Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1127

Search results for: entrepreneurial orientation

1127 Enterpreneurial Orientation Dimensions for Sustainable Development in Construction Firms

Authors: Kudirat I. Zakariyyah, Iniobong B. John, Julius O. Faremi, David Adio-Moses

Abstract:

One of the key contributors to firms’ growth, performance, and sustainability is entrepreneurial orientation (EO). Most studies on EO, however, are in other industries than construction and, more often, exploratory. The purpose of this study is thus to create an awareness on entrepreneurial orientation and its dimensions in contracting firms. Considering the need for sustainability, the study thus examined contracting firms’ entrepreneurial orientation dimensions that are required in order to keep pace with the demands for sustainable development. This was done by giving out questionnaires to a sample of 116 respondents from a population of 166 construction firms in Lagos state. Data were collected through a survey and analysed using mean scores and analysis of variance (ANOVA). The result revealed the prevalence of the four dimensions of EO, though in moderate proportion. In addition, the study identified review of organisational structure as the top entrepreneurial orientation dimension needed for sustainable development. The study concludes that the firms should identify the existing orientation dimensions and its relevance with sustainability so as to be able to know the required review that will be appropriate in the industry. It is recommended that the firms need to do more on raising the level of prevalence of the various orientation dimensions in order to achieve the merits of the different constructs of sustainability.

Keywords: construction, culture, entrepreneurial-orientation, dimension, sustainability

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1126 The Role of Entrepreneurial Orientation in Strengthening Goat Farm Competitiveness in Banjarnegara District, Indonesia

Authors: Mochamad Sugiarto, Yusmi Nw

Abstract:

Goat farming became an important alternative in eradicating poverty in Banjarnegara District. The success of goat farming in delivering products through efficient business management will improve business competitiveness. Entrepreneurship based farming has been able to survive in an ever-changing and increasingly complex global economy. Entrepreneurial farmers characterized by the ability to provide products of goats by applying the principles of efficient business. To achieve, this requires an understanding and a positive outlook related to entrepreneurship involving the values of courage to take risks, creativity and innovation as well as management's ability to find and read the opportunities. Entrepreneurial orientation owned by farmers is an important spirit of farmers to make decision for developing the goat farming. Entrepreneurial orientation is the view of farmers against the values of confidence, result-oriented, future-oriented, and creativity/innovation in goat farming. This study aims to (1) identify the entrepreneurial orientation of goat farmers in Banjarnegara District (2) analyze business competitiveness (cost efficiency) of goat farming in the Banjarnegara District and (3) analyze the relationship between the entrepreneurial perception and cost efficiency of goat farming in the Banjarnegara District. 178 respondents (goat farmers) were taken using stratified random sampling based on altitude. Banjarnegara district with heterogeneous topography grouped into areas of high ( > 1500m), moderate (500m-1000m) and low ( < 500m). The goat farmers in Banjarnegara District has a moderate entrepreneurial orientation. The manage their goat farming efficiently by having R/C = 2.58. Strengthening the entrepreneurial orientation will significantly increase the cost efficiency, which has an impact on strengthening the competitiveness of goat farming in Banjarnegara District.

Keywords: entrepreneurial orientation, cost efficiency, farm competitiveness, goat farming

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1125 Institutional Levels Entrepreneurial Orientations and Social Entrepreneurial Intentions: Understanding the Mediating Role of Empathy

Authors: Paulson Young Ofenimu Okhawere

Abstract:

Research suggests that the main trait differentiating social entrepreneurs from traditional entrepreneurs is empathy. And although prior research has established the relevance of empathy in predicting social entrepreneurial intentions in different contexts, its usefulness at predicting social entrepreneurial intentions in emerging economy like Nigeria is yet to be well established. Whereas, it is well known that students in tertiary institutions in Nigeria (e.g. Universities, Polytechnics, and Colleges of Education) are given entrepreneurial orientations by being made to offer compulsory courses in entrepreneurship, research focusing on the effect of such students’ entrepreneurial orientation on entrepreneurial intentions is scant. To address this gap in the entrepreneurship literature, this study attempts to enhance our understanding by focusing on students selected from one University of Technology, one Polytechnic, and one College of Education in Niger State of Nigeria. The purpose of this study, therefore, is to examine the mechanism through which students’ institutional level entrepreneurial orientations affect their social entrepreneurial intentions and the role empathy plays in this relationship. Building on complexity theory (Satish & Streufert, 2003, 2001), this study proposes empathy as a proximal antecedent of social entrepreneurial intentions and that it is the mechanism through which the students’ entrepreneurial orientations affect their social entrepreneurial intentions. Data collected from 598 respondents were analyzed using multilevel structural equation modelling with Mplus version 7.3. The findings reveal that (i) although students’ entrepreneurial orientation directly relates to their social entrepreneurial intentions, this relationship differs according to the kind of institution; and (ii) students’ entrepreneurial orientations positively relates to social entrepreneurial intentions indirectly through empathy. Finally, the paper discusses the theoretical and practical implications of the findings, highlights the study’s strengths and limitations, and then maps out some directions for future research.

