: bacterial-probiotic, calf, interleukin, leukocyte

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96 Role of Interleukin-36 in Response to Pseudomonas aeruginosa Infection

Authors: Muslim Idan Mohsin, Mohammed Jasim Al-Shamarti, Rusul Idan Mohsin, Ali A. Majeed

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One of the causative agents of the lower respiratory tract (LRT) is Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which can lead to severe infection associated with a lung infection. There are many cytokines that are secreted in response to bacterial infection, in particular interleukin IL-36 cytokine in response to P. aeruginosa infection. The involvement of IL-36 in the P. aeruginosa infection could be a clue to find a specific way for treatments of different inflammatory and degenerative lung diseases. IL36 promotes primary immune response via binding to the IL-36 receptor (IL-36R). Indeed, an overactivity of IL-36 might be an initiating factor for many immunopathologic sceneries in pneumonia. Here we demonstrate if the IL-36 cytokine increases in response P. aeruginosa infection that is isolated from lower respiratory tract infection (LRT). We demonstrated that IL-36 expression significantly unregulated in human lung epithelial (A549) cells after infected by P. aeruginosa at mRNA level.

Keywords: IL36, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, LRT infection, A549 cells

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95 Astragaioside IV Inhibits Type2 Allergic Contact Dermatitis in Mice and the Mechanism Through TLRs-NF-kB Pathway

Authors: Xiao Wei, Dandan Sheng, Xiaoyan Jiang, Lili Gui, Huizhu Wang, Xi Yu, Hailiang Liu, Min Hong

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Objective: Mice Type2 allergic contact dermatitis was utilized in this study to explore the effect of AS-IV on Type 2 allergic inflammatory. Methods: The mice were topically sensitized on the shaved abdomens with 1.5% FITC solution on abdominal skin in the day 1 and day 2 and elicited on the right ear with 0.5% FITC solution at day 6. Mice were treated with either AS-IV or normal saline from day 1 to day 5 (induction phase). Auricle swelling was measured 24 h after the elicitation. Ear pathohistological examination was carried out by HE staining. IL-4\IL-13, and IL-9 levels of ear tissue were detected by ELISA. Mice were treated with AS-IV at the initial stage of induction phase, ear tissue was taked at day 3.TSLP level of ear tissue was detected by ELISA and TSLPmRNA\NF-kBmRNA\TLRs(TLR2\TLR3\TLR8\TLR9)mRNA were detected by PCR. Results: AS-IV induction phase evidently inhibited the auricle inflam-mation of the models; pathohistological results indicated that AS-IV induction phase alleviated local edema and angiectasis of mice models and reduced lymphocytic infiltration. AS-IV induction phase markedly decreased IL-4\IL-13, and IL-9 levels in ear tissue. Moreover, at the initial stage of induction pha-se, AS-IV significantly reduced TSLP\TSLPmRNA\NF-kBmRNA\TLR2mRNA\TLR8 mRNA levels in ear tissue. Conclusion: Administration with AS-IV in induction phase could inhibit Type 2 allergic contact dermatitis in mice significantly, and the mechanism may be related with regulating TSLP through TLRs-NF-kB pathway.

Keywords: Astragaioside IV, allergic contact dermatitis, TSLP, interleukin-4, interleukin-13, interleukin-9

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94 Modulation of Lipopolysaccharide Induced Interleukin-17F and Cyclooxygenase-2 Gene Expression by Echinacea purpurea in Broiler Chickens

Authors: Ali Asghar Saki, Sayed Ali Hosseini Siyar, Abbass Ashoori

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This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of Echinacea purpurea on the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), interleukin-17F (IL-17F) in seven-day-old broiler chickens. Four groups were fed with concentration of 0 g/kg, 5 g/kg, 10 g/kg and 20 g/kg from the root of E. purpurea in the basal diet and two other groups were only fed with the basal diet for 21 days. At the 28th day, lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 2 mg/kg diet) was injected in four groups and the basal diet group was injected by saline as control. The chickens’ spleen RNA expression was measured for the COX-2 and IL-17F genes by Real-Time PCR. The results have shown that chickens which were fed E. purpurea had a lower COX-2 and IL-17F mRNA expression. The chickens who have received LPS only, lymphocyte was lower than other treatments. Vital organ weights were not significantly different, but body weight loss was recovered by dietary herbs inclusion. The results of this study have shown the positive effect of an anti-inflammatory herb to prevent the undesirable effect of inflammation.

Keywords: broiler chickens, Echinacea purporea, gene expression, lipopolysaccharide

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93 Mutational and Evolutionary Analysis of Interleukin-2 Gene in Four Pakistani Goat Breeds

Authors: Tanveer Hussain, Misbah Hussain, Masroor Ellahi Babar, Muhammad Traiq Pervez, Fiaz Hussain, Sana Zahoor, Rashid Saif

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Interleukin 2 (IL-2) is a cytokine which is produced by activated T cells, play important role in immune response against antigen. It act in both autocrine and paracrine manner. It can stimulate B cells and various other phagocytic cells like monocytes, lymphokine-activated killer cells and natural killer cells. Acting in autocrine fashion, IL-2 protein plays a crucial role in proliferation of T cells. IL-2 triggers the release of pro and anti- inflammatory cytokines by activating several pathways. In present study, exon 1 of IL-2 gene of four local Pakistani breeds (Dera Din Panah, Beetal, Nachi and Kamori) from two provinces was amplified by using reported Ovine IL-2 primers, yielding PCR product of 501 bp. The sequencing of all samples was done to identify the polymorphisms in amplified region of IL-2 gene. Analysis of sequencing data resulted in identification of one novel nucleotide substitution (T→A) in amplified non-coding region of IL-2 gene. Comparison of IL-2 gene sequence of all four breeds with other goat breeds showed high similarity in sequence. While phylogenetic analysis of our local breeds with other mammals showed that IL-2 is a variable gene which has undergone many substitutions. This high substitution rate can be due to the decreased or increased changed selective pressure. These rapid changes can also lead to the change in function of immune system. This pioneering study of Pakistani goat breeds urge for further studies on immune system of each targeted breed for fully understanding the functional role of IL-2 in goat immunity.

