Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8705

Search results for: cost efficiency

8705 Productive Efficiency in Asean Banking

Authors: Suhartono Suhartono

Abstract:

Issue of cost efficiency is then becoming pivotal point because public expect cost of banking operation reducing and benefited of consumers. This study examines the determinants of cost efficiency of banks operating in 8 member countries of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). This study uses economics theory approach to examine the existence of economies of scale in the ASEAN Banking market especially on its impact on cost efficiency. We apply concept of average cost (AC) as a proxy for the cost efficiency. We find that economies of scale is existing in the banking market indicating scale and scope economies should be considered in the industrial policy. The stronger capital position is also positive to efficiency means stronger capitalized banks are more efficient. Bank that remunerates better tend to be more efficient as result economic capital effect.

Keywords: cost efficiency, ASEAN, economies of scale, issue of cost

Procedia PDF Downloads 238
8704 Cost Efficiency of European Cooperative Banks

Authors: Karolína Vozková, Matěj Kuc

Abstract:

This paper analyzes recent trends in cost efficiency of European cooperative banks using efficient frontier analysis. Our methodology is based on stochastic frontier analysis which is run on a set of 649 European cooperative banks using data between 2006 and 2015. Our results show that average inefficiency of European cooperative banks is increasing since 2008, smaller cooperative banks are significantly more efficient than the bigger ones over the whole time period and that share of net fee and commission income to total income surprisingly seems to have no impact on bank cost efficiency.

Keywords: cooperative banks, cost efficiency, efficient frontier analysis, stochastic frontier analysis, net fee and commission income

Procedia PDF Downloads 94
8703 Off-Farm Work and Cost Efficiency in Staple Food Production among Small-Scale Farmers in North Central Nigeria

Authors: C. E. Ogbanje, S. A. N. D. Chidebelu, N. J. Nweze

Abstract:

The study evaluated off-farm work and cost efficiency in staple food production among small-scale farmers in North Central Nigeria. Multistage sampling technique was used to select 360 respondents (participants and non-participants in off-farm work). Primary data obtained were analysed using stochastic cost frontier and test of means’ difference. Capital input was lower for participants (N2,596.58) than non-participants (N11,099.14). Gamma (γ) was statistically significant. Farm size significantly (p<0.01) increased cost outlay for participants and non-participants. Average input prices of enterprises one and two significantly (p<0.01) increased cost. Sex, household size, credit obtained, formal education, farming experience, and farm income significantly (p<0.05) reduced cost inefficiency for non-participants. Average cost efficiency was 11%. Farm capital was wasted. Participants’ substitution of capital for labour did not put them at a disadvantage. Extension agents should encourage farmers to obtain financial relief from off-farm work but not to the extent of endangering farm cost efficiency.

Keywords: cost efficiency, mean difference, North Central Nigeria, off-farm work, participants and non-participants, small-scale farmers

Procedia PDF Downloads 237
8702 Stochastic Frontier Application for Evaluating Cost Inefficiencies in Organic Saffron

Authors: Pawan Kumar Sharma, Sudhakar Dwivedi, R. K. Arora

Abstract:

Saffron is one of the most precious spices grown on the earth and is cultivated in a very limited area in few countries of the world. It has also been grown as a niche crop in Kishtwar district of Jammu region of Jammu and Kashmir State of India. This paper attempts to examine the presence of cost inefficiencies in saffron production and the associated socio-economic characteristics of saffron growers in the mentioned area. Although the numbers of inputs used in cultivation of saffron were limited, still cost inefficiencies were present in its production. The net present value (NPV), internal rate of return (IRR) and profitability index (PI) of investment in five years of saffron production were INR 1120803, 95.67 % and 3.52 respectively. The estimated coefficients of saffron stochastic cost function for saffron bulbs, human labour, animal labour, manure and saffron output were positive. The saffron growers having non-farm income were more cost inefficient as compared to farmers who did not have sources of income other than farming by 0.04 %. The maximum value of cost efficiency for saffron grower was 1.69 with mean value of 1.12. The majority of farmers have low cost inefficiencies, as the highest frequency of occurrence of the predicted cost efficiency was below 1.06.

