Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 17

Search results for: cryopreservation

17 Ovarian Stimulation and Oocyte Cryopreservation for Fertility Preservation in Adolescent Females at the Royal Children’s Hospital: A Case Series

Authors: Kira Merigan

Abstract:

BACKGROUND- Fertility preservation (FP) measures are increasingly recognised as an important consideration for children and adolescents planned to undergo potentially damaging gonadotoxic therapy. Worldwide, there are very few documented cases of FP in young females by way of ovarian stimulation and oocyte cryopreservation.AIM – To report a case series of mature oocyte cryopreservation in 5post-pubertal adolescents aged 14-17 years old, with varied medical conditions requiring gonadotoxic treatment. SETTING-These cases took place via a multidisciplinary team approach at The Royal Children’s Hospital, a large tertiary centre in Melbourne, Australia. INTERVENTION– Ovarian stimulation and oocyte collection was performed as detailed in each case. RESULTS –Across the 5 patients, 3-28 oocytes were retrieved. We report pre-treatment workup, complications, and delays to treatment. CONCLUSION- Oocyte cryopreservation may be a safe alternative to ovarian tissue cryopreservation (OTC) in the adolescent population

Keywords: fertility preservation, adolescent, ovarian stimulation, oocyte cryopreservation

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16 Cryoinjuries in Sperm Cells: Effect of Adaptation of Steps in Cryopreservation Protocol for Boar Semen upon Post-Thaw Sperm Quality

Authors: Aftab Ali

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Cryopreservation of semen is one of the key factors for a successful breeding business along with other factors. To achieve high fertility in boar, one should know about spermatozoa response to different treatments proceeds during cryopreservation. The running project is highly focused on cryopreservation and its effects on sperm quality parameters in both boar and bull semen. Semen sample from A, B, C, and D, were subjected to different thawing conditions and were analyzed upon different treatments in the study. Parameters like sperm cell motility, viability, acrosome, DNA integrity, and phospholipase C zeta were detected by different established methods. Different techniques were used to assess different parameters. Motility was detected using computer assisted sperm analysis, phospholipase C zeta using luminometry while viability, acrosome integrity, and DNA integrity were analyzed using flow cytometry. Thawing conditions were noted to have an effect on sperm quality parameters with motility being the most critical parameter. The results further indicated that the most critical step during cryopreservation of boar semen is when sperm cells are subjected to freezing and thawing. The findings of the present study provide insight that; boar semen cryopreservation is still suboptimal in comparison to bull semen cryopreservation. Thus, there is a need to conduct more research to improve the fertilizing potential of cryopreserved boar semen.

Keywords: cryopreservation, computer assisted sperm, flow cytometry, luminometry

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15 Impact of Propolis on Cryopreservation of Arctic Charr (Salvelinus alpinus) Sperm

Authors: K. A. El-Battawy, E. Brannas

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Cryopreservation of sperm causes damages and adversely affected sperm motility and viability resulting in lower hatching rates. The aim of this study is to determine whether propolis has potential protective effect on cryopreservation and fertilization ability of spermatozoa of Salvelinusalpinus. The extenders were prepared by using simple glucose solution (0.3 M glucose) to which 10% Me2SO added with different levels of propolis (0.4, 0.8 and 1 mg/ ml) and 10% egg yolk (as a control without propolis). The pooled semen samples diluted at the ratio of 1:3 by the extenders were subjected to cryopreservation. The percentage and duration of motility and fertilization tests of cryopreserved sperm samples have been done immediately after thawing and compared with control and fresh semen. The extenders containing propolis showed higher percentage motility and motility duration than control group (P < 0.05). Especially the group II (0.8 mg/ ml propolis) and the group III (1 mg/ ml propolis) showed significant positive effects on both post thaw motility and hatching ability. In conclusion, this study confirms that the propolis is an appropriate cryoptrotective agent in fish semen and it maintained the integrity of the spermatozoa during the cryopreservation process.

Keywords: propolis, arctic charr, semen, cryopreservation

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14 Properties of Adipose Tissue Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells with Long-Term Cryopreservation

Authors: Jienny Lee, In-Soo Cho, Sang-Ho Cha

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Adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been investigated using preclinical approaches for tissue regeneration. Porcine MSCs (pMSCs) are capable of growing and attaching to plastic with a fibroblast-like morphology and then differentiating into bone, adipose, and cartilage tissues in vitro. This study was conducted to investigate the proliferating abilities, differentiation potentials, and multipotency of miniature pig adipose tissue-derived MSCs (mpAD-MSCs) with or without long-term cryopreservation, considering that cryostorage has the potential for use in clinical applications. After confirming the characteristics of the mpAD-MSCs, we examined the effect of long-term cryopreservation (> 2 years) on expression of cell surface markers (CD34, CD90 and CD105), proliferating abilities (cumulative population doubling level, doubling time, colony-forming unit, and MTT assay) and differentiation potentials into mesodermal cell lineages. As a result, the expression of cell surface markers is similar between thawed and fresh mpAD-MSCs. However, long-term cryopreservation significantly lowered the differentiation potentials (adipogenic, chondrogenic, and osteogenic) of mpAD-MSCs. When compared with fresh mpAD-MSCs, thawed mpAD-MSCs exhibited lower expression of mesodermal cell lineage-related genes such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-g2, lipoprotein lipase, collagen Type II alpha 1, osteonectin, and osteocalcin. Interestingly, long-term cryostoraged mpAD-MSCs exhibited significantly higher cell viability than the fresh mpAD-MSCs. Long-term cryopreservation induced a 30% increase in the cell viability of mpAD-MSCs when compared with the fresh mpAD-MSCs at 5 days after thawing. However, long-term cryopreservation significantly lowered expression of stemness markers such as Oct3/4, Sox2, and Nanog. Furthermore, long-term cryopreservation negatively affected expression of senescence-associated genes such as telomerase reverse transcriptase and heat shock protein 90 of mpAD-MSCs when compared with the fresh mpAD-MSCs. The results from this study might be important for the successful application of MSCs in clinical trials after long-term cryopreservation.

Keywords: mesenchymal stem cells, cryopreservation, stemness, senescence

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13 Cryopreservation of Ring-Necked Pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) Semen for Establishing Cryobank

Authors: Rida Pervaiz, Bushra Allah Rakha, Muhammad Sajjad Ansari, Shamim Akhter, Kainat Waseem, Sumiyyah Zuha, Tooba Javed

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Ring-necked pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) belongs to order Galliformes and family Phasianidae. It has been recognized as the most hunted bird due to its attractive colorful appearance and meat. Loss of habitat and hunting pressure has caused population fluctuations in the native range. Under these circumstances, this species can be conserved by employing ex-situ in vitro conservation techniques. Captive breeding, in combination with semen cryobanking is the most appropriate option to conserve/propagate this species without deteriorating the genetic diversity. Cryopreservation protocols of adequate efficiency are necessary to establish semen cryobanking for a species. Therefore, present study was designed to devise an efficient extender for cryopreservation of ring-necked pheasant semen. For this purpose, a range of extenders (Beltsville Poultry, red fowl, Lake, EK, Tselutin Poultry and Chicken semen extenders) were evaluated for cryopreservation of ring-necked pheasant semen. Semen collected from 10 cocks, diluted in the Beltsville Poultry (BPSE), Red Fowl (RFE), Lake (LE), EK (EKE), Tselutin Poultry (TPE) and Chicken Semen (CSE) extenders and cryopreserved. Glycerol (10%) was added to semen at 4°C, equilibrated for 10 min, filled in 0.5 mL French straws, kept over liquid nitrogen vapors for 10 min, cryopreserved in LN2 and stored. Sperm motility (%), viability (%), live/dead ratio (%), plasma membrane (%) and DNA Integrity (%) were evaluated at post-dilution, post-cooling, post-equilibration and post-thawing stage of cryopreservation. Sperm motility (83.8 ± 3.1; 81.3 ± 3.8; 73.8 ± 2.4; 62.5 ± 1.4), viability (79.0 ± 1.7; 75.5 ± 1.6; 69.5 ± 2.3; 65.5 ± 2.4), live/dead ratio (80.5 ± 5.7; 77.3 ± 4.9; 76.0 ± 2.7; 68.3 ± 2.3), plasma membrane (74.5 ± 2.9; 73.8 ± 3.4; 71.3 ± 2.3; 75.0 ± 3.4) and DNA integrity (78.3 ± 1.7; 73.0 ± 1.2; 68.0 ± 2.0; 63.0 ± 2.5) at all four stages of cryopreservation were recorded higher (P < 0.05) in red fowl extender compared to all experimental extenders. It is concluded that red fowl extender is the best extender for cryopreservation of ring-necked pheasant semen and can be used in establishing cryobank for ex situ conservation.

Keywords: ring-necked pheasant; extenders; cryopreservation; semen quality; DNA integrity

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12 The Effect of Curcumin on Cryopreserved Bovine Semen

Authors: Eva Tvrdá, Marek Halenár, Hana Greifová, Alica Mackovich, Faridullah Hashim, Norbert Lukáč

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Oxidative stress associated with semen cryopreservation may result in lipid peroxidation (LPO), DNA damage and apoptosis, leading to decreased sperm motility and fertilization ability. Curcumin (CUR), a natural phenol isolated from Curcuma longa Linn. has been presented as a possible supplement for a more effective semen cryopreservation because of its antioxidant properties. This study focused to evaluate the effects of CUR on selected oxidative stress parameters in cryopreserved bovine semen. 20 bovine ejaculates were split into two aliquots and diluted with a commercial semen extender containing CUR (50 μmol/L) or no supplement (control), cooled to 4 °C, frozen and kept in liquid nitrogen. Frozen straws were thawed in a water bath for subsequent experiments. Computer assisted semen analysis was used to evaluate spermatozoa motility, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was quantified by using luminometry. Superoxide generation was evaluated with the NBT test, and LPO was assessed via the TBARS assay. CUR supplementation significantly (P<0.001) increased the spermatozoa motility and provided a significantly higher protection against ROS (P<0.001) or superoxide (P<0.01) overgeneration caused by semen freezing and thawing. Furthermore, CUR administration resulted in a significantly (P<0.01) lower LPO of the experimental semen samples. In conclusion, CUR exhibits significant ROS-scavenging activities which may prevent oxidative insults to cryopreserved spermatozoa and thus may enhance the post-thaw functional activity of male gametes.

Keywords: bulls, cryopreservation, curcumin, lipid peroxidation, reactive oxygen species, spermatozoa

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11 Vitrification-Based Cryopreservation of Phalaenopsis cornu-Cervi (Breda) Blume & Rchb. f. Protocorms

Authors: Suphat Rittirat, Sutha Klaocheed, Somporn Prasertsongskun, Kanchit Thammasiri

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Protocorms of Phalaenopsis cornu-cervi (Breda) Blume & Rchb. f. were successfully cryopreserved using a vitrification method. Two-month old protocorms at GI 4 stage were precultured in liquid MS medium supplemented with different concentrations of sucrose (0.3, 0.5, 0.7, 0.9 and 1.2 M) at 25±1°C for 2 days on an orbital shaker at 110 rpm. The protocorms were treated with loading solution (2 M glycerol plus 0.4 M sucrose) for 20 minutes at 25±1°C. Then, the protocorms were sufficiently dehydrated with vitrification solution (plant vitrification solution 2, PVS2) for various times (0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 minutes) at 25±1°C and stored in liquid nitrogen for 1 day. After rapid thawing in water bath at 40°C for 2 minutes, the explants were washed by MS liquid medium containing 0.5 ml of 1.2 M sucrose for 20 minutes. The results shown that the protocorms were precultured in liquid MS medium containing 0.5 M sucrose and dehydrated with vitrification solution for 60 minutes had the highest survival percentage of protocorm at 31±1.0 % as measured by Evan’s blue. No survival rate of protocorms was found without vitrification treatments.

Keywords: protocorms, cryopreservation, Phalaenopsis cornu-cervi, vitrification

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10 Comparison of Two Methods of Cryopreservation of Testicular Tissue from Prepubertal Lambs

Authors: Rensson Homero Celiz Ygnacio, Marco Aurélio Schiavo Novaes, Lucy Vanessa Sulca Ñaupas, Ana Paula Ribeiro Rodrigues

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The cryopreservation of testicular tissue emerges as an alternative for the preservation of the reproductive potential of individuals who still cannot produce sperm; however, they will undergo treatments that may affect their fertility (e.g., chemotherapy). Therefore, the present work aims to compare two cryopreservation methods (slow freezing and vitrification) in testicular tissue of prepubertal lambs. For that, to obtain the testicular tissue, the animals were castrated and the testicles were collected immediately in a physiological solution supplemented with antibiotics. In the laboratory, the testis was split into small pieces. The total size of the testicular fragments was 3×3x1 mm³ and was placed in a dish contained in Minimum Essential Medium (MEM-HEPES). The fragments were distributed randomly into non-cryopreserved (fresh control), slow freezing (SF), and vitrified. To SF procedures, two fragments from a given male were then placed in a 2,0 mL cryogenic vial containing 1,0 mL MEM-HEPES supplemented with 20% fetal bovine serum (FBS) and 20% dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). Tubes were placed into a Mr. Frosty™ Freezing container with isopropyl alcohol and transferred to a -80°C freezer for overnight storage. On the next day, each tube was plunged into liquid nitrogen (NL). For vitrification, the ovarian tissue cryosystem (OTC) device was used. Testicular fragments were placed in the OTC device and exposed to the first vitrification solution composed of MEM-HEPES supplemented with 10 mg/mL Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA), 0.25 M sucrose, 10% Ethylene glycol (EG), 10% DMSO and 150 μM alpha-lipoic acid for four min. The VS1 was discarded and then the fragments were submerged into a second vitrification solution (VS2) containing the same composition of VS1 but 20% EG and 20% DMSO. VS2 was then discarded and each OTC device containing up to four testicular fragments was closed and immersed in NL. After the storage period, the fragments were removed from the NL, kept at room temperature for one min and then immersed at 37 °C in a water bath for 30 s. Samples were warmed by sequentially immersing in solutions of MEM-HEPES supplemented with 3 mg/mL BSA and decreasing concentrations of sucrose. Hematoxylin-eosin staining to analyze the tissue architecture was used. The score scale used was from 0 to 3, classified with a score 0 representing normal morphologically, and 3 were considered a lot of alteration. The histomorphological evaluation of the testicular tissue shows that when evaluating the nuclear alteration (distinction of nucleoli and condensation of nuclei), there are no differences when using slow freezing with respect to the control. However, vitrification presents greater damage (p <0.05). On the other hand, when evaluating the epithelial alteration, we observed that the freezing showed scores statistically equal to the control in variables such as retraction of the basement membrane, formation of gaps and organization of the peritubular cells. The results of the study demonstrated that cryopreservation using the slow freezing method is an excellent tool for the preservation of pubertal testicular tissue.

Keywords: cryopreservation, slow freezing, vitrification, testicular tissue, lambs

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9 Acrosomal Integrity, DNA Integrity and Post-Thawing Motility of Goat Semen after Methionine Supplementation

Authors: K. A. El-Battawy, W. S. El-Nattat

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The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the impact of methionine on the preservation, acrosomal integrity, DNA integrity and post thawing motility of extended goat semen. Semen samples were diluted with a Tris-based extender containing the additive methionine 1.5, 2.5 and 5mM then the diluted samples were kept in glass tubes and cooled from 37°C to 5°C in a cold cabinet, and maintained at 5°C. Sperm motility (SM%), alive sperm (AS%), sperm abnormalities (SA%) acrosomal integrity and DNA integrity were determined at 5°C for periods of 0,24, 48and 72 h of liquid storage. Furthermore, the influence of methionine on post-thawing motility was assessed. The results elaborated that the addition of methionine and L-tyrosine particularly 2.5mM of methionine significantly improved SM% and reduced dead sperm %. Furthermore, the addition of 2.5mM methionine improved post-thawing motility (43.75 ± 1.25% vs. 32.50 ± 3.23 in the control group). Moreover, the frequency of acrosomal defects was lower in treated groups than in control. In conclusion, the addition of methionine induced remarkable physiological effects on goat semen quality during conservation for 7-days-long period at 5°C and improved its freezability.

Keywords: methionine, acrosome, semen, cryopreservation

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8 The Effect of Ethylene Glycol on Cryopreserved Bovine Oocytes

Authors: Sri Wahjuningsih, Nur Ihsan, Hadiah

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In the embryo transfer program, to address the limited production of embryos in vivo, in vitro embryo production has become an alternative approach that is relatively inexpensive. One potential source of embryos that can be developed is to use immature oocytes then conducted in vitro maturation and in vitro fertilization. However, obstacles encountered were oocyte viability mammals have very limited that it cannot be stored for a long time, so we need oocyte cryopreservation. The research was conducted to know the optimal concentration use of ethylene glycol as a cryoprotectant on oocytes freezing.Material use in this research was immature oocytes; taken from abbatoir which was aspirated from follicle with diameter 2-6 mm. Concentration ethylen glycol used were 0,5 M, I M, 1,5 M and 2M. The freezing method used was conventional method combined with a five-step protocol washing oocytes from cryoprotectant after thawing. The result showed that concentration ethylen glycol have the significant effect (P<0.05) on oocytes quality after thawing and in vitro maturation. It was concluded that concentration 1,5 M was the best concentration for freezing oocytes using conventional method.

Keywords: bovine, conventional freezing, ethylen glycol, oocytes

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7 Effect of Feed Additive on Cryopreservation of Barki Ram Semen

Authors: Abdurzag Kerban, Mostfa M. Abou-Ahmed, Abdelrof M. Ghallab, Mona H. Shaker

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Preservation of semen had a major impact on sheep genetic breeding. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of protected fat, probiotic and zinc-enriched diets on semen freezability. Twenty two Barki rams were randomly assigned into four groups; Group I (n=5) was fed the basal diet enriched with 3.7% of dry fat/kg concentration/day, Group II (n=5) was fed a basal diet-enriched with 10gm of probiotic /head/day, Group III (n=6) was fed on the basal diet enriched with 100 ppm of 10% zinc chelated with methionine/kg dry matter/day and Group IV (n=6) was served as control. A pool of three to four ejaculates were pooled from rams within a period of ten weeks. Semen was diluted in egg yolk-Tris diluent and processed in 0.25 ml straw. Motility was evaluated after dilution, before freezing and post-thawing at 0, 1, 2 and 3 hour incubation. Viability index, acrosome integrity and leakage of intracellular enzymes (Aspartat aminotransferase and Alkline phosphatase) were also evaluated. Spermatozoa exhibited highly significant (P<0.01) percentages of motility at 0, 1, 2, and 3 hours incubation after thawing, viability index and acrosome integrity in rams fed a diet enriched with protected fat and zinc groups as compared with probiotic and control groups. Also, the mean value of extracellular leakage of AST was significantly lower in fat and zinc group as compared with probiotic and control groups. In conclusion, semen freezability was improved in animals fed a diet fortified with fat and zinc with no significant improvement in animals fed the probiotic-enriched diet.

Keywords: Barki ram semen, freezing, straw, feed additives

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6 Old Swimmers Tire Quickly: The Effect of Time on Quality of Thawed versus Washed Sperm

Authors: Emily Hamilton, Adiel Kahana, Ron Hauser, Shimi Barda

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BACKGROUND: In the male fertility and sperm bank unit of Tel Aviv Sourasky medical center, women are treated with intrauterine insemination (IUI) using washed sperm from their partner or thawed sperm from a selected donor. In most cases, the women perform the IUI treatment in Sourasky, but sometimes they ask to undergo the insemination procedure in another clinic with their own fertility doctor. In these cases, the sperm sample is prepared at the Sourasky lab, and the patient is inseminated after arriving at her doctor. This laboratory has previously found that time negatively affects several parameters of thawed sperm and estimates that it has a more severe and significant effect than on washed sperm. AIM: To examine the effect of time on the quality of washed sperm versus thawed sperm. METHODS: Sperm samples were collected from men referred for semen analysis. Each ejaculate was allowed to liquefy for at least 20 min at 37°C and analyzed for sperm motility and vitality percentage and DNA fragmentation index (Time 0). Subsequently, 1ml of the sample was divided into two parts, 1st part was washed only and the 2nd part was washed, frozen and thawed. Time 1 analysis occurred immediately after sperm washing or thawing. Time 2 analysis occurred 75 minutes after time 1. Statistical analysis was performed using a Student t-test. P values<0.05 were considered significant RESULTS: Preliminary data showed that time had a greater impact on the average percentages of sperm motility and vitality in thawed compared to washed sperm samples (26%±10% vs. 21%±10% and 21%±9% vs. 9%±10%, respectively). An additional trend towards increased average DNA fragmentation percentage in thawed samples compared to washed samples was observed (46%±18% vs. 25%±24%). CONCLUSION: Time negatively affects sperm quality. The effect is greater in thawed samples compared to fresh samples.

Keywords: ART, male fertility, sperm cryopreservation, sperm quality

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5 Seminal Attributes, Cooling Procedure and Post Thaw Quality of Semen of Indigenous Khari Bucks (Capra hircus) of Nepal

Authors: Pankaj Kumar Jha, Saroj Sapkota, Dil Bahadur Gurung, Raju Kadel, Neena Amatya Gorkhali, Bhola Shankar Shrestha

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The study was conducted to evaluate the seminal attributes, effectiveness of cooling process and post-thawed semen quality of a Nepalese indigenous Khari buck. Thirty-two ejaculates, 16 from each buck were studied for seminal attributes of fresh semen: volume, color, mass activity, motility, viability, sperm concentration, and morphology. The pooled mean values for each seminal attributes were: volume 0.7±0.3 ml; colour 3.1±0.3 (milky white); mass activity 3.8±0.4 (rapid wave motion with formation of eddies at the end of waves to very rapid wave motion with distinct eddies formation); sperm motility 80.9±5.6%; sperm viability 94.6±2.0%; sperm concentration 2597.0±406.8x106/ml; abnormal acrosome, mid-piece and tail 10.7±1.8% and abnormal head 5±1.7%. For freezing semen, further 6 ejaculates from each buck were studied with Tris based egg yolk citrate extender. The pooled mean values of motility and viability of post diluted semen for 90 and 120 minutes each for cooling and glycerol equilibration were 73.8±4.8%, 88.1±2.6% and 69.2±6.0%, 85.0±1.7%, respectively. The pooled mean values of post thaw motility and viability with advancement of preservation time were: 0hour 49.0±4.6%, 81.2±1.9%; 2nd day 41±2.2%, 79±1%; 5th day 41±2.2%, 78.6±0.9% and 10th day 41±2.2%, 78.6±0.9%. We concluded from the above study that the seminal attributes and results of post-thaw semen quality were satisfactory and in accordance with other work in foreign countries, which indicated the feasibility of cryopreserving buck semen. For more validation, research with large number of bucks, different types of diluents and freezing trials by removing seminal plasma followed by pregnancy rate is recommended.

Keywords: cryopreservation, Nepalese indigenous Khari (Hill goat) buck, post-thaw semen quality, seminal attributes

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4 Microfluidic Chambers with Fluid Walls for Cell Biology

Authors: Cristian Soitu, Alexander Feuerborn, Cyril Deroy, Alfonso Castrejon-Pita, Peter R. Cook, Edmond J. Walsh

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Microfluidics now stands as an academically mature technology after a quarter of a century research activities have delivered a vast array of proof of concepts for many biological workflows. However, translation to industry remains poor, with only a handful of notable exceptions – e.g. digital PCR, DNA sequencing – mainly because of biocompatibility issues, limited range of readouts supported or complex operation required. This technology exploits the domination of interfacial forces over gravitational ones at the microscale, replacing solid walls with fluid ones as building blocks for cell micro-environments. By employing only materials used by biologists for decades, the system is shown to be biocompatible, and easy to manufacture and operate. The method consists in displacing a continuous fluid layer into a pattern of isolated chambers overlaid with an immiscible liquid to prevent evaporation. The resulting fluid arrangements can be arrays of micro-chambers with rectangular footprint, which use the maximum surface area available, or structures with irregular patterns. Pliant, self-healing fluid walls confine volumes as small as 1 nl. Such fluidic structures can be reconfigured during the assays, giving the platform an unprecedented level of flexibility. Common workflows in cell biology are demonstrated – e.g. cell growth and retrieval, cloning, cryopreservation, fixation and immunolabeling, CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing, and proof-of-concept drug tests. This fluid-shaping technology is shown to have potential for high-throughput cell- and organism-based assays. The ability to make and reconfigure on-demand microfluidic circuits on standard Petri dishes should find many applications in biology, and yield more relevant phenotypic and genotypic responses when compared to standard microfluidic assays.

Keywords: fluid walls, micro-chambers, reconfigurable, freestyle

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3 Seal and Heal Miracle Ointment: Effects of Cryopreserved and Lyophilized Amniotic Membrane on Experimentally Induced Diabetic Balb/C Mice

Authors: Elizalde D. Bana

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Healing restores continuity and form through cell replication; hence, conserving structural integrity. In response to the worldwide pressing problem of chronic wounds in the healthcare delivery system, the researcher aims to provide effective intervention to preserve the structural integrity of the person. The wound healing effects of cryopreserved and lyophilized amniotic membrane (AM) of a term fetus embedded into two (2) concentrations (1.5 % and 1.0 %) of absorption-based ointment has been evaluated in vivo using the excision wound healing model 1x1 cm size. The total protein concentration in full term fetus was determined by the Biuret and Bradford methods, which are based on UV-visible spectroscopy. The percentages of protein presence in 9.5 mg (Mass total sample) of Amniotic membrane ranges between 14.77 – 14.46 % in Bradford method, while slightly lower to 13.78 – 13.80 % concentration in Biuret method, respectively. Bradford method evidently showed higher sensitivity for proteins than Biuret test. Overall, the amniotic membrane is composed principally of proteins in which a copious amount of literature substantially proved its healing abilities. After which, an area of 1 cm by 1 cm skin tissue was excised to its full thickness from the dorsolateral aspect of the isogenic mice and was applied twice a day with the ointment formulation having two (2) concentrations for the diabetic group and non-diabetic group. The wounds of each animal were left undressed and its area was measured every other day by a standard measurement formula from day 2,4,6,8,10,12 and 14. By the 14th day, the ointment containing 1.5 % of AM in absorption-based ointment applied to non-diabetic and diabetic group showed 100 % healing. The wound areas in the animals treated with the standard antibiotic, Mupirocin Ointment (Brand X) showed a 100% healing by the 14th day but with traces of scars, indicating that AM prepared from cryopreservation and lyophilization, at that given concentration, had a better wound healing property than the standard antibiotic. Four (4) multivariate tests were used which showed a significant interaction between days and treatments, meaning that the ointments prepared in two differing concentrations and induced in different groups of the mice had a significant effect on the percent of contraction over time. Furthermore, the evaluations of its effectiveness to wound healing were all significant although in differing degrees. It is observed that the higher the concentrations of amniotic membrane, the more effective are the results.

Keywords: wounds, healing, amniotic membrane ointments, biomedical, stem cell

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2 Effect of Vitrification on Embryos Euploidy Obtained from Thawed Oocytes

Authors: Natalia Buderatskaya, Igor Ilyin, Julia Gontar, Sergey Lavrynenko, Olga Parnitskaya, Ekaterina Ilyina, Eduard Kapustin, Yana Lakhno

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Introduction: It is known that cryopreservation of oocytes has peculiar features due to the complex structure of the oocyte. One of the most important features is that mature oocytes contain meiotic division spindle which is very sensitive even to the slightest variation in temperature. Thus, the main objective of this study is to analyse the resulting euploid embryos obtained from thawed oocytes in comparison with the data of preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) in fresh embryo cycles. Material and Methods: The study was conducted at 'Medical Centre IGR' from January to July 2016. Data were analysed for 908 donor oocytes obtained in 67 cycles of assisted reproductive technologies (ART), of which 693 oocytes were used in the 51 'fresh' cycles (group A), and 215 oocytes - 16 ART programs with vitrification female gametes (group B). The average age of donors in the groups match 27.3±2.9 and 27.8±6.6 years. Stimulation of superovulation was conducted the standard way. Vitrification was performed in 1-2 hours after transvaginal puncture and thawing of oocytes were carried out in accordance with the standard protocol of Cryotech (Japan). Manipulation ICSI was performed 4-5 hours after transvaginal follicle puncture for fresh oocytes, or after defrosting - for vitrified female gametes. For the PGS, an embryonic biopsy was done on the third or on the fifth day after fertilization. Diagnostic procedures were performed using fluorescence in situ hybridization with the study of such chromosomes as 13, 16, 18, 21, 22, X, Y. Only morphologically quality blastocysts were used for the transfer, the estimation of which corresponded to the Gardner criteria. The statistical hypotheses were done using the criteria t, x^2 at a significance levels p<0.05, p<0.01, p<0.001. Results: The mean number of mature oocytes per cycle in group A was 13.58±6.65 and in group B - 13.44±6.68 oocytes for patient. The survival of oocytes after thawing totaled 95.3% (n=205), which indicates a highly effective quality of performed vitrification. The proportion of zygotes in the group A corresponded to 91.1%(n=631), in the group B – 80.5%(n=165), which shows statistically significant difference between the groups (p<0.001) and explained by non-viable oocytes elimination after vitrification. This is confirmed by the fact that on the fifth day of embryos development a statistically significant difference in the number of blastocysts was absent (p>0.05), and constituted respectively 61.6%(n=389) and 63.0%(n=104) in the groups. For the PGS performing 250 embryos analyzed in the group A and 72 embryos - in the group B. The results showed that euploidy in the studied chromosomes were 40.0%(n=100) embryos in the group A and 41.7% (n=30) - in the group B, which shows no statistical significant difference (p>0.05). The indicators of clinical pregnancies in the groups amounted to 64.7% (22 pregnancies per 34 embryo transfers) and 61.5% (8 pregnancies per 13 embryo transfers) respectively, and also had no significant difference between the groups (p>0.05). Conclusions: The results showed that the vitrification does not affect the resulting euploid embryos in assisted reproductive technologies and are not reflected in their morphological characteristics in ART programs.

Keywords: euploid embryos, preimplantation genetic screening, thawing oocytes, vitrification

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1 Sustainable Production of Pharmaceutical Compounds Using Plant Cell Culture

Authors: David A. Ullisch, Yantree D. Sankar-Thomas, Stefan Wilke, Thomas Selge, Matthias Pump, Thomas Leibold, Kai Schütte, Gilbert Gorr

Abstract:

Plants have been considered as a source of natural substances for ages. Secondary metabolites from plants are utilized especially in medical applications but are more and more interesting as cosmetical ingredients and in the field of nutraceuticals. However, supply of compounds from natural harvest can be limited by numerous factors i.e. endangered species, low product content, climate impacts and cost intensive extraction. Especially in the pharmaceutical industry the ability to provide sufficient amounts of product and high quality are additional requirements which in some cases are difficult to fulfill by plant harvest. Whereas in many cases the complexity of secondary metabolites precludes chemical synthesis on a reasonable commercial basis, plant cells contain the biosynthetic pathway – a natural chemical factory – for a given compound. A promising approach for the sustainable production of natural products can be plant cell fermentation (PCF®). A thoroughly accomplished development process comprises the identification of a high producing cell line, optimization of growth and production conditions, the development of a robust and reliable production process and its scale-up. In order to address persistent, long lasting production, development of cryopreservation protocols and generation of working cell banks is another important requirement to be considered. So far the most prominent example using a PCF® process is the production of the anticancer compound paclitaxel. To demonstrate the power of plant suspension cultures here we present three case studies: 1) For more than 17 years Phyton produces paclitaxel at industrial scale i.e. up to 75,000 L in scale. With 60 g/kg dw this fully controlled process which is applied according to GMP results in outstanding high yields. 2) Thapsigargin is another anticancer compound which is currently isolated from seeds of Thapsia garganica. Thapsigargin is a powerful cytotoxin – a SERCA inhibitor – and the precursor for the derivative ADT, the key ingredient of the investigational prodrug Mipsagargin (G-202) which is in several clinical trials. Phyton successfully generated plant cell lines capable to express this compound. Here we present data about the screening for high producing cell lines. 3) The third case study covers ingenol-3-mebutate. This compound is found in the milky sap of the intact plants of the Euphorbiacae family at very low concentrations. Ingenol-3-mebutate is used in Picato® which is approved against actinic keratosis. Generation of cell lines expressing significant amounts of ingenol-3-mebutate is another example underlining the strength of plant cell culture. The authors gratefully acknowledge Inspyr Therapeutics for funding.

Keywords: Ingenol-3-mebutate, plant cell culture, sustainability, thapsigargin

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