Keywords: institutional level, entrepreneurial orientation, empathy, social entrepreneurial intentions

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1124 Entrepreneurial Orientation and Customer Satisfaction: Evidences nearby Khao San Road

Authors: Vichada Chokesikarin

Abstract:

The study aims to determine which factors account for customer satisfaction and to investigate the relationship between entrepreneurial orientation and business success, in particular, context of the information understanding of hostel business in Pranakorn district, Bangkok and the significant element of entrepreneurship in tourism industry. This study covers 352 hostels customers and 61 hostel owners/managers nearby Khao San Road. Data collection methods were used by survey questionnaire and a series of hypotheses were developed from services marketing literature. The findings suggest the customer satisfaction most influenced by image, service quality, room quality and price accordingly. Furthermore the findings revealed that significant relationships exist between entrepreneurial orientation and business success; while competitive aggressiveness was found unrelated. The ECSI model’s generic measuring customer satisfaction was found partially mediate the business success. A reconsideration of other variables applicable should be supported with the model of hostel business. The study provides context and overall view of hostel business while discussing from the entrepreneurial orientation to customer satisfaction, thereby reducing decision risk on hostel investment.

Keywords: customer satisfaction, ECSI model, entrepreneurial orientation, small hotel, hostel, business performance

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1123 Level up Entrepreneurial Behaviors: A Case Study on the Use of Gamification to Encourage Entrepreneurial Acting and Thinking

Authors: Lena Murawski

Abstract:

Currently, researchers and experts from the business world recognize entrepreneurial behaviors as a decisive factor for economic success, allowing firms to adapt to changing internal and external needs. The purpose of this study is to explore how gamification can enhance entrepreneurial behaviors, reporting on a gamification project in a new venture operating in the IT sector in Germany. This article is based on data gathered from observations of pre‐ and post‐implementation in the case company. Results have indicated that the use of gamification encourages entrepreneurial behaviors, especially relating to seeking ways on how to integrate new employees, improve teamwork and communication, and to adapt existing processes to increase productivity. The interdisciplinary dialogue furthers our understanding of factors that foster entrepreneurial behaviors. The matter is of practical relevance, guiding practitioners on how to exploit the potentials of gamification to exhibit an entrepreneurial orientation in organizations.

Keywords: case study, entrepreneurial behaviors, gamification, new venture

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1122 Entrepreneurial Orientation and Innovation Outcomes in Ghanaian Social Enterprises: Interaction Effect of Organizational Unlearning

Authors: Stephen Oduro

Abstract:

With a quantitative research design, this study seeks to analyze how, an intangible resource, Organisational Unlearning shapes the relationship between Entrepreneurial Orientation (EO) and Innovation Outcomes among social entrepreneurship organizations in Ghana. The Resource-Based View (RBV) of the firm and EO-Performance Contingency framework was adopted as the underpinning theories of the study. Entrepreneurial Orientation dimensions, namely Innovativeness, Autonomy, Risk-Taking, Proactiveness, and Competitive aggressiveness were examined to determine its significant, direct influence on the Innovation Outcomes of the social enterprises in Ghana. Organizational Unlearning dimensions, specifically examination of lens fitting, the consolidation of emergent understandings, and framework for changing individual habits were explored to determine whether they strengthen or weaken the direct nexus between Entrepreneurial Orientation dimensions and Innovation Outcomes. A self-administered questionnaire was administered to 556 targeted social enterprises across Africa through online questionnaire platform and the data generated and proposed hypotheses were analyzed and tested using Structural Equation Model-Partial Least Square (SEM-PLS 3) statistical tool. The findings revealed that EO dimensions, specifically proactiveness, autonomy, innovativeness, and risk-taking are positively related to IO, but we found no significant support for competitive aggressiveness. The findings, moreover, divulged that the positive, direct relationship between EO and IO is highly strengthened by OU. It is concluded that OU fully moderates the direct link between EO and IO. The present study contributes to the our understanding of the interrelationship among Entrepreneurial Orientation, Organizational Unlearning, and Innovation Outcomes in the social entrepreneurship context.

