Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 54

Search results for: phosphates

54 Synthesis, Structure and Properties of NZP/NASICON Structured Materials

Authors: E. A. Asabina, V. I. Pet'kov, P. A. Mayorov, A. V. Markin, N. N. Smirnova, A. M. Kovalskii, A. A. Usenko


The purpose of this work was to synthesize and investigate phase formation, structure and thermophysical properties of the phosphates M0.5+xM'xZr2–x(PO4)3 (M – Cd, Sr, Pb; M' – Mg, Co, Mn). The compounds were synthesized by sol-gel method. The results showed formation of limited solid solutions of NZP/NASICON type. The crystal structures of triple phosphates of the compositions MMg0.5Zr1.5(PO4)3 were refined by the Rietveld method using XRD data. Heat capacity (8–660 K) of the phosphates Pb0.5+xMgxZr2-x(PO4)3 (x = 0, 0.5) was measured, and reversible polymorphic transitions were found at temperatures, close to the room temperature. The results of Rietveld structure refinement showed the polymorphism caused by disordering of lead cations in the cavities of NZP/NASICON structure. Thermal expansion (298−1073 K) of the phosphates MMg0.5Zr1.5(PO4)3 was studied by XRD method, and the compounds were found to belong to middle and low-expanding materials. Thermal diffusivity (298–573 K) of the ceramic samples of phosphates slightly decreased with temperature increasing. As was demonstrated, the studied phosphates are characterized by the better thermophysical characteristics than widespread fire-resistant materials, such as zirconia and etc.

Keywords: NASICON, NZP, phosphate, structure, synthesis, thermophysical properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 47
53 Addition of Phosphates on Stability of Sterilized Goat Milk in Different Seasons

Authors: Mei-Jen Lin, Yuan-Yuan Yu


Low heat stability of goat milk limited the application of ultra-high temperature (UHT) sterilization on producing sterilized goat milk in order to keep excess goat milk in summer for producing goat dairy products in winter in Taiwan. Therefore, this study aimed to add stabilizers in goat milk to increase the heat stability for producing UHT sterilized goat milk preserved for making goat dairy products in winter. The amounts of 0.05-0.11% blend of sodium phosphates (Na) and blend of sodium/potassium phosphates (Sp) were added in raw goat milk at different seasons a night before autoclaved sterilization at 135°C 4 sec. The coagulation, ion calcium concentration and ethanol stability of sterilized goat milk were analyzed. Results showed that there were seasonal differences on choosing the optimal stabilizers and the addition levels. Addition of 0.05% and 0.22% of both Na and Sp salts in Spring goat milk, 0.10-0.11% of both Na and Sp salts in Summer goat milk, and 0.05%Na Sp group in Autumn goat milk were coagulated after autoclaved, respectively. There was no coagulation found with the addition of 0.08-0.09% both Na and Sp salts in goat milk; furthermore, the ionic calcium concentration were lower than 2.00 mM and ethanol stability higher than 70% in both 0.08-0.09% Na and Sp salts added goat milk. Therefore, the optimal addition level of blend of sodium phosphates and blend of sodium/potassium phosphates were 0.08-0.09% for producing sterilized goat milk at different seasons in Taiwan.

Keywords: coagulation, goat milk, phosphates, stability

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52 Removal of Nitrate and Phosphates from Waste Water Using Activated Bio-Carbon Produced from Agricultural Waste

Authors: Kgomotso Matobole, Natania De Wet, Tefo Mbambo, Hilary Rutto, Tumisang Seodigeng


Nitrogen and phosphorus are nutrients which are required in the ecosystem, however, at high levels, these nutrients contribute to the process of eutrophication in the receiving water bodies, which threatens aquatic organisms. Hence it is vital that they are removed before the water is discharged. This phenomenon increases the cost related to wastewater treatment. This raises the need for the development of processes that are cheaper. Activated biocarbon was used in batch and filtration system to remove nitrates and phosphates. The batch system has higher nutrients removal capabilities than the filtration system. For phosphate removal, 93 % removal is achieved at the adsorbent of 300 g while for nitrates, 84 % removal is achieved when 200 g of activated carbon is loaded.

Keywords: waste water treatment, phosphates, nitrates, activated carbon, agricultural waste

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51 The Amount of Organic Phosphates (Like DPG) Existing in Blood is Determining Factor of Mammal’s Bulk

Authors: Ramin Amirmardfar


Throughout Necessary oxygen should be supplied for all cells of a mammal at any moment through blood to make it possible remain alive all cells the mammal’s body. In case a mammal’s bulk is large, there is a farther distance between cells in different tissues and mammals’ heart. Therefore red blood cells in bulky mammal’s body should be capable of conveying oxygen to farther distances. To make it practical, oxygen should be glued red blood cells tenaciously. In other words, cohesion strength of oxygen to red blood cell of bulky mammal’s blood should be much more than the same of small mammal’s blood. In mammal’s bodies, the controlling factor of amount of cohesion of oxygen to red blood cell, are organic phosphates (like DPG). The less DPG in red blood cells of a mammal, the more cohesion of oxygen to red blood cell (at the same rate). As much as oxygen is glued more tenacious to red blood cells, oxygen could been carried to farther distance and as much as oxygen could be conveyed to farther points of heart, bulk of mammal could be larger at the same rate.

