Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 10

Search results for: Agatha Swasti Ayuning Tyas

10 Effect of Goat Milk Kefir and Soy Milk Kefir on IL-6 in Diabetes Mellitus Wistar Mice Models Induced by Streptozotocin and Nicotinamide

Authors: Agatha Swasti Ayuning Tyas

Abstract:

Hyperglycemia in Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is an important factor in cellular and vascular damage, which is caused by activation of C Protein Kinase, polyol and hexosamine track, and production of Advanced Glycation End-Products (AGE). Those mentioned before causes the accumulation of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS). Oxidative stress increases the expression of proinflammatory factors IL-6 as one of many signs of endothelial disfunction. Genistein in soy milk has a high immunomodulator potential. Goat milk contains amino acids which have antioxidative potential. Fermented kefir has an anti-inflammatory activity which believed will also contribute in potentiating goat milk and soy milk. This study is a quasi-experimental posttest-only research to 30 Wistar mice. This study compared the levels of IL-6 between healthy Wistar mice group (G1) and 4 DM Wistar mice with intervention and grouped as follows: mice without treatment (G2), mice treated with 100% goat milk kefir (G3), mice treated with combination of 50% goat milk kefir and 50% soy milk kefir (G4), and mice treated with 100% soy milk kefir (G5). DM animal models were induced with Streptozotocin & Nicotinamide to achieve hyperglycemic condition. Goat milk kefir and soy milk kefir are given at a dose of 2 mL/kg body weight/day for four weeks to intervention groups. Blood glucose was analyzed by the GOD-POD principle. IL-6 was analyzed by enzyme-linked sandwich ELISA. The level of IL-6 in DM untreated control group (G2) showed a significant difference from the group treated with the combination of 50% goat milk kefir and 50% soy milk kefir (G3) (p=0,006) and the group treated with 100% soy milk kefir (G5) (p=0,009). Whereas the difference of IL-6 in group treated with 100% goat milk kefir (G3) was not significant (p=0,131). There is also synergism between glucose level and IL-6 in intervention groups treated with combination of 50% goat milk kefir and 50% soy milk kefir (G3) and the group treated with 100% soy milk kefir (G5). Combination of 50 % goat milk kefir and 50% soy milk kefir and administration of 100% soy milk kefir alone can control the level of IL-6 remained low in DM Wistar mice induced with streptozocin and nicotinamide.

Keywords: diabetes mellitus, goat milk kefir, soy milk kefir, interleukin 6

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9 Conceptualizing the Knowledge to Manage and Utilize Data Assets in the Context of Digitization: Case Studies of Multinational Industrial Enterprises

Authors: Martin Böhmer, Agatha Dabrowski, Boris Otto

Abstract:

The trend of digitization significantly changes the role of data for enterprises. Data turn from an enabler to an intangible organizational asset that requires management and qualifies as a tradeable good. The idea of a networked economy has gained momentum in the data domain as collaborative approaches for data management emerge. Traditional organizational knowledge consequently needs to be extended by comprehensive knowledge about data. The knowledge about data is vital for organizations to ensure that data quality requirements are met and data can be effectively utilized and sovereignly governed. As this specific knowledge has been paid little attention to so far by academics, the aim of the research presented in this paper is to conceptualize it by proposing a “data knowledge model”. Relevant model entities have been identified based on a design science research (DSR) approach that iteratively integrates insights of various industry case studies and literature research.

Keywords: data management, digitization, industry 4.0, knowledge engineering, metamodel

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8 Biosurfactant-Mediated Nanoparticle Synthesis by Bacillus subtilis

Authors: Satya Eswari Jujjavarapu, Swasti Dhagat, Lata Upadhyay, Reecha Sahu

Abstract:

Silver nanoparticles have a broad range of antimicrobial and antifungal properties ranging from soaps, pastes to sterilization and drug delivery systems. These can be synthesized by physical, chemical and biological methods; biological methods being the most popular owing to their non-toxic nature and reduced energy requirements. Microbial surfactants, produced on the microbial cell surface or excreted extracellularly are an alternative to synthetic surfactants for the production of silver nanoparticles. Hence, they are also called as green molecules. Microbial lipopeptide surfactants (biosurfactant) exhibit anti-tumor and anti-microbial properties and can be used as drug delivery agents. In this study, biosurfactant was synthesized by using a strain of acillus subtilis. The biosurfactant thus produced was analysed by emulsification assay, oil spilling test, and haemolytic test. Biosurfactant-mediated silver nanoparticles were synthesised by microwave irradiation of the culture supernatant and further characterized by UV–vis spectroscopy for a range of 400-600 nm. The UV–vis spectra showed a surface plasmon resonance vibration band at 410 nm corresponding to the peak of silver nanoparticles.