Keywords: saffron, internal rate of return, cost efficiency, stochastic frontier model

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8701 The Significance of Seasonality on the Airport Efficiency in Touristic Regions

Authors: Ioanna Pagoni, Annitsa Koumoutsidi

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to estimate the efficiency of airports that are located in touristic regions. It focuses on the regional airports of Greece, which are located at the mainland and the islands that constitute touristic destinations. Most of these airports share the following characteristics. They operate at levels below capacity with a high level of seasonality to their traffic. In addition, in such airports, the operation of charter and low-cost airlines is significant. The efficiency of the study airports is calculated by using the non-parametric data envelopment analysis during the period of 2010-2016. The selected inputs include several airport infrastructure measures such as passenger terminal size, aircraft parking area, runway length, and the number of check-in counters, while the number of employees in each airport is also used. The number of passengers and aircraft movements are selected as outputs. The effect of seasonality, as well as the operation of charter airlines and low-cost carriers on airport efficiency, is estimated by running proper regression models. Preliminary findings indicate that low-cost and charter airlines contribute to increasing airport efficiency for most of the study airports. The results of this research could be useful for airlines, airport operators, hotel businesses, and other tourism-related operators.

Keywords: airport efficiency, data envelopment analysis, low-cost carriers, charter airlines, seasonality

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8700 Assessing Efficiency Trends in the Indian Sugar Industry

Authors: S. P. Singh

Abstract:

This paper measures technical and scale efficiencies of 40 Indian sugar companies for the period from 2004-05 to 2013-14. The efficiencies are estimated through input-oriented DEA models using one output variable—value of output (VOP) and five input variables—capital cost (CA), employee cost (EMP), raw material (RW), energy & fuel (E&F) and other manufacturing expenses (OME). The sugar companies are classified into integrated and non-integrated categories to know which one achieves higher level of efficiency. Sources of inefficiency in the industry are identified through decomposing the overall technical efficiency (TE) into pure technical efficiency (PTE) and scale efficiency (SE). The paper also estimates input-reduction targets for relatively inefficient companies and suggests measures to improve their efficiency level. The findings reveal that the TE does not evince any trend rather it shows fluctuations across years, largely due to erratic and cyclical pattern of sugar production. Further, technical inefficiency in the industry seems to be driven more by the managerial inefficiency than the scale inefficiency, which implies that TE can be improved through better conversion of inputs into output.

Keywords: DEA, slacks, sugar industry, technical efficiency

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8699 Investigating the Effect of Refinancing on Financial Behaviour of Energy Efficiency Projects

Authors: Zohreh Soltani, Seyedmohammadhossein Hosseinian

Abstract:

Reduction of energy consumption in built infrastructure, through the installation of energy-efficient technologies, is a major approach to achieving sustainability. In practice, the viability of energy efficiency projects strongly depends on the cost reimbursement and profitability. These projects are subject to failure if the actual cost savings do not reimburse the project cost in a timely manner. In such cases, refinancing could be a solution to benefit from the long-term returns of the project if implemented wisely. However, very little is still known about the effect of refinancing options on financial performance of energy efficiency projects. To fill this gap, the present study investigates the financial behavior of energy efficiency projects with focus on refinancing options, such as Leveraged Loans. A System Dynamics (SD) model is introduced, and the model application is presented using an actual case-study data. The case study results indicate that while high-interest start-ups make using Leveraged Loan inevitable, refinancing can rescue the project and bring about profitability. This paper also presents some managerial implications of refinancing energy efficiency projects based on the case-study analysis. Results of this study help implementing financially viable energy efficiency projects, so the community could benefit from their environmental advantages widely.

Keywords: energy efficiency projects, leveraged loan, refinancing, sustainability

Procedia PDF Downloads 298
8698 Determinants of Profit Efficiency among Poultry Egg Farmers in Ondo State, Nigeria: A Stochastic Profit Function Approach

Authors: Olufunke Olufunmilayo Ilemobayo, Barakat. O Abdulazeez

Abstract:

Profit making among poultry egg farmers has been a challenge to efficient distribution of scarce farm resources over the years, due majorly to low capital base, inefficient management, technical inefficiency, economic inefficiency, thus poultry egg production has moved into an underperformed situation, characterised by low profit margin. Though previous studies focus mainly on broiler production and efficiency of its production, however, paucity of information exist in the areas of profit efficiency in the study area. Hence, determinants of profit efficiency among poultry egg farmers in Ondo State, Nigeria were investigated. A purposive sampling technique was used to obtain primary data from poultry egg farmers in Owo and Akure local government area of Ondo State, through a well-structured questionnaire. socio-economic characteristics such as age, gender, educational level, marital status, household size, access to credit, extension contact, other variables were input and output data like flock size, cost of feeder and drinker, cost of feed, cost of labour, cost of drugs and medications, cost of energy, price of crate of table egg, price of spent layers were variables used in the study. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, budgeting analysis, and stochastic profit function/inefficiency model. Result of the descriptive statistics shows that 52 per cent of the poultry farmers were between 31-40 years, 62 per cent were male, 90 per cent had tertiary education, 66 per cent were primarily poultry farmers, 78 per cent were original poultry farm owners and 55 per cent had more than 5 years’ work experience. Descriptive statistics on cost and returns indicated that 64 per cent of the return were from sales of egg, while the remaining 36 per cent was from sales of spent layers. The cost of feeding take the highest proportion of 69 per cent of cost of production and cost of medication the lowest (7 per cent). A positive gross margin of N5, 518,869.76, net farm income of ₦ 5, 500.446.82 and net return on investment of 0.28 indicated poultry egg production is profitable. Equipment’s cost (22.757), feeding cost (18.3437), labour cost (136.698), flock size (16.209), drug and medication cost (4.509) were factors that affecting profit efficiency, while education (-2.3143), household size (-18.4291), access to credit (-16.027), and experience (-7.277) were determinant of profit efficiency. Education, household size, access to credit and experience in poultry production were the main determinants of profit efficiency of poultry egg production in Ondo State. Other factors that affect profit efficiency were cost of feeding, cost of labour, flock size, cost of drug and medication, they positively and significantly influenced profit efficiency in Ondo State, Nigeria.

Keywords: cost and returns, economic inefficiency, profit margin, technical inefficiency

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8697 Highly Concentrated Photo Voltaic using Multi-Junction Concentrator Cell

Authors: Oriahi Love Ndidi

Abstract:

High concentration photovoltaic promises a more efficient, higher power output than traditional photovoltaic modules. One of the driving forces of this high system efficiency has been the continuous improvement of III-V multi-junction solar cell efficiencies. Multi-junction solar cells built from III-V semiconductors are being evaluated globally in concentrated photovoltaic systems designed to supplement electricity generation for utility companies. The high efficiency of this III-V multi-junction concentrator cells, with demonstrated efficiency over 40 percent since 2006, strongly reduces the cost of concentrated photovoltaic systems, and makes III-V multi-junction cells the technology of choice for most concentrator systems today.

Keywords: cost of multi-junction solar cell, efficiency, photovoltaic systems, reliability

Procedia PDF Downloads 603
8696 Delivery System Design of the Local Part to Reduce the Logistic Costs in an Automotive Industry

Authors: Alesandro Romero, Inaki Maulida Hakim

Abstract:

This research was conducted in an automotive company in Indonesia to overcome the problem of high logistics cost. The problem causes high of additional truck delivery. From the breakdown of the problem, chosen one route, which has the highest gap value, namely for RE-04. Research methodology will be started from calculating the ideal condition, making simulation, calculating the ideal logistic cost, and proposing an improvement. From the calculation of the ideal condition, box arrangement was done on the truck; the average efficiency was 97,4 % with three trucks delivery per day. Route simulation making uses Tecnomatix Plant Simulation software as a visualization for the company about how the system is occurred on route RE-04 in ideal condition. Furthermore, from the calculation of logistics cost of the ideal condition, it brings savings of Rp53.011.800,00 in a month. The last step is proposing improvements on the area of route RE-04. The route arrangement is done by Saving Method and sequence of each supplier with the Nearest Neighbor. The results of the proposed improvements are three new route groups, where was expected to decrease logistics cost Rp3.966.559,40 per day, and increase the average of the truck efficiency 8,78% per day.

Keywords: efficiency, logistic cost, milkrun, saving methode, simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 342
8695 A Translog Analysis of Insurance Economies in Nigeria

Authors: Prince Ayodeji Yusuph

Abstract:

Recapitalization process that has recently become an imperative process in the Nigerian Financial industry has implications for the survival of insurance sector, especially on their service delivery efficiency. This study therefore seeks to investigate the problem of inefficiency in the Nigerian Insurance market from the perspective of their cost structures. The study takes advantage of secondary data of financial reports of thirty randomly selected insurance firms which span over a period of ten years and applied transcendental logarithm model to evaluate their performance from the cost structures strategy. The results indicate that only large scale firms enjoy cost saving advantages. Twenty percent firms sampled belong to this category. The result suggests that premium income would contribute to insurance firm’s performance, only when a sound investment decisions are made.