Keywords: mammals size, animals size, organic phosphates, DPG, red blood cell, metabolism

Procedia PDF Downloads 248
50 Biocellulose Template for 3D Mineral Scaffolds

Authors: C. Busuioc, G. Voicu, S. I. Jinga


The field of tissue engineering brings new challenges in terms of proposing original solutions for ongoing medical issues, improving the biological performances of existing clinical systems and speeding the healing process for a faster recovery and a more comfortable life as patient. In this context, we propose the obtaining of 3D porous scaffolds of mineral nature, dedicated to bone repairing and regeneration purposes or employed as bioactive filler for bone cements. Thus, bacterial cellulose - calcium phosphates composite materials have been synthesized by successive immersing of the polymeric membranes in the precursor solution containing Ca2+ and [PO4]3- ions. The mineral phase deposited on the surface of biocellulose fibers was varied as amount through the number of immersing cycles. The intermediary composites were subjected to thermal treatments at different temperatures in order to remove the organic part and provide the formation of a self-sustained 3D architecture. The resulting phase composition consists of common phosphates, while the morphology largely depends on the preparation parameters. Thus, the aspect of the 3D mineral scaffolds can be tuned from a loose microstructure composed of large grains connected via monocrystalline nanorods to a trabecular pattern crossed by parallel internal channels, just like the natural bone. The bioactivity and biocompatibility of the obtained materials have been also assessed, with encouraging results in the clinical use direction. In conclusion, the compositional, structural, morphological and biological characterizations sustain the suitability of the reported biostructures for integration in hard tissue engineering applications.

Keywords: bacterial cellulose, bone reconstruction, calcium phosphates, mineral scaffolds

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49 Development of Materials Based on Phosphates of NaZr2(PO4)3 with Low Thermal Expansion

Authors: V. Yu. Volgutov, A. I. Orlova, S. A. Khainakov


NaZr2(PO4)3 (NZP) and their structural analogues are characterized by a peculiar behaviors on heating – they have different expansion and contraction along different crystallographic directions due to specific arrangements of crystal structure in these compounds. An important feature of such structures is the ability to incorporate into their structural analogues wide variety of metal cations having different size and oxidation states, with different combinations and concentrations. These cations are located in different crystallographic non-equivalent positions of octahedral tetrahedral crystal framework as well as in inter-framework cavities. Through, due to iso- and hetero-valent isomorphism of the cations (and the anions) in NZP, it becomes possible to tuning the compositions and to obtain the compounds with ‘on a plan’ properties. For the design of compounds with low and ultra-low thermal expansion including those with tailored thermal expansion properties, the following crystallochemical principles it seems are promising: 1) Insertion into crystal M1 position the cations having different sizes and, 2) the variation in the composition of compounds, providing different occupation of crystal M1 position. Following these principles we have designed and synthesized the next NZP-type phosphates series: a) where radii of the cations in the M1 crystal position was varied: Zr1/4Zr2(PO4)3 - Th1/4Zr2(PO4)3 (series I); R1/3Zr2(PO4)3 where R= Nd, Eu, Er (series II), b) where the occupation of M1 crystal position was varied: Zr1/4Zr2(PO4)3-Er1/3Zr2(PO4)3 (series III) and Zr1/4Zr2(PO4)3-Sr1/2Zr2(PO4)3 (series IV). The thermal expansion parameters were determined over the range of 25-800ºC. For each series the minimum axial coefficient of thermal expansion αa = αb, αc and their anisotropy Δα = Iαa - αcI, 10-6 K-1 was found as next: -1.51, 1.07, 2.58 for Th1/4Zr2(PO4)3 (series I); -0.72, 0.10, 0.81 for Nd1/3Zr2(PO4)3 (series II); -2.78, 1.35, 4.12 for Er1/6Zr1/8Zr2(PO4)3 (series III); 2.23, 1.32, 0.91 for Sr1/2Zr2(PO4)3 (series IV). The measured tendencies of the thermal expansion of crystals were in good agreement with predicted ones. For one of the members from the studied phosphates namely Th1/16Zr3/16Zr2(PO4)3 structural refinement have been carried out at 25, 200, 600, and 800°C. The dependencies of the structural parameters with the temperature have been determined.

Keywords: high-temperature crystallography, NaZr2(PO4)3, (NZP) analogs, structural-chemical principles, tuning thermal expansion

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48 Quantification of River Ravi Pollution and Oxidation Pond Treatment to Improve the Drain Water Quality

Authors: Yusra Mahfooz, Saleha Mehmood


With increase in industrialization and urbanization, water contaminating rivers through effluents laden with diverse chemicals in developing countries. The study was based on the waste water quality of the four drains (Outfall, Gulshan -e- Ravi, Hudiara, and Babu Sabu) which enter into river Ravi in Lahore, Pakistan. Different pollution parameters were analyzed including pH, DO, BOD, COD, turbidity, EC, TSS, nitrates, phosphates, sulfates and fecal coliform. Approximately all the water parameters of drains were exceeded the permissible level of wastewater standards. In calculation of pollution load, Hudiara drains showed highest pollution load in terms of COD i.e. 429.86 tons/day while in Babu Sabu drain highest pollution load was calculated in terms of BOD i.e. 162.82 tons/day (due to industrial and sewage discharge in it). Lab scale treatment (oxidation ponds) was designed in order to treat the waste water of Babu Sabu drain, through combination of different algae species i.e. chaetomorphasutoria, sirogoniumsticticum and zygnema sp. Two different sizes of ponds (horizontal and vertical), and three different concentration of algal samples (25g/3L, 50g/3L, and 75g/3L) were selected. After 6 days of treatment, 80 to 97% removal efficiency was found in the pollution parameters. It was observed that in the vertical pond, maximum reduction achieved i.e. turbidity 62.12%, EC 79.3%, BOD 86.6%, COD 79.72%, FC 100%, nitrates 89.6%, sulphates 96.9% and phosphates 85.3%. While in the horizontal pond, the maximum reduction in pollutant parameters, turbidity 69.79%, EC 83%, BOD 88.5%, COD 83.01%, FC 100%, nitrates 89.8%, sulphates 97% and phosphates 86.3% was observed. Overall treatment showed that maximum reduction was carried out in 50g algae setup in the horizontal pond due to large surface area, after 6 days of treatment. Results concluded that algae-based treatment are most energy efficient, which can improve drains water quality in cost effective manners.

