Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 50

Search results for: ovary

50 Effect of Unilateral Unoperated Ovarian Endometrioma on Responsiveness to Hyperstimulation

Authors: Abdelmaguid Ramzy, Mohamed Bahaa

Abstract:

Introduction: The effects of ovarian endometrioma on fertility outcomes with IVF have been always related to poor outcomes. Objective: To evaluate the effect of unilateral unoperated ovarian endometrioma < 2cm on the number of developing follicles and compare them with the contralateral ovary as a control. Design: Retrospective case control study. Setting: KasrEl-Aini IVF center. Patient(s): We studied 32 women with unilateral endometrioma who underwent their first IVF cycle. Methods: 32 Patients aged between 20-35 years selected for IVF who were diagnosed with one unilateral endometrioma (diameter <2 cm) and who did not undergo previous ovarian surgery were retrospectively identified. The number of follicles > 17 mm during folliculometry on the day of HCG trigger in the ovary that contained endometrioma were compared with those from the contralateral ovary. They were all hyperstimulated using long protocol with (225-300 IU) gonadotrophins. Primary outcome: The number of follicles > 17 mm during folliculometry on the day of HCG trigger. Result(s): The mean ± SD age, Day 3 serum FSH and LH were 27± 3.7 years, 5.8 ± 1.6 IU/ml and 4.5 ± 1.7 IU/ml respectively. There was no significant difference in the number of follicles > 17 mm on the day of HCG trigger in the ovary that contained endometrioma (4.4 ±2.5) and in the opposite ovary (4.5 ± 2.8) (P= 0.48). Conclusion: The presence of ovarian endometrioma in a controlled ovarian hyperstimulation cycle for IVF treatment is not associated with a reduced number of follicles > 17 mm during folliculometry on the day of HCG trigger.

Keywords: endometrioma, folliculometry, hyperstimulation, fertility

Procedia PDF Downloads 137
49 Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: Cervical Cytology Features and Its Association with Endometrial Cancer

Authors: Faezah Shekh Abdullah, Mohd. Azizuddin Mohd. Yussof, Komathy Thiagarajan, Hasnoorina Husin, Noor Azreena Abd Aziz

Abstract:

Polycystic ovary syndrome has been associated with multiple disorders such as endocrine disorder, metabolic syndrome, infertility, and endometrial cancer. Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are anticipated to develop three times more chances for endometrial cancer than women without PCOS. This study, therefore, was conducted to determine the association between polycystic ovary syndrome and endometrial cancer and to determine the cervical cytology features of PCOS. Patients attending the Subfertility Clinic of the National Population and Family Development Board were recruited and examined physically by medical practitioners. They were categorized into two groups; i) the PCOS group if they met Rotterdam Criteria 2004 and ii) the control group if they did not meet Rotterdam Criteria 2004. Cervical sampling was done on all patients via the Liquid-Based Cytology (LBC) method in the pre-and post-subfertility treatment. A total of 167 patients participated in the study, of which 79 belonged to the PCOS group and 88 to the control group. The findings showed no cervical and endometrial cancer cases in both groups. The Liquid-Based Cytology results in the PCOS group displayed more cases with cellular changes, i.e., benign inflammation, atrophic smear and Candida sp. infection. To conclude, no association was found between polycystic ovary syndrome and endometrial cancer. A more holistic study with a higher number of participants can further determine the association between endometrial cancer and PCOS. Furthermore, a longer duration between LBC pre- and post-subfertility treatment should be implied to observe changes in the cervical cells.

Keywords: endometrial cancer, liquid-based cytology, PCOS, polycystic ovary syndrome

Procedia PDF Downloads 51
48 Microscopic Examination of the Pre-Hatching Development of the Chicken Ovary

Authors: Mohamed Alsafy, Samir El-Gendy, Ashraf Karkoura, Doha Shokry

Abstract:

The purpose of the current study was to investigate the development of the chicken ovary. One hundred fertilized egg of Alexandria breed of chicken used. The whole embryo has undergone the light microscopic examination at HH20 (E.3), HH21 (E.3.5), HH23 (E.4), HH29 (E.6) and HH34 (E.8). The ovary has undergone the light microscopic examination at HH38 (E.12) and HH42 (E.16), SEM at HH26 (E.5), HH29 (E.6), HH36 (E.10), HH38 (E.12), HH39 (E.13) and HH42 (E.16), TEM at HH38 (E.12) and HH42 (E.16). The genital ridge appeared by a thickening of the coelomic epithelium medioventral surface of the developing mesonephroi at HH20 (E.3). The boundaries of the undifferentiating gonads defined clearly separated from the mesonephroi. The undifferentiated gonads bulged as a distinct organ in the coelomic cavity at HH23 (E.4). At the initial stages of the gonadogenesis, the germinal epithelium was stratified squamous epithelium. The PGCs appeared at the genital ridge at HH21 (E.3.5). The PGCs observed at the dorsal mesentery with few microvilli and showed positive PAS reaction due to the glycogen content in their cytoplasm. The left-right gonadal asymmetry firstly detected by the number of PGCs migrating toward the left gonadal ridge more than the right at HH20 (E.3) and the macroscopic examination of gonadal asymmetry began at HH34 (E.8). The left ovary appeared a smooth rod-shape, its stroma showed lipid droplets, and its parenchyma showed an extensive arrangement of interstitial cords at HH42 (E.16).

Keywords: ovary, Alexandria chicken, light microscopy, SEM, TEM

Procedia PDF Downloads 204
47 Anatomical and Histological Analysis of Salpinx and Ovary in Anatolian Wild Goat (Capra aegagrus aegagrus)

Authors: Gulseren Kirbas, Mushap Kuru, Buket Bakir, Ebru Karadag Sari

Abstract:

Capra (mountain goat) is a genus comprising nine species. The domestic goat (C. aegagrus hircus) is a subspecies of the wild goat that is domesticated. This study aimed to determine the anatomical structure of the salpinx and ovary of the Anatolian wild goat (C. aegagrus aegagrus). Animals that were taken to the Kafkas University Wildlife Rescue and Rehabilitation Center, Kars, Turkey, because of various reasons, such as traffic accidents and firearm injuries, were used in this study. The salpinges and ovaries of four wild goats of similar ages, which could not be rescued by the Center despite all interventions, were dissected. Measurements were taken from the right-left salpinx and ovary using digital calipers. The weights of each ovary and salpinx were measured using a precision scale (min: 0.0001 g − max: 220 g, code: XB220A; Precisa, Swiss). The histological structure of the tissues was examined after weighing the organs. The tissue samples were fixed in 10% formaldehyde for 24 h. Then a routine procedure was applied, and the tissues were embedded in paraffin. Mallory’s modified triple staining was used to demonstrate the general structure of the salpinx. The salpinx was found to consist of three different regions (infundibulum, ampulla, and isthmus). These regions consisted of tunica mucosa, tunica muscularis, and tunica serosa. The prismatic epithelial cells were observed in the lamina epithelialis of tunica mucosa in every region, but the prismatic fimbrae cells occurred most in the infundibulum. The ampulla was distinguished by its many mucosal folds. It was the longest region of the salpinx and was joined to the isthmus via the ampullary–isthmus junction. Isthmus was the caudal end of the salpinx joined to the uterus and had the thickest tunica muscularis compared with the other regions. The mean length of the ovary was 13.22 ± 1.27 mm, width was 8.46 ± 0.88 mm, the thickness was 5.67 ± 0.79 mm, and weight was 0.59 ± 0.17 g. The average length of the salpinx was 58.11 ± 14.02 mm, width was 0.80 ± 0.22 mm, the thickness was 0.41 ± 0.01 mm, and weight was 0.30 ± 0.08 g. In conclusion, the Anatolian wild goat, which is included in wildlife diversity in Turkey, has been disappearing due to illegal and uncontrolled hunting as well as traffic accidents in recent years. These findings are believed to contribute to the literature.