Keywords: interleukin 2, mutational analysis, phylogeny, goat breeds, Pakistan

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92 Development of Immuno-Modulators: Application of Molecular Dynamics Simulation

Authors: Ruqaiya Khalil, Saman Usmani, Zaheer Ul-Haq

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The accurate characterization of ligand binding affinity is indispensable for designing molecules with optimized binding affinity. Computational tools help in many directions to predict quantitative correlations between protein-ligand structure and their binding affinities. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation is a modern state-of-the-art technique to evaluate the underlying basis of ligand-protein interactions by characterizing dynamic and energetic properties during the event. Autoimmune diseases arise from an abnormal immune response of the body against own tissues. The current regimen for the described condition is limited to immune-modulators having compromised pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics profiles. One of the key player mediating immunity and tolerance, thus invoking autoimmunity is Interleukin-2; a cytokine influencing the growth of T cells. Molecular dynamics simulation techniques are applied to seek insight into the inhibitory mechanisms of newly synthesized compounds that manifested immunosuppressant potentials during in silico pipeline. In addition to estimation of free energies associated with ligand binding, MD simulation yielded us a great deal of information about ligand-macromolecule interactions to evaluate the pattern of interactions and the molecular basis of inhibition. The present study is a continuum of our efforts to identify interleukin-2 inhibitors of both natural and synthetic origin. Herein, we report molecular dynamics simulation studies of Interluekin-2 complexed with different antagonists previously reported by our group. The study of protein-ligand dynamics enabled us to gain a better understanding of the contribution of different active site residues in ligand binding. The results of the study will be used as the guide to rationalize the fragment based synthesis of drug-like interleukin-2 inhibitors as immune-modulators.

Keywords: immuno-modulators, MD simulation, protein-ligand interaction, structure-based drug design

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91 Nanoparticles Activated Inflammasome Lead to Airway Hyperresponsiveness and Inflammation in a Mouse Model of Asthma

Authors: Pureun-Haneul Lee, Byeong-Gon Kim, Sun-Hye Lee, An-Soo Jang

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Background: Nanoparticles may pose adverse health effects due to particulate matter inhalation. Nanoparticle exposure induces cell and tissue damage, causing local and systemic inflammatory responses. The inflammasome is a major regulator of inflammation through its activation of pro-caspase-1, which cleaves pro-interleukin-1β (IL-1β) into its mature form and may signal acute and chronic immune responses to nanoparticles. Objective: The aim of the study was to identify whether nanoparticles exaggerates inflammasome pathway leading to airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness in an allergic mice model of asthma. Methods: Mice were treated with saline (sham), OVA-sensitized and challenged (OVA), or titanium dioxide nanoparticles. Lung interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β), interleukin 18 (IL-18), NACHT, LRR and PYD domains-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) and caspase-1 levels were assessed with Western Blot. Caspase-1 was checked by immunohistochemical staining. Reactive oxygen species were measured for the marker 8-isoprostane and carbonyl by ELISA. Results: Airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness increased in OVA-sensitized/challenged mice and these responses were exaggerated by TiO2 nanoparticles exposure. TiO2 nanoparticles treatment increased IL-1β and IL-18 protein expression in OVA-sensitized/challenged mice. TiO2 nanoparticles augmented the expression of NLRP3 and caspase-1 leading to the formation of an active caspase-1 in the lung. Lung caspase-1 expression was increased in OVA-sensitized/challenged mice and these responses were exaggerated by TiO2 nanoparticles exposure. Reactive oxygen species was increased in OVA-sensitized/challenged mice and in OVA-sensitized/challenged plus TiO2 exposed mice. Conclusion: Our data demonstrate that inflammasome pathway activates in asthmatic lungs following nanoparticles exposure, suggesting that targeting the inflammasome may help control nanoparticles-induced airway inflammation and responsiveness.

Keywords: bronchial asthma, inflammation, inflammasome, nanoparticles

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90 Anti-Inflammatory, Anti-Nociceptive and Anti-Arthritic Effects of Mirtazapine, Venalfaxine and Escitalopram in Rats

Authors: Sally A. El Awdan

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Objective and Design: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the anti inflammatory, anti-arthritic and analgesic effects of antidepressants. Methods: Carrageenan model was used to assess effect on acute inflammation. Paw volume were measured at 1, 2, 3 and 4th hour post challenge. Anti-nociceptive effect was evaluated by hot plate method. Chronic inflammation was developed using Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA). The animals were injected with Freund’s adjuvant in sub-plantar tissue of the right posterior paw. Paw volume, ankle flexion scores, adjuvant-induced hyperalgesia and serum cytokine levels were assessed. Results: Results obtained demonstrate that mirtazapine, venalfaxine and escitalopram significantly and dose-dependently inhibited carrageenan-induced rat paw oedema. Mirtazapine, venalfaxine and escitalopram increased the reaction time of rats in hot plate test. We observed an increase in paw volume, ankle flexion scores, thermal hyperalgesia, serum levels of interleukin-1β, PGE2 and TNF-α, induced by intraplantar CFA injection. Regular treatment up to 28 days of adjuvant-induced arthritic rats with mirtazapine, venalfaxine and escitalopram showed anti anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities by suppressing the paw volume, recovering the paw withdrawal latency, and by inhibiting the ankle flexion scores in CFA-induced rats. In addition significant reduction in serum levels of interleukin-1β, PGE2 and TNF-α level in arthritic rats was reduced by treatment with drugs. Conclusion: These results suggest that antidepressants have significant anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive effects in acute and chronic models in rats, which may be associated with the reduction of interleukin-1β, PGE2 and TNF-α levels.