Keywords: oxidation pond, ravi pollution, river water quality, wastewater treatment

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47 Removal and/or Recovery of Phosphates by Precipitation as Ferric Phosphate from the Effluent of a Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant

Authors: Kyriaki Kalaitzidou, Athanasia Tolkou, Christina Raptopoulou, Manassis Mitrakas, Anastasios Zouboulis


Phosphate rock is the main source of phosphorous (P) in fertilizers and is essential for high crop yield in agriculture; currently, it is considered as a critical element, phasing scarcity. Chemical precipitation, which is a commonly used method of phosphorous removal from wastewaters, finds its significance in that phosphates may be precipitated in appropriate chemical forms that can be reused-recovered. Most often phosphorous is removed from wastewaters in the form of insoluble phosphate salts, by using salts (coagulants) of multivalent metal ions, most frequently iron, aluminum, calcium, or magnesium. The removal degree is affected by various factors, such as pH, chemical agent dose, temperature, etc. In this study, phosphate precipitation from the secondary (biologically treated) effluent of a municipal wastewater treatment plant is examined. Using chlorosulfate (FeClSO4) it was attempted to either remove and/or recover PO43-. Results showed that the use of Fe3+ can achieve residual concentrations lower than the commonly applied legislation limit of PO43- (i.e. 3 mg PO43-/L) by adding 7.5 mg/L Fe3+ in the secondary effluent with an initial concentration of about 10 mg PO43-/L and at pH range between 6 to 9. In addition, the formed sediment has a percentage of almost 24% PO43- content. Therefore, simultaneous removal and recovery of PO43- as ferric phosphate can be achieved, making it possible for the ferric phosphate to be re-used as a possible (secondary) fertilizer source.

Keywords: ferric phosphate, phosphorus recovery, phosphorus removal, wastewater treatment

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46 Phosphate Sludge Ceramics: Effects of Firing Cycle Parameters on Technological Properties and Ceramic Suitability

Authors: Mohamed Loutou, Mohamed Hajjaji, Mohamed Ait Babram, Mohammed Mansori, Rachid Hakkou, Claude Favotto


More than 26,4 million tons of phosphates are produced by the phosphates industries in Morocco (2010), generating huge amounts of sludge by flocculation during the ore beneficiation. They way are stored at the end of the process in open air ponds. Its accumulation and storage may have an impact on several scales such as ground water and human being. For this purpose, an efficient way to use it the field of the ceramic is proposed. The as received sludge and a clay-rich sediment have been studied in terms of chemical, mineralogical and micro-structural side using various analytical methods. Several formulations have been performed by mixing the sludge with the binder shaped in the form of granules. After being dried at 105 °C, the samples were heated in the range of 900-1200 °C. As well as the ceramic properties (firing shrinkage, water absorption, total porosity and compressive strength) the micro structure has been investigated using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The relations between properties and the operating factors were formulated using the design of experiments (DOE). Gehlenite was the only phase neo-formed in the sintering samples. SEM micrographs revealed the presence of nano metric stains. Based on RSM results, all factors had positive effects on Firing shrinkage, compressive strength and total porosity. However, they manifested opposite effects on density and water absorption.

Keywords: phosphate sludge, clay, ceramic properties, granule

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45 Flame Retardant Study of Methylol Melamine Phosphate-Treated Cotton Fibre

Authors: Nurudeen Afolami Ayeni, Kasali Bello


Methylolmelamine with increasing degree of methylol substitution and the phosphates derivatives were used to resinate cotton fabric (CF). The resination was carried out at different curing time and curing temperature. Generally, the results show a reduction in the flame propagation rate of the treated fabrics compared to the untreated cotton fabric (CF). While the flame retardancy of methylolmelamine-treated fibre could be attributed to the degree of crosslinking of fibre-resin network which promotes stability, the methylolmelamine phosphate-treated fabrics show better retardancy due to the intumescences action of the phosphate resin upon decomposition in the resin – fabric network.

Keywords: cotton fabric, flame retardant, methylolmelamine, crosslinking, resination

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44 Landfill Leachate Wastewater Treatment by Fenton Process

Authors: Rewadee Anuwattana, Pattamaphorn Phuangngamphan, Narumon Soparatana, Supinya Sutthima, Worapong Pattayawan, Saroj Klangkongsub, Songkiat Roddang, Pluek Wongpanich


The leachate wastewater is high contaminant water; hence it needs to be treated. The objective of this research was to determine the Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) concentration, Phosphate (PO₄³⁻), Ammonia (NH₃) and color in leachate wastewater in the landfill area. The experiments were carried out in the optimum condition by pH, the Fenton reagent dosage (concentration of dosing Fe²⁺ and H₂O₂). The optimum pH is 3, the optimum [Fe²⁺]/[COD] and [H₂O₂]/[COD₀] = 0.03 and 0.03, respectively. The Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD₅)/Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) ratio can be adjusted to 1 for landfill leachate wastewater (BOD₅/COD = 0.11). From the results, the Fenton process shall be investigated further to achieve the removal of phosphates in addition to COD and color.

Keywords: landfill leachate treatment, open dumpsite, Fenton process, wastewater treatment

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43 Studies on Partial Replacement of Cement by Rice Husk Ash under Sodium Phosphate Medium

Authors: Dharmana Pradeep, Chandan Kumar Patnaikuni, N. V. S. Venugopal


Rice Husk Ash (RHA) is a green product contains carbon and also loaded with silica. For the development of durability and strength of any concrete, curing phenomenon shall be very important. In this communication, we reported the exposure of partial replacement of cement with RHA at different percentages of 0%, 5%, 7.5%, 10%, 12.5% and 15% by weight under sodium phosphate curing atmosphere. The mix is designed for M40 grade concrete with the proportions of 1:2.2:3.72. The tests conducted on concrete was a compressive strength, and the specimens were cured in normal water & exposed to the chemical solution for 7, 28 & 56 days. For chemical curing 0.5% & 1% concentrated sodium phosphates were used and were compared with normal concrete strength results. The strength of specimens of 1% sodium phosphate exposure showed that the compressive strength decreased with increase in RHA percentages.