Keywords: entrepreneurial orientation, innovation outcomes, organizational unlearning, RBV, SEM-PLS, social enterprise, Africa

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1121 Entrepreneurial Orientation and Business Performance: The Case of Micro Scale Food Processors Operating in a War-Recovery Environment

Authors: V. Suganya, V. Balasuriya

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The functioning of Micro and Small Scale (MSS) businesses in the northern part of Sri Lanka was vulnerable due to three decades of internal conflict and the subsequent post-war economic openings has resulted new market prospects for MSS businesses. MSS businesses survive and operate with limited resources and struggle to access finance, raw material, markets, and technology. This study attempts to identify the manner in which entrepreneurial orientation puts into practice by the business operators to overcome these business challenges. Business operators in the traditional food processing sector are taken for this study as this sub-sector of the food industry is developing at a rapid pace. A review of the literature was done to recognize the concepts of entrepreneurial orientation, defining MMS businesses and the manner in which business performance is measured. Direct interview method supported by a structured questionnaire is used to collect data from 80 respondents; based on a fixed interval random sampling technique. This study reveals that more than half of the business operators have opted to commence their business ventures as a result of identifying a market opportunity. 41 per cent of the business operators are highly entrepreneurial oriented in a scale of 1 to 5. Entrepreneurial orientation shows significant relationship and strongly correlated with business performance. Pro-activeness, innovativeness and competitive aggressiveness shows a significant relationship with business performance while risk taking is negative and autonomy is not significantly related to business performance. It is evident that entrepreneurial oriented business practices contribute to better business performance even though 70 per cent prefer the ideas/views of the support agencies than the stakeholders when making business decisions. It is recommended that appropriate training should be introduced to develop entrepreneurial skills focusing to improve business networks so that new business opportunities and innovative business practices are identified.

Keywords: Micro and Small Scale (MMS) businesses, entrepreneurial orientation (EO), food processing, business operators

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1120 Subsidiary Entrepreneurial Orientation, Trust in Headquarters and Performance: The Mediating Role of Autonomy

Authors: Zhang Qingzhong

Abstract:

Though there exists an increasing number of research studies on the headquarters-subsidiary relationship, and within this context, there is a focus on subsidiaries' contributory role to multinational corporations (MNC), subsidiary autonomy, and the conditions under which autonomy exerts an effect on subsidiary performance still constitute a subject of debate in the literature. The objective of this research is to study the MNC subsidiary autonomy and performance relationship and the effect of subsidiary entrepreneurial orientation and trust on subsidiary autonomy in the China environment, a phenomenon that has not yet been studied. The research addresses the following three questions: (i) Is subsidiary autonomy associated with MNC subsidiary performance in the China environment? (ii) How do subsidiary entrepreneurship and its trust in headquarters affect the level of subsidiary autonomy and its relationship with subsidiary performance? (iii) Does subsidiary autonomy have a mediating effect on subsidiary performance with subsidiary’s entrepreneurship and trust in headquarters? In the present study, we have reviewed literature and conducted semi-structured interviews with multinational corporation (MNC) subsidiary senior executives in China. Building on our insights from the interviews and taking perspectives from four theories, namely the resource-based view (RBV), resource dependency theory, integration-responsiveness framework, and social exchange theory, as well as the extant articles on subsidiary autonomy, entrepreneurial orientation, trust, and subsidiary performance, we have developed a model and have explored the direct and mediating effects of subsidiary autonomy on subsidiary performance within the framework of the MNC. To test the model, we collected and analyzed data based on cross-industry two waves of an online survey from 102 subsidiaries of MNCs in China. We used structural equation modeling to test measurement, direct effect model, and conceptual framework with hypotheses. Our findings confirm that (a) subsidiary autonomy is positively related to subsidiary performance; (b) subsidiary entrepreneurial orientation is positively related to subsidiary autonomy; (c) subsidiary’s trust in headquarters has a positive effect on subsidiary autonomy; (d) subsidiary autonomy mediates the relationship between entrepreneurial orientation and subsidiary performance; (e) subsidiary autonomy mediates the relationship between trust and subsidiary performance. Our study highlights the important role of subsidiary autonomy in leveraging the resource of subsidiary entrepreneurial orientation and its trust relationship with headquarters to achieve high performance. We discuss the theoretical and managerial implications of the findings and propose directions for future research.

Keywords: subsidiary entrepreneurial orientation, trust, subsidiary autonomy, subsidiary performance

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1119 Factors Affecting U-Computing Use

Authors: Shui Lien Chen, Chen-Yin Kuo

Abstract:

U-computing use has brings many new services of commerce, which could provide a new experience for customer. Location Based Services (LBS) is one of U-computing service. With increase of the smartphone and mobile internet users, there are many small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) take LBS in marketing strategy in Taiwan. For example, they would provide Facebook check-in to get a benefit (e.g. discount, free dessert and coupon) to attract customers purchasing. Therefore, this study is to understand which factors would affect SMEs adoption of u-computing and the performances after adopt U-computing. This study collected 187 useful data that were analyzed by SmartPLS 2.0 software. The results of this study are as follows. First, entrepreneurial orientation and market orientation positively affects innovation. Second, business resources and innovation positively affect u-computing use. Finally, U-computing positively affects both business value and customer value.