Keywords: transcedental logarithm, cost structures, insurance firms and efficiency, Nigeria

Procedia PDF Downloads 137
8694 Factors Affecting Cost Efficiency of Municipal Waste Services in Tuscan Municipalities: An Empirical Investigation by Accounting for Different Management

Authors: María Molinos-Senante, Giulia Romano

Abstract:

This paper aims at investigating the effect of ownership in the efficiency assessment of municipal solid waste management. In doing so, the Data Envelopment Analysis meta-frontier approach integrating unsorted waste as undesirable output was applied. Three different clusters of municipalities have been created on the basis of the ownership type of municipal waste operators. In the second stage of analysis, the paper investigates factors affecting efficiency, in order to provide an outlook of levers to be used by policy and decision makers to improve efficiency, taking into account different management models in force. Results show that public waste management firms have better performance than mixed and private ones since their efficiency scores are significantly larger. Moreover, it has been demonstrated that the efficiency of waste management firms is statistically influenced by the age of population, population served, municipal size, population density and tourism rate. It evidences the importance of economies of scale on the cost efficiency of waste management. This issue is relevant for policymakers to define and implement policies aimed to improve the long-term sustainability of waste management in municipalities.

Keywords: data envelopment analysis, efficiency, municipal solid waste, ownership, undesirable output

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8693 A Deletion-Cost Based Fast Compression Algorithm for Linear Vector Data

Authors: Qiuxiao Chen, Yan Hou, Ning Wu

Abstract:

As there are deficiencies of the classic Douglas-Peucker Algorithm (DPA), such as high risks of deleting key nodes by mistake, high complexity, time consumption and relatively slow execution speed, a new Deletion-Cost Based Compression Algorithm (DCA) for linear vector data was proposed. For each curve — the basic element of linear vector data, all the deletion costs of its middle nodes were calculated, and the minimum deletion cost was compared with the pre-defined threshold. If the former was greater than or equal to the latter, all remaining nodes were reserved and the curve’s compression process was finished. Otherwise, the node with the minimal deletion cost was deleted, its two neighbors' deletion costs were updated, and the same loop on the compressed curve was repeated till the termination. By several comparative experiments using different types of linear vector data, the comparison between DPA and DCA was performed from the aspects of compression quality and computing efficiency. Experiment results showed that DCA outperformed DPA in compression accuracy and execution efficiency as well.

Keywords: Douglas-Peucker algorithm, linear vector data, compression, deletion cost

Procedia PDF Downloads 142
8692 Photovoltaic Water Pumping System Application

Authors: Sarah Abdourraziq

Abstract:

Photovoltaic (PV) water pumping system is one of the most used and important applications in the field of solar energy. However, the cost and the efficiency are still a concern, especially with continued change of solar radiation and temperature. Then, the improvement of the efficiency of the system components is a good solution to reducing the cost. The use of maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithms to track the output maximum power point (MPP) of the PV panel is very important to improve the efficiency of the whole system. In this paper, we will present a definition of the functioning of MPPT technique, and a detailed model of each component of PV pumping system with Matlab-Simulink, the results shows the influence of the changing of solar radiation and temperature in the output characteristics of PV panel, which influence in the efficiency of the system. Our system consists of a PV generator, a boost converter, a motor-pump set, and storage tank.

Keywords: PV panel, boost converter, MPPT, MPP, PV pumping system

Procedia PDF Downloads 276
8691 DC/DC Boost Converter Applied to Photovoltaic Pumping System Application

Authors: S. Abdourraziq, M. A. Abdourraziq

Abstract:

One of the most famous and important applications of solar energy systems is water pumping. It is often used for irrigation or to supply water in countryside or private firm. However, the cost and the efficiency are still a concern, especially with a continued variation of solar radiation and temperature throughout the day. Then, the improvement of the efficiency of the system components is one of the different solutions to reducing the cost. In this paper, we will present a detailed definition of each element of a PV pumping system, and we will present the different MPPT algorithm used in the literature. Our system consists of a PV panel, a boost converter, a motor-pump set, and a storage tank.

Keywords: PV cell, converter, MPPT, MPP, PV pumping system

Procedia PDF Downloads 48
8690 Improving the Efficiency of Pelton Wheel and Cross-Flow Micro Hydro Power Plants

Authors: Loice K. Gudukeya, Charles Mbohwa

Abstract:

The research investigates hydropower plant efficiency with a view to improving the power output while keeping the overall project cost per kilowatt produced within an acceptable range. It reviews the commonly used Pelton and Cross-flow turbines which are employed in the region for micro-hydro power plants. Turbine parameters such as surface texture, material used and fabrication processes are dealt with the intention of increasing the efficiency by 20 to 25 percent for the micro hydro-power plants.

Keywords: hydro, power plant, efficiency, manufacture

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8689 Energy Saving Stove for Stew Coconut Sugar

Authors: Ruedee Niyomrath

Abstract:

The purposes of this research is aim to build the energy saving stove for stew coconut sugar. The research started from explores ceramic raw materials in local area, create the appropriate mixture of ceramic raw materials for construction material of stove, and make it by ceramic process. It includes design and build the energy saving stove, experiment the efficiency of energy saving stove as to thermal efficiency, energy saving, performance of time, and energy cost efficiency, transfer the knowledge for community, stove manufacturers, and technicians. The findings must be useful to the coconut sugar enterprises producing, to reduce the cost of production, preserve natural resources, and environments.

Keywords: ceramic raw material, energy saving stove, stove design, performance of stove, stove for stew coconut sugar

Procedia PDF Downloads 223
8688 Reliability-Based Life-Cycle Cost Model for Engineering Systems

Authors: Reza Lotfalian, Sudarshan Martins, Peter Radziszewski

Abstract:

The effect of reliability on life-cycle cost, including initial and maintenance cost of a system is studied. The failure probability of a component is used to calculate the average maintenance cost during the operation cycle of the component. The standard deviation of the life-cycle cost is also calculated as an error measure for the average life-cycle cost. As a numerical example, the model is used to study the average life cycle cost of an electric motor.

Keywords: initial cost, life-cycle cost, maintenance cost, reliability

Procedia PDF Downloads 383
8687 Time Driven Activity Based Costing Capability to Improve Logistics Performance: Application in Manufacturing Context

Authors: Siham Rahoui, Amr Mahfouz, Amr Arisha

Abstract:

In a highly competitive environment characterised by uncertainty and disruptions, such as the recent COVID-19 outbreak, supply chains (SC) face the challenge of maintaining their cost at minimum levels while continuing to provide customers with high-quality products and services. More importantly, businesses in such an economic context strive to maintain survival by keeping the cost of undertaken activities (such as logistics) low and in-house. To do so, managers need to understand the costs associated with different products and services in order to have a clear vision of the SC performance, maintain profitability levels, and make strategic decisions. In this context, SC literature explored different costing models that sought to determine the costs of undertaking supply chain-related activities. While some cost accounting techniques have been extensively explored in the SC context, more contributions are needed to explore the potential of time driven activity-based costing (TDABC). More specifically, more applications are needed in the manufacturing context of the SC, where the debate is ongoing. The aim of the study is to assess the capability of the technique to assess the operational performance of the logistics function. Through a case study methodology applied to a manufacturing company operating in the automotive industry, TDABC evaluates the efficiency of the current configuration and its logistics processes. The study shows that monitoring the process efficiency and cost efficiency leads to strategic decisions that contributed to improve the overall efficiency of the logistics processes.

Keywords: efficiency, operational performance, supply chain costing, time driven activity based costing

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8686 Efficiency in Islamic Banks: Some Empirical Evidences in Indonesian Finance Market

Authors: Ahmed Sameer El Khatib

Abstract:

The aim of the present paper is to examine the revenue efficiency of the Indonesian Islamic banking sector. The study also seeks to investigate the potential internal (bank specific) and external (macroeconomic) determinants that influence the revenue efficiency of Indonesian domestic Islamic banks. We employ the whole gamut of domestic and foreign Islamic banks operating in the Indonesian Islamic banking sector during the period of 2009 to 2018. The level of revenue efficiency is computed by using the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) method. Furthermore, we employ a panel regression analysis framework based on the Ordinary Least Square (OLS) method to examine the potential determinants of revenue efficiency. The results indicate that the level of revenue efficiency of Indonesian domestic Islamic banks is lower compared to their foreign Islamic bank counterparts. We find that bank market power, liquidity, and management quality significantly influence the improvement in revenue efficiency of the Indonesian domestic Islamic banks during the period under study. By calculating these efficiency concepts, we can observe the efficiency levels of the domestic and foreign Islamic banks. In addition, by comparing both cost and profit efficiency, we can identify the influence of the revenue efficiency on the banks’ profitability.

Keywords: Islamic Finance, Islamic Banks, Revenue Efficiency, Data Envelopment Analysis

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8685 Evaluation of a Reconditioning Procedure for Batteries: Case Study on Li-Ion Batteries

Authors: I.-A. Ciobotaru, I.-E. Ciobotaru, D.-I. Vaireanu

Abstract:

Currently, an ascending trend of battery use may be observed, together with an increase of the generated amount of waste. Efforts have been focused on the recycling of batteries; however, extending their lifetime may be a more adequate alternative, and the development of such methods may prove to be more cost efficient as compared to recycling. In this context, this paper presents the analysis of a proposed process for the reconditioning of some lithium-ions batteries. The analysis is performed based on two criteria, the first one referring to the technical aspect of the reconditioning process and the second to the economic aspects. The main technical parameters taken into consideration are the values of capacitance and internal resistance of the lithium-ion batteries. The economic criterion refers to the evaluation of the efficiency of the reconditioning procedure reported to its total cost for the investigated lithium-ion batteries. Based on the cost analysis, one introduced a novel coefficient that correlates the efficiency of the aforementioned process and its corresponding costs. The reconditioning procedure for the lithium-ion batteries proposed in this paper proved to be valid, efficient, and with reasonable costs.

Keywords: cost assessment, lithium-ion battery, reconditioning coefficient, reconditioning procedure

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8684 Evaluation of Solid-Gas Separation Efficiency in Natural Gas Cyclones

Authors: W. I. Mazyan, A. Ahmadi, M. Hoorfar

Abstract:

Objectives/Scope: This paper proposes a mathematical model for calculating the solid-gas separation efficiency in cyclones. This model provides better agreement with experimental results compared to existing mathematical models. Methods: The separation ratio efficiency, ϵsp, is evaluated by calculating the outlet to inlet count ratio. Similar to mathematical derivations in the literature, the inlet and outlet particle count were evaluated based on Eulerian approach. The model also includes the external forces acting on the particle (i.e., centrifugal and drag forces). In addition, the proposed model evaluates the exact length that the particle travels inside the cyclone for the evaluation of number of turns inside the cyclone. The separation efficiency model derivation using Stoke’s law considers the effect of the inlet tangential velocity on the separation performance. In cyclones, the inlet velocity is a very important factor in determining the performance of the cyclone separation. Therefore, the proposed model provides accurate estimation of actual cyclone separation efficiency. Results/Observations/Conclusion: The separation ratio efficiency, ϵsp, is studied to evaluate the performance of the cyclone for particles ranging from 1 microns to 10 microns. The proposed model is compared with the results in the literature. It is shown that the proposed mathematical model indicates an error of 7% between its efficiency and the efficiency obtained from the experimental results for 1 micron particles. At the same time, the proposed model gives the user the flexibility to analyze the separation efficiency at different inlet velocities. Additive Information: The proposed model determines the separation efficiency accurately and could also be used to optimize the separation efficiency of cyclones at low cost through trial and error testing, through dimensional changes to enhance separation and through increasing the particle centrifugal forces. Ultimately, the proposed model provides a powerful tool to optimize and enhance existing cyclones at low cost.

Keywords: cyclone efficiency, solid-gas separation, mathematical model, models error comparison

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8683 Final Costs of Civil Claims

Authors: Behnam Habibi Dargah

Abstract:

The economics of cost-benefit theory seeks to monitor claims and determine their final price. The cost of litigation is important because it is a measure of the efficiency of the justice system. From an economic point of view, the cost of litigation is considered to be the point of equilibrium of litigation, whereby litigation is regarded as a high-risk investment and is initiated when the costs are less than the probable and expected benefits. Costs are economically separated into private and social costs. Private cost includes material (direct and indirect) and spiritual costs. The social costs of litigation are also subsidized-centric due to the public and governmental nature of litigation and cover both types of bureaucratic bureaucracy and the costs of judicial misconduct. Macroeconomic policy in the economics of justice is the reverse engineering of controlling the social costs of litigation by employing selective litigation and working on the judicial culture to achieve rationality in the monopoly system. Procedures for controlling and managing court costs are also circumscribed to economic patterns in the field. Rational cost allocation model and cost transfer model. The rational allocation model deals with cost-tolerance systems, and the transfer model also considers three models of transferability, including legal, judicial and contractual transferability, which will be described and explored in the present article in a comparative manner.

Keywords: cost of litigation, economics of litigation, private cost, social cost, cost of litigation

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8682 Non-parametric Linear Technique for Measuring the Efficiency of Winter Road Maintenance in the Arctic Area

Authors: Mahshid Hatamzad, Geanette Polanco

Abstract:

Improving the performance of Winter Road Maintenance (WRM) can increase the traffic safety and reduce the cost as well as environmental impacts. This study evaluates the efficiency of WRM technique, named salting, in the Arctic area by using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), which is a non-parametric linear method to measure the efficiencies of decision-making units (DMUs) based on handling multiple inputs and multiple outputs at the same time that their associated weights are not known. Here, roads are considered as DMUs for which the efficiency must be determined. The three input variables considered are traffic flow, road area and WRM cost. In addition, the two output variables included are level of safety in the roads and environment impacts resulted from WRM, which is also considered as an uncontrollable factor in the second scenario. The results show the performance of DMUs from the most efficient WRM to the inefficient/least efficient one and this information provides decision makers with technical support and the required suggested improvements for inefficient WRM, in order to achieve a cost-effective WRM and a safe road transportation during wintertime in the Arctic areas.

Keywords: environmental impacts, DEA, risk and safety, WRM

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8681 Study on Eco-Feedback of Thermal Comfort and Cost Efficiency for Low Energy Residence

Authors: Y. Jin, N. Zhang, X. Luo, W. Zhang

Abstract:

China with annual increasing 0.5-0.6 billion squares city residence has brought in enormous energy consumption by HVAC facilities and other appliances. In this regard, governments and researchers are encouraging renewable energy like solar energy, geothermal energy using in houses. However, high cost of equipment and low energy conversion result in a very low acceptable to residents. So what’s the equilibrium point of eco-feedback to reach economic benefit and thermal comfort? That is the main question should be answered. In this paper, the objective is an on-site solar PV and heater house, which has been evaluated as a low energy building. Since HVAC system is considered as main energy consumption equipment, the residence with 24-hour monitoring system set to measure temperature, wind velocity and energy in-out value with no HVAC system for one month of summer and winter. Thermal comfort time period will be analyzed and confirmed; then the air-conditioner will be started within thermal discomfort time for the following one summer and winter month. The same data will be recorded to calculate the average energy consumption monthly for a purpose of whole day thermal comfort. Finally, two analysis work will be done: 1) Original building thermal simulation by computer at design stage with actual measured temperature after construction will be contrastive analyzed; 2) The cost of renewable energy facilities and power consumption converted to cost efficient rate to assess the feasibility of renewable energy input for residence. The results of the experiment showed that a certain deviation exists between actual measured data and simulated one for human thermal comfort, especially in summer period. Moreover, the cost-effectiveness is high for a house in targeting city Guilin now with at least 11 years of cost-covering. The conclusion proves that an eco-feedback of a low energy residence is never only consideration of its energy net value, but also the cost efficiency that is the critical factor to push renewable energy acceptable by the public.

Keywords: cost efficiency, eco-feedback, low energy residence, thermal comfort

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8680 Analysis of Diabetes Patients Using Pearson, Cost Optimization, Control Chart Methods

Authors: Devatha Kalyan Kumar, R. Poovarasan

Abstract:

In this paper, we have taken certain important factors and health parameters of diabetes patients especially among children by birth (pediatric congenital) where using the above three metrics methods we are going to assess the importance of each attributes in the dataset and thereby determining the most highly responsible and co-related attribute causing diabetics among young patients. We use cost optimization, control chart and Spearmen methodologies for the real-time application of finding the data efficiency in this diabetes dataset. The Spearmen methodology is the correlation methodologies used in software development process to identify the complexity between the various modules of the software. Identifying the complexity is important because if the complexity is higher, then there is a higher chance of occurrence of the risk in the software. With the use of control; chart mean, variance and standard deviation of data are calculated. With the use of Cost optimization model, we find to optimize the variables. Hence we choose the Spearmen, control chart and cost optimization methods to assess the data efficiency in diabetes datasets.