Keywords: antidepressants, carrageenan, anti-nociceptive, Complete Freund's Adjuvant

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89 Evaluation of the Diagnostic Potential of IL-2 as Biomarker for the Discrimination of Active and Latent Tuberculosis

Authors: Shima Mahmoudi, Setareh Mamishi, Babak Pourakbari, Majid Marjani

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In the last years, the potential role of distinct T-cell subsets as biomarkers of active tuberculosis TB and/or latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) has been studied. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential role of interleukin-2 (IL-2) in whole blood stimulated with M. tuberculosis-specific antigens in the QuantiFERON-TB Gold In Tube (QFT-G-IT) for the discrimination of active and latent tuberculosis. After 72-h of stimulation by antigens from the QFT-G-IT assay, IL-2 secretion was quantitated in supernatants by using ELISA (Mabtech AB, Sweden). Observing the level of IL-2 released after 72-h of incubation, we found that the level of IL-2 were significantly higher in LTBI group than in patients with active TB infection or control group (P value=0.019, Kruskal–Wallis test). The discrimination performance (assessed by the area under ROC curve) between LTBI and patients with active TB was 0.816 (95%CI: 0.72-0.97). Maximum discrimination was reached at a cut-off of 13.9 pg/mL for IL-2 following stimulation with 82% sensitivity and 86% specificity. In conclusion, although cytokine analysis has greatly contributed to the understanding of TB pathogenesis, data on cytokine profiles that might distinguish progression from latency of TB infection are scarce and even controversial. Our data indicate that the concomitant evaluation of IFN- γ and IL-2 could be instrumental in discriminating of active and latent TB infection.

Keywords: interleukin-2, discrimination, active TB, latent TB

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88 Safety Profile of Three Commonly Prescribed Interleukin Inhibitors for Psoriasis Treatment: Analysis of Drug Safety Database - Vigibase

Authors: Akanksha Marwah, Kajal Kaushik, Amit Kamboj, Tarni Prakash Shrivastava

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Monoclonal antibodies are known as biological agents targeting specific Interleukins, i.e., IL-17A, IL-17RA, IL-23, AND IL-12/23 associated with the pathogenesis of psoriasis and other chronic inflammatory disorders were comparatively analyzed using WHO VigiFlow ADR reporting database for safety evaluation globally. Spontaneous reports associated with three commonly prescribed interleukin inhibitors, namely; Secukinumab, Ustekinumab, and Brodalumab available in VigiLyze, were analyzed concerning patient demography, the profession of reporter, system organ class (SOC) affected, causality assessment, the seriousness of the adverse event and year-wise analysis of reported ADRs. According to WHO Adverse Reaction Terminology for causality assessment, only 'certain', 'probable,' or 'possible' ADRs were included. Association between drugs and any ADR was assessed by using the case/non-case methodology. The reported ICSRs are higher in numbers for Secukinumab (72926) as compared to Ustekinumab (41480) and Brodalumab (1419). A higher prevalence of ADRs was seen in females for Secukinumab (54.8%) and Ustekinumab (51.5%), while Brodalumab associated ADRs were more in males (55.5%). Out of all three drugs, Ustekinumab has caused more serious ADRs (45.0%) in patients. System organ class mostly reported for ADRs associated with all the three drugs included general disorders and administration site conditions (Avg. 35.53%), and the most reported preferred term was drug ineffective (12.0%) for all the three drugs. This study has identified the potential of the three most prescribed Interleukin inhibitors for causing specific ADRs in patients using these drugs. All these three drugs mostly cause the reaction associated with the involvement of administration sites and general disorders. surprisingly, the preferred term which was most reported for all these drugs was the drug ineffective, which indicates a failure of the drug to cause a therapeutic effect. More focused PV studies in clinical settings are needed to witness the safety profile of Secukinumab, Ustekinumab, and Brodalumab in the treatment of Psoriasis.

Keywords: adverse drug reactions, interleukins, case-non case study, poriasis

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87 Lipoic Acid Accelerates Wound Healing by Diminishing Pro-Inflammatory Markers and Chemokine Expression in Rheumatoid Arthritis Mouse Model

Authors: Khairy M. A. Zoheir

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One of the most severe complications of Rheumatoid arthritis is delayed recovery. lipoic acid possesses antioxidant, hypoglycemic, and anti-inflammatory activity. In the present study, the effects of lipoic acid was investigated on the key mediators of Rheumatoid arthritis, namely, CD4+CD25+ T cell subsets, GITR expressing cells, CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells, T-helper-17 (Th17) cells, and pro-inflammatory cytokines Interleukin-1β (IL-1β), Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and Tumor Necrosis Factor- α (TNF-α)] through flow-cytometry and qPCR analyses. Lipoic acid treated mice showed a significant decrease in the Rheumatoid arthritis, the frequency of GITR-expressing cells, and Th1 cytokines (IL-17A, TNF-αand Interferon- γ (IFN-γ) compared with positive and negative controlled mice. Lipoic acid treatment also down regulated the mRNA expression of the inflammatory mediators compared with the Rheumatoid arthritis mouse model and untreated mice. The number of Tregs also found to be significantly upregulated in lipoic acid treated mice. Our results were confirmed by the histopathological examination. This study showed the beneficial role of lipoic acid in promoting a well-balanced tool for therapy Rheumatoid arthritis.