Keywords: Anatolian wild goat, anatomy, ovary, salpinx

Procedia PDF Downloads 98
46 Circadian Disruption in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Model Rats

Authors: Fangfang Wang, Fan Qu

Abstract:

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), the most common endocrinopathy among women of reproductive age, is characterized by ovarian dysfunction, hyperandrogenism and reduced fecundity. The aim of this study is to investigate whether the circadian disruption is involved in pathogenesis of PCOS in androgen-induced animal model. We established a rat model of PCOS using single subcutaneous injection with testosterone propionate on the ninth day after birth, and confirmed their PCOS-like phenotypes with vaginal smears, ovarian hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining and serum androgen measurement. The control group rats received the vehicle only. Gene expression was detected by real-time quantitative PCR. (1) Compared with control group, PCOS model rats of 10-week group showed persistently keratinized vaginal cells, while all the control rats showed at least two consecutive estrous cycles. (2) Ovarian HE staining and histological examination showed that PCOS model rats of 10-week group presented many cystic follicles with decreased numbers of granulosa cells and corpora lutea in their ovaries, while the control rats had follicles with normal layers of granulosa cells at various stages of development and several generations of corpora lutea. (3) In the 10-week group, serum free androgen index was notably higher in PCOS model rats than controls. (4) Disturbed mRNA expression patterns of core clock genes were found in ovaries of PCOS model rats of 10-week group. Abnormal expression of key genes associated with circadian rhythm in ovary may be one of the mechanisms for ovarian dysfunction in PCOS model rats induced by androgen.

Keywords: polycystic ovary syndrome, androgen, animal model, circadian disruption

Procedia PDF Downloads 154
45 Genetic Polymorphism in the Vitamin D Receptor Gene and 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Serum Levels in East Indian Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

Authors: Dipanshu Sur, Ratnabali Chakravorty

Abstract:

Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common metabolic abnormality such as changes in lipid profile, diabetes, hypertension and metabolic syndrome occurring in young women of reproductive age. Low vitamin D levels were found to be associated with the development of obesity and insulin resistance in women with PCOS. Variants on vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene have also been related to metabolic comorbidities in general population. Aim: The aim of this case-control study was to investigate whether the VDR gene polymorphisms are associated with susceptibility to PCOS. Methods: Women with PCOS and a control group, all aged 16-40 years, were enrolled. Genotyping of VDR Fok-I (rs2228570), VDR Apa-I (rs7975232) as well as GC (rs2282679), DHCR7 (rs12785878) SNPs between groups were determined by using direct sequencing. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)] levels were measured by ELISA. Results: Mean serum 25(OH)D in the PCOS and control samples were 19.08±7 and 23.27±6.03 (p=0.048) which were significantly lower in PCOS patients compared with controls. CC genotype of the VDR Apa-I SNP was same frequent in PCOS (25.6%) and controls (25.6%) (OR: 0.9995; 95%CI: 0.528 to 1.8921; p= 0.9987). The CC genotype was also significantly associated with both lower E2 (p=0.031) and Androstenedione levels (p=0.062). We observed a significant association of GC polymorphism with 25(OH)D levels. PCOS women carrying the GG genotype (in GC genes) had significantly higher risk for vitamin D deficiency than women carrying the TT genotype. Conclusions: In conclusion, data from this study indicate that vitamin D levels are lower, and vitamin D deficiency more frequent, in PCOS than in controls. The present findings suggest that the Apa-I, Fok-I polymorphism of the VDR gene is associated with PCOS and seems to modulate ovarian steroid secretion. Further studies are needed to better clarify the biological mechanisms by which the polymorphism influences PCOS risk.

Keywords: vitamin D receptor, polymorphism, vitamin D, polycystic ovary syndrome

Procedia PDF Downloads 224
44 Alteration of Sex Steroid Hormone Levels in Sex Reversed Chickens

Authors: A. H. Shaikat, M. B. Hossain, S. K. M. A. Islam, M. M. Hassan, S. A. Khan, A. K. M. Saifuddin, M. N. Islam, M. A. Hoque

Abstract:

A total of eighteen (18) sex reversed chickens with unusual phenotypic characteristics of male birds were identified over 2000 Hyline layer chickens at Motaher Poultry Farm, Ramu, Cox’s Bazar. Chickens were subdivided into two groups (case = 18, control = 20) based on the appearance of sex-reversed secondary sexual characteristics. Phenotypic traits of studied chickens were measured with farm management details. Hormone assay using ELISA, autopsy followed by gross examination of viscera was performed. The study found higher body weight (gm) (1579.3; 95% CI: 1561.7-1596.8), comb length (cm) (12.2; 11.5-12.8), comb width (cm) (7.9; 7.7-8.2), wattle length (cm) (4.9; 4.8-5.1) distinct spur, and shortened pubic bones distance, suggesting decrease oviposition in sex-reversed chickens. Testosterone concentration (ng/ml) (8.5; 6.4-10.6) was significantly higher (p<0.001) along with decrease estrogen (pg/ml) (5.1; 4.9-5.5) and progesterone concentration (pg/ml) (310.9; 289.4-332.5) in sex-reversed chickens. Mass abdominal fat deposition with atrophied ovary was found upon exploration of viscera.

Keywords: ovary, phenotypic traits, sex hormone, sex reversal

Procedia PDF Downloads 366
43 The Relationships between AntimüLlerian Hormone, Androgens and Ovarian Reserve in Non-Obese East Indian Women with and without Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

Authors: Dipanshu Sur, Ratnabali Chakravorty, Rimi Pal, Siddhartha Chatterjee, Joyshree Chaterjee, Amal Mallik

Abstract:

Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disease in reproductive women with a complex hormonal disturbance that affects the menstrual cycle and leads to metabolic consequences in later life. Hyperandrogenaemia is noticeable features of PCOS and influence the process of folliculogenesis in women. The levels of Antimüllerian Hormone (AMH) reflect the number of pre-antral follicles and thus are a marker of oocyte pool – germinal reserve of the ovary for reproduction. Besides its utilization in IVF (In-vitro fertilization), determination of AMH may serve as an additional marker in the diagnostics of PCOS, where increased AMH levels reflect the severity of the disease. The positive correlation of serum AMH with the number of antral follicles was found also in patients with PCOS. Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between AMH androgens and whether AMH contributes to altered folliculogenesis in non-obese women with PCOS. Methods: We designed a prospective study which included a total of 65 IVF individuals. It enrolled 26 cases of PCOS based on 2003 Rotterdam criteria and 39 ovulatory normal- non PCOS, healthy, age-matched controls. AMH levels and ovarian morphology were assessed. The relationships between AMH and androgenaemia in patients with and without PCOS were studied. Results: Mean age of PCOS patients were slightly higher than controls (32±4 and 28±3 years, respectively). AMH generally increased with antral follicle count (AFC) [P=0.001], testosterone, and luteinising hormone, and decreased with age, and serum sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG). No significant relationships were found between circulating AMH levels and BMI between PCOS and non-PCOS patients. The calculation of AMH production per antral follicle (AMH/AF) showed that there was a significant difference in median AMH/AF between PCOS and non-PCOS (P =0.001). Both PCOS and non-PCOS groups showed a very similar increase in AMH with increases in AFC, but the PCOS patients had consistently higher AMH across all AFC levels. Conclusions: These observations indicate that there is a connection between AMH and androgens levels between PCOS and non-PCOS East Indian women. Excessive granulosa cell activity may be implicated in the abnormal follicular dynamic of the syndrome. They are higher in women with PCOS and, on the other hand, very low in women with an ovarian failure.