Keywords: correlation, congenital diabetics, linear relationship, monotonic function, ranking samples, pediatric

Procedia PDF Downloads 170
8679 Comprehensive Assessment of Energy Efficiency within the Production Process

Authors: S. Kreitlein, N. Eder, J. Franke

Abstract:

The importance of energy efficiency within the production process increases steadily. Unfortunately, so far no tools for a comprehensive assessment of energy efficiency within the production process exist. Therefore the Institute for Factory Automation and Production Systems of the Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nuremberg has developed two methods with the goal of achieving transparency and a quantitative assessment of energy efficiency: EEV (Energy Efficiency Value) and EPE (Energetic Process Efficiency). This paper describes the basics and state of the art as well as the developed approaches.

Keywords: energy efficiency, energy efficiency value, energetic process efficiency, production

Procedia PDF Downloads 538
8678 Effect of Cost Control and Cost Reduction Techniques in Organizational Performance

Authors: Babatunde Akeem Lawal

Abstract:

In any organization, the primary aim is to maximize profit, but the major challenges facing them is the increase in cost of operation because of this there is increase in cost of production that could lead to inevitable cost control and cost reduction scheme which make it difficult for most organizations to operate at the cost efficient frontier. The study aims to critically examine and evaluate the application of cost control and cost reduction in organization performance and also to review budget as an effective tool of cost control and cost reduction. A descriptive survey research was adopted. A total number of 40 respondent retrieved were used for the study. The analysis of data collected was undertaken by applying appropriate statistical tools. Regression analysis was used to test the hypothesis with the use of SPSS. Based on the findings; it was evident that cost control has a positive impact on organizational performance and also the style of management has a positive impact on organizational performance.

Keywords: organization, cost reduction, cost control, performance, budget, profit

Procedia PDF Downloads 306
8677 Time and Cost Efficiency Analysis of Quick Die Change System on Metal Stamping Industry

Authors: Rudi Kurniawan Arief

Abstract:

Manufacturing cost and setup time are the hot topics to improve in Metal Stamping industry because material and components price are always rising up while costumer requires to cut down the component price year by year. The Single Minute Exchange of Die (SMED) is one of many methods to reduce waste in stamping industry. The Japanese Quick Die Change (QDC) dies system is one of SMED systems that could reduce both of setup time and manufacturing cost. However, this system is rarely used in stamping industries. This paper will analyze how deep the QDC dies system could reduce setup time and the manufacturing cost. The research is conducted by direct observation, simulating and comparing of QDC dies system with conventional dies system. In this research, we found that the QDC dies system could save up to 35% of manufacturing cost and reduce 70% of setup times. This simulation proved that the QDC die system is effective for cost reduction but must be applied in several parallel production processes.

Keywords: press die, metal stamping, QDC system, single minute exchange die, manufacturing cost saving, SMED

Procedia PDF Downloads 55
8676 The Role of Entrepreneurial Orientation in Strengthening Goat Farm Competitiveness in Banjarnegara District, Indonesia

Authors: Mochamad Sugiarto, Yusmi Nw

Abstract:

Goat farming became an important alternative in eradicating poverty in Banjarnegara District. The success of goat farming in delivering products through efficient business management will improve business competitiveness. Entrepreneurship based farming has been able to survive in an ever-changing and increasingly complex global economy. Entrepreneurial farmers characterized by the ability to provide products of goats by applying the principles of efficient business. To achieve, this requires an understanding and a positive outlook related to entrepreneurship involving the values of courage to take risks, creativity and innovation as well as management's ability to find and read the opportunities. Entrepreneurial orientation owned by farmers is an important spirit of farmers to make decision for developing the goat farming. Entrepreneurial orientation is the view of farmers against the values of confidence, result-oriented, future-oriented, and creativity/innovation in goat farming. This study aims to (1) identify the entrepreneurial orientation of goat farmers in Banjarnegara District (2) analyze business competitiveness (cost efficiency) of goat farming in the Banjarnegara District and (3) analyze the relationship between the entrepreneurial perception and cost efficiency of goat farming in the Banjarnegara District. 178 respondents (goat farmers) were taken using stratified random sampling based on altitude. Banjarnegara district with heterogeneous topography grouped into areas of high ( > 1500m), moderate (500m-1000m) and low ( < 500m). The goat farmers in Banjarnegara District has a moderate entrepreneurial orientation. The manage their goat farming efficiently by having R/C = 2.58. Strengthening the entrepreneurial orientation will significantly increase the cost efficiency, which has an impact on strengthening the competitiveness of goat farming in Banjarnegara District.

Keywords: entrepreneurial orientation, cost efficiency, farm competitiveness, goat farming

Procedia PDF Downloads 189