Keywords: lipoic acid, chemokines, inflammatory, rheumatoid arthritis

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86 Inflammatory Alleviation on Microglia Cells by an Apoptotic Mimicry

Authors: Yi-Feng Kao, Huey-Jine Chai, Chin-I Chang, Yi-Chen Chen, June-Ru Chen

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Microglia is a macrophage that resides in brain, and overactive microglia may result in brain neuron damage or inflammation. In this study, the phospholipids was extracted from squid skin and manufactured into a liposome (SQ liposome) to mimic apoptotic body. We then evaluated anti-inflammatory effects of SQ liposome on mouse microglial cell line (BV-2) by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induction. First, the major phospholipid constituents in the squid skin extract were including 46.2% of phosphatidylcholine, 18.4% of phosphatidylethanolamine, 7.7% of phosphatidylserine, 3.5% of phosphatidylinositol, 4.9% of Lysophosphatidylcholine and 19.3% of other phospholipids by HPLC-UV analysis. The contents of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in the squid skin extract were 11.8 and 28.7%, respectively. The microscopic images showed that microglia cells can engulf apoptotic cells or SQ-liposome. In cell based studies, there was no cytotoxicity to BV-2 as the concentration of SQ-liposome was less than 2.5 mg/mL. The LPS induced pro-inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), were significant suppressed (P < 0.05) by pretreated 0.03~2.5mg/ml SQ liposome. Oppositely, the anti-inflammatory cytokines transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) secretion were enhanced (P < 0.05). The results suggested that SQ-liposome possess anti-inflammatory properties on BV-2 and may be a good strategy for against neuro-inflammatory disease.

Keywords: apoptotic mimicry, neuroinflammation, microglia, squid processing by-products

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85 The Effect of Two Methods of Upper and Lower Resistance Exercise Training on C-Reactive Protein, Interleukin-6 and Intracellular Adhesion Molecule-1 in Healthy Untrained Women

Authors: Leyla Sattarzadeh, Maghsoud Peeri, Mohammadali Azarbaijani, Hasan Matin Homaee

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Inflammation by various mechanisms may cause atherosclerosis. Systemic circulating inflammatory markers such as C-reactive protein (CRP), pro-inflammatory cytokines such as Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and adhesion molecules like Intracellular Adhesion Molecule-1 (ICAM-1) are the predictors of cardiovascular diseases. Regarding the conflicting results about the effect of resistance exercise training on these inflammatory markers, the present study aimed to examine the effect of eight week different patterns of resistance exercise training on CRP, IL-6 and ICAM-1 levels in healthy untrained women. 40 volunteered and healthy untrained female university students (aged: 21+ 3 yr., Body Mass Index: 21.5+ 3.5 kg/m2) were selected purposefully and divided into three groups. At the end of training protocol and after subjects drop during the protocol in upper body exercise training (n=11), lower body (n=12) completed the eight week of training period although the control group (n=7) did anything. Blood samples gathered pre and post experimental period and CRP, IL-6 and ICAM-1 levels were evaluated using special laboratory kits, then the difference of pre and post values of each indices analyzed using one way Analysis of Variance (α < 0.05). The results of one way ANOVA for difference of pre and post values of CRP and ICAM-1 showed no significant changes due to the exercise training. But there were significant differences between groups about IL-6. Tukey post- hoc test indicated that there is significant difference between the differences of pre and post values of IL-6 between lower body exercise training group and control group, and eight weeks of lower body exercise training lead to significant changes in IL-6 values. There were no changes in anthropometric indices. The findings show that the different patterns of upper and lower body exercise training by involving the different amount of muscles altered the IL-6 values in lower body exercise training group probably because of engaging the bigger amount of muscles, but showed any significant changes about CRP and ICAM-1 probably due to intensity and duration of exercise or the lower levels of these markers at baseline of healthy people.

Keywords: C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, intracellular adhesion molecule-1, resistance training

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84 Correlative Study of Serum Interleukin-18 and Disease Activity, Functional Disability and Quality of Life in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients

Authors: Hamdy Khamis Korayem, Manal Yehia Tayel, Abeer Shawky El Hadedy, Emmanuel Kamal Aziz Saba, Shimaa Badr Abdelnaby Badr

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The aim of the current study was to demonstrate whether serum Interleukin-18 (IL-18) is increased in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and its correlation with disease activity, functional disability and quality of life in RA patients. The study included 30 RA patients and 20 healthy normal control subjects. The RA patients were diagnosed according to the 2010 ACR/EULAR classification criteria for RA with the exclusion of those who had diabetes mellitus, endocrine disorders, associated rheumatologic diseases, viral hepatitis B or C and other diseases with increased serum IL-18 level. All patients were subjected to clinical evaluation of the musculoskeletal system. Disease activity was assessed by disease activity score 28 with 4 variables (DAS 28). Functional disability was assessed by health assessment questionnaire disability index (HAQ-DI). The quality of life was assessed by Short form-36 (SF-36) questionnaire. Radiological assessment of both hands and feet by Sharp/van der Heijde (SvH) scoring method. Laboratory parameters including erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP), rheumatoid factor (RF) and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody (ACPA) were assessed in patients and serum level of IL-18 in both patients and control subjects. There was no statistically significant difference between patient and control group as regards age and sex. Among patients, 29 % were females and the age range was between 25 to 55 years. Extra-articular manifestations were presented in 56.7% of the patients. The mean of DAS 28 score was 5.73±1.46 and that of HAQ-DI was 1.22±0.72 while that of SF-36 was 40.03±13.96. The level of serum IL-18 was significantly higher in patients than in the control subjects (P= 0.030). Serum IL-18 was correlated with ACPA among the patient group. There were no statistically significant correlations between serum IL-18 and DAS28, HAQ-DI, SF-36, total SvH score and the other laboratory results. In conclusion, IL-18 is significantly higher in RA patient than in healthy control subjects and positively correlated with ACPA level. IL-18 is associated with extra-articular manifestations. However, it is not correlated with other laboratory parameters, disease activity, functional disability, quality of life nor radiological severity.