Keywords: rice husk ash, compressive strength, sodium phosphate, curing

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42 Determination of Cyanotoxins from Leeukraal and Klipvoor Dams

Authors: Moletsane Makgotso, Mogakabe Elijah, Marrengane Zinhle


South Africa’s water resources quality is becoming more and more weakened by eutrophication, which deteriorates its usability. Thirty five percent of fresh water resources are eutrophic to hypertrophic, including grossly-enriched reservoirs that go beyond the globally-accepted definition of hypertrophy. Failing infrastructure adds to the problem of contaminated urban runoff which encompasses an important fraction of flows to inland reservoirs, particularly in the non-coastal, economic heartland of the country. Eutrophication threatens the provision of potable and irrigation water in the country because of the dependence on fresh water resources. Eutrophicated water reservoirs increase water treatment costs, leads to unsuitability for recreational purposes and health risks to human and animal livelihood due to algal proliferation. Eutrophication is caused by high concentrations of phosphorus and nitrogen in water bodies. In South Africa, Microsystis and Anabaena are widely distributed cyanobacteria, with Microcystis being the most dominant bloom-forming cyanobacterial species associated with toxin production. Two impoundments were selected, namely the Klipvoor and Leeukraal dams as they are mainly used for fishing, recreational, agricultural and to some extent, potable water purposes. The total oxidized nitrogen and total phosphorus concentration were determined as causative nutrients for eutrophication. Chlorophyll a and total microcystins, as well as the identification of cyanobacteria was conducted as indicators of cyanobacterial infestation. The orthophosphate concentration was determined by subjecting the samples to digestion and filtration followed by spectrophotometric analysis of total phosphates and dissolved phosphates using Aquakem kits. The total oxidized nitrates analysis was conducted by initially conducting filtration followed by spectrophotometric analysis. Chlorophyll a was quantified spectrophotometrically by measuring the absorbance of before and after acidification. Microcystins were detected using the Quantiplate Microcystin Kit, as well as microscopic identification of cyanobacterial species. The Klipvoor dam was found to be hypertrophic throughout the study period as the mean Chlorophyll a concentration was 269.4µg/l which exceeds the mean value for the hypertrophic state. The mean Total Phosphorus concentration was >0.130mg/l, and the total microcystin concentration was > 2.5µg/l throughout the study. The most predominant algal species were found to be the Microcystis. The Leeukraal dam was found to be mesotrophic with the potential of it becoming eutrophic as the mean concentration for chlorophyll a was 18.49 µg/l with the mean Total Phosphorus > 0.130mg/l and the Total Microcystin concentration < 0.16µg/l. The cyanobacterial species identified in Leeukraal have been classified as those that do not pose a potential risk to any impoundment. Microcystis was present throughout the sampling period and dominant during the warmer seasons. The high nutrient concentrations led to the dominance of Microcystis that resulted in high levels of microcystins rendering the impoundments, particularly Klipvoor undesirable for utilisation.

Keywords: nitrogen, phosphorus, cyanobacteria, microcystins

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41 Bioremediation Potential of Stegiocolonium and Spirogyra Grown in Waste Water

Authors: Neelma Munir, Zirwa Sarwar, Rubab Naseem, Maria Hasnain, Shagufta Naz


Wastewater discharge from different sources causes contamination of water bodies and eutrophication. Stegiocolonium and Spirogyra are commonly found algal species in the water bodies of Pakistan. These algal species were tested for their bioremediation potential using different wastewaters. Different parameters, i.e., BOD, COD, pH, nitrates, phosphates and microflora, were analyzed to observe the phycoremediation efficiency of the tested algal strains. When these different wastewaters were treated with these algae, reduction of BOD and COD was observed helped in the reduction of pollutants from the environment. From the results of the present study, it was evident that Ulothrix sp. and Oedogonium sp. showed a high biomass production in different wastewaters as compared to Stigeoclonium sp. and Spirogyra sp. Whereas the oil content of Stigeoclonium sp. was greater than Spirogyra sp. Oil extracted from algal strains was then utilized for converting it to biodiesel, indicating that these algal species can be cultured in wastewater to produce biodiesel.

Keywords: algae, wastewater, biofuel, bioremediation

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40 Halloysite Based Adsorbents for Removing Pollutants from Water Reservoirs

Authors: Agata Chelminska, Joanna Goscianska


The rapid growth of the world’s population and the resulting economic development have had an enormous influence on the environment. Multiple industrial processes generate huge amounts of wastewater containing dangerous substances, most of which are discharged into water bodies. These contaminants include pharmaceuticals and synthetic dyes. Regardless of the presence of wastewater treatment plants, a lot of pollutants cannot be easily eliminated by well-known technologies. Hence, more effective methods of removing resistant chemicals are being developed. Due to cost-effectiveness as well as the availability of a wide range of adsorbents, a large interest in the adsorption process as an alternative way of water purification has been observed. Clay minerals, e.g., halloysite, are one of the most researched natural adsorbents because of their availability, non-toxicity, high specific surface area, porosity, layered structure, and low cost. The negatively charged surface makes them ideal for binding cations and organic compounds. Halloysite can be subjected to modifications which enhance its adsorptive properties. The aim of the presented research was to apply pure and modified halloysite in removing particular pollutants (tetracycline, tartrazine, and phosphates) from aqueous solutions. Halloysite was modified with alcoholic and aqueous solutions of hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and urea in different concentrations and subsequently impregnated with lanthanum(III) chloride. Acidic and basic oxygen groups located on the surface of all materials were determined. Moreover, the adsorbents obtained were characterized by X-ray diffraction, low-temperature nitrogen adsorption, scanning, and transmission electron microscopy. The effectiveness of samples in tetracycline, tartrazine, and phosphates adsorption from the liquid phase was then studied in order to determine their potential application in eliminating contaminants from water reservoirs. Modifiers’ employment enabled obtaining materials that possess better adsorption properties, which makes them useful for removing various pollutants from water. Modifying the pure halloysite with CTAB and urea solutions and impregnating LaCl₃ led to the formation of acidic and basic oxygen functional groups on the surface. Their amount increases with an increasing percentage of lanthanum content. The acid-base properties of materials, as well as the type of functional groups that appear on their surface, have a significant influence on their sorption capacities towards antibiotics, dyes, and phosphate(V) anions. The selected contaminants adsorb onto the halloysite studied following the Langmuir type isotherm. The thermodynamic study indicated that the adsorption was a spontaneous and exothermic process. The adsorption equilibrium was rapidly attained after 120 min of contact time. Research showed that synthesized materials based on halloysite may be applied as adsorbents for antibiotics, organic dyes, and PO₄³- ions which are difficult to eliminate.