Keywords: entrepreneurial orientation, market orientation, innovation, business resources, u-computing use, LBS

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1118 Entrepreneurial Practice and Corruption in Tourism Sector: A Study of Entrepreneurial Orientation and Organizational Corruption in Nepali Star Hotels

Authors: Prabin Raj Gautam

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Entrepreneurship in tourism sectors, particularly hotel entrepreneurship has contributed to Nepalese Gross Domestic Production (GDP). The tourist standard and star hotels in developing countries have not only been generating revenues but also providing international hospitality to the guest in the local areas. For doing so, these hotel enterprises must need to implement different business strategies to enhance and maintain their international business benchmark. The Entrepreneurial Orientation (EO) is core for making business strategies. Meanwhile, the corruption is labeled as negative factor for economic development. This paper presents the relationship between EO of Nepalese star hotels and organizational corruption. The study employed questionnaire survey as data collection tool under the quantitative methodology. Five hypotheses are developed and tested. After gathering the data form 216 questionnaire distributed to CEOs/Managers of the sample hotels, the findings show that out of five dimensions of EO, only autonomy, pro-activeness, and innovativeness are not significant to organizational corruption; however, risk-taking and competitive aggressiveness are found significant contributor. The descriptive statistics and structural equation modeling are employed to describe the data and fit the model.

Keywords: entrepreneurship, entrepreneurial orientation, organizational corruption, dimensions

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1117 Empirical Study on Grassroots Innovation for Entrepreneurship Development with Microfinance Provision as Moderator

Authors: Sonal H. Singh, Bhaskar Bhowmick

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The research hypothesis formulated in this paper examines the importance of microfinance provision for entrepreneurship development by engendering a high level of entrepreneurial orientation among the grassroots entrepreneurs. A theoretically well supported empirical framework is proposed to identify the influence of financial services and non-financial services provided by microfinance institutes in strengthening the impact of grassroots innovation on entrepreneurial orientation under resource constraints. In this paper, Grassroots innovation is perceived in three dimensions: new learning practice, localized solution, and network development. The study analyzes the moderating effect of microfinance provision on the relationship between grassroots innovation and entrepreneurial orientation. The paper employed structural equation modelling on 400 data entries from the grassroots entrepreneurs in India. The research intends to help policymakers, entrepreneurs and microfinance providers to promote the innovative design of microfinance services for the well-being of grassroots entrepreneurs and to foster sustainable entrepreneurship development.

Keywords: entrepreneurship development, grassroots innovation, India, structural equation model

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1116 Teaching Entrepreneurship in Light of the Triple Bottom Line

Authors: Sherry Robinson, Hans Anton Stubberud

Abstract:

Entrepreneurship can take many forms. Traditional entrepreneurs seek profits and growth for the businesses they start themselves. Intrapreneurs act entrepreneurially within a business they do not own. Social entrepreneurs have goals other than (but not excluding) profit and growth as they seek to solve social problems or protect the environment. This type of entrepreneur often focuses on the triple bottom line, which includes a concern for people and the planet as well as profit. Ecopreneurs in particular are driven by their desire to create and promote environmentally sustainable products and processes. All of these entrepreneurs need an entrepreneurial orientation in order to survive and thrive. The three most common elements of an entrepreneurial orientation are (1) creativity and innovation, (2) the willingness to take risks and (3) the proactiveness to put ideas into action. This study describes an interdisciplinary entrepreneurship course integrating topics regarding the triple bottom line with those relevant to an entrepreneurial orientation. The results show that students significantly increased their skill levels in many areas, including soft skills such as communicating and working in teams, as well as designing innovative products and taking calculated risk.

Keywords: creativity, entrepreneurship education, sustainability, triple bottom line

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1115 International Entrepreneurial Orientation and Institutionalism: The Effect on International Performance for Latin American SMEs

Authors: William Castillo, Hugo Viza, Arturo Vargas

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The Pacific Alliance is a trade bloc that is composed of four emerging economies: Chile, Colombia, Peru, and Mexico. These economies have gained macroeconomic stability in the past decade and as a consequence present future economic progress. Under this positive scenario, international business firms have flourished. However, the literature in this region has been widely unexamined. Therefore, it is critical to fill this theoretical gap, especially considering that Latin America is starting to become a global player and it possesses a different institutional context than developed markets. This paper analyzes the effect of international entrepreneurial orientation and institutionalism on international performance, for the Pacific Alliance small-to-medium enterprises (SMEs). The literature considers international entrepreneurial orientation to be a powerful managerial capability – along the resource based view- that firms can leverage to obtain a satisfactory international performance. Thereby, obtaining a competitive advantage through the correct allocation of key resources to exploit the capabilities here involved. Entrepreneurial Orientation is defined around five factors: innovation, proactiveness, risk-taking, competitive aggressiveness, and autonomy. Nevertheless, the institutional environment – both local and foreign, adversely affects International Performance; this is especially the case for emerging markets with uncertain scenarios. In this way, the study analyzes an Entrepreneurial Orientation, key endogenous variable of international performance, and Institutionalism, an exogenous variable. The survey data consists of Pacific Alliance SMEs that have foreign operations in at least another country in the trade bloc. Findings are still in an ongoing research process. Later, the study will undertake a structural equation modeling (SEM) using the variance-based partial least square estimation procedure. The software that is going to be used is the SmartPLS. This research contributes to the theoretical discussion of a largely postponed topic: SMEs in Latin America, that has had limited academic research. Also, it has practical implication for decision-makers and policy-makers, providing insights into what is behind international performance.

Keywords: institutional theory, international entrepreneurial orientation, international performance, SMEs, Pacific Alliance

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1114 Impact of Entrepreneurial Education on Entrepreneurial Success through Entrepreneurial Mindset, Professional Growth, and Innovation

Authors: Hummaira Qudsia Yousaf, Sidra Munawar

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The study aims to examine in which way entrepreneurial education and attitude affect the entrepreneur’s success with the help of an entrepreneurial mindset, professional growth, and innovation. The target population was the entrepreneurs of successful startups in Pakistan. Data was gathered through an e-questionnaire, and 230 responses were analyzed using the partial least square structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM). Resultantly, entrepreneurial education is an essential component for the development of an entrepreneurial mindset. Also, an entrepreneurial attitude is responsible for the entrepreneurial mindset, which enhances professional growth. Moreover, the study highlighted that innovation is as necessary as mindset and education are for entrepreneurs. Furthermore, the findings confirmed that professional growth brings innovation to the success of entrepreneurs. This study provides proof of how entrepreneurial education and attitude influence pupils’ success in making entrepreneurs. This study extends the scope of education by incorporating predictors, such as professional growth, innovation, and entrepreneurial success. The study is unique due to the usage of innovative techniques for professional growth that ultimately bring career success.

Keywords: entrepreneurial education, entrepreneurial attitude, entrepreneurial mindset, professional growth, entrepreneurial success, innovation

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1113 Entrepreneurial Passion: A Literature Review and Framework

Authors: Erica Engel, Andreas Bausch

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The construct of passion, which for decades has spurred people to rise above themselves and achieve top performance, has become an increasingly important realm in entrepreneurial literature. In particular, the development process, which represents a great interplay of personality traits and cognitive processes, and the influence of passion in entrepreneurial processes, is receiving more and more scholarly intention. A wide range of different research foci exploring the creation and influence of passion within entrepreneurial processes has yielded a variety of scientific findings. By providing an integrative framework, this study aims to review the different research results systematically, to contribute not only to the understanding of entrepreneurial passion but also to the theoretical body of knowledge in entrepreneurial research. In addition, the authors identify personal-related and work-related boundary conditions, which influence both the occurrence of entrepreneurial passion and its impact.

Keywords: entrepreneur, entrepreneurial passion, framework of entrepreneurial passion, passion, passion in an entrepreneurial context

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1112 Influence of Entrepreneurial Passion in the Relationship between the Entrepreneurship Education and Entrepreneurial Intention: The Case of Moroccan Students

Authors: Soukaina Boutaky, Abdelhak Sahibeddine

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A study was carried out among students who have especially a scientific and technical educational background and who had opportunities to benefit from a program entrepreneurship course of 50 hours; at Higher School of Technology Khenifra, Morocco. This article has as a goal to explain the relationship between entrepreneurial education, entrepreneurial passion and entrepreneurial intention. The authors chose Bandura’s theory of social cognition as a theoretical framework. The modeling methods equation is adopted to analyze the hypotheses by SMART PLS for 188 students. The results show a strong positive relationship between entrepreneurial education and entrepreneurial passion. They also reveal that entrepreneurship education affects entrepreneurial intention through the effect of entrepreneurial passion, particularly among women than men. In addition, this study contributes in a theoretical way to the level of the relationship between entrepreneurial education and entrepreneurial passion, and these results provide educators and public decision-makers with advice on the importance of entrepreneurship training based on emotional traits such as passion; which constitutes a key and essential element to encourage young graduates to choose an entrepreneurial career as an alternative option or to develop entrepreneurial passion among the business leaders of tomorrow.

Keywords: entrepreneurship education, entrepreneurial passion, entrepreneurial intention, equation modeling methods

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1111 Six Steps of Entrepreneurial Finance and Development, from Idea to Corporation Case of Kuwait

Authors: Andri Ottesen, Sam Toglaw, Mirna Safa

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Entrepreneurial companies on their developing path from an idea to a corporation go through a similar six-step process. Each of these six development steps is supported by a distinctive financing path. This paper explores the Kuwait model for Entrepreneurial Finance and Development through in-depth interviews with ten successful Kuwaiti entrepreneurs. This paper offers insight into the development and financing of entrepreneurial companies in this oil-rich, predominantly Islamic country that are in many ways different from the steps. Western entrepreneurial companies go through. This model could be used to understand the commonalities and the difference between entrepreneurial development and financing and could be used to bridge the gap.