Keywords: disease activity score, Interleukin-18, quality of life assessment, rheumatoid arthritis

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83 Tocilizumab Suppresses the Pro-carcinogenic Effects of Breast Cancer-associated Fibroblasts Through Inhibition of the STAT3/AUF1 Pathway

Authors: Naif Al-Jomah, Falah H Al-Mohanna, Abdelilah Aboussekhra

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Active breast cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs), the most influential cells in breast tumor microenvironment, express/secrete high levels of the proinvasive/metastatic interleukin-6 (IL-6). Therefore, we have tested here the effect of the IL-6 receptor (IL-6R) inhibitor tocilizumab (TCZ; Actemra) on different active breast CAFs. We have shown that TCZ potently and persistently suppresses the expression of various CAF biomarkers, namely α-SMA, SDF-1 as well as the STAT3 pathway and its downstream target AUF1. TCZ also inhibited the proliferation, migration and invasion abilities of active breast CAF cells. Additionally, TCZ repressed the ability of CAF cells in promoting epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, and enhancing the migratory/invasive and proliferative capacities of breast cancer cells in vitro. Importantly, these findings were confirmed in orthotopic humanized breast tumors in mice. Furthermore, TCZ suppressed the expression of the pro-angiogenic factor VEGF-A and its transactivator HIF-1α in CAF cells, and consequently inhibited the angiogenic-promoting effect of active CAFs both in vitro and in orthotopic tumor xenografts. These results indicate that inhibition of the IL-6/STAT3/AUF1 pathway by TCZ can normalize active breast CAFs and suppress their paracrine pro-carcinogenic effects, which paves the way toward development of specific CAF-targeting therapy, badly needed for more efficient breast cancer treatments.

Keywords: angiogenesis, interleukin-6, paracrine, cancer-associated fibroblasts

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82 Ethanol Extract of Potentilla pradoxa Nutt Inhibits LPS-induced Inflammatory Responses via NF-κB and AP-1 Inactivation

Authors: Hae-Jun Lee, Ji-Sun Shin, Kyung-Tae Lee

Abstract:

Potentilla species (Rosasease) have been used in traditional medicine to treat different ailment, disease or malady. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of ethanol extracts of NUTT (EPP) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced Raw 264.7 macrophages and septic mice. EPP suppressed LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production in LPS-induced Raw 264.7 macrophages. Consistent with these observations, EPP reduced the expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) by downregulation of their promoter activities. EPP inhibited tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) at production and mRNA levels. Molecularly, EPP attenuated the LPS-induced transcriptional activity, and DNA-binding activity of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), and this was associated with a decrease of translocation and phosphorylation of p65 NF-κB by inhibiting the inhibitory κB-α (IκB-α) degradation and IκB kinase-α/β (IKK-α/β) phosphorylation. Furthermore, EPP suppressed the LPS-induced activation of activator protein-1 (AP-1) by reducing the expression of c-Fos and c-Jun in nuclear. EPP also reduced the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), such as p38 MAPK and c-Jun N-terminal kinase/stress-activated protein kinase (JNK). In a sepsis model, pretreatment with EPP reduced the LPS-induced lethality. Collectively, these results suggest that the anti-inflammatory effects of EPP were associated with the suppression of NF-κB and AP-1 activation, and support its possible therapeutic role for the treatment of sepsis.

Keywords: anti-inflammation, activator protein-1, nuclear factor κB, Potentilla paradoxa Nutt

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81 Immunomodulation by Interleukin-10 Therapy in Mouse Airway Transplantation

Authors: Mohammaad Afzal Khan, Ghazi Abdulmalik Ashoor , Fatimah Alanazi, Talal Shamma, Abdullah Altuhami, Hala Abdalrahman Ahmed, Abdullah Mohammed Assiri, Dieter Clemens Broering

Abstract:

Microvascular injuries during inflammation are key causes of transplant malfunctioning and permanent failure, which play a major role in the development of chronic rejection of the transplanted organ. Inflammation-induced microvascular loss is a promising area to investigate the decisive roles of regulatory and effector responses. The present study was designed to investigate the impact of IL-10 on immunotolerance, in particular, the microenvironment of the allograft during rejection. Here, we investigated the effects of IL-10 blockade/ reconstitution and serially monitored regulatory T cells (Tregs), graft microvasculature, and airway epithelium in rejecting airway transplants. We demonstrated that the blocking/reconstitution of IL-10 significantly modulates CD4+FOXP3+ Tregs, microvasculature, and airway epithelium during rejection. Our findings further highlighted that blockade of IL-10 upregulated proinflammatory cytokines, IL-2, IL-1β, IFN-γ, IL-15, and IL-23, but suppressed IL-5 secretion during rejection; however, reconstitution of IL-10 significantly upregulated CD4+FOXP3+ Tregs, tissue oxygenation/blood flow and airway repair. Collectively, these findings demonstrate a potential reparative modulation of IL-10 during microvascular and epithelial repair, which could provide a vital therapeutic window to rejecting transplants in clinical practice.