Keywords: anti-Mullerian hormone, polycystic ovary syndrome, antral follicle count, androgens

Procedia PDF Downloads 141
42 Macroscopic Study of Reproductive Pathologies in Cows at the Souk-Ahras Communal Slaughterhouse

Authors: Besma Abdeltif, Chebabhi Imen

Abstract:

Introduction: it is important to define the genital pathologies encountered in Algeria in postpartum dairy cows. The objective was to identify the different pathologies of reproduction in cows found at the communal abattoir of Souk Ahras. Materials and Methods: Our study was carried at the communal slaughterhouse of Souk-Ahras on 63 genital tracts were examined macroscopically after slaughter. Results: The results obtained reveal a high frequency of pregnant females (14.28%), most of the gestations were at their beginning. Uterine anomalies ranked first in the genital lesions of the cow (20.37%). The frequencies of these abnormalities are in ascending order: aplasia of the horns = 1.85%, traumatic cervical = 1.85%, cervical tumors = 1.85%, chronic endometritis = 3.70% and Acute endometritis = 11.11%. The ovarian cyst is the most common lesion, with a frequency of 3.70%, followed by smooth ovaries (1.85%). These are single, thin-walled cysts more present on the right ovary than the left ovary. Salpingitis is the only tubal lesion found on 5.55% of the non-pregnant genital tract. Neoformation is the only vaginal lesion identified in this work (1.85%). Conclusion: Our result, in general, conforms to the data of the literature.

Keywords: genital tract, cow, slaughterhouse, pathology

Procedia PDF Downloads 41
41 Effects of Tramadol Administration on the Ovary of Adult Rats and the Possible Recovery after Tramadol Withdrawal: A Light and Electron Microscopic Study

Authors: Heba Kamal Mohamed

Abstract:

Introduction: Tramadol is a weak -opioid receptor agonist with an analgesic effect because of the inhibition of uptake of norepinephrine and serotonin. Nowadays, tramadol hydrochloride is frequently used as a pain reliever. Tramadol is recommended for the management of acute and chronic pain of moderate to severe intensity associated with a variety of diseases or problems, including osteoarthritis, diabetic neuropathy, neuropathic pain, and even perioperative pain in human patients. In obstetrics and gynecology, tramadol is used extensively to treat postoperative pain. Aim of the study: This study was undertaken to investigate the histological (light and electron microscopic) and immunohistochemical effects of long term tramadol treatment on the ovary of adult rats and the possible recovery after tramadol withdrawal. Design: Experimental study. Materials and methods: Thirty adult female albino rats were used in this study. They were classified into three main groups (10 rats each). Group I served as the control group. Group II, rats were subcutaneously injected with tramadol 40 mg/kg three times per week for 8 weeks. Group III, rats were subcutaneously injected with tramadol 40 mg/kg three times per week for 8 weeks then were kept for another 8 weeks without treatment for recovery. At the end of the experiment rats were sacrificed and bilateral oophorectomy was carried out; the ovaries were processed for histological study (light and electron microscopic) and immunohistochemical reaction for caspase-3 (apoptotic protein). Results: Examination of the ovary of tramadol-treated rats (group II) revealed many atretic ovarian follicles, some follicles showed detachment of the oocyte from surrounding granulosa cells and others showed loss of the oocyte. Many follicles revealed degenerated vacuolated oocytes and vacuolated theca folliculi cells. Granulosa cells appeared shrunken, disrupted and loosely attached with vacuolated cytoplasm and pyknotic nuclei. Some follicles showed separation of granulosa cells from the theca folliculi layer. The ultrastructural study revealed the presence of granulosa cells with electron dense indented nuclei, damaged mitochondria and granular vacuolated cytoplasm. Other cells showed accumulation of large amount of lipid droplets in their cytoplasm. Some follicles revealed rarifaction of the cytoplasm of oocytes and absent zona pellucida. Moreover, apoptotic changes were detected by immunohistochemical staining in the form of increased staining intensity to caspase-3 (apoptotic protein). With Masson's Trichrome stain, there was an increased collagen fibre deposition in the ovarian cortical stroma. The wall of blood vessels appeared thickened. In the withdrawal group (group III), there was a little improvement in the histological and immunohistochemical changes. Conclusion: Tramadol had serious deleterious effects on ovarian structure. Thus, it should be used with caution, especially when a long term treatment is indicated. Withdrawal of tramadol led to a little improvement in the structural impairment of the ovary.

Keywords: tramadol, ovary, withdrawal, rats

Procedia PDF Downloads 215
40 Effects of Long-Term Exposure of Cadmium to the Ovary of Lithobius forficatus (Myriapoda, Chilopoda)

Authors: Izabela Poprawa, Alina Chachulska-Zymelka, Lukasz Chajec, Grazyna Wilczek, Piotr Wilczek, Sebastian Student, Magdalena Rost-Roszkowska

Abstract:

Heavy metals polluting the environment, especially soil, have a harmful effect on organisms, because they can damage the organ structure, disturb their function and cause developmental disorders. They can affect not only the somatic tissues but also the germinal tissues. In the natural environment, plants and animals are exposed to short- and long-term exposure to these stressors, which have a major influence on the functioning of these organisms. Numerous animals have been treated as the bioindicators of the environment. Therefore, studies on any alterations caused by, e.g., heavy metals are in the center of interests of not only environmental but also medical and biological science. Myriapods are invertebrates which are bioindicators of the environment. One of the species which lives in the upper layers of soil, particularly under stones and rocks is Lithobius forficatus (Chilopoda), commonly known as the brown centipede or stone centipede. It is a European species of the family Lithobiidae. This centipede living in the soil is exposed to, e.g., heavy metals such as cadmium, lead, arsenic. The main goal of our project was to analyze the impact of long-term exposure to cadmium on the structure of ovary with the emphasis on the course of oogenesis. As the material for analysis of cadmium exposure to ovaries, we chose the centipede species, L. forficatus. Animals were divided into two experimental groups: C – the control group, the animals cultured in laboratory conditions in a horticultural soil; Cd2 – the animals cultured in a horticultural soil supplemented with 80 mg/kg (dry weight) of CdCl2 for 45 days – long-term exposure. Animals were fed with Acheta and Chironomus larvae maintained in tap water. The analyzes were carried out using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), flow cytometry and laser scanning (confocal) microscopy. Here we present the results of long-term exposure to cadmium concentration in soil on the organ responsible for female germ cell formation. Analysis with the use of the transmission electron microscope showed changes in the ultrastructure of both somatic and germ cells in the ovary. Moreover, quantitative analysis revealed the decrease in the percentage of cells viability, the increase in the percentage of cells with depolarized mitochondria and increasing the number of early apoptotic cells. All these changes were statistically significant compared to the control. Additionally, an increase in the ADP/ATP index was recorded. However, changes were not statistically significant to the control. Acknowledgment: The study has been financed by the National Science Centre, Poland, grant no 2017/25/B/NZ4/00420.

Keywords: cadmium, centipede, ovary, ultrastructure

Procedia PDF Downloads 46
39 The Relationship of Aromatase Activity and Being Very Overweight in East Indian Women with or Without Polycystic Ovary Disease

Authors: Dipanshu Sur, Ratnabali Chakravorty, Rimi Pal, Siddhartha Chatterjee, Joyshree Chaterjee, Amal Mallik

Abstract:

Background: Women with polycystic ovary disease (PCOD) frequently suffer from metabolic disturbances. PCOD is a common ovulatory disorder in young women, which affects 5-10% of the population and results in infertility due to anovulation. Importantly, aromatase in ovarian granulosa and luteinized granulosa cells plays an important role for women of reproductive age. Generation and metabolism of androgen is directly related to aromatase activity. The E2/T ratio provides important information about aromatase activity because conversion of androgens to estrogens is mediated by CYP19, suggesting that the E2/T ratio may be a direct marker of aromatase activity. The nature of the interaction between ovarian aromatase activity and PCOD in women has been controversial, and the impact of weight gain on aromatase activity as well as E2 levels is unknown. Aim: The objective of this study was to investigate the association and relation between aromatase activity and levels of body mass index (BMI) from a reproductive hormone perspective in a group of women with or without PCOD. Methods: We designed a cohort study which included 200 individuals. It enrolled 100 cases of PCOD based on 2006 Rotterdam criteria and 100 ovulatory normal- non PCOD, healthy, age-matched controls. Plasma sex hormones viz. estradiol (E2), testosterone (T), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), and luteinizing hormone (LH) were measured by ELISA on the second day of the menstrual cycle, together with BMI and E2/T were calculated. Aromatase activity in PCOD patients with different BMI, T and E2 levels were compared. Results: PCOD patients showed significantly increased levels of BMI, E2 (P=0.004), T and LH, while their E2/T (P= <0.001), FSH and FSH/LH values were decreased compared with the control group. Higher E2 levels correlated with a relatively enhanced E2/T as well as T and LH levels but reduced BMI, FSH and FSH/LH levels in women with PCOD. Hyperandrogenic PCOD patients had increased E2 levels but their aromatase activity was markedly inhibited independent of their BMI values. Conclusions: We found a significant decrease of ovarian aromatase activity in women with PCOD as compared to controls. Our study showed that ovarian aromatase activity in PCOD was decreased which was independent of BMI. Enhancing aromatase activity may become an optimized strategy for developing therapies for PCOD women, especially those with obesity.

Keywords: aromatase activity, polycystic ovary disease, obesity, body mass index

Procedia PDF Downloads 156
38 Ovarian Surface Epithelium Receptors during Pregnancy and Estrus Cycle of Rats with Emphasis on Steroids and Gonadotropins Fluctuation

Authors: Salina Yahya Saddik

Abstract:

The present study is designed to demonstrate the Ovarian Surface Epithelial cells (OSE) Estrogen Receptor α (ERα) and Progesterone Receptor (PR) during pregnancy and estrous cycle in rat. Moreover, determination of the levels of plasma progesterone, estradiol, FSH and LH were also made. The levels of plasma progesterone, estradiol, FSH and LH concentrations were determined on days 7 (n=5), 14 (n=5), and 21(n=5) of pregnancy in three groups of rats and during the estrous cycle (n=5) using ELISA kit. Immunohistochemical method for PR and ERα expression was also made on the ovary. During pregnancy, FSH and LH remained low except at term when LH levels began to increase from 16 ng/ml to 47 ng/ml. Progesterone levels significantly exceeded estradiol values in all pregnant rats with a peak value of 202 ng/ml on day 14. Elevated progesterone levels were associated negatively with LH and estradiol levels during pregnancy. The levels of estradiol surged significantly on day 21. Immunohistochemistry of the ovary showed low levels of OSE cells staining positive for ERα expression. ERα positive cells were absent on day 7 and 14 of pregnancy, only day 21 recorded a very low percentage of immunostaining (0.5%) within the nuclei of OSE cells. On the contrary, immunostaining of PR was not observed within the nuclei of OSE cells in all groups of study. In conclusions, these results may suggest that progesterone effect during pregnancy seems to be overriding the positive effect of estrogens on OSE cells. High progesterone levels may have a direct negative effect on gonadotropin production and thereby it might inhibit events leading to both follicular development and OSE proliferation. Understanding the factors affecting OSE proliferation may help elucidating the mechanism(s) of assisted diseases such as ovarian cancer.

Keywords: ovarian surface, pregnancy, gonadotropins, steroids

Procedia PDF Downloads 236
37 Improving the Bioprocess Phenotype of Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells Using CRISPR/Cas9 and Sponge Decoy Mediated MiRNA Knockdowns

Authors: Kevin Kellner, Nga Lao, Orla Coleman, Paula Meleady, Niall Barron

Abstract:

Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells are the prominent cell line used in biopharmaceutical production. To improve yields and find beneficial bioprocess phenotypes genetic engineering plays an essential role in recent research. The miR-23 cluster, specifically miR-24 and miR-27, was first identified as differentially expressed during hypothermic conditions suggesting a role in proliferation and productivity in CHO cells. In this study, we used sponge decoy technology to stably deplete the miRNA expression of the cluster. Furthermore, we implemented the CRISPR/Cas9 system to knockdown miRNA expression. Sponge constructs were designed for an imperfect binding of the miRNA target, protecting from RISC mediated cleavage. GuideRNAs for the CRISPR/Cas9 system were designed to target the seed region of the miRNA. The expression of mature miRNA and precursor were confirmed using RT-qPCR. For both approaches stable expressing mixed populations were generated and characterised in batch cultures. It was shown, that CRISPR/Cas9 can be implemented in CHO cells with achieving high knockdown efficacy of every single member of the cluster. Targeting of one miRNA member showed that its genomic paralog is successfully targeted as well. The stable depletion of miR-24 using CRISPR/Cas9 showed increased growth and specific productivity in a CHO-K1 mAb expressing cell line. This phenotype was further characterized using quantitative label-free LC-MS/MS showing 186 proteins differently expressed with 19 involved in proliferation and 26 involved in protein folding/translation. Targeting miR-27 in the same cell line showed increased viability in late stages of the culture compared to the control. To evaluate the phenotype in an industry relevant cell line; the miR-23 cluster, miR-24 and miR-27 were stably depleted in a Fc fusion CHO-S cell line which showed increased batch titers up to 1.5-fold. In this work, we highlighted that the stable depletion of the miR-23 cluster and its members can improve the bioprocess phenotype concerning growth and productivity in two different cell lines. Furthermore, we showed that using CRISPR/Cas9 is comparable to the traditional sponge decoy technology.

Keywords: Chinese Hamster ovary cells, CRISPR/Cas9, microRNAs, sponge decoy technology

Procedia PDF Downloads 117
36 Effect of Vitamin D3 on Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Prognosis, Anthropometric and Body Composition Parameters of Overweight Women: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial

Authors: Nahla Al-Bayyari, Rae’d Hailat

Abstract:

Vitamin D deficiency and overweight are common in women suffering from polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Weight gain in PCOS is an important factor for the development of menstrual dysfunction and signs of hyperandrogenism and alopecia. Features of PCOS such as oligomenorrhea can be predicted by anthropometric measurements as body mass index (BMI). Therefore, the aim of this trial was to study the effect of 50,000 IU/week of vitamin D₃ supplementation on the body composition and on the anthropometric measurements of overweight women with PCOS and to examine the impact of this effect on ovaries ultrasonography and menstrual cycle regularity. The study design was a prospective randomized, double-blinded placebo-controlled clinical trial conducted on 60 overweight Jordanian women aged (18-49) years with PCOS and vitamin D deficiency. The study participants were divided into two groups; vitamin D group (n = 30) who were assigned to receive 50,000 IU/week of vitamin D₃ and placebo group (n = 30) who were assigned to receive placebo tablets orally for 90 days. The anthropometric measurements and body composition were measured at baseline and after treatment for the PCOS and vitamin D deficient women. Also, assessment of the participants’ picture of ovaries by ultrasound and menstrual cycle regulatory were performed before and after treatment. Results showed that there were no significant (p > 0.05) differences between the placebo and vitamin D group basal 25(OH)D levels, body composition and anthropometric parameters. After treatment, vitamin D group serum levels of 25(OH)D increased (12.5 ± 0.61 to 50.2 ± 2.04 ng/mL, (p < 0.001), and decreased (50.2 ± 2.04 to 48.2 ± 2.03 ng/mL, p < 0.001) after 14 days of vitamin D₃ treatment cessation. There were no significant changes in the placebo group. In the vitamin D group, there were significant (p < 0.001) decreases in body weight, BMI, waist, and hip circumferences and fat mass. In addition, there were significant increases (p < 0.05) in fat free mass and total body water. These improvements in both anthropometric and body composition as well as in 25(OH)D concentrations, resulted in significant improvements in the picture of PCOS women ovaries ultrasonography and in menstrual cycle regularity, where nearly most of them (93%) had regular cycles after vitamin D₃ supplementation. In the placebo group, there were only significant decreases (p < 0.05) in waist and hip circumferences. It can be concluded that vitamin D supplementation improving serum 25(OH)D levels and PCOS prognosis by reducing body weight of overweight PCOS women and regulating their menstrual cycle.

Keywords: anthropometric, overweight, polycystic ovary syndrome, vitamin D₃

Procedia PDF Downloads 45
35 Polycystic Ovary Syndrome - Clinical Profile of Women Attending NPFDB Subfertility Clinic

Authors: Komathy Thiagarajan, Mohd. Azizuddin Mohd. Yussof, Hasnoorina Husin, Noor Azreena Abd Aziz, Faezah Shekh Abdullah, Abdul Wahaf Abdul Wahid

Abstract:

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) presents with a plethora of clinical features owing to the multifaceted underlying pathophysiology. This study was conducted to determine the clinical features unique to the sub fertile women attending the Sub fertility Clinic of the National Population and Family Development Board (NPFDB) so that a more holistic approach can be adopted to further enhance the pregnancy outcome in those women. This was a case-control study conducted over a span of three years (from January 2014 until December 2016), whereby women who fulfilled the Rotterdam Criteria 2004 were classified as PCOS (n=79) and women who did not fulfill the Rotterdam Criteria were classified as controls (n=88). The mean age of the women was 30.1 years and the mean duration of marriage was 3.93 years. The majority of women suffered from primary sub fertility (82.6%). The median age was lower among PCOS women (29.0 years) compared to the controls (30.0 years), p<0.05. The majority of PCOS women (43.0%) were obese (BMI > 30 kg/m2) compared to only 19.3% who were obese in the control group, p<0.05. Hypertension was present in 59.5% of PCOS women and only in 36.4% of the control group, p<0.05. There were significantly more women who presented with hirsutism in PCOS group (27.8%) as compared to the control group (5.7%), p<0.05. The findings of this study elucidate that the clinical features of significance among sub fertile women suffering from PCOS, if detected early, are amenable to lifestyle modifications and timely interventions can potentially improve the fertility outcomes in this group of women.

Keywords: clinical features, fertility, lifestyle modification, PCOS

Procedia PDF Downloads 60
34 Genetic Analysis of CYP11A1 Gene with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome from North India

Authors: Ratneev Kaur, Tajinder Kaur, Anupam Kaur

Abstract:

Introduction: Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogenous disorder of endocrine system among women of reproductive age. PCOS is characterized by hyperandrogenism, anovulation, polycystic ovaries, hirsutism, obesity, and hyperinsulinemia. Several pathways are implicated in its etiology including the metabolic pathway of steroid hormone synthesis regulatory pathways. PCOS is an androgen excess disorder, genes operating in steroidogenesis may alter pathogenesis of PCOS. The cytochrome P450scc is a cholesterol side chain cleavage enzyme coded by CYP11A1 gene and catalyzes conversion of cholesterol to pregnenolone, the initial and rate-limiting step in steroid hormone synthesis. It is postulated that polymorphisms in this gene may play an important role in the regulation of CYP11A1 expression and leading to increased or decreased androgen production. The present study will be the first study from north India to best of our knowledge, to analyse the association of CYP11A1 (rs11632698) polymorphism in women suffering from PCOS. Methodology: The present study was approved by ethical committee of Guru Nanak Dev University in consistent with declaration of Helsinki. A total of 300 samples (150 PCOS cases and 150 controls) were recruited from Hartej hospital, for the present study. Venous blood sample (3ml) was withdrawn from women diagnosed with PCOS by doctor, according to Rotterdam 2003 criteria and from healthy age matched controls only after informed consent and detailed filled proforma. For molecular genetics analysis, blood was stored in EDTA vials. After DNA isolation by organic method, PCR-RFLP approach was used for genotyping and association analysis of rs11632698 polymorphism. Statistical analysis was done to check for significance of selected polymorphism with PCOS. Results: In 150 PCOS cases, the frequency of AA, AG and GG genotype was found to be 48%, 35%, and 13% compared to 62%, 27% and 8% in 150 controls. The major allele (A) and minor allele (G) frequency was 68% and 32% in cases and 78% and 22% in controls. Minor allele frequency was higher in cases as compared to controls, as well as the distribution of genotype was observed to be statistically significant (ᵡ²=6.525, p=0.038). Odds ratio in dominant, co-dominant and recessive models observed was 1.81 (p=0.013), 1.54 (p=0.012) and 1.77 (p=0.132) respectively. Conclusion: The present study showed statistically significant association of rs11632698 with PCOS (p=0.038) in North Indian women.

Keywords: polycystic ovary syndrome, CYP11A1, rs11632698, hyperandrogenism

Procedia PDF Downloads 56
33 Association of Vitamin D Levels in Obese and Non-Obese Patients with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome in East Indian Populations

Authors: Dipanshu Sur, Ratnabali Chakravorty

Abstract:

Introduction: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common metabolic abnormality such as changes in lipid profile, diabetes, hypertension and metabolic syndrome occurring in women. Hypovitaminsis D was found to be associated with the development of obesity and insulin resistance in women with PCOS. Aim: To evaluate the association of vitamin D levels in obese and non-obese patients with PCOS in an East Indian populations. Methods: A case control study was conducted. It enrolled 100 cases of PCOS based on Rotterdam criteria and 100 ovulatory normal cases matched for their age and BMI. Vitamin D levels were compared in the obese and non-obese PCOS groups and also with the controls. Results: The mean age of subjects was 29.48 ± 3.29 years in the PCOS group and 26.24 ± 2.56 years in the control group. Hypovitaminosis D was present in 75 out of 100 PCOS women (75.0%) and 25 women (25.0%) showed sufficient 25OHD levels ≥30 ng/ml. Women with PCOS had significantly lower total serum calcium (8.4 ± 0.25 mg/dl versus 9.8 ± 0.17 mg/dl in controls), and 25 OHD (21.2 ± 2.56 ng/ml versus 32.6 ± 2.23 ng/ml in control group) than ovulatory normal women. This difference remained significant for both groups after adjustment for BMI. Obese women in both groups had significantly lower concentration of calcium and 25OHD than normal weight patients in this study. Conclusion: Our study shows majority of the patients and controls had vitamin D deficiency and there was significant difference in the vitamin D levels in PCOS group and controls as well as obese and non-obese groups. This may reflect the vitamin D deficiency status of the community. Vitamin D deficiency should demands immediate attention as it is a severe problem among the East Indian population.

Keywords: vitamin D deficiency, polycystic ovary syndrome, obese, hypovitaminsis D

Procedia PDF Downloads 237
32 Serum 25-Dihydroxy Vitamin D3 Level Estimation and Insulin Resistance in Women of 18-40 Years Age Group with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome

Authors: Thakur Pushpawati, Singh Vinita, Agrawal Sarita, Mohapatra Eli

Abstract:

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a disease of endocrine and frequently encountered in women in their reproductive period, and it is characterized by clinical features of anovulation, clinical and biochemical features of hyperandrogenism, and PCOS morphology on ultrasonographic examination. In Indian scenario, only a few studies are available on the correlation of serum 25-dihydroxy vitamin D3 level and insulin level. The present study is a prospective case-control study and aims to estimate the concentration of serum 25-dihydroxy vitamin D3 and insulin resistance and determine the association of serum 25-dihydroxy vitamin D3 with insulin resistance in PCOS women of 18-40 years age group. In this study, the primary objective is to estimate the concentration of 25-dihydroxy vitamin D3, insulin, glycaemic status, calcium and phosphorus levels in 18-40 year age women with polycystic ovary syndrome and to compare these parameters with age and BMI matched healthy control of same age group women. The secondary objective is to determine the association between 25-dihydroxy vitamin D3 concentration and insulin resistance among PCOS cases in 18-40 years age group women. This study was carried on at outpatient Department of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, Aiims Raipur. It took one year from the date of approval. In case, 32 women were diagnosed (Diagnosed PCOS cases as per Rotterdoms criteria among women of 18-40 years of age), as control group 32 women of 18-40 years of age were diagnosed As a result, serum insulin level was elevated among PCOS women along with 25-dihydroxy vitamin D3 deficiency.Conclude up, PCOS is more common in the age group of 20-40 years. There is a strong correlation between vitamin D deficiency and insulin resistance among PCOS patients.

Keywords: vitamin D, insulin resistance, PCOS, reproductive age group

Procedia PDF Downloads 57
31 Dynamics of Follicle Vascular Perfusion, Dimensions, Antrum Growth, Circulating Angiogenic Mediators from Deviation to Ovulation

Authors: Elshymaa A. Abdelnaby, Amal M. Abo El-Maaty

Abstract:

This study aimed to investigate dynamics of dominant and subordinate follicles change in dimensions, vascularity and angiogenic hormones after completing deviation till ovulation. Five cyclic mares were subjected to daily blood sampling and rectal Doppler ultrasonographic examination along two estrous cycles. Using electronic calipers, three diameters were recorded for each follicle to estimate area and volume. Leptin, Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-1), nitric oxide (NO) and estradiol (E2) were measured. Area of color- and power- Doppler modes with area and circumference of the first (preovulatory) and subordinate follicles were measured in pixels. Follicles were classified into F1O (preovulatory), F2O (subordinate), F3O (third ovulatory) on the dominant ovary and F1C (first contra) and F2C (second contra) on the contralateral ovary. Days before ovulation significantly (P < 0.0001) affected diameter, circumference, area, volume, area/pixel and antrum area of the preovulatory follicle. With the increase of diameter, area, volume area/pixel, antrum area/pixel and circumference of F1O, those of all subordinates were decreasing. The blue blood flow area, power and power minus red blood flow area of F1O increased from day -6 till day of ovulation (day 0), but red blood flow area significantly decreased. F1O had the lowest percent of colored pixels and percent of the colored pixels without antrum. Estradiol and leptin increased from day -6 till day 0 but IGF-1 decreased till day -1 but NO achieved a peak on day -3 then decreased till day 0. In conclusion, antrum growth, blood flow and angiogenic hormones play a role in maturation and ovulation of the dominant follicle in mares.

Keywords: angiogenic hormones, blood flow, mare, preovulatory follicle

Procedia PDF Downloads 237
30 Utility of CK7, CK20 and CDX-2 as a Potential Panel in Differentiating Primary Ovarian Surface Epithelial Tumors from Metastatic Adenocarcinoma to the Ovary

Authors: Ghada Esheba, Ghadeer Aldoobi, Salwa Almalk, Abrar Alshareef, Eman Al-khairi, Eman Yaseen

Abstract:

Background: In Saudi Arabia, ovarian cancer ranked seventh among female population and is the most common female genital tract malignancy after endometrial cancer. A slight increase in the incidence of ovarian cancer was observed from 2001–2008. Makkah, Riyadh, and the eastern region of Saudi Arabia had the highest incidence rate ratio for the number of ovarian cancer cases (1). Differentiating metastatic adenocarcinomas from primary ovarian carcinomas, especially those of endometrioid and mucinous type is clinically significant and a challenge for clinicians and pathologists, yet the distinction has important therapeutic and prognostic implications. Aim: To clarify the most important histopathological criteria to differentiate between primary ovarian surface epithelial tumors especially mucinous and endometrioid subtypes, and metastatic adenocarcinoma and to evaluate the value of a panel of antibodies consisting of CK7, CK20, and CDX-2 in the distinction between primary ovarian surface epithelial tumors and metastatic adenocarcinoma. Material and methods: This study was carried out on 26 cases of primary ovarian surface epithelial neoplasms and 14 cases of metastatic ovarian adenocarcinoma. All cases were studied immunohistochemically using CK7, CK20, and CDX-2. Results: All cases of primary ovarian adenocarcinoma were positive for CK7. 25% and 58% of mucinous borderline mucinous tumor and mucinous carcinoma respectively were positive for CK20. Only 42% of mucinous carcinoma were positive for CDX-2. All cases of endometrioid carcinomas were negative for both CK20 and CDX-2. All cases of metastatic adenocarcinoma from the colon were negative for CK7 and positive for CK20 and CDX-2. Conclusions: CK7 is an important positive marker for primary ovarian tumors, while CK20 and CDX-2 are useful markers for colorectal carcinoma metastatic to the ovary. Caution should be taken as primary ovarian mucinous tumors may stain positive for CK20, CDX-2, or both, however, they usually exhibit a focal pattern of reactivity.

Keywords: adenoma, endometrioid, malignancy, ovarian

Procedia PDF Downloads 138
29 The Impact of Co-Administration of Phosphodiesterase-5 Inhibitor and Sodium Selenite on Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in a Rat Ovary Model: Biochemical and Histopathologic Evaluation

Authors: Waleed Aly Sayed Ahmed, Eman Kishk, Tahani Shams

Abstract:

Aim: To study the effects of co-administration of phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor (PDE-5) and sodium selenite against the damage induced by ovarian ischemia-reperfusion in rats. Materials and Methods: A total of forty-two sexually mature, virgin, female rats were divided randomly into six groups of seven each: sham group (C), ischemia group (I), ischemia/reperfusion group (I/R), ischemia/reperfusion plus 1.4mg/kg sildenafil (I/R+S) group, ischemia/reperfusion plus 0.2mg/kg selenium (I/R+Se) group and ischemia/reperfusion plus combination of sildenafil and selenium (I/R+S+Se) group. In ischemia group (I), rats were exposed to ischemia for 3 hours (h). In ischemia/reperfusion group (I/R), rats were exposed to ischemia for 3 h followed by 6 h of reperfusion. Treated groups received 1.4mg/kg sildenafil or 0.2 mg/kg selenium or both 30 min before reperfusion. Both ovaries were surgically removed carefully. One ovary was examined for histopathological changes and the other was subject to biochemical analysis including malondialdehyde (MDA), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). Results: Assessment of ovarian tissue damage using a scoring system showed marked vascular congestion, interstitial edema, leukocyte infiltration, hemorrhage, and follicular degeneration in ischemia and ischemia/reperfusion groups. Tissue damage score for I, IR and all treated groups were significantly higher than those of the sham group (p<0.001), while tissue damage score decreased significantly in I/R+S and I/R+Se groups compared to I/R group (p<0.05), and notably, the difference was highly significant in I/R+S+Se group (p<0.001). There was significant increase in MDA levels and reduction in activities of CAT and GPx in I/R group compared to the sham group (p < 0.05). In I/R+S and I/R+Se groups, MDA was significantly decreased compared to the I/R group (p<0.05) and the difference was highly significant with co-administration of sildenafil and selenium (p<0.001). CAT and GPx were higher in all treated groups compared to I/R group (p<0.05). Conclusion: The co-administration of sildenafil citrate and selenium are highly protective against damage induced by ovarian ischemia/reperfusion in rats.

Keywords: phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor, sildenafil, antioxidant, selenium, ovarian ischemia

Procedia PDF Downloads 234
28 The Difference of Menstrual Cycle Profile and Urinary Luteinizing Hormone Changes In Polycystic Ovary Syndrome And Healthy Women

Authors: Ning Li, Jiacheng Zhang, Zheng Yang, Sylvia Kang

Abstract:

Introduction: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common physiological symptom in women of reproductive age. Women with PCOS may have infrequent or prolonged menstrual periods and excess male hormone (androgen) levels. Mira analyzes the cycle profiles and the luteinizing hormone (LH) changes in urine, closely related to the fertility level of healthy women and PCOS women. From the difference between the two groups, Mira helps to understand the physiological state of PCOS women and their hormonal changes in the menstrual cycle. Methods: In this study, data from 1496 cycles and information from 342 women belonging to two groups (181 PCOS and 161 Healthy) were collected and analyzed. Women test their luteinizing hormone (LH) in urine daily with Mira fertility test wand and Mira analyzer, from the day after the menstruation to the starting day of the next menstruation. All the collected data meets Mira’s user agreement and users’ identification was removed. The cycle length, LH peak, and other cycle information of the PCOS group were compared with the Healthy group. Results: The average cycle length of PCOS women is 41 days and of the Healthy women is 33 days. 91.4% of cycle length is within 40 days for the Healthy group, while it decreases to 71.9% for the PCOS group. This means PCOS women have a longer menstrual cycle and more variation during the cycle. With more variation, the ovulation prediction becomes more difficult for the PCOS group. The deviation between the LH surge day and the predicted ovulation day, calculated by the starting day of the next menstruation minus 14 days, is greater in the PCOS group compared with the Healthy group. Also, 46.96% of PCOS women have an irregular cycle, and only 19.25% of healthy women show an irregular cycle. Conclusion: PCOS women have longer menstrual cycles and more variation during the menstrual cycles. The traditional ovulation prediction is not suitable for PCOS women.

Keywords: menstrual cycle, PCOS, urinary luteinizing hormone, Mira

Procedia PDF Downloads 103
27 The Incidence of Metabolic Syndrome in Women with Impaired Reproductive Function According to Astana, Kazakhstan

Authors: A. T. Nakysh, A. S. Idrisov, S. A. Baidurin

Abstract:

This work presents the results of a study the incidence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in women with impaired reproductive function (IRF) according to the data of Astana, Kazakhstan. The anthropometric, biochemical and instrumental studies were conducted among 515 women, of which 53 patients with MetS according to IDF criteria, 2006, were selected. The frequency of occurrence of the IRF, due to MetS – 10.3% of cases according to the data of Astana. In women of childbearing age with IRF and the MetS, blood pressure (BP), indicators of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism were significantly higher and the level of high density lipoprotein (HDL) significantly lower compared to the same in women with the IRF without MetS. The hyperandrogenism, the hyperestrogenemia, the hyperprolactinemia and the hypoprogesteronemia were found in the patients with MetS and IRF, indicating the impact of MetS on the development of the polycystic ovary syndrome in 28% of cases and hyperplastic processes of the myometrium in 20% of cases.

Keywords: dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, reproductive disorders, obesity

Procedia PDF Downloads 237
26 Aberrant Acetylation/Methylation of Homeobox (HOX) Family Genes in Cumulus Cells of Infertile Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)

Authors: P. Asiabi, M. Shahhoseini, R. Favaedi, F. Hassani, N. Nassiri, B. Movaghar, L. Karimian, P. Eftekhariyazdi

Abstract:

Introduction: Polycystic Ovary Syndrome is a common gynecologic disorder. Many factors including environment, metabolism, hormones and genetics are involved in etiopathogenesis of PCOS. Of genes that have altered expression in human reproductive system disorders are HOX family genes which act as transcription factors in regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation, adhesion and migration. Since recent evidences consider epigenetic factors as causative mechanisms of PCOS, evaluation of association between known epigenetic marks of acetylation/methylation of histone 3 (H3K9ac/me) with regulatory regions of these genes can represent better insight about PCOS. In the current study, cumulus cells (CCs) which have critical roles during folliculogenesis, oocyte maturation, ovulation and fertilization were aimed to monitor epigenetic alterations of HOX genes. Material and methods: CCs were collected from 20 PCOS patients and 20 fertile women (18-36 year) with male infertility problems referred to the Royan Institute to have ICSI under GnRH antagonist protocol. Informed consents were obtained from the participants. Thirty six hours after hCG injection, ovaries were punctured and cumulus oocyte complexes were dissected. Soluble chromatin were extracted from CCs and Chromatin Immune precipitation (ChIP) coupled with Real Time PCR was performed to quantify the epigenetic marks of histone H3K9 acetylation/methylation (H3K9ac/me) on regulatory regions of 15 members of HOX genes from A-D subfamily. Results: Obtained data showed significant increase of H3K9ac epigenetic mark on regulatory regions of HOXA1, HOXB2, HOXC4, HOXD1, HOXD3 and HOXD4 (P < 0.01) and HOXC5 (P < 0.05) and also significant decrease of H3K9ac into regulatory regions of HOXA2, HOXA4, HOXA5, HOXB1 and HOXB5 (P < 0.01) and HOXB3 (P<0.05) in PCOS patients vs. control group. On the other side, there was a significant decrease in incorporation of H3K9me level on regulatory region of HOXA2, HOXA3, HOXA4, HOXA5, HOXB3 and HOXC4 (P≤0.01) and HOXB5 (P < 0.05) in PCOS patients vs. control group. This epigenetic mark (H3K9me2) has significant increase on regulatory region of HOXB1, HOXB2, HOXC5, HOXD1, HOXD3 and HOXD4 (P ≤ 0.01) and HOXB4 (P < 0.05) in patients vs. control group. There were no significant changes in acetylation/methylation levels of H3K9 on regulatory regions of the other studied genes. Conclusion: Current study suggests that epigenetic alterations of HOX genes can be correlated with PCOS and consequently female infertility. This finding might offer additional definitions of PCOS, and eventually provides insight for novel treatments with epidrugs for this disease.

Keywords: epigenetic, HOX genes, PCOS, female infertility

Procedia PDF Downloads 238
25 Vectorial Capacity and Age Determination of Anopheles Maculipinnis S. L. (Diptera: Culicidae), in Esfahan and Chahar Mahal and Bakhtiari Provinces, Central Iran

Authors: Fariba Sepahvand, Seyed Hassan Moosa-kazemi

Abstract:

The objective was to determine the population dynamics of Anopheles maculipinnis s.l. in relation to probable malaria transmission. The study was carried out in three villages in Isfahan and charmahal bakhteari provinces of Iran, from April to March 2014. Mosquitoes were collected by Total catch, Human and Animal bait collection. An. maculipinnis play as a dominant vector with exophagic and endophilic behavior. Ovary dissection revealed four dilatations indicate at least 9% of the population can reach to the dangerous age to potentially malaria transmission. Two peaks of blood feeding were observed, 9.00-10.00 P.M, and the 12.00-00.01 A.M. The gonotrophic cycle, survival rate, life expectancy of the species was 4, 0.82 and five days, respectively. Vectorial capacity was measured as 0.028. In conclusion, moderate climatic conditions support the persistence, density and longevity of An maculipinnis s.l. could result in more significant malaria transmission.

Keywords: age determination, Anopheles maculipinnis, center of Iran, Malaria

Procedia PDF Downloads 158
24 Carriage of 675 4G/5G Polymorphism in PAI-1 Gene and Its Association with Early Pregnancy Losses in Patients with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

Authors: R. Komsa-Penkova, G. Golemanov, G. Georgieva, K. Popovski, N. Slavov, P. Ivanov, K. Kovacheva, S. Rathee, E. Konova, A. Blajev

Abstract:

Leptin and PAI-1 are important cytokines and may play a role in the regulation of PCOS development. PCOS is frequently associated with obesity, high BMI index and consequently with increased risk of metabolic disorders. The aim of the present study was to evaluate PAI-1 levels, genetic influence of the carriage of 675 4G/5G polymorphism in PAI-1 gene and leptin as a marker of obesity in the development of PCOS. Methods: Genotyping in 84 patients with PCOS and PCO and 100 healthy control subjects to detect single nucleotide deletion 675 G in the promoter of PAI-1 gene. The present study provides evidence that SNP 4G in the PAI-1 gene is associated with early pregnancy losses in patients with polycystosis. Further to this, there is a correlation between leptin levels, PAI-1 levels and BMI in the patients with PCOS, which confirms the role of obesity as a risk factor for PCOS.

Keywords: carriage of 675 4G/5G polymorphism, PCOS, early pregnancy losses, PAI-1 gene

Procedia PDF Downloads 254
23 Cumulus Cells of Mature Local Goat Oocytes Vitrified with Insulin Transferrin Selenium and Heat Shock Protein 70

Authors: Izzatul Ulfana, Angga Pratomo Cahyadi, Rimayanti, Widjiati

Abstract:

Freezing oocyte could cause temperature stress. Temperature stress triggers cell damage. Insulin Transferrin Selenium (ITS) and Heat Shock Protein 70 (HSP70) had been used to prevent damage to the oocyte after freezing. ITS and HSP70 could cause the difference protective effect. The aim of this research was to obtain an effective cryoprotectant for freezing local goat oocyte in cumulus cells change. The research began by collecting the ovary from a local slaughterhouse in Indonesia, aspiration follicle, in vitro maturation and the freezing had been used vitrification method. Examination of the morphology cells by native staining method. Data on the calculation morphology oocyte analyzed by Kruskall-Wallis Test. After the Kruskall-Wallis Test which indicated significance, followed by Mann-Whitney Test to compare between treatment groups. As a result, cryoprotectant ITS has the best culumus cells after warming

Keywords: Insulin Transferrin Selenium, Heat Shock Protein 70, cryoprotectant, vitrification

Procedia PDF Downloads 162
22 Role of Bariatric Surgery in Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome &Infertility

Authors: Ahuja Ashish, Nain Prabhdeep Singh

Abstract:

Introduction: Polycystic ovarian syndrome(PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder among women of reproductive age.Pcos encompasses a broad spectrum of signs&symptoms of ovary dysfunction,obesity,blood pressure,insulin resistance & infertility. Bariatric Surgery can be an effective means of weight loss in Pcos & curing infertility. Materials and Methods: 15 female patients were enrolled in the study from 2012-2014.66%(n=10) were in age group of 20-25 years,33%(n=5) were in age group of 25-33 years who underwent. Bariatric surgery in form of Laproscopic sleeve Gastrectomy(LSG)& Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. LSG 73%(n=11), RYGB26% (n=4). Results: There was a significant improvement in obesity (60% excess weight loss)over 1 year after bariatric surgery, in 12 patients there was gross improvement in restoration of menstrual cycle who had irregular menstrual cycle. In 80% patients the serum insulin level showed normal value. Over two years 8 patients become pregnant. Conclusions: 1)Obese women with Pcos maybe able to conceive after Bariatric Surgery. 2) Women with Pcos should only consider bariatric surgery if they were already considering it for other reasons to treat obesity, blood pressure & other co-morbid conditions.

Keywords: obesity, bariatric surgery, polycystic ovarian syndrome, infertility

Procedia PDF Downloads 211
21 Precocious Puberty Due to an Autonomous Ovarian Cyst in a 3-Year-Old Girl: Case Report

Authors: Aleksandra Chałupnik, Zuzanna Chilimoniuk, Joanna Borowik, Aleksandra Borkowska, Anna Torres

Abstract:

Background: Precocious puberty is the occurrence of secondary sexual characteristics in girls before the age of 8. The diverse etiology of premature puberty is crucial to determine whether it is true precocious puberty, depending on the activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, or pseudo-precocious, which is independent of the activation of this axis. Whatever the cause, premature action of the sex hormones leads to the common symptoms of various forms of puberty. These include the development of sexual characteristics, acne, acceleration of growth rate and acceleration of skeletal maturation. Due to the possible genetic basis of the disorders, an interdisciplinary search for the cause is needed. Case report: The case report concerns a patient of a pediatric gynecology clinic who, at the age of two years, developed advanced thelarhe (M3) and started recurrent vaginal bleeding. In August 2019, gonadotropin suppression initially and after LHRH stimulation and high estradiol levels were reported at the Endocrinology Department. Imaging examinations showed a cyst in the right ovary projection. The bone age was six years. The entire clinical picture indicated pseudo- (peripheral) precocious in the course of ovarian autonomic cyst. In the follow-up ultrasound performed in September, the image of the cyst was stationary and normalization of estradiol levels and clinical symptoms was noted. In December 2019, cyst regression and normal gonadotropin and estradiol concentrations were found. In June 2020, white mucus tinged with blood on the underwear, without any other disturbing symptoms, was observed for several days. Two consecutive USG examinations carried out in the same month confirmed the change in the right ovary, the diameter of which was 25 mm with a very high level of estradiol. Germinal tumor markers were normal. On the Tanner scale, the patient scored M2P1. The labia and hymen had puberty features. The correct vaginal entrance was visible. Another active vaginal bleeding occurred in the first week of July 2020. The considered laparoscopic treatment was abandoned due to the lack of oncological indications. Treatment with Tamoxifen was recommended in July 2020. In the initiating period of treatment, no maturation progression, and even reduction of symptoms, no acceleration of growth and a marked reduction in the size of the cysts were noted. There was no bleeding. After the size of the cyst and hormonal activity increased again, the treatment was changed to Anastrozole, the effect of which led to a reduction in the size of the cyst. Conclusions: The entire clinical picture indicates alleged (peripheral) puberty. Premature puberty in girls, which is manifested as enlarged mammary glands with high levels of estrogens secreted by autonomic ovarian cysts and prepubertal levels of gonadotropins, may indicate McCune-Albright syndrome. Vaginal bleeding may also occur in this syndrome. Cancellation of surgical treatment of the cyst made it impossible to perform a molecular test that would allow to confirm the diagnosis. Taking into account the fact that cysts are often one of the first symptoms of McCune-Albrigt syndrome, it is important to remember about multidisciplinary care for the patient and careful search for skin and bone changes or other hormonal disorders.

Keywords: McCune Albrigth's syndrome, ovarian cyst, pediatric gynaecology, precocious puberty

Procedia PDF Downloads 115