Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 31

Search results for: transdermal

31 Iontophoretic Drug Transport: An Non-Invasive Transdermal Approach

Authors: Ashish Jain, Shivam Tayal

Abstract:

There has been great interest in the field of Iontophoresis since few years due to its great applications in the field of controlled transdermal drug delivery system. It is an technique which is used to enhance the transdermal permeation of ionized high molecular weight molecules across the skin membrane especially Peptides & Proteins by the application of direct current of 1-4 mA for 20-40 minutes whereas chemical must be placed on electrodes with same charge. Iontophoresis enhanced the delivery of drug into the skin via pores like hair follicles, sweat gland ducts etc. rather than through stratum corneum. It has wide applications in the field of experimental, Therapeutic, Diagnostic, Dentistry etc. Medical science is using it to treat Hyperhidrosis (Excessive sweating) in hands and feet and to treat other ailments like hypertension, Migraine etc. Nowadays commercial transdermal iontophoretic patches are available in the market to treat different ailments. Researchers are keen to research in this field due to its vast applications and advantages.

Keywords: iontophoresis, novel drug delivery, transdermal, permeation enhancer

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30 Transdermal Therapeutic System of Lercanıdipine Hydrochloride: Fabrication and in Vivo Evaluation

Authors: Jiji Jose, R. Narayanacharyulu, Molly Mathew, Jisha Prems

Abstract:

Introduction: Lercanidipine hydrochloride (LD), an effective calcium channel blocker, widely used for the treatment of chronic stable angina and hypertension seems to be potential transdermal therapeutic system candidate, mainly due to its low oral bio availability, short half life and high first-pass metabolism. Objective: To develop transdermal therapeutic systems for LD and to evaluate its in vivo performance in rabbits. Methodology: Transdermal patches of LD were formulated using the polymer blend of eudragit RL100 (ERL) and polyvinyl pyrolidone (PVP) by casting method Propylene glycol (PG) and tween 80 were used as plasticizer and permeation enhancer respectively. The pharmaco kinetic parameters of LD after the administration of transdermal patches was compared with that of oral administration. The study was carried out in a two way crossover design in male New Zealand albino rabbits. Results: The formulation with ERL: PVP ratio 1:4 with 15% w/w PG as plasticizer and 4% w/w tween 80 as permeation enhancer showed the best drug release results. The pharmacokinetic parameters such as Cmax, tmax, mean residence time (MRT) and area under the curve (AUC 0-∞) were significantly different following transdermal administration compared to oral administration. The terminal half life of transdermally administered LD was found to similar that of oral administration. A sustained drug release over a period of 24 hrs was observed after transdermal administration. Conclusion: The fabricated transdermal delivery system have the potential to provide controlled and extended drug release, better bio availability and thus, this may improve the patient compliance.

Keywords: transdermal therapeutic system, lercanidipine hydrochloride, eudragit, skinpermeation

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29 The Effect of Backing Layer on Adhesion Properties of Single Layer Ketoprofen Transdermal Drug Delivery System

Authors: Maryam Hamedanlou, Shahla Hajializadeh

Abstract:

The transdermal drug delivery system is one of the types of novel drug delivery system that the drug is absorbed into the skin. The major considerations for designing and producing transdermal patch are small size, suitable drug release and good adhering. In this study, drug-in-adhesive transdermal patch contained non-steroidal anti-inflammatory ketoprofen is prepared. Also, the effect of non-woven fabric and plastic backing layers on adhesion properties is assessed. The results of the test, demonstrated the use of plastic backing layer increases tack and peel rather than non-woven fabric type. The balance tack with plastic backing layer patch is 6.7 (N/mm2), and the fabric one is 3.8 (N/mm2), and their peel is 9.2 (N/25mm) and 8.3 (N/25mm) by arrangement.

Keywords: transdermal drug delivery system, single layer patch of ketoprofen, plastic layer, fabric backing layer

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28 Effect of Span 60, Labrasol, and Cholesterol on Labisia pumila Loaded Niosomes Quality

Authors: H. Binti Ya’akob, C. Siew Chin, A. Abd Aziz, I. Ware, M. Fauzi Abd Jalil, N. Rashidah Ahmed, R. Sabtu

Abstract:

Labisia pumila (LP) plant extract has the potential to be applied in cosmeceutical products due to its anti-photoaging properties. The main purpose of this study was to improve transdermal delivery of LP by encapsulating LP in niosomes. Niosomes loaded LPs were prepared by coacervation phase separation method using non-ionic surfactant (Span 60), labrasol, and cholesterol. The optimum formula obtained were Span 60, labrasol and cholesterol at the mole ratio of 6:1:4. At the optimum formulation, the niosome obtained significantly improved the quality of transdermal penetration of LP compared to free LP.

Keywords: Labisia pumila, niosomes, transdermal, quality

Procedia PDF Downloads 186
27 Iontophoretic Drug Transport of Some Anti-Diabetic Agents

Authors: Ashish Jain, Satish Nayak

Abstract:

Transdermal iontophoretic drug delivery system is viable drug delivery platform technology and has a strong market worldwide. Transdermal drug delivery system is particularly desirable for therapeutic agents that need prolonged administration at controlled plasma level. This makes appropriateness to antihypertensive and anti-diabetic agents for their transdermal development. Controlled zero order absorption, easily termination of drug delivery and easy to administration also support for popularity of transdermal delivery. In this current research iontophoretic delivery of various anti diabetic agents like glipizide, glibenclamide and glimepiride were carried out. The experiments were carried out at different drug concentrations and different current densities using cathodal iontophoresis. Diffusion cell for iontophoretic permeation study was modified according to Glikfield Design. Pig skin was used for in vitro permeation study and for the in-vivo study New Zealand rabbits were used. At all concentration level iontophoresis showed enhanced permeation rate compared to passive controls. Iontophoretic transports of selected drugs were found to be increased with the current densities. Results showed that target permeation rate for selected drugs could be achieved with the aid of iontophoresis by increasing the area in an appreciable range.