Keywords: interleukin -10, regulatory T cells, allograft rejection, immunotolerance

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80 Melatonin Suppresses the Brain Injury after Cerebral Ischemia/Reperfusion in Hyperglycemic Rats

Authors: Dalia O. Saleha, Gehad A. Abdel Jaleela, Sally W. Al-Awdana

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Diabetes mellitus (DM) is known to exacerbate cerebral ischemic injury. The present study aimed to investigate the anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of oral supplementation of melatonin (MLN) on cerebral injury caused by middle cerebral artery occlusion and reperfusion (MCAO/Re) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced hyperglycemic rats. Hyperglycemia was induced by a single injection of STZ (55mg/kg; i.p.), six weeks later the cerebral injury was induced by MCAO/Re. Twenty-four hours after the MCAO/Re the MLN (10 mg/kg) was injected for 14 consecutive days. Results of the present study revealed that MCAO/Re in STZ-induced hyperglycemia in rats causes an increase in the oxidative stress biomarkers; it increased brain lipid peroxidation (measured as malondialdehyde; MDA) and brain level of nitric oxide (NO). Moreover, MCAO/Reproduces a prominent increase in the brain inflammatory markers viz. interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis nuclear factor-alpha (TNF-α). Oral treatment of MCAO/Re in STZ-induced hyperglycemic rats with MLN (10 mg/kg) for two weeks restored the brain levels of MDA, GSH, NO, IL-6, IL-1β and the TNF-α. MLN succeeded to suppress the exacerbation of damage in the brain of hyperglycemic rats. These results suggest that daily intake of MLN attenuates the exacerbation of cerebral ischemic injury in a diabetic state, which may be attributed to anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects in the brain.

Keywords: melatonin, brain injury, cerebral ischemia/reperfusion, hyperglycemia, rats

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79 Suppression of Immunostimulatory Function of Dendritic Cells and Prolongation of Skin Allograft Survival by Dryocrassin

Authors: Hsin-Lien Lin, Ju-Hui Fu

Abstract:

Dendritic cells (DCs) are the major professional antigen-presenting cells for the development of optimal T-cell immunity. DCs can be used as pharmacological targets to screen novel biological modifiers for the treatment of harmful immune responses, such as transplantation rejection. Dryopteris crassirhizoma Nakai (Aspiadaceae) is used for traditional herbal medicine in the region of East Asia. The root of this fern plant has been listed for treating inflammatory diseases. Dryocrassin is the tetrameric phlorophenone component derived from Dryopteris. Here, we tested the immunomodulatory potential of dryocrassin on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated activation of mouse bone marrow-derived DCs in vitro and in skin allograft transplantation in vivo. Results demonstrated that dryocrassin reduced the secretion of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, and interleukin-12p70 by LPS-stimulated DCs. The expression of LPS-induced major histocompatibility complex class II, CD40, and CD86 on DCs was also blocked by dryocrassin. Moreover, LPS-stimulated DC-elicited allogeneic T-cell proliferation was lessened by dryocrassin. In addition, dryocrassin inhibited LPS-induced activation of IϰB kinase, JNK/p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, as well as the translocation of NF-ϰB. Treatment with dryocrassin obviously diminished 2,4-dinitro-1-fluorobenzene- induced delayed-type hypersensitivity and prolonged skin allograft survival. Dryocrassin may be one of the potent immunosuppressive agents for transplant rejection through the destruction of DC maturation and function.

Keywords: dryocrassin, dendritic cells, immunosuppression, skin allograft

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78 Role of Interleukin 6 on Cell Differentiations in Stem Cells Isolated from Human Exfoliated Deciduous Teeth

Authors: Nunthawan Nowwarote, Waleerat Sukarawan, Prasit Pavasant, Thanaphum Osathanon

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Interleukin 6 (IL-6) is a multifunctional cytokine, regulating various biological responses in several tissues. A Recent study shows that IL-6 plays a role in stemness maintenance in stem cells isolated from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHEDs). However, the role of IL-6 on cell differentiation in SHEDs remains unknown. The present study investigated the effect of IL-6 on SHEDs differentiation. Cells were isolated from dental pulp tissues of human deciduous teeth. Flow cytometry was used to determined mesenchymal stem cell marker expression, and the multipotential differentiation (osteogenic, adipogenic and neurogenic lineage ) was also determined. The mRNA was determined using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and the phenotypes were confirmed by chemical and immunofluorescence staining. Results demonstrated that SHEDs expressed CD44, CD73, CD90, CD105 but not CD45. Further, the up-regulation of osteogenic, adipogenic and neurogenic marker genes was observed upon maintaining cells in osteogenic, adipogenic and neurogenic induction medium, respectively. The addition of IL-6 induced osteogenic by up-regulated osteogenic marker gene also increased in vitro mineralization. Under neurogenic medium supplement with IL-6, up-regulated neurogenic marker. Whereas, an addition of IL-6 attenuated adipogenic differentiation by SHEDs. In conclusion, this evidence implies that IL-6 may participate in cells differentiation ability of SHEDs.