Keywords: adsorption processes, halloysite, minerals, water reservoirs pollutants

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39 Study of the Stability of the Slope Open-Pit Mines: Case of the Mine of Phosphates – Tebessa, Algeria

Authors: Mohamed Fredj, Abdallah Hafsaoui, Radouane Nakache


The study of the stability of the mining works in rock masses fractured is the major concern of the operating engineer. For geotechnical works in mines and quarries, it there is not today's general methodology for analysis and the quantification of the risks relating to the dangers inherent in these concrete types (falling boulders, landslides, etc.). The reasons for this are uncertainty, which weighs on available data or lack of knowledge of the values of the parameters required for this analysis type. Stability calculations must be based on reliable knowledge of the distribution of discontinuities that dissect the Rocky massif and the resistance to shear of the intact rock and discontinuities. This study is aimed to study the stability of slope of mine (Kef Sennoun - Tebessa, Algeria). The problem is analyzed using a numerical model based on the finite elements (software Plaxis 3D).

Keywords: stability, discontinuities, finite elements, rock mass, open-pit mine

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38 Analysis of Long-Term Response of Seawater to Change in CO₂, Heavy Metals and Nutrients Concentrations

Authors: Igor Povar, Catherine Goyet


The seawater is subject to multiple external stressors (ES) including rising atmospheric CO2 and ocean acidification, global warming, atmospheric deposition of pollutants and eutrophication, which deeply alter its chemistry, often on a global scale and, in some cases, at the degree significantly exceeding that in the historical and recent geological verification. In ocean systems the micro- and macronutrients, heavy metals, phosphor- and nitrogen-containing components exist in different forms depending on the concentrations of various other species, organic matter, the types of minerals, the pH etc. The major limitation to assessing more strictly the ES to oceans, such as pollutants (atmospheric greenhouse gas, heavy metals, nutrients as nitrates and phosphates) is the lack of theoretical approach which could predict the ocean resistance to multiple external stressors. In order to assess the abovementioned ES, the research has applied and developed the buffer theory approach and theoretical expressions of the formal chemical thermodynamics to ocean systems, as heterogeneous aqueous systems. The thermodynamic expressions of complex chemical equilibria, involving acid-base, complex formation and mineral ones have been deduced. This thermodynamic approach utilizes thermodynamic relationships coupled with original mass balance constraints, where the solid phases are explicitly expressed. The ocean sensitivity to different external stressors and changes in driving factors are considered in terms of derived buffering capacities or buffer factors for heterogeneous systems. Our investigations have proved that the heterogeneous aqueous systems, as ocean and seas are, manifest their buffer properties towards all their components, not only to pH, as it has been known so far, for example in respect to carbon dioxide, carbonates, phosphates, Ca2+, Mg2+, heavy metal ions etc. The derived expressions make possible to attribute changes in chemical ocean composition to different pollutants. These expressions are also useful for improving the current atmosphere-ocean-marine biogeochemistry models. The major research questions, to which the research responds, are: (i.) What kind of contamination is the most harmful for Future Ocean? (ii.) What are chemical heterogeneous processes of the heavy metal release from sediments and minerals and its impact to the ocean buffer action? (iii.) What will be the long-term response of the coastal ocean to the oceanic uptake of anthropogenic pollutants? (iv.) How will change the ocean resistance in terms of future chemical complex processes and buffer capacities and its response to external (anthropogenic) perturbations? The ocean buffer capacities towards its main components are recommended as parameters that should be included in determining the most important ocean factors which define the response of ocean environment at the technogenic loads increasing. The deduced thermodynamic expressions are valid for any combination of chemical composition, or any of the species contributing to the total concentration, as independent state variable.

Keywords: atmospheric greenhouse gas, chemical thermodynamics, external stressors, pollutants, seawater

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37 Treatment of Simulated Textile Wastewater Containing Reactive Azo Dyes Using Laboratory Scale Trickling Filter

Authors: Ayesha Irum, Sadia Mumtaz, Abdul Rehman, Iffat Naz, Safia Ahmed


The present study was conducted to evaluate the potential applicability of biological trickling filter system for the treatment of simulated textile wastewater containing reactive azo dyes with bacterial consortium under non-sterile conditions. The percentage decolorization for the treatment of wastewater containing structurally different dyes was found to be higher than 95% in all trials. The stable bacterial count of the biofilm on stone media of the trickling filter during the treatment confirmed the presence, proliferation, dominance and involvement of the added microbial consortium in the treatment of textile wastewater. Results of physicochemical parameters revealed the reduction in chemical oxygen demand (58.5-75.1%), sulphates (18.9-36.5%), and phosphates (63.6-73.0%). UV-Visible and FTIR spectroscopy confirmed decolorization of dye containing wastewater was the ultimate consequence of biodegradation. Toxicological studies revealed the nontoxic nature of degradative metabolites.