Keywords: entrepreneurial-financing, entrepreneurial-developing, Kuwait, Vancouver school

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1110 Conceptual Model Design for E-Readiness of Entrepreneurial City Case Study: Entrepreneurial Cities in Iran

Authors: Mohsen Yaghmoor, Sima Radmanesh, Ameneh Gholami

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Cities are the principal ground for manifestation of an information society. To create an entrepreneurial city, it is required that just and equal access to opportunities are provided for all segments of the city and technologies are intelligently employed. Furthermore, it is necessary for us to be electronically ready in all political, economic, social, cultural, and technological aspects. Also e-city creates enormous potentials and opportunities for development of the entrepreneurial city. After improvement of e-readiness for establishment of entrepreneurial e-city, potentials, and capitals of the city become productive and more suitable opportunities are offered to citizens, state sectors, and private sectors in order to become entrepreneurs. To create and develop an entrepreneurial city, we need to have readiness to detection and creation of entrepreneurial opportunities and finally exploitation of these opportunities which, in turn, lead to use of entrepreneurial events and their quality in the city. In this model, the quality of entrepreneurial events, the productivity of activities, the necessity of reducing the digital gap, positive and active attendance in information society and compatibility and aligning with the global society are emphasized. In an entrepreneurial city, citizens are not help seekers, private sector is not passive, and the government is entrepreneurial.

Keywords: e-city, e-readiness, entrepreneurial city, entrepreneurial events, technological entrepreneurship

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1109 Differences in Innovative Orientation of the Entrepreneurially Active Adults: The Case of Croatia

Authors: Nataša Šarlija, Sanja Pfeifer

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This study analyzes the innovative orientation of the Croatian entrepreneurs. Innovative orientation is represented by the perceived extent to which an entrepreneur’s product or service or technology is new, and no other businesses offer the same product. The sample is extracted from the GEM Croatia Adult Population Survey dataset for the years 2003-2013. We apply descriptive statistics, t-test, Chi-square test and logistic regression. Findings indicate that innovative orientations vary with personal, firm, meso and macro level variables, and between different stages in entrepreneurship process. Significant predictors are occupation of the entrepreneurs, size of the firm and export aspiration for both early stage and established entrepreneurs. In addition, fear of failure, expecting to start a new business and seeing an entrepreneurial career as a desirable choice are predictors of innovative orientation among early stage entrepreneurs.

Keywords: multilevel determinants of the innovative orientation, Croatian early stage entrepreneurs, established businesses, GEM evidence

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1108 Effect of Innovation and Its Determinants on the Performance of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises

Authors: Rihab Hentati, Younes Boujelbene

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Nowadays we realize more and more than the value of a company is not only a function of its means of production but depends essentially on the managerial aptitude and orientation to implement the material and human means for generating profitability. Indeed, a productive R&D activity, a good strategy, and innovation are originally supplementary benefits that increase the value of the business. Is this ‘value-added’ closely linked to innovation? The purpose of our research is to Meta-analyze the results of 56 empirical studies in order to explain the overall effect of innovation on performance of small and medium-sized enterprises. In order to justify the differences in the results, we look for the moderating factors that may affect the innovation-performance relationship. We find a positive and significant relationship between innovation and performance in small and medium-sized enterprises. The results also note a positive relationship between entrepreneurial orientation, research and development (R&D), and performance in SMEs. In addition, innovation has a strong impact on performance measured both with accounting and market index. The originality of the article is based on a rigorous synthesis, based on several statistical tools, of an important subject of research in finance.

Keywords: innovation, performance, entrepreneurial orientation, meta-analysis, moderator variables

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1107 Families’ Entrepreneurial Background as a Moderator between Entrepreneurial Intentions and Its Antecedents among Undergraduate Students in Ethiopia

Authors: Messele Kumilachew Aga, Amanpreet Singh

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This study investigates the effect of attitude toward entrepreneurship, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control on entrepreneurial intentions and examines the moderating role of families’ entrepreneurial background in this causal relationship. Three hundred thirty-five undergraduate students from four universities in Ethiopia filled and returned a self-administrated questionnaire which was analyzed through independent sample t-test and process macro. The result obtained indicated that there was no mean difference in entrepreneurial intentions and its antecedents between students who have families with an entrepreneurial background and not. Besides, the study shows that families’ entrepreneurial background has no moderating effect on entrepreneurial intentions due to attitude toward entrepreneurship, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control. Hence, the study suggests no need of considering families’ entrepreneurial background in nurturing entrepreneurship for undergraduate students in Ethiopian universities.