Keywords: transdermal, iontophoresis, pig skin, rabbits, glipizide, glibeclamide

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26 Design, Development and Characterization of Pioglitazone Transdermal Drug Delivery System

Authors: Dwarakanadha Reddy Peram, D. Swarnalatha, C. Gopinath

Abstract:

The main aim of this research work was to design and development characterization of Pioglitazone transdermal drug delivery system by using various polymers such as Olibanum with different concentration by solvent evaporation technique. The prepared formulations were evaluated for different physicochemical characteristics like thickness, folding endurance, drug content, percentage moisture absorption, percentage moisture loss, percentage elongation break test and weight uniformity. The diffusion studies were performed by using modified Franz diffusion cells. The result of dissolution studies shows that formulation, F3 (Olibanum with 50 mg) showed maximum release of 99.95 % in 12hrs, whereas F1 (Olibanum and EC backing membrane) showed minimum release of 93.65% in 12 hr. Based on the drug release and physicochemical values obtained the formulation F3 is considered as an optimized formulation which shows higher percentage of drug release of 99.95 % in 12 hr. The developed transdermal patches increase the therapeutic efficacy and reduced toxic effect of pioglitazone.

Keywords: pioglitazone, olibanum, transdermal drug delivery system, drug release percantage

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25 Fabrication and Characterization of Transdermal Spray Using Film Forming Polymer

Authors: Paresh Patel, Harshit Patel

Abstract:

Superficial fungal skin infection is among the most common skin disease. The drug administration through skin has received attention due to several advantages: Avoidance of significant pre-systemic metabolism, drug levels within the therapeutic window, drugs with short biological half-lives, decreased side effects, the non-invasive character, and very high acceptance.

Keywords: transdermal spray, ketoconazole, Eudragit® RLPO, therapeutic window

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24 Formulation of Film Forming Transdermal Spray Containing Fluconazole Using Full Factorial Design

Authors: Paresh M. Patel, Amit A. Patel, R. H. Parikh

Abstract:

The present investigation was undertaken to fabricate modified transport fluconazole that belongs to BCS class II and have a poor applicability on topical infection. So to improve topical application, transdermal spray could play a vital role by using ethyl cellulose and Eudragit® S100 as film-forming polymers. Concentration of Eudragit® S100, ethyl cellulose and permeation enhancer (camphor and menthol) were selected as independent variables, whereas drying time, viscosity and in-vitro drug release were selected as dependent variables in factorial design. The viscosity, drying time and in-vitro drug release of the optimize batch B15 was 40.1 cps, 47 sec. and 90.79% respectively. The film of optimized batch was flexible and dermal-adhesive.

Keywords: Eudragit, ethyl cellulose, fluconazole, transdermal spray

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23 Formulation, Evaluation and Statistical Optimization of Transdermal Niosomal Gel of Atenolol

Authors: Lakshmi Sirisha Kotikalapudi

Abstract:

Atenolol, the widely used antihypertensive drug is ionisable and degrades in the acidic environment of the GIT lessening the bioavailability. Transdermal route may be selected as an alternative to enhance the bioavailability. Half-life of the drug is 6-7 hours suggesting the requirement of prolonged release of the drug. The present work of transdermal niosomal gel aims to extend release of the drug and increase the bioavailability. Ethanol injection method was used for the preparation of niosomes using span-60 and cholesterol at different molar ratios following central composite design. The prepared niosomes were characterized for size, zeta-potential, entrapment efficiency, drug content and in-vitro drug release. Optimized formulation was selected by statistically analyzing the results obtained using the software Stat-Ease Design Expert. The optimized formulation also showed high drug retention inside the vesicles over a period of three months at a temperature of 4 °C indicating stability. Niosomes separated as a pellet were dried and incorporated into the hydrogel prepared using chitosan a natural polymer as a gelling agent. The effect of various chemical permeation enhancers was also studied over the gel formulations. The prepared formulations were characterized for viscosity, pH, drug release using Franz diffusion cells, and skin irritation test as well as in-vivo pharmacological activities. Atenolol niosomal gel preparations showed the prolonged release of the drug and pronounced antihypertensive activity indicating the suitability of niosomal gel for topical and systemic delivery of atenolol.

Keywords: atenolol, chitosan, niosomes, transdermal

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22 Combined Effect of Vesicular System and Iontophoresis on Skin Permeation Enhancement of an Analgesic Drug

Authors: Jigar N. Shah, Hiral J. Shah, Praful D. Bharadia

Abstract:

The major challenge faced by formulation scientists in transdermal drug delivery system is to overcome the inherent barriers related to skin permeation. The stratum corneum layer of the skin is working as the rate limiting step in transdermal transport and reduce drug permeation through skin. Many approaches have been used to enhance the penetration of drugs through this layer of the skin. The purpose of this study is to investigate the development and evaluation of a combined approach of drug carriers and iontophoresis as a vehicle to improve skin permeation of an analgesic drug. Iontophoresis is a non-invasive technique for transporting charged molecules into and through tissues by a mild electric field. It has been shown to effectively deliver a variety of drugs across the skin to the underlying tissue. In addition to the enhanced continuous transport, iontophoresis allows dose titration by adjusting the electric field, which makes personalized dosing feasible. Drug carrier could modify the physicochemical properties of the encapsulated molecule and offer a means to facilitate the percutaneous delivery of difficult-to-uptake substances. Recently, there are some reports about using liposomes, microemulsions and polymeric nanoparticles as vehicles for iontophoretic drug delivery. Niosomes, the nonionic surfactant-based vesicles that are essentially similar in properties to liposomes have been proposed as an alternative to liposomes. Niosomes are more stable and free from other shortcoming of liposomes. Recently, the transdermal delivery of certain drugs using niosomes has been envisaged and niosomes have proved to be superior transdermal nanocarriers. Proniosomes overcome some of the physical stability related problems of niosomes. The proniosomal structure was liquid crystalline-compact niosomes hybrid which could be converted into niosomes upon hydration. The combined use of drug carriers and iontophoresis could offer many additional benefits. The system was evaluated for Encapsulation Efficiency, vesicle size, zeta potential, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), DSC, in-vitro release, ex-vivo permeation across skin and rate of hydration. The use of proniosomal gel as a vehicle for the transdermal iontophoretic delivery was evaluated in-vitro. The characteristics of the applied electric current, such as density, type, frequency, and on/off interval ratio were observed. The study confirms the synergistic effect of proniosomes and iontophoresis in improving the transdermal permeation profile of selected analgesic drug. It is concluded that proniosomal gel can be used as a vehicle for transdermal iontophoretic drug delivery under suitable electric conditions.

Keywords: iontophoresis, niosomes, permeation enhancement, transdermal delivery

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21 Increasing Solubility and Bioavailability of Fluvastatin through Transdermal Nanoemulsion Gel Delivery System for the Treatment of Osteoporosis

Authors: Ramandeep Kaur, Makula Ajitha

Abstract:

Fluvastatin has been reported for increasing bone mineral density in osteoporosis since last decade. Systemically administered drug undergoes extensive hepatic first-pass metabolism, thus very small amount of drug reaches the bone tissue which is highly insignificant. The present study aims to deliver fluvastatin in the form of nanoemulsion (NE) gel directly to the bone tissue through transdermal route thereby bypassing hepatic first pass metabolism. The NE formulation consisted of isopropyl myristate as oil, tween 80 as surfactant, transcutol as co-surfactant and water as the aqueous phase. Pseudoternary phase diagrams were constructed using aqueous titration method and NE’s obtained were subjected to thermodynamic-kinetic stability studies. The stable NE formulations were evaluated for their droplet size, zeta potential, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The nano-sized formulations were incorporated into 0.5% carbopol 934 gel matrix. Ex-vivo permeation behaviour of selected formulations through rat skin was investigated and compared with the conventional formulations (suspension and emulsion). Further, in-vivo pharmacokinetic study was carried using male Wistar rats. The optimized NE formulations mean droplet size was 11.66±3.2 nm with polydispersity index of 0.117. Permeation flux of NE gel formulations was found significantly higher than the conventional formulations i.e. suspension and emulsion. In vivo pharmacokinetic study showed significant increase in bioavailability (1.25 fold) of fluvastatin than oral formulation. Thus, it can be concluded that NE gel was successfully developed for transdermal delivery of fluvastatin for the treatment of osteoporosis.

Keywords: fluvastatin, nanoemulsion gel, osteoporosis, transdermal

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20 In vitro Evaluation of Capsaicin Patches for Transdermal Drug Delivery

Authors: Alija Uzunovic, Sasa Pilipovic, Aida Sapcanin, Zahida Ademovic, Berina Pilipović

Abstract:

Capsaicin is a naturally occurring alkaloid extracted from capsicum fruit extracts of different of Capsicum species. It has been employed topically to treat many diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, cancer pain and nerve pain in diabetes. The high degree of pre-systemic metabolism of intragastrical capsaicin and the short half-life of capsaicin by intravenous administration made topical application of capsaicin advantageous. In this study, we have evaluated differences in the dissolution characteristics of capsaicin patch 11 mg (purchased from market) at different dissolution rotation speed. The proposed patch area is 308 cm2 (22 cm x 14 cm; it contains 36 µg of capsaicin per square centimeter of adhesive). USP Apparatus 5 (Paddle Over Disc) is used for transdermal patch testing. The dissolution study was conducted using USP apparatus 5 (n=6), ERWEKA DT800 dissolution tester (paddle-type) with addition of a disc. The fabricated patch of 308 cm2 is to be cut into 9 cm2 was placed against a disc (delivery side up) retained with the stainless-steel screen and exposed to 500 mL of phosphate buffer solution pH 7.4. All dissolution studies were carried out at 32 ± 0.5 °C and different rotation speed (50± 5; 100± 5 and 150± 5 rpm). 5 ml aliquots of samples were withdrawn at various time intervals (1, 4, 8 and 12 hours) and replaced with 5 ml of dissolution medium. Withdrawn were appropriately diluted and analyzed by reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RP-LC). A Reversed Phase Liquid Chromatography (RP-LC) method has been developed, optimized and validated for the separation and quantitation of capsaicin in a transdermal patch. The method uses a ProntoSIL 120-3-C18 AQ 125 x 4,0 mm (3 μm) column maintained at 600C. The mobile phase consisted of acetonitrile: water (50:50 v/v), the flow rate of 0.9 mL/min, the injection volume 10 μL and the detection wavelength 222 nm. The used RP-LC method is simple, sensitive and accurate and can be applied for fast (total chromatographic run time was 4.0 minutes) and simultaneous analysis of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin in a transdermal patch. According to the results obtained in this study, we can conclude that the relative difference of dissolution rate of capsaicin after 12 hours was elevated by increase of dissolution rotation speed (100 rpm vs 50 rpm: 84.9± 11.3% and 150 rpm vs 100 rpm: 39.8± 8.3%). Although several apparatus and procedures (USP apparatus 5, 6, 7 and a paddle over extraction cell method) have been used to study in vitro release characteristics of transdermal patches, USP Apparatus 5 (Paddle Over Disc) could be considered as a discriminatory test. would be able to point out the differences in the dissolution rate of capsaicin at different rotation speed.

Keywords: capsaicin, in vitro, patch, RP-LC, transdermal

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19 Formulation and Evaluation of TDDS for Sustained Release Ondansetron HCL Patches

Authors: Baljinder Singh, Navneet Sharma

Abstract:

The skin can be used as the site for drug administration for continuous transdermal drug infusion into the systemic circulation. For the continuous diffusion/penetration of the drugs through the intact skin surface membrane-moderated systems, matrix dispersion type systems, adhesive diffusion controlled systems and micro reservoir systems have been developed. Various penetration enhancers are used for the drug diffusion through skin. In matrix dispersion type systems, the drug is dispersed in the solvent along with the polymers and solvent allowed to evaporate forming a homogeneous drug-polymer matrix. Matrix type systems were developed in the present study. In the present work, an attempt has been made to develop a matrix-type transdermal therapeutic system comprising of ondansetron-HCl with different ratios of hydrophilic and hydrophobic polymeric combinations using solvent evaporation technique. The physicochemical compatibility of the drug and the polymers was studied by infrared spectroscopy. The results obtained showed no physical-chemical incompatibility between the drug and the polymers. The patches were further subjected to various physical evaluations along with the in-vitro permeation studies using rat skin. On the basis of results obtained form the in vitro study and physical evaluation, the patches containing hydrophilic polymers i.e. polyvinyl alcohol and poly vinyl pyrrolidone with oleic acid as the penetration enhancer(5%) were considered as suitable for large scale manufacturing with a backing layer and a suitable adhesive membrane.

Keywords: transdermal drug delivery, penetration enhancers, hydrophilic and hydrophobic polymers, ondansetron HCl

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18 Formulation and in vitro Evaluation of Transdermal Delivery of Articaine

Authors: Dinakaran Venkatachalam, Paul Chambers, Kavitha Kongara, Preet Singh

Abstract:

The objective of this study is to formulate different topical preparations containing articaine and to investigate their permeation through goat skin. Initially, articaine and its hydrochloride salt were compared for in vitro permeation using Franz cell model. Goat skin samples were collected after euthanizing male goat kids purchased from the dairy goat farmers. Subcutaneous fat was removed and the skin was mounted on the donor chamber (orifice area 1.00 cm²) and drugs were applied onto the epidermis. Phosphate buffer saline (pH 7.4) was used to maintain sink condition in the receptor chamber (8 ml) of the Franz cell. Samples (0.4 ml) were collected at various intervals over 24 hours after each sampling equal volume of PBS was replaced in the receptor chamber. Articaine in the collected samples were quantified using LC/MS. The results suggested that articaine free base permeates better than its hydrochloride salt through goat skin. This study results support the fact that local anesthetics in its base form are lipophilic and thus penetrates faster through cell membranes than their salts. Later, articaine free base was formulated either using ethanol and octyl salicylate or dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as penetration enhancers and was compared for in vitro permeation. The transdermal flux of articaine in the formulation containing DMSO was approximately 3.8 times higher than that of the formulation containing ethanol and octyl salicylate. Further studies to evaluate the local anesthetic efficacy of the topical formulation containing articaine for dermal anesthesia in animals have been planned.

Keywords: articaine, dermal anesthesia, local anesthetic, transdermal

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17 A Randomised, Single-Dose, Two-Period, Cross-Over Phase I Pharmacokinetic Study to Compare TDS®-Diazepam with Rectal Diazepam in Healthy Adult Subjects

Authors: Faisal O. Al-Otaibi, Arthur T. Tucker, Richard M. Langford, Stuart Ratcliffe, Atholl Johnston, Terry D. Lee, Kenneth B. Kirby, Chandan A. Alam

Abstract:

The Transdermal Delivery System (TDS®) is a proprietary liquid formulation that can be applied to intact skin via a metered pump spray to facilitate drug delivery to the circulation. The aim of this study was to assess the ability of the TDS preparation to deliver diazepam systemically, and to characterize the pharmacokinetic profile of the drug in healthy adult subjects. We conducted a randomized, single-dose, two-period, crossover phase I (pharmacokinetic) comparative study in twelve healthy volunteers. All volunteers received both 10 mg TDS-diazepam topically to the upper chest and 10 mg of the rectal diazepam preparation (Diastat®, 10 mg diazepam gel), with a minimum washout of 14 days between dosing episodes. Both formulations were well tolerated in all volunteers. Following topical application of TDS-diazepam, the mean AUC0-72h was 1241 ng/mL.h and the Cmax 34 ng/mL. The values for rectal Diastat were 4109 ng/mL.h and 300 ng/mL respectively. This proof of concept study demonstrates that the TDS preparation successfully delivered diazepam systemically to adults. As expected, the concentration of diazepam following the TDS application was lower and not bioequivalent to rectal gel. Future development of this unique system is required.

Keywords: transdermal delivery system, diazepam, seizure, bioequivalence, pharmacokinetic

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16 The Study of Dissolving Microneedle Patch for Androgenetic Alopecia

Authors: Li-Yu Lee, Yu-Shuan Chen, Jun Sheng Wang, I-Ming Chu

Abstract:

Microneedle patch is a painless transdermal drug delivery method, It could solve some problems in traditional drug delivery such as digestive system causing drug metabolism and subcutaneous injection causing some side effects. Coating drug on or loading drug in microneedle can carry active ingredient through stratum corneum, also can control dose well when microneedle patch apply on localized topical area. We used hyaluronic acid to fabricate dissolvable microneedle patch and encapsulated minoxidil into microneedles. Minoxdil is a drug for exterior use that can be used to treat Androgenetic alopecia, but related commercial products have some shortcomings, for example, propylene glycol which is used to soften stratum corneum cause skin allergic reaction, comparing chemical promotion, microneedle patch provide physical way to make drugs through nature barrier of skin. In this research, we designed a two-step process to fabricate microneedle patch, that can effectively reduce drug waste, and gentle production process could maintain drug activity well. We also do in vitro test on cadaver to make sure patch has enough mechanical strength to penetrate stratum corneum. In the release test and animal test, we found microneedle patch has higher delivery efficiency than tradition way. In this study, we may determine that germinal MNs patch is a potential commodity.

Keywords: dissolving microneedles, androgenetic alopecia, minoxidil, transdermal drug delivery

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15 Wound Healing Dressing and Some Composites Such as Zeolite, TiO2, Chitosan and PLGA as New Alternative for Melanoma Therapy: A Review

Authors: L. B. Naves, L. Almeida

Abstract:

The development of Drugs Delivery System (DDS), has been wildly investigated in the last decades. In this paper, first a general overview of traditional and modern wound dressing is presented. This is followed by a review of what scientist have done in the medical environment, focusing the possibility to develop a new alternative for DDS through transdermal pathway, aiming to treat melanoma skin cancer.

Keywords: cancer therapy, dressing polymers, melanoma, wound healing

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14 Transdermal Delivery of Sodium Diclofenac from Palm Kernel Oil Esteres Nanoemulsions

Authors: Malahat Rezaee, Mahiran Basri, Abu Bakar Salleh, Raja Noor Zaliha Raja Abdul Rahman

Abstract:

Sodium diclofenac is one of the most commonly used drugs of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). It is especially effective in the controlling the severe conditions of inflammation and pain, musculoskeletal disorders, arthritis, and dysmenorrhea. Formulation as nanoemulsions is one of the nanoscience approaches that has been progressively considered in pharmaceutical science for transdermal delivery of the drug. Nanoemulsions are a type of emulsion with particle sizes ranging from 20 nm to 200 nm. An emulsion is formed by the dispersion of one liquid, usually the oil phase in another immiscible liquid, water phase that is stabilized using the surfactant. Palm kernel oil esters (PKOEs), in comparison to other oils, contain higher amounts of shorter chain esters, which suitable to be applied in micro and nanoemulsion systems as a carrier for actives, with excellent wetting behavior without the oily feeling. This research aimed to study the effect of terpene type and concentration on sodium diclofenac permeation from palm kernel oil esters nanoemulsions and physicochemical properties of the nanoemulsions systems. The effect of various terpenes of geraniol, menthone, menthol, cineol and nerolidol at different concentrations of 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0% on permeation of sodium diclofenac were evaluated using Franz diffusion cells and rat skin as permeation membrane. The results of this part demonstrated that all terpenes showed promoting effect on sodium diclofenac penetration. However, menthol and menthone at all concentrations showed significant effects (<0.05) on drug permeation. The most outstanding terpene was menthol with the most significant effect for skin permeability of sodium diclofenac. The effect of terpenes on physicochemical properties of nanoemulsion systems was investigated on the parameters of particle size, zeta potential, pH, viscosity and electrical conductivity. The result showed that all terpenes had the significant effect on particle size and non-significant effects on the zeta potential of the nanoemulsion systems. The effect of terpenes was significant on pH, excluding the menthone at concentrations of 0.5 and 1.0%, and cineol and nerolidol at the concentration of 2.0%. Terpenes also had significant effect on viscosity of nanoemulsions exception of menthone and cineol at the concentration of 0.5%. The result of conductivity measurements showed that all terpenes at all concentration except cineol at the concentration of 0.5% represented significant effect on electrical conductivity.

Keywords: nanoemulsions, palm kernel oil esters, sodium diclofenac, terpenes, skin permeation

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13 Breath Ethanol Imaging System Using Real Time Biochemical Luminescence for Evaluation of Alcohol Metabolic Capacity

Authors: Xin Wang, Munkbayar Munkhjargal, Kumiko Miyajima, Takahiro Arakawa, Kohji Mitsubayashi

Abstract:

The measurement of gaseous ethanol plays an important role of evaluation of alcohol metabolic capacity in clinical and forensic analysis. A 2-dimensional visualization system for gaseous ethanol was constructed and tested in visualization of breath and transdermal alcohol. We demonstrated breath ethanol measurement using developed high-sensitive visualization system. The concentration of breath ethanol calculated with the imaging signal was significantly different between the volunteer subjects of ALDH2 (+) and (-).

Keywords: breath ethanol, ethnaol imaging, biochemical luminescence, alcohol metabolism

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12 Arbutin-loaded Butylglyceryl Dextran Nanoparticles for Topical Delivery

Authors: Mohammad F. Bostanudin, Tan S. Fei, Azwan M. Lazim

Abstract:

Toward the development of colloidal systems that are able to enhance permeation across the skin, a material combining the non-toxic and non-immunogenic of dextran with alkylglycerols permeation enhancing property has been designed. To this purpose, a range of butylglyceryl dextrans (DEX-OX4) were synthesized via functionalization with n-butylglycidyl ether and the successful functionalization was confirmed by NMR and FT-IR spectroscopies, along with GPC with a degree of modification in the range 6.3–35.7 %. A reduced viscosity and an increased molecular weight of DEX-OX4 were also recorded when compared to that of the native dextran. DEX-OX4 was further formulated into nanocarriers and loaded with α-arbutin prior to be investigated for their particle size, morphology, stability, loading ability, and release profiles. The resulting nanoparticles were found to be close-to-spherical and relatively stable at pH 5 and 7, with size 180–220 nm (ζ-potential -22 to -25 mV), and a loading degree of 11.7 %. Lack of toxicity at application-relevant concentrations and increased permeation across skin biological membrane model were demonstrated by nanoparticles in-vitro results against immortalized skin human keratinocytes cells (HaCaT).

Keywords: butylglycerols, dextran, nanoparticles, transdermal

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11 Development and Characterization of Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles of Quercetin in Skin Cancer

Authors: Khusboo Agrawal, S. Saraf

Abstract:

Quercetin, a flavonol provides a cellular protection against UV induced oxidative damages due to its excellent free radical scavenging activity and direct pro-apoptopic effect on tumor cells. However, its topical use is limited due to its unfavorable physicochemical properties. The present study was aimed to evaluate the potential of mesoporous silica nanoparticles as topical carrier system for quercetin delivery. Complexes of quercetin with mesoporous silica was prepared with different weight ratios and characterized by thermo gravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction, high resolution TEM, FT-IR spectroscopy, zeta potential measurements and differential scanning calorimetry The protective effect of this vehicle on UV-induced degradation of the quercetin was investigated revealing a certain positive influence of the inclusion on the photostability over time. Epidermal accumulation and transdermal permeation of this molecule were ex vivo evaluated by using Franz diffusion cells. The immobilization of Quercetin in mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) increased the stability without undermining the antioxidant efficacy.

Keywords: cancer, MSNs, quercetin, topical delivery

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10 The Potential of Ursolic Acid Acetate as an Agent for Malarial Chemotherapy

Authors: Mthokozisi B. C. Simelane

Abstract:

Despite the various efforts by governmental and non-governmental organizations aimed at eradicating the disease, malaria is said to kill a child every 30 seconds. Traditional healers use different concoctions prepared from medicinal plants to treat malaria. In the quest to bio-prospect plant-derived triterpenes for anti-malaria activity, we report here the in vivo antiplasmodial activity of ursolic acid acetate (ursolic acid isolated from dichloromethane extract of Mimusops caffra was chemically modified to its acetate derivative). The transdermal administration of ursolic acid acetate (UAA) dose dependently showed complete inhibition of the parasites’ growth at the highest concentration of 400 mg/kg after 15 days of Plasmodium berghei infection. UAA prevented the in vitro aggregation of MDH but did not prevent the expression of PfHsp 70 in E. coli XL1 blue cells. It, however, enhanced PfHsp70 ATPase activity with the specific activity of 65 units (amount of phosphate released 73.83 nmolPi/min.mg). Ursolic acid acetate prevented the formation of hemozoin (60 ± 0.02% at 6 mg/ml). The results suggest that Ursolic acid acetate possesses potential anti-malaria properties.

Keywords: Mimusops caffra, ursolic acid acetate, hemozoin, Malaria

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9 Sniff-Camera for Imaging of Ethanol Vapor in Human Body Gases after Drinking

Authors: Toshiyuki Sato, Kenta Iitani, Koji Toma, Takahiro Arakawa, Kohji Mitsubayashi

Abstract:

A 2-dimensional imaging system (Sniff-camera) for gaseous ethanol emissions from a human palm skin was constructed and demonstrated. This imaging system measures gaseous ethanol concentrations as intensities of chemiluminescence (CL) by luminol reaction induced by alcohol oxidase and luminol-hydrogen peroxide system. A conversion of ethanol distributions and concentrations to 2-dimensional CL was conducted on an enzyme-immobilized mesh substrate in a dark box, which contained a luminol solution. In order to visualize ethanol emissions from human palm skin, we developed highly sensitive and selective imaging system for transpired gaseous ethanol at sub ppm-levels. High sensitivity imaging allows us to successfully visualize the emissions dynamics of transdermal gaseous ethanol. The intensity of each pixel on the palm shows the reflection of ethanol concentrations distributions based on the metabolism of oral alcohol administration. This imaging system is significant and useful for the assessment of ethanol measurement of the palmar skin.

Keywords: sniff-camera, gas-imaging, ethanol vapor, human body gas

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8 The Methods of Immobilization of Laccase for Direct Transfer in an Enzymatic Fuel Cell

Authors: Afshin Farahbakhsh, Hoda Khodadadi

Abstract:

In this paper, we compare five methods of biological fuel cell fabrication by combining a Shewanella oneidensis microbial anode and a laccase-modified air-breathing cathode. As a result of biofuel cell laccase with graphite nanofibers, carbon surface (PAMAN) on the pt/hpg electrode, graphite sheets MWCNT and with (PG) and (MWCNT) showed, respectively. Describes methods for creating controllable and reproducible bio-anodes and demonstrates the versatility of hybrid biological fuel cells. The laccase-based biocathodes prepared either with the crude extract or with the purified enzyme can provide electrochemically active and stable biomaterials. The laccase-based biocathodes prepared either with the crude extract or with the purified enzyme can provide electrochemically active and stable biomaterials. When the device was fed with transdermal extracts, containing only 30μM of glucose, the average peak power was proportionally lower (0.004mW). The result of biofuel cell with graphite nanofibers showed the enzymatic fuel cell reaches 0.5 V at open circuit voltage with both, ethanol and methanol and the maximum current density observed for E2electrode was 228.94mAcm.

Keywords: enzymatic electrode, fuel cell, immobilization, laccase

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7 Hybrid-Nanoengineering™: A New Platform for Nanomedicine

Authors: Mewa Singh

Abstract:

Nanomedicine, a fusion of nanotechnology and medicine, is an emerging technology ideally suited to the targeted therapies. Nanoparticles overcome the low selectivity of anti-cancer drugs toward the tumor as compared to normal tissue and hence result-in less severe side-effects. Our new technology, HYBRID-NANOENGINEERING™, uses a new molecule (MR007) in the creation of nanoparticles that not only helps in nanonizing the medicine but also provides synergy to the medicine. The simplified manufacturing process will result in reduced manufacturing costs. Treatment is made more convenient because hybrid nanomedicines can be produced in oral, injectable or transdermal formulations. The manufacturing process uses no protein, oil or detergents. The particle size is below 180 nm with a narrow distribution of size. Importantly, these properties confer great stability of the structure. The formulation does not aggregate in plasma and is stable over a wide range of pH. The final hybrid formulation is stable for at least 18 months as a powder. More than 97 drugs, including paclitaxel, docetaxel, tamoxifen, doxorubicinm prednisone, and artemisinin have been nanonized in water soluble formulations. Preclinical studies on cell cultures of tumors show promising results. Our HYBRID-NANOENGINEERING™ platform enables the design and development of hybrid nano-pharmaceuticals that combine efficacy with tolerability, giving patients hope for both extended overall survival and improved quality of life. This study would discuss or present this new discovery of HYBRID-NANOENGINEERING™ which targets drug delivery, synergistic, and potentiating effects, and barriers of drug delivery and advanced drug delivery systems.

Keywords: nano-medicine, nano-particles, drug delivery system, pharmaceuticals

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6 Placebo Analgesia in Older Age: Evidence from Event-Related Potentials

Authors: Angelika Dierolf, K. Rischer, A. Gonzalez-Roldan, P. Montoya, F. Anton, M. Van der Meulen

Abstract:

Placebo analgesia is a powerful cognitive endogenous pain modulation mechanism with high relevance in pain treatment. Older people would benefit, especially from non-pharmacologic pain interventions, since this age group is disproportionately affected by acute and chronic pain, while pharmacological treatments are less suitable due to polypharmacy and age-related changes in drug metabolism. Although aging is known to affect neurobiological and physiological aspects of pain perception, as for example, changes in pain threshold and pain tolerance, its effects on cognitive pain modulation strategies, including placebo analgesia, have hardly been investigated so far. In the present study, we are assessing placebo analgesia in 35 older adults (60 years and older) and 35 younger adults (between 18 and 35 years). Acute pain was induced with short transdermal electrical pulses to the inner forearm, using a concentric stimulating electrode. Stimulation intensities were individually adjusted to the participant’s threshold. Next to the stimulation site, we applied sham transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS). Participants were informed that sometimes the TENS device would be switched on (placebo condition), and sometimes it would be switched off (control condition). In reality, it was always switched off. Participants received alternating blocks of painful stimuli in the placebo and control condition and were asked to rate the intensity and unpleasantness of each stimulus on a visual analog scale (VAS). Pain-related evoked potentials were recorded with a 64-channel EEG. Preliminary results show a reduced placebo effect in older compared to younger adults in both behavioral and neurophysiological data. Older people experienced less subjective pain reduction under sham TENS treatment compared to younger adults, as evidenced by the VAS ratings. The N1 and P2 event-related potential components were generally reduced in the older group. While younger adults showed a reduced N1 and P2 under sham TENS treatment, this reduction was considerably smaller in older people. This reduced placebo effect in the older group suggests that cognitive pain modulation is altered in aging and may at least partly explain why older adults experience more pain. Our results highlight the need for a better understanding of the efficacy of non-pharmacological pain treatments in older adults and how these can be optimized to meet the specific requirements of this population.

Keywords: placebo analgesia, aging, acute pain, TENS, EEG

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5 Stability and Rheology of Sodium Diclofenac-Loaded and Unloaded Palm Kernel Oil Esters Nanoemulsion Systems

Authors: Malahat Rezaee, Mahiran Basri, Raja Noor Zaliha Raja Abdul Rahman, Abu Bakar Salleh

Abstract:

Sodium diclofenac is one of the most commonly used drugs of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). It is especially effective in the controlling the severe conditions of inflammation and pain, musculoskeletal disorders, arthritis, and dysmenorrhea. Formulation as nanoemulsions is one of the nanoscience approaches that have been progressively considered in pharmaceutical science for transdermal delivery of drug. Nanoemulsions are a type of emulsion with particle sizes ranging from 20 nm to 200 nm. An emulsion is formed by the dispersion of one liquid, usually the oil phase in another immiscible liquid, water phase that is stabilized using surfactant. Palm kernel oil esters (PKOEs), in comparison to other oils; contain higher amounts of shorter chain esters, which suitable to be applied in micro and nanoemulsion systems as a carrier for actives, with excellent wetting behavior without the oily feeling. This research was aimed to study the effect of O/S ratio on stability and rheological behavior of sodium diclofenac loaded and unloaded palm kernel oil esters nanoemulsion systems. The effect of different O/S ratio of 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.00 and 1.25 on stability of the drug-loaded and unloaded nanoemulsion formulations was evaluated by centrifugation, freeze-thaw cycle and storage stability tests. Lecithin and cremophor EL were used as surfactant. The stability of the prepared nanoemulsion formulations was assessed based on the change in zeta potential and droplet size as a function of time. Instability mechanisms including coalescence and Ostwald ripening for the nanoemulsion system were discussed. In comparison between drug-loaded and unloaded nanoemulsion formulations, drug-loaded formulations represented smaller particle size and higher stability. In addition, the O/S ratio of 0.5 was found to be the best ratio of oil and surfactant for production of a nanoemulsion with the highest stability. The effect of O/S ratio on rheological properties of drug-loaded and unloaded nanoemulsion systems was studied by plotting the flow curves of shear stress (τ) and viscosity (η) as a function of shear rate (γ). The data were fitted to the Power Law model. The results showed that all nanoemulsion formulations exhibited non-Newtonian flow behaviour by displaying shear thinning behaviour. Viscosity and yield stress were also evaluated. The nanoemulsion formulation with the O/S ratio of 0.5 represented higher viscosity and K values. In addition, the sodium diclofenac loaded formulations had more viscosity and higher yield stress than drug-unloaded formulations.

Keywords: nanoemulsions, palm kernel oil esters, sodium diclofenac, rheoligy, stability

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4 Loss of the Skin Barrier after Dermal Application of the Low Molecular Methyl Siloxanes: Volatile Methyl Siloxanes, VMS Silicones

Authors: D. Glamowska, K. Szymkowska, K. Mojsiewicz- Pieńkowska, K. Cal, Z. Jankowski

Abstract:

Introduction: The integrity of the outermost layer of skin (stratum corneum) is vital to the penetration of various compounds, including toxic substances. Barrier function of skin depends of its structure. The barrier function of the stratum corneum is provided by patterned lipid lamellae (binlayer). However, a lot of substances, including the low molecular methyl siloxanes (volatile methyl siloxanes, VMS) have an impact on alteration the skin barrier due to damage of stratum corneum structure. VMS belong to silicones. They are widely used in the pharmaceutical as well as cosmetic industry. Silicones fulfill the role of ingredient or excipient in medicinal products and the excipient in personal care products. Due to the significant human exposure to this group of compounds, an important aspect is toxicology of the compounds and safety assessment of products. Silicones in general opinion are considered as a non-toxic substances, but there are some data about their negative effect on living organisms through the inhaled or oral application. However, the transdermal route has not been described in the literature as a possible alternative route of penetration. The aim of the study was to verify the possibility of penetration of the stratum corneum, further permeation into the deeper layers of the skin (epidermis and dermis) as well as to the fluid acceptor by VMS. Methods: Research methodology was developed based on the OECD and WHO guidelines. In ex-vivo study, the fluorescence microscope and ATR FT-IR spectroscopy was used. The Franz- type diffusion cells were used to application of the VMS on the sample of human skin (A=0.65 cm) for 24h. The stratum corneum at the application site was tape-stripped. After separation of epidermis, relevant dyes: fluorescein, sulforhodamine B, rhodamine B hexyl ester were put on and observations were carried in the microscope. To confirm the penetration and permeation of the cyclic or linear VMS and thus the presence of silicone in the individual layers of the skin, spectra ATR FT-IR of the sample after application of silicone and H2O (control sample) were recorded. The research included comparison of the intesity of bands in characteristic positions for silicones (1263 cm-1, 1052 cm-1 and 800 cm-1). Results: and Conclusions The results present that cyclic and linear VMS are able to overcome the barrier of the skin. Influence of them on damage of corneocytes of the stratum corneum was observed. This phenomenon was due to distinct disturbances in the lipid structure of the stratum corneum. The presence of cyclic and linear VMS were identified in the stratum corneum, epidermis as well as in the dermis by both fluorescence microscope and ATR FT-IR spectroscopy. This confirms that the cyclic and linear VMS can penetrate to stratum corneum and permeate through the human skin layers. Apart from this they cause changes in the structure of the skin. Results show to possible absorption into the blood and lymphathic vessels by the VMS with linear and cyclic structure.

Keywords: low molecular methyl siloxanes, volatile methyl siloxanes, linear and cyclic siloxanes, skin penetration, skin permeation

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3 From Forked Tongues to Tinkerbell Ears: Rethinking the Criminalization of Alternative Body Modification in the UK

Authors: Luci V. Hyett

Abstract:

The criminal law of England and Wales currently deems that a person cannot consent to the infliction of injury upon their own body, where the level of harm is considered to be Actual or Grevious. This renders the defence of consent of the victim as being unavailable to those persons carrying out an Alternative Body Modification procedure. However, the criminalization of consensual injury is more appropriately deemed as being categorized as an offense against public morality and not one against the person, which renders the State’s involvement in the autonomous choices of a consenting adult, when determining what can be done to one’s own body, an arbitrary one. Furthermore, to recognise in law that a person is capable of giving a valid consent to socially acceptable cosmetic interventions that largely consist of procedures designed to aesthetically please men and, not those of people who want to modify their bodies for other reasons means that patriarchal attitudes are continuing to underpin public repulsion and inhibit social acceptance of such practices. Theoretical analysis will begin with a juridical examination of R v M(B) [2019] QB 1 where the High Court determined that Alternative Body Modification was not a special category exempting a person so performing from liability for Grevious Bodily Harm using the defence of consent. It will draw from its reasoning which considered that ‘the removal of body parts were medical procedures being carried out for no medical reason by someone not qualified to carry them out’ which will form the basis of this enquiry. It will consider the philosophical work of Georgio Agamben when analysing whether the biopolitical climate in the UK, which places the optimization of the perfect, healthy body at the centre of political concern can explain why those persons who wish to engage in Alternative Body Modification are treated as the ‘Exception’ to that which is normal using the ‘no medical reason’ canon to justify criminalisation, rather than legitimising the industry through regulation. It will consider, through a feminist lens, the current conflict in law between traditional cosmetic interventions which alter one’s physical appearance for socially accepted aesthetic purposes such as those to the breast, lip and buttock and, modifications described as more outlandish such as earlobe stretching, tooth filing and transdermal implants to create horns and spikes under the skin. It will assert that ethical principles relating to the psychological impact of body modification described as ‘alternative’ is used as a means to exclude person’s seeking such a procedure from receiving safe and competent treatment via a registered cosmetic surgeon which leads to these increasingly popular surgery’s being performed in Tattoo parlours throughout the UK as an extension to other socially acceptable forms of self-modification such as piercings. It will contend that only by ‘inclusive exclusion’ will those ‘othered’ through ostracisation be welcomed into the fold of normality and this can only be achieved through recognition of alternative body modification as a legitimate cosmetic intervention, subject to the same regulatory framework as existing practice. This would assist in refocusing the political landscape by erring on the side of liberty rather than that of biology.

Keywords: biopolitics, body modification, consent, criminal law

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2 Biocompatible Hydrogel Materials Containing Cytostatics for Cancer Treatment

Authors: S. Kudlacik-Kramarczyk, M. Kedzierska, B. Tyliszczak

Abstract:

Recently, the continuous development of medicine and related sciences has been observed. Particular emphasis is directed on the development of biomaterials, i.e., non-toxic, biocompatible and biodegradable materials that may improve the effectiveness of treatment as well as the comfort of patients. This is particularly important in the case of cancer treatment. Currently, there are many methods of cancer treatment based primarily on chemotherapy and the surgical removal of the tumor, but it is worth noting that these therapies also cause many side effects. Among women, the most common cancer is breast cancer. It may be completely cured, but the consequence of treatment is partial or complete breast mastectomy and radiation therapy, which results in severe skin burns. The skin of the patient after radiation therapy is very burned, and therefore requires intensive care and high frequency of dressing changes. The traditional dressing adheres to the burn wounds and does not absorb adequate amount of exudate from injuries and the patient is forced to change the dressing every 2 hours. Therefore, the main purpose was to develop an innovative combination of dressing material with drug carriers that may be used in anti-cancer therapy. The innovation of this solution is the combination of these two products into one system, i.e., a transdermal system with the possibility of a controlled release of the drug- cytostatic. Besides, the possibility of modifying the hydrogel matrix with aloe vera juice provides this material with new features favorable from the point of view of healing processes of burn wounds resulting from the radiation therapy. In this study, hydrogel materials containing protein spheres with the active substance have been obtained as a result of photopolymerization process. The reaction mixture consisting of the protein (albumin) spheres incorporated with cytostatic, chitosan, adequate crosslinking agent and photoinitiator has been subjected to the UV radiation for 2 minutes. Prepared materials have been subjected to the numerous studies including the analysis of cytotoxicity using murine fibroblasts L929. Analysis was conducted based on the mitochondrial activity test (MTT reduction assay) which involves the determining the number of cells characterized by proper metabolism. Hydrogel materials obtained using different amount of crosslinking agents have been subjected to the cytotoxicity analysis. According to the standards, tested material is defined as cytotoxic when the viability of cells after 24 h incubation with this material is lower than 70%. In the research, hydrogel polymer materials containing protein spheres incorporated with the active substance, i.e. a cytostatic, have been developed. Such a dressing may support the treatment of cancer due to the content of the anti-cancer drug - cytostatic, and may also provide a soothing effect on the healing of the burn wounds resulted from the radiation therapy due to the content of aloe vera juice in the hydrogel matrix. Based on the conducted cytotoxicity studies, it may be concluded that the obtained materials do not adversely affect the tested cell lines, therefore they can be subjected to more advanced analyzes.

Keywords: hydrogel polymers, cytostatics, drug carriers, cytotoxicity

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