Keywords: biodegradation, textile dyes, waste water, trickling filters

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36 The Effect of Irgafos 168 in the Thermostabilization of High Density Polyethylene

Authors: Mahdi Almaky


The thermostabilization of High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) is realized through the action of primary antioxidant such as phenolic antioxidants and secondary antioxidants as aryl phosphates. The efficiency of two secondary antioxidants, commercially named Irgafos 168 and Weston 399, was investigated using different physical, mechanical, spectroscopic, and calorimetric methods. The effect of both antioxidants on the processing stability and long term stability of HDPE produced in Ras Lanuf oil and gas processing Company were measured and compared. The combination of Irgafos 168 with Irganox 1010, as used in smaller concentration, results in a synergetic effect against thermo-oxidation and protect better than the combination of Weston 399 with Irganox 1010 against the colour change at processing temperature and during long term oxidation process.

Keywords: thermostabilization, high density polyethylene, primary antioxidant, phenolic antioxidant, Irgafos 168, Irganox 1010, Weston 399

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35 Toxicity of Solenstemma Argel (Hargal ) on Nubian Goats

Authors: Amna B. Medani, M. A. Elbadwi Samia, Hassan A. Khalid


In our study, nine Nubian goat kids were obtained, allotted into three groups, and healthily adapted in pens within the premises of the Veterinary Teaching Hospital, University of Khartoum to be given the oral doses of the dried herb shoots at daily doses of 1 and 5 gm/kg/day with drinking water, while the kids of the control group were left undosed. All goats were slaughtered,if not died, after 35 days. S. argel at the given doses caused signs of arched posture, ruffled hair, shivering and paralysis of limbs. On post mortem, lesions were seen to be hepatic fatty changes, renal necrosis, congested lungs and inflamed intestines. Serum chemistry investigations revealed significant increase (P< 0.05-0.01) in the activities of ALP(alkaline phosphates) and AST( aspartate-aminotransferase) in goats dosed with 5 gm /kg/ day. Also observed were significant increases in inorganic phosphorus and urea concentrations (P < 0.05-0.01) in both dosed goat groups. .Other investigations including the activity of GGT( gamma glutamyltransferase), creatinine, calcium, total protein and albumin illustrated no significant difference from that of the undosed controls. On haematological evaluation , the goat kids dosed with 5 gm/kg/dayshowed a decrease in haemoglobin concentration and red blood cells count of (P < 0.05-0.01).Both groups of dosed goats showed a higher packed cell volume values of (P < 0.05) when compared to the control goats .Mean corpuscular haemoglobin values were not different from those of the control kids. S. argel at the given doses caused signs of arched posture, ruffled hair, shivering and paralysis of limbs. On post mortem, lesions were seen to be hepatic fatty changes, renal necrosis, congested lungs and inflamed intestines. Serum chemistry investigations revealed significant increase (P < 0.05-0.01) in the activities of ALP(alkaline phosphates) and AST( aspartate-aminotransferase) in goats dosed with 5 gm /kg/ day. Also observed were significant increases in inorganic phosphorus and urea concentrations (P < 0.05-0.01) in both dosed goat groups. .Other investigations including the activity of GGT( gamma-glutamyltransferase), creatinine, calcium, total protein and albumin illustrated no significant difference from that of the undosed controls. calcium, total protein and albumin illustrated no significant difference from that of the undosed controls. On haematological evaluation , the goat kids dosed with 5 gm/kg/dayshowed a decrease in haemoglobin concentration and red blood cells count of (P < 0.05-0.01).Both groups of dosed goats showed a higher packed cell volume values of (P < 0.05) when compared to the control goats .Mean corpuscular haemoglobin values were not different from those of the control kids. Data obtained were then discussed to find S. argel irritable to intestines , toxic to the kidney and liver and a haematological mild toxin.Suggestions for future were forwarded.

Keywords: hargal, nubian goats, solenstemma argel, toxicity

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34 Cr³⁺/SiO₄⁴⁻ Codoped Hydroxyapatite Nanorods: Fabrication and Microstructure Analysis

Authors: Ammar Z. Alshemary, Zafer Evis


In this study, nanorods of Cr³⁺/SiO₄⁴⁻ codoped hydroxyapatite (Cr³⁺/SiO₄⁴⁻-HA) were synthesized successfully and rapidly through microwave irradiation technique, using (Ca(NO₃)₂•4H₂O), ((NH₄)₂HPO₄), (SiC₈H₂₀O₄) and (Cr(NO₃)₃.9H₂O) as source materials for Ca²⁺, PO₄³⁻, SiO₄⁴⁻ and Cr³⁺ ions, respectively. The impact of dopants on the phase formation and microstructure of the powders were investigated by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectrum analysis (FT-IR) and Field emission electron microscopy (FESEM) techniques. XRD analysis showed that with an incorporation of Cr³⁺/SiO₄⁴⁻ ions into HA structure resulted in peak broadening and reduced peak height due to the amorphous nature and reduced crystallinity of the resulting HA powder. FTIR spectroscopy revealed the existence of the different vibrational modes matching to phosphates and hydroxyl groups. The FESEM analysis showed a change in the crystal shape from spherical to rod shaped particles upon Cr³⁺ doping into the crystal structure. Acknowledgments: This study was supported by Karabük University (Project no. KBÜBAP-17-YD-144). The authors would like to thank for support.

Keywords: nano-hydroxyapatite, microwave, dopants, characterization, microstructure

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33 Preparation and in vitro Characterisation of Chitosan/Hydroxyapatite Injectable Microspheres as Hard Tissue Substitution

Authors: H. Maachou, A. Chagnes, G. Cote


The present work reports the properties of chitosan/hydroxyapatite (Cs/HA: 100/00, 70/30 and 30/70) composite microspheres obtained by emulsification processing route. The morphology of chitosane microspheres was observed by a scanning electron microscope (SEM) which shows an aggregate of spherical microspheres with a particle size, determined by optical microscope, ranged from 4 to 10 µm. Thereafter, a biomimetic approach was used to study the in vitro biomineralization of these composites. It concerns the composites immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF) for different times. The deposited calcium phosphate was studied using X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), FTIR spectroscopy and ICP analysis of phosphorus. In fact, the mineral formed on Cs/HA microspheres was a mixture of carbonated HA and β-TCP as showed by FTIR peaks at 1419,5 and 871,8 cm-1 and XRD peak at 29,5°. This formation was induced by the presence of HA in chitosan microspheres. These results are confirmed by SEM micrographs which chow the Ca-P crystals growth in form of cauliflowers. So, these materials are of great interest for bone regeneration applications due to their ability to nucleate calcium phosphates in presence of simulated body fluid (SBF).