Keywords: SHEDs, IL-6, cell differentiations, dental pulp

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77 In vitro Study of Inflammatory Gene Expression Suppression of Strawberry and Blackberry Extracts

Authors: Franco Van De Velde, Debora Esposito, Maria E. Pirovani, Mary A. Lila

Abstract:

The physiology of various inflammatory diseases is a complex process mediated by inflammatory and immune cells such as macrophages and monocytes. Chronic inflammation, as observed in many cardiovascular and autoimmune disorders, occurs when the low-grade inflammatory response fails to resolve with time. Because of the complexity of the chronic inflammatory disease, major efforts have focused on identifying novel anti-inflammatory agents and dietary regimes that prevent the pro-inflammatory process at the early stage of gene expression of key pro-inflammatory mediators and cytokines. The ability of the extracts of three blackberry cultivars (‘Jumbo’, ‘Black Satin’ and ‘Dirksen’), and one strawberry cultivar (‘Camarosa’) to inhibit four well-known genetic biomarkers of inflammation: inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxynase-2 (Cox-2), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in an in vitro lipopolysaccharide-stimulated murine RAW 264.7 macrophage model were investigated. Moreover, the effect of latter extracts on the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) production was assessed. Assay was conducted with 50 µg/mL crude extract concentration, an amount that is easily achievable in the gastrointestinal tract after berries consumption. The mRNA expression levels of Cox-2 and IL-6 were reduced consistently (more than 30%) by extracts of ‘Jumbo’ and ‘Black Satin’ blackberries. Strawberry extracts showed high reduction in mRNA expression levels of IL-6 (more than 65%) and exhibited moderate reduction in mRNA expression of Cox-2 (more than 35%). The latter behavior mirrors the intracellular ROS production of the LPS stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages after the treatment with blackberry ‘Black Satin’ and ‘Jumbo’, and strawberry ‘Camarosa’ extracts, suggesting that phytochemicals from these fruits may play a role in the health maintenance by reducing oxidative stress. On the other hand, effective inhibition in the gene expression of IL-1β and iNOS was not observed by any of blackberry and strawberry extracts. However, suppression in the NO production in the activated macrophages among 5–25% was observed by ‘Jumbo’ and ‘Black Satin’ blackberry extracts and ‘Camarosa’ strawberry extracts, suggesting a higher NO suppression property by phytochemicals of these fruits. All these results suggest the potential beneficial effects of studied berries as functional foods with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory roles. Moreover, the underlying role of phytochemicals from these fruits in the protection of inflammatory process will deserve to be further explored.

Keywords: cyclooxygenase-2, functional foods, interleukin-6, reactive oxygen species

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76 Antioxidant Effects of C-Phycocyanin on Oxidized Astrocyte in Brain Injury Using 2D and 3D Neural Nanofiber Tissue Model

Authors: Seung Ju Yeon, Seul Ki Min, Jun Sang Park, Yeo Seon Kwon, Hoo Cheol Lee, Hyun Jung Shim, Il-Doo Kim, Ja Kyeong Lee, Hwa Sung Shin

Abstract:

In brain injury, depleting oxidative stress is the most effective way to reduce the brain infarct size. C-phycocyanin (C-Pc) is a well-known antioxidant protein that has neuroprotective effects obtained from green microalgae. Astrocyte is glial cell that supports the nerve cell such as neuron, which account for a large portion of the brain. In brain injury, such as ischemia and reperfusion, astrocyte has an important rule that overcomes the oxidative stress and protect from brain reactive oxygen species (ROS) injury. However little is known about how C-Pc regulates the anti-oxidants effects of astrocyte. In this study, when the C-Pc was treated in oxidized astrocyte, we confirmed that inflammatory factors Interleukin-6 and Interleukin-3 were increased and antioxidants enzyme, Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase was upregulated, and neurotrophic factors, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and nerve growth factor (NGF) was alleviated. Also, it was confirmed to reduce infarct size of the brain in ischemia and reperfusion because C-Pc has anti-oxidant effects in middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) animal model. These results show that C-Pc can help astrocytes lead neuroprotective activities in the oxidative stressed environment of the brain. In summary, the C-PC protects astrocytes from oxidative stress and has anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, neurotrophic effects under ischemic situations.

Keywords: c-phycocyanin, astrocyte, reactive oxygen species, ischemia and reperfusion, neuroprotective effect

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75 Endeavor to Develop Immunological and Hematological Early Diagnostic Marker to Check the Conversion of Asymptomatic to Symptomatic Visceral Leishmaniasis

Authors: Roshan Kamal Topno, Maneesh Kumar, Manas Ranjan Dikhit, Krishna Pandey, Major Madhukar, Vidhya Nand Rabidas, Vahab Ali, Ganesh Chandra Sahoo, Bhawana, Devendra Prasad Yadav, Rishikesh Kumar, Pradeep Das

Abstract:

A diagnostic marker for asymptomatic subject becomes a crucial need for advocating early prophylactic majors to control protozoal infection. The main issue in epidemiological affected regions is the presence of an asymptomatic individual that might potentially convert to a symptomatic visceral leishmaniasis (VL). The epidemiological study has been conducted at highly VL endemic Moriyama village in Patna district, Bihar, India that covers total population of 1540 individuals. Here, 1104(74.02%) people had been randomly screened and only 46 (4.17%) asymptomatic individuals were found sero-positive by the rK39 test. After taking signed informed consent form, blood samples were collected from 46 asymptomatic subjects for further hematological and immunological tests. Total leukocyte count, hemoglobin (gm%), neutrophil, lymphocyte, platelet count and interleukin-10 (IL-10) had been included as diagnostic markers. Interestingly only 5 (10.86%) individuals showed their asymptomatic conversion into symptomatic VL patients during quarterly surveillance. In overall analysis only two markers are suggestive for disease conversion that is hemoglobin (gm%) and IL-10. In all the infected patients, both the mean decrease in hemoglobin and mean increase of IL-10 was 19.23% from its normal value. The results might suggest that hematological and immunological changes would become helpful for early diagnosis of asymptomatic to symptomatic VL conversion.

Keywords: asymptomatic, epidemiological, symptomatic visceral leishmaniasis, hemoglobin (gm%), interleukin-10, diagnosis

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74 Protective Effects of Genistein against Cyclophosphamide-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats: Involvement of Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Oxidant Activities

Authors: Dina F. Mansour, Dalia O. Saleh, Rasha E. Mostafa

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Cyclophosphamide (CP), the most commonly used chemotherapeutic agent, was reported to cause many side effects including urotoxicity, cardiotoxicity, gonadotoxicity, and hepatotoxicity; this limits its clinical practice. In the present study, the protective effect of genistein (GEN), the major phytoestrogen in soy products that possesses various pharmacological activities, has been investigated against CP-induced acute liver damage in rats. Forty adult Sprague-Dawley rats were allocated into five groups. The first group received the vehicles and act as normal control. In the other groups, rats were injected with a single dose of CP (200 mg/kg, i.p). The last three groups were pretreated with subcutaneous GEN at doses of 0.5, 1 and 2 mg/kg/day, respectively, for 15 consecutive days prior CP injection. Forty-eight hours following CP injection, rats of all groups were investigated for the serum levels of alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase, as well as the liver contents of reduced glutathione, malondialdehyde, nitrite, interleukin-1β, and myeloperoxidase. Histopathological examination of liver tissues was also conducted. CP resulted in acute liver damage in rats as evidenced by alteration of liver function biomarkers, oxidative stress, and inflammatory markers; that was confirmed by the histopathological outcomes. Pretreatment of rats with GEN significantly protected against CP-induced deterioration of liver function and showed marked anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties that were demonstrated by the biochemical and histopathological findings. In conclusion, the present findings demonstrated the protective effects of GEN against CP-induced liver damage and suggested role of its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities.

Keywords: cyclophosphamide, genistein, inflammation, interleukin-1β, liver, myeloperoxidase, oxidative stress

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73 Increased Cytolytic Activity of Effector T-Cells against Cholangiocarcinoma Cells by Self-Differentiated Dendritic Cells with Down-Regulation of Interleukin-10 and Transforming Growth Factor-β Receptors

Authors: Chutamas Thepmalee, Aussara Panya, Mutita Junking, Jatuporn Sujjitjoon, Nunghathai Sawasdee, Pa-Thai Yenchitsomanus

Abstract:

Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is an aggressive malignancy of bile duct epithelial cells in which the standard treatments, including surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and targeted therapy are partially effective. Many solid tumors including CCA escape host immune responses by creating tumor microenvironment and generating immunosuppressive cytokines such as interleukin-10 (IL-10) and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β). These cytokines can inhibit dendritic cell (DC) differentiation and function, leading to decreased activation and response of effector CD4+ and CD8+ T cells for cancer cell elimination. To overcome the effects of these immunosuppressive cytokines and to increase ability of DC to activate effector CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, we generated self-differentiated DCs (SD-DCs) with down-regulation of IL-10 and TGF-β receptors for activation of effector CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Human peripheral blood monocytes were initially transduced with lentiviral particles containing the genes encoding GM-CSF and IL-4 and then secondly transduced with lentiviral particles containing short-hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) to knock-down mRNAs of IL-10 and TGF-β receptors. The generated SD-DCs showed up-regulation of MHC class II (HLA-DR) and co-stimulatory molecules (CD40 and CD86), comparable to those of DCs generated by convention method. Suppression of IL-10 and TGF-β receptors on SD-DCs by specific shRNAs significantly increased levels of IFN-γ and also increased cytolytic activity of DC-activated effector T cells against CCA cell lines (KKU-213 and KKU-100), but it had little effect to immortalized cholangiocytes (MMNK-1). Thus, SD-DCs with down-regulation of IL-10 and TGF-β receptors increased activation of effector T cells, which is a recommended method to improve DC function for the preparation of DC-activated effector T cells for adoptive T-cell therapy.

Keywords: cholangiocarcinoma, IL-10 receptor, self-differentiated dendritic cells, TGF-β receptor

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72 In vitro Modulation of Cytokine Expression by an Aqueous Licorice Extract in Canine

Authors: A. Watson, G. Telford, D. I. Pritchard

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Objective: We investigated the immunomodulatory ability of licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra). Such activities could have value for the management of common immunological diseases in dogs, such as environmental allergy. This study investigated the potential of a Licorice root extract (LRE) to influence the relative expression of Th-1, Th-2, and Th-17 cytokines in canine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Methods: A LRE was prepared using an alcoholic-aqueous-based solvent method. The extract was tested in three in vitro assays using canine leukocytes to determine its toxicity and immunoregulatory profile. Extract toxicity was assessed using the human T-lymphocyte cell line, Jurkat E6.1. The impact of the extract on the proliferation of concanavalin-activated canine PBMC was also determined. Finally, the extract was assessed for its ability to influence cytokine release in activated PBMC, measuring culture medium concentrations of interleukin-17, interferon gamma, and interleukin-4. One-way ANOVA followed by Dunnett’s post-test was used for statistics using concanavalin positive control as reference (p ≤ 0.05). Results: There was evidence that the LRE had specific immunomodulatory properties, causing significant inhibition of IL4 expression over a non-toxic/non-cytostatic concentration range (p < 0.001). In the same cell incubations, there was no significant impact on IL17 nor IFNg over the same non-toxic/non-cytostatic concentration range. Conclusion: The study provides in vitro evidence that LRE preferentially reduces the expression of a Th-2-type cytokine, IL4. The dog population, as with humans, is prone to conditions associated with a Th-2 bias of the immune system, such as environmental allergy. Based on these results, licorice merits further evaluation as a useful immune modulator for such allergic diseases.

Keywords: cytokine, Glycyrrhiza glabra, peripheral blood mononuclear cells, T-cell activation

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