Keywords: attitude toward entrepreneurship, entrepreneurial intentions, families’ entrepreneurial background, perceived behavioral control, subjective norm

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1106 The Implementation of Entrepreneurial Marketing in Small Business Enterprise

Authors: Iin Mayasari

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This study aims at exploring the influence of aspects of entrepreneurial marketing on a firm’s performance. Entrepreneurs are not only supported by resources control to obtain sustainable competitive advantage, but it should also be supported by intangible resources. Entrepreneurial marketing provides the opportunity for entrepreneurs to proactively find better ways to create value for desired customers, to create innovation, and to build customer equity. Entrepreneurial marketing has the medium between entrepreneurship and marketing, and serves as an umbrella for many of the emergent perspectives on marketing. It has eight underlying dimensions. They are proactiveness, calculated risk-taking, innovativeness, an opportunity focus, entrepreneurial orientation, resource leveraging, customer intensity, and value creating. The research method of the study was a qualitative study by having an interview with 8 small companies in Kudus Region, the Central Java, Indonesia. The interviewees were the owner and the manager of the company that had the scope work of small business enterprise in wood crafting industry. The interview was related to the implementation of the elements of the entrepreneurial marketing. The result showed that the small business enterprises had implemented the elements of entrepreneurial marketing in supporting their daily activities. The understanding based on the theoretical implementation was well executed by the owner and managers. The problems in managing small business enterprises were related to the full support by the government and the branding management. Furthermore, the innovation process should be improved especially the use of internet to promote the product, to expand the market and to increase the firm’s performance.

Keywords: entrepreneurial marketing, innovativeness, risk taking, opportunity focus

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1105 Entrepreneurial Ecosystems and Innovation Systems: An Appraisal of Literature

Authors: Jose Carlos Rodriguez, Mario Gomez

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In the last years, the concept of entrepreneurial ecosystems has gained popularity. It reveals the importance of a supportive community and adequate economic environment for entrepreneurial activity, and thus the possibility of developing a different perspective on the innovation system. On the other hand, the (regional/technology) innovation system approach lacks in its analyses the presence of an entrepreneur as a key actor that develops innovations. In this regard, this paper examines the foundations of both theoretical approaches (the entrepreneurial ecosystems and the regional/technology systems of innovation) and their contributions to understand entrepreneurial activity at different levels of analyses, namely national, regional or local. The paper makes a literature review on both perspectives of innovation stressing the role played by entrepreneurs in these theoretical approaches. It concludes remarking that the regional/technology innovation systems approach and the entrepreneurial ecosystem approach have established themselves in their own right, but the regional/technology innovation system approach is a predecessor of the entrepreneurial ecosystem approach.

Keywords: entrepreneurial ecosystems, innovation systems, entrepreneurial activity, comparative analysis

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1104 Achieving Maximum Performance through the Practice of Entrepreneurial Ethics: Evidence from SMEs in Nigeria

Authors: S. B. Tende, H. L. Abubakar

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It is acknowledged that small and medium enterprises (SMEs) may encounter different ethical issues and pressures that could affect the way in which they strategize or make decisions concerning the outcome of their business. Therefore, this research aimed at assessing entrepreneurial ethics in the business of SMEs in Nigeria. Secondary data were adopted as source of corpus for the analysis. The findings conclude that a sound entrepreneurial ethics system has a significant effect on the level of performance of SMEs in Nigeria. The Nigerian Government needs to provide both guiding and physical structures; as well as learning systems that could inculcate these entrepreneurial ethics.

Keywords: culture, entrepreneurial ethics, performance, SME

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1103 Human Capital, Adversity Quotient and Entrepreneurial Success

Authors: Vichada Chokesikarin

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We propose that the ability to create the business success requires Adversity Quotient (AQ) and Human Capital (HC). The aims of the present study are to investigate adversity quotient, human capital and entrepreneurial success of accommodation entrepreneurs in Pranakorn, Bangkok and to examine the relationship between AQ, HC and Entrepreneurial Success. The participants of this study were 112 entrepreneurs in accommodation business in the Khao San/Grand Palace, the location nearby demonstration area in 2014. Specifically, we focus on higher adversity which provides a measure of one’s perceived capacity to prevail in the face of adversity and the effects of human capital on success. Results indicated that there is significant relationship between human capital and entrepreneurial success, while adversity quotient was found to partially mediate the entrepreneurial success. Moreover, our findings showed that the human capital -experience and skills- are more important than adversity quotient. This suggests that the entrepreneurial success should rely on their skill and experiences.