Keywords: hydroxyapatite, chitosan, microsphere, composite, bone regeneration

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32 Quality Assessment of Some Selected Locally Produced and Marketed Soft Drinks

Authors: Gerardette Darkwah, Gloria Ankar Brewoo, John Barimah, Gilbert Owiah Sampson, Vincent Abe-Inge


Soft drinks which are widely consumed in Ghana have been reported in other countries to contain toxic heavy metals beyond the acceptable limits in other countries. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess the quality characteristics of selected locally produced and marketed soft drinks. Three (3) different batches of 23 soft drinks were sampled from the Takoradi markets. The samples were prescreened for the presence of reducing sugars, phosphates, alcohol and carbon dioxide. The heavy metal contents and physicochemical properties were also determined with AOAC methods. The results indicated the presence of reducing sugars, carbon dioxide and the absence of alcohol in all the selected soft drink samples. The pH, total sugars, moisture, total soluble solids (TSS) and titratable acidity ranged from 2.42 – 3.44, 3.30 – 10.44%, 85.63 – 94.85%, 5.00 – 13.33°Brix, and 0.21 – 1.99% respectively. The concentration of heavy metals were also below detection limits in all samples. The quality of the selected were within specifications prescribed by regulatory bodies.

Keywords: heavy metal contamination, locally manufactured, quality, soft drinks

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31 Structural and Optical Properties of Ce3+ Doped YPO4: Nanophosphors Synthesis by Sol Gel Method

Authors: B. Kahouadji, L. Guerbous, L. Lamiri, A. Mendoud


Recently, nanomaterials are developed in the form of nano-films, nano-crystals and nano-pores. Lanthanide phosphates as a material find extensive application as laser, ceramic, sensor, phosphor, and also in optoelectronics, medical and biological labels, solar cells and light sources. Among the different kinds of rare-earth orthophosphates, yttrium orthophosphate has been shown to be an efficient host lattice for rare earth activator ions, which have become a research focus because of their important role in the field of light display systems, lasers, and optoelectronic devices. It is in this context that the 4fn- « 4fn-1 5d transitions of rare earth in insulating materials, lying in the UV and VUV, are the aim of large number of studies .Though there has been a few reports on Eu3+, Nd3+, Pr3+,Er3+, Ce3+, Tm3+ doped YPO4. The 4fn- « 4fn-1 5d transitions of the rare earth dependent to the host-matrix, several matrices ions were used to study these transitions, in this work we are suggesting to study on a very specific class of inorganic material that are orthophosphate doped with rare earth ions. This study focused on the effect of Ce3+ concentration on the structural and optical properties of Ce3+ doped YPO4 yttrium orthophosphate with powder form prepared by the Sol Gel method.

Keywords: YPO4, Ce3+, 4fn- <->4fn-1 5d transitions, scintillator

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30 Nutrients Removal from Industrial Wastewater Using Constructed Wetland System

Authors: Christine Odinga, Fred Otieno, Josiah Adeyemo


A study was done to establish the effectiveness of wetland plants: Echinocloa pyramidalis (L) and Cyperus papyrus (L) in purifying wastewater from sugar factory stabilization pond effluent. A pilot-scale Free Water Surface Wetland (FWSCW) system was constructed in Chemelil sugar factory, Kenya for the study. The wetland was divided into 8 sections (cells) and planted with C. papyrus and E. pyramidalis in alternating sequence. Water samples and plant specimen were taken fortnightly at inlets and outlets of the cells and analysed for total phosphates and total nitrates. The data was analysed by use of Microsoft excel and SPSS computer packages. Water analysis recorded a reduction in the nutrient levels between the inlet pond nine and the final outlet channel to River Nyando. The plants grown in the wetland experienced varied increases and reductions in the level of total foliar nitrogen and phosphorous, indicating that though the nutrients were being removed from the wetland, the same were not those assimilated by the plants either. The control plants had higher folia phosphorous and nitrogen, an indication that the system of the constructed wetland was able to eliminate the nutrients effectively from the plants.

Keywords: wetlands, constructed, plants, nutrients, wastewater, industrial

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29 Evaluation of the Quality of Groundwater in the Zone of the Irrigated Perimeter Guelma-Bouchegouf, Northeast of Algeria

Authors: M. Benhamza, M. Touati, M. Aissaoui


The Guelma-Bouchegouf irrigated area is located in the north-east of the country; it extends about 80 km. It was commissioned in 1996, with an irrigable area of 9250 ha, it spreads on both banks of the Seybouse Wadi and it is subdivided into five autonomous distribution sectors. In order to assess the state of groundwater quality, physico-chemical and organic analyzes were carried out during the low water period in November 2017, at the level of fourteen wells in the Guelma-Bouchegouf irrigation area. The interpretation of the results of the chemical analyzes shows that the waters of the study area belong to two dominant chemical facies: sulphated-chlorinated-calcium and Sulfated-chlorinated-sodium. The mineral quality of the groundwater in the study area shows that Ca²⁺, Cl⁻ and SO₄²⁻ indicate little to significant pollution, Na⁺ and Mg²⁺ show moderate to significant mineralization of water, closely correlated with very high conductivities. NO₃⁻ and NH⁴⁺ show little to significant pollution throughout the study area. Phosphate represents a significant pollution, with excessive values exceeding the allowable standard. Phosphate concentrations indicate pollution caused by agricultural practices in the irrigated area, following the use of phosphates in the form of chemical fertilizers or pesticides.