Keywords: biosurfactant, Bacillus subtilis, silver nano particle, lipopeptide

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7 Robustness of Steel Beam to Column Moment Resisting Joints

Authors: G. Culache, M. P. Byfield, N. S. Ferguson, A. Tyas

Abstract:

Steel joints in building structures represent a weak link in the case of accidental transient loading. This type of loading can occur due to blast effects or impact with moving vehicles and will result in large deformations in the material as well as large rotations. This paper addresses the lack of experimental investigations into the response of moment resisting connections subjected to such loading. The current design philosophy was used to create test specimens with flush and extended end plates. The specimens were tested in a specially designed testing rig capable of delivering the sustained loading even beyond the point of failure. Types of failure that the authors attempted to obtain were bolt fracture, flange crushing and end plate fracture. Experimental data is presented, described and analyzed. The tests show that the strength and ductility can be significantly improved by replacing ordinary mild-steel bolts with their stainless steel equivalents. This minor modification is demonstrated to significantly improve the robustness when subjected to loading that results in high deformations and rotation, where loading is maintained during failure. Conclusions are drawn about the wider implications of this research and recommendations made on the direction of future research in this field.

Keywords: steel moment connections, high strain rates, dynamic loading, experimental testing

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6 Creativity, Skill, and Intelligence as Understood by Tradition Rooted Craftspersons

Authors: Swasti Singh Ghai

Abstract:

Creativity is understood as an intersubjective phenomenon shaped by socio-cultural values and economic forces. Creativity as a means to achieve progress is a very modern concept, driven by a global capitalist market economy. The dominant urban, often first-world articulations of creativity, overshadow the rural, local and cultural notions of people in the developing nations. Artisanal practices of making grounded in preindustrial and pre-capitalist contexts hold varying cultural and region-specific concepts and standards for ascribing creativity to a person or product, or process. These notions reflect the underlying philosophy that constitutes their worldview. The process of colonization through western education has blurred or overlapped some of these key philosophical concepts. This article adopts a post-colonial stance to understand the perceptions of skill, intelligence and creativity among tradition rooted textile craft practitioners of Kutch, Gujarat in India. The artisans, while negotiating their space in the contemporary markets, are making efforts to include the modern categories of art, craft, and design in their worldview. The paper will first review theories of creativity that throw light on the link between skill, intelligence and creativity. Then the paper will use secondary research and data from interviews to share crafts person notions of skill, creativity and intelligence and their interrelationship.

Keywords: traditional craft, textile, creativity, skill, intelligence

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5 Analysis of Bed Load Sediment Transport Mataram-Babarsari Irrigation Canal

Authors: Agatha Padma Laksitaningtyas, Sumiyati Gunawan

Abstract:

Mataram Irrigation Canal has 31,2 km length, is the main irrigation canal in Special Region Province of Yogyakarta, connecting Progo River on the west side and Opak River on the east side. It has an important role as the main water carrier distribution for various purposes such as agriculture, fishery, and plantation which should be free from sediment material. Bed Load Sediment is the basic sediment that will make the sediment process on the irrigation canal. Sediment process is a simultaneous event that can make deposition sediment at the base of irrigation canal and can make the height of elevation water change, it will affect the availability of water to be used for irrigation functions. To predict the amount of drowning sediments in the irrigation canal using two methods: Meyer-Peter and Muller’s Method which is an energy approach method and Einstein Method which is a probabilistic approach. Speed measurement using floating method and using current meters. The channel geometry is measured directly in the field. The basic sediment of the channel is taken in the field by taking three samples from three different points. The result of the research shows that by using the formula Meyer -Peter Muller get the result of 60,75799 kg/s, whereas with Einsten’s Method get result of 13,06461 kg/s. the results may serve as a reference for dredging the sediments on the channel so as not to disrupt the flow of water in irrigation canal.

Keywords: bed load, sediment, irrigation, Mataram canal

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4 Radial Variation of Anatomical Characteristics in Three Native Fast-Growing Species Growing in South Kalimantan, Indonesia

Authors: Wiwin Tyas Istikowati, Futoshi Ishiguri, Haruna Aisho, Budi Sutiya, Imam Wahyudi, Kazuya Iizuka, Shinso Yokota

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to investigate the anatomical characteristics of three native fast-growing species, terap (Artocarpus elasticus Reinw. ex Blume), medang (Neolitsea latifolia (Blume) S. Moore), and balik angin (Alphitonia excelsa (Fenzel) Reissek ex Benth) growing in the secondary forest in South Kalimantan, Indonesia for evaluating the possibility of tree breeding for wood quality. Cell lengths were investigated for 5 trees in each species at several different height positions (1.0, 3.0, 5.0, 7.0, 9.0, and 11.0 m above the ground). The mean values of fiber and vessel element lengths in terap, medang, and balik angin were 1.52 and 0.44, 1.16 and 0.53, and 1.02 and 0.49 mm, respectively. Fiber length in terap and balik angin gradually increased from pith to bark, whereas it increased up to 2 cm and then became nearly constant to the bark in medang. Vessel element length was almost constant from pith to bark in terap and balik angin, while slightly increased from pith to bark in medang. Fiber length in terap has a fluctuation pattern from ground level to top of the tree. It decreased up to 3 m above the ground, increased up to 5 m, and then decreased to the top of the tree. On the other hand, vessel element length slightly increased up to 5 m above the ground, and then decreased to the top of the tree. Both fiber and vessel element lengths in medang were almost constant from ground level to top of the tree, whereas decreased from ground level to top of the tree in balik angin. Significant difference at 1% level among trees was found in both fiber and vessel element length in both radial and longitudinal directions for terap and medang. Based on obtained results, it is concluded that the wood quality in fiber and vessel element lengths of terap and medang can be improved by tree breeding programs.

Keywords: anatomical properties, fiber length, vessel elements length, fast-growing species

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3 Determination of the Toxicity of a Lunar Dust Simulant on Human Alveolar Epithelial Cells and Macrophages in vitro

Authors: Agatha Bebbington, Terry Tetley, Kathryn Hadler

Abstract:

Background: Astronauts will set foot on the Moon later this decade, and are at high risk of lunar dust inhalation. Freshly-fractured lunar dust produces reactive oxygen species in solution, which are known to cause cellular damage and inflammation. Cytotoxicity and inflammatory mediator release was measured in pulmonary alveolar epithelial cells (cells that line the gas-exchange zone of the lung) exposed to a lunar dust simulant, LMS-1. It was hypothesised that freshly-fractured LMS-1 would result in increased cytotoxicity and inflammatory mediator release, owing to the angular morphology and high reactivity of fractured particles. Methods: A human alveolar epithelial type 1-like cell line (TT1) and a human macrophage-like cell line (THP-1) were exposed to 0-200μg/ml of unground, aged-ground, and freshly-ground LMS-1 (screened at <22μm). Cell viability, cytotoxicity, and inflammatory mediator release (IL-6, IL-8) were assessed using MMT, LDH, and ELISA assays, respectively. LMS-1 particles were characterised for their size, surface area, and morphology before and after grinding. Results: Exposure to LMS-1 particles did not result in overt cytotoxicity in either TT1 epithelial cells or THP-1 macrophage-like cells. A dose-dependent increase in IL-8 release was observed in TT1 cells, whereas THP-1 cell exposure, even at low particle concentrations, resulted in increased IL-8 release. Both cytotoxic and pro-inflammatory responses were most marked and significantly greater in TT1 and THP-1 cells exposed to freshly-fractured LMS-1. Discussion: LMS-1 is a novel lunar dust simulant; this is the first study to determine its toxicological effects on respiratory cells in vitro. An increased inflammatory response in TT1 and THP-1 cells exposed to ground LMS-1 suggests that low particle size, increased surface area, and angularity likely contribute to toxicity. Conclusions: Evenlow levels of exposure to LMS-1 could result in alveolar inflammation. This may have pathological consequences for astronauts exposed to lunar dust on future long-duration missions. Future research should test the effect of low-dose, intermittent lunar dust exposure on the respiratory system.

Keywords: lunar dust, LMS-1, lunar dust simulant, long-duration space travel, lunar dust toxicity

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2 Expressing Locality in Learning English: A Study of English Textbooks for Junior High School Year VII-IX in Indonesia Context

Authors: Agnes Siwi Purwaning Tyas, Dewi Cahya Ambarwati

Abstract:

This paper concerns the language learning that develops as a habit formation and a constructive process while exercising an oppressive power to construct the learners. As a locus of discussion, the investigation problematizes the transfer of English language to Indonesian students of junior high school through the use of English textbooks ‘Real Time: An Interactive English Course for Junior High School Students Year VII-IX’. English language has long performed as a global language and it is a demand upon the non-English native speakers to master the language if they desire to become internationally recognized individuals. Generally, English teachers teach the language in accordance with the nature of language learning in which they are trained and expected to teach the language within the culture of the target language. This provides a potential soft cultural penetration of a foreign ideology through language transmission. In the context of Indonesia, learning English as international language is considered dilemmatic. Most English textbooks in Indonesia incorporate cultural elements of the target language which in some extent may challenge the sensitivity towards local cultural values. On the other hand, local teachers demand more English textbooks for junior high school students which can facilitate cultural dissemination of both local and global values and promote learners’ cultural traits of both cultures to avoid misunderstanding and confusion. It also aims to support language learning as bidirectional process instead of instrument of oppression. However, sensitizing and localizing this foreign language is not sufficient to restrain its soft infiltration. In due course, domination persists making the English language as an authoritative language and positioning the locality as ‘the other’. Such critical premise has led to a discursive analysis referring to how the cultural elements of the target language are presented in the textbooks and whether the local characteristics of Indonesia are able to gradually reduce the degree of the foreign oppressive ideology. The three textbooks researched were written by non-Indonesian author edited by two Indonesia editors published by a local commercial publishing company, PT Erlangga. The analytical elaboration examines the cultural characteristics in the forms of names, terminologies, places, objects and imageries –not the linguistic aspect– of both cultural domains; English and Indonesia. Comparisons as well as categorizations were made to identify the cultural traits of each language and scrutinize the contextual analysis. In the analysis, 128 foreign elements and 27 local elements were found in textbook for grade VII, 132 foreign elements and 23 local elements were found in textbook for grade VIII, while 144 foreign elements and 35 local elements were found in grade IX textbook, demonstrating the unequal distribution of both cultures. Even though the ideal pedagogical approach of English learning moves to a different direction by the means of inserting local elements, the learners are continuously imposed to the culture of the target language and forced to internalize the concept of values under the influence of the target language which tend to marginalize their native culture.

Keywords: bidirectional process, English, local culture, oppression

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1 Data Envelopment Analysis of Allocative Efficiency among Small-Scale Tuber Crop Farmers in North-Central, Nigeria

Authors: Akindele Ojo, Olanike Ojo, Agatha Oseghale

Abstract:

The empirical study examined the allocative efficiency of small holder tuber crop farmers in North central, Nigeria. Data used for the study were obtained from primary source using a multi-stage sampling technique with structured questionnaires administered to 300 randomly selected tuber crop farmers from the study area. Descriptive statistics, data envelopment analysis and Tobit regression model were used to analyze the data. The DEA result on the classification of the farmers into efficient and inefficient farmers showed that 17.67% of the sampled tuber crop farmers in the study area were operating at frontier and optimum level of production with mean allocative efficiency of 1.00. This shows that 82.33% of the farmers in the study area can still improve on their level of efficiency through better utilization of available resources, given the current state of technology. The results of the Tobit model for factors influencing allocative inefficiency in the study area showed that as the year of farming experience, level of education, cooperative society membership, extension contacts, credit access and farm size increased in the study area, the allocative inefficiency of the farmers decreased. The results on effects of the significant determinants of allocative inefficiency at various distribution levels revealed that allocative efficiency increased from 22% to 34% as the farmer acquired more farming experience. The allocative efficiency index of farmers that belonged to cooperative society was 0.23 while their counterparts without cooperative society had index value of 0.21. The result also showed that allocative efficiency increased from 0.43 as farmer acquired high formal education and decreased to 0.16 with farmers with non-formal education. The efficiency level in the allocation of resources increased with more contact with extension services as the allocative efficeincy index increased from 0.16 to 0.31 with frequency of extension contact increasing from zero contact to maximum of twenty contacts per annum. These results confirm that increase in year of farming experience, level of education, cooperative society membership, extension contacts, credit access and farm size leads to increases efficiency. The results further show that the age of the farmers had 32% input to the efficiency but reduces to an average of 15%, as the farmer grows old. It is therefore recommended that enhanced research, extension delivery and farm advisory services should be put in place for farmers who did not attain optimum frontier level to learn how to attain the remaining 74.39% level of allocative efficiency through a better production practices from the robustly efficient farms. This will go a long way to increase the efficiency level of the farmers in the study area.

Keywords: allocative efficiency, DEA, Tobit regression, tuber crop

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