Keywords: accommodation business, adversity quotient, entrepreneurial success, human capital

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1102 The Role of Coaching in Fostering Entrepreneurial Intention among Graduate Students in Tunisia

Authors: Abdellatif Amouri, Sami Boudabbous

Abstract:

The current study provides insights on the importance of entrepreneurial coaching as a source of developing entrepreneurial intentions among entrepreneurs and a determinant factor of business creation process and growth. Coaching, which implies exchange of adequate information and a mutual understanding between entrepreneurs and their partners, requires a better mutual knowledge of the representations and the perceptions of ideas which are widely present in their dealings and transactions. Therefore, to analyze entrepreneurs’ perceptions of business creation, we addressed a survey questionnaire to a group of Tunisian entrepreneurs and experts in business creation to indicate their level of approval concerning the prominence of coaching. The factor analysis indicates that more than 60% of the respondents believe that each statement reflects an aspect of coaching, with no bias to its position in the entrepreneurial process. Therefore, the image drawn from our respondents’ perceptions is that an entrepreneur is rather "constructed" and "shaped" by multiple apprenticeships both before and during the entrepreneurial act, through an accompaniment process and within interactions with trainers, consultants or professionals in starting a business. Similarly, the results indicate that the poor support structures and lack of accompaniment procedures stand as an obstacle impeding the development of entrepreneurial intention among business creators.

Keywords: Entrepreneurial Behavior, Entrepreneurial Coaching, Entrepreneurial Intention, Perceptions, Venture Creation

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1101 Optimism and Entrepreneurial Intentions: The Mediating Role of Emotional Intelligence

Authors: Neta Kela Madar, Tali Teeni-Harari, Tamar Icekson, Yaron Sela

Abstract:

This paper proposes and empirically tests a theoretical model positing relationships between dispositional optimism, emotional intelligence, and entrepreneurial intention. To author's best knowledge, this study examined for the first time the role of dispositional optimism together with emotional intelligence as predictors of entrepreneurial intentions. The study findings suggest that optimism may increase entrepreneurial intentions indirectly by enhancing emotional intelligence/ model formulation is based on a random survey of students (N= 227). Model parameter estimation was supported by Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). Results indicate that students’ optimism and emotional intelligence are associated with increased levels of entrepreneurial intention. Additionally, the present study argues that emotional intelligence mediates the positive relationship between optimism and entrepreneurial intention. Theoretical and practical implications of this model are discussed.

Keywords: entrepreneurial intentions, emotional intelligence, optimism, dispositional optimism

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1100 Relationship between Entrepreneurial Orientation and Small and Medium Enterprises Growth in Bauchi Metropolis, Nigeria

Authors: Muhammed Auwal Umar, M. Saleh

Abstract:

The main purpose of this research is to examine the relationship between entrepreneurial orientation (innovativeness, risk-taking propensity, and proactiveness) and SME's growth in Bauchi metropolis. The study is quantitative in nature using a cross-sectional survey. The population of the study was 364 SMEs. Using simple random sampling, 183 questionnaires were personally distributed, out of which 165 (90%) were found valid for the analysis. Kregcie and Morgan (1970) table was used to determine the sample size. Pearson correlation was used to test the hypotheses. The analysis was conducted with the aid of IBM Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20. The results established that innovativeness, risk-taking propensity, and proactiveness have significant positive relationship with SME's growth. It is therefore recommended that SMEs’ owners/managers should change their attitude by changing their product and mode of operation in line with customer demand, being proactive ahead of other competitors in trying a better way of doing things, and taking calculated risks in anticipation of high return in order for their businesses to survive and grow.

Keywords: SMEs growth, innovativeness, risk-taking propensity, proactiveness

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1099 The Entrepreneurial Journey of Students: An Identity Perspective

Authors: J. Marchand

Abstract:

While university dropout entrepreneurs are celebrated in the practitioner literature, students’ intentions of becoming entrepreneurs have increasingly been the focus of student entrepreneur studies. However, students who are already running a business have rarely been examined. The experience of these students is a phenomenon that requires further research. Entrepreneurial identity represents a gap in the organisational studies literature. This paper utilises studentpreneurs’ self-narratives of their entrepreneurial journey. More specifically, the aim is to answer the following question: what are the types of identity work that individuals go through to build their entrepreneurial identity during that journey? Through long interviews, this paper studies the lived experience of 14 studentpreneurs who have achieved $54,000 in income and who participated publicly in entrepreneurial competitions. A general inductive analysis is performed on their narrative. With its focus on the journey, this paper makes a contribution to the literature on identity work and the entrepreneurial journey. A key contribution is the study of identity work on the journey to becoming an (established) entrepreneur in contrast to routine identity work.

Keywords: entrepreneurial identity, student entrepreneur, identity work, student entrepreneurship

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1098 A Study on Determining Market Orientation, Innovation Orientation and Firm Performance

Authors: Emel Gelmez, Derya Özilhan

Abstract:

In this study, the relationship between market orientation, innovation orientation and firm performance in the hotel enterprises in Konya was examined. Research data was obtained by survey method and the research was conducted on the enterprises operating in tourism business in Konya. Hypothesis were tested in terms of the main aim of the present study. According to the findings it was determined that there is a positive and significant relationship between each parameters.

Keywords: firm performance, innovation, innovation orientation, market orientation

Procedia PDF Downloads 250