Keywords: Algeria, groundwater, irrigated perimeter, pollution

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28 The Effect of Yb3+ Concentration on Spectroscopic properties of Strontium Cerate Doped with Tm3+ and Yb3+

Authors: Yeon Woo Seo, Haeyoung Choi, Jung Hyun Jeong


Recently, the UC phosphors have attracted much attention owing to their wide applicability in areas such as biological fluorescence labeling, three-dimensional color displays, temperature sensor, solar cells, white light emitting diodes (WLEDs), fiber optic communication, anti-counterfeiting and other areas. The UC efficiency is mainly dependent on the host lattice and the interaction between the host lattice and doped ions. Up to date, various host matrices, such as oxides, fluorides, vanadates and phosphates, have been investigated as efficient UC luminescent hosts. Recently, oxide materials with low phonon energy have been investigated as the host matrices of UC materials due to their high chemical durability and physical stability. A series of Sr2CeO4: Tm3+/Yb3+ phosphors with different concentrations of Yb3+ ions have been successfully prepared using the high-energy ball milling method. In this study, we reported the UC luminescent properties of Tm3+/Yb3+ ions co-doped Sr2CeO4 phosphors under an excitation wavelength of 975 nm. Furthermore, the structural and morphological characteristics, as well as the UC luminescence mechanism were investigated in detail. The X-ray diffraction patterns confirmed their orthorhombic structure. Under 975 nm excitation, the emission peaks were observed at 478 nm (blue) and 652 nm (red), corresponding to the 1G4 → 3H6 and 1G4 → 3F4 transitions of Tm3+, respectively. The optimized doping concentration of Yb3+ ion was 10 mol%.

Keywords: Strontium Cerate, up-conversion, luminescence, Tm3+, Yb3+

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27 Sono- and Photocatalytic Degradation of Indigocarmine in Water Using ZnO

Authors: V. Veena, Suguna Yesodharan, E. P. Yesodharan


Two Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOP) i.e., sono- and photo-catalysis mediated by semiconductor oxide catalyst, ZnO has been found effective for the removal of trace amounts of the toxic dye pollutant Indigocarmine (IC) from water. The effect of various reaction parameters such as concentration of the dye, catalyst dosage, temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen etc. as well as the addition of oxidisers and presence of salts in water on the rate of degradation has been evaluated and optimised. The degradation follows variable kinetics depending on the concentration of the substrate, the order of reaction varying from 1 to 0 with increase in concentration. The reaction proceeds through a number of intermediates and many of them have been identified using GCMS technique. The intermediates do not affect the rate of degradation significantly. The influence of anions such as chloride, sulphate, fluoride, carbonate, bicarbonate, phosphate etc. on the degradation of IC is not consistent and does not follow any predictable pattern. Phosphates and fluorides inhibit the degradation while chloride, sulphate, carbonate and bicarbonate enhance. Adsorption studies of the dye in the absence as well as presence of these anions show that there may not be any direct correlation between the adsorption of the dye on the catalyst and the degradation. Oxidants such as hydrogen peroxide and persulphate enhance the degradation though the combined effect and it is less than the cumulative effect of individual components. COD measurements show that the degradation proceeds to complete mineralisation. The results will be presented and probable mechanism for the degradation will be discussed.

Keywords: AOP, COD, indigocarmine, photocatalysis, sonocatalysis

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26 Development and Characterization of Hydroxyapatite Based Nanocomposites for Local Drug Delivery to Periodontal Pockets

Authors: Indu Lata Kanwar, Preeti K. Suresh


The aim of this study is to fabricate hydroxyapatite based nanocomposites for local drug delivery in periodontal pockets. Hydroxyapatite is chemically similar to the mineral component of bones and hard tissues in mammals. Synthetic biocompatibility and bioactivity with human teeth and bone, making it very attractive for biomedical applications. Nanocomposite is a multiphase solid material where one of the phases has one, two or three dimensions of less than 100 nanometres (nm), or structures having nano­scale repeat distances between the different phases that make up the material. Nanostructured calcium phosphate materials play an important role in the formation of hard tissues in nature. It is reported that calcium phosphates materials in nano-size can mimic the dimensions of constituent components of calcified tissues. Nano-sized materials offer improved performances compared with conventional materials due to their large surface-to-volume ratios. The specific biological properties of the nanocomposites, as well as their interaction with cells, include the use of bioactive molecules. The approach of periodontal tissue engineering is considered promising to restore bone defect through the use of engineered materials with the aim that they will prohibit the invasion of fibrous connective tissue and help repair the function during bone regeneration.

Keywords: bioactive, hydroxyapatite, nanocomposities, periondontal

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25 Effect of the pH on the Degradation Kinetics of Biodegradable Mg-0.8Ca Orthopedic Implants

Authors: A. Mohamed, A. El-Aziz


The pH of the body plays a great role in the degradation kinetics of biodegradable Mg-Ca orthopedic implants. At the location of fracture, the pH of the body becomes no longer neutral which draws the attention towards studying a range of different pH values of the body fluid. In this study, the pH of Hank’s balanced salt solution (HBSS) was modified by phosphate buffers into an aggressive acidic pH 1.8, a slightly acidic pH 5.3 and an alkaline pH 8.1. The biodegradation of Mg-0.8Ca implant was tested in those three different media using immersion test and electrochemical polarization means. It was proposed that the degradation rate has increased with decreasing the pH of HBSS. The immersion test revealed weight gain for all the samples followed by weight loss as the immersion time increased. The highest weight gain was pronounced for the acidic pH 1.8 and the least weight gain was observed for the alkaline pH 8.1. This was in agreement with the electrochemical polarization test results where the degradation rate was found to be high (7.29 ± 2.2 mm/year) in the aggressive acidic solution of pH 1.8 and relatively minimum (0.31 ± 0.06 mm/year) in the alkaline medium of pH 8.1. Furthermore, it was confirmed that the pH of HBSS has reached a steady state of an alkaline pH (~pH 11) at the end of the two-month immersion period regardless of the initial pH of the solution. Finally, the corrosion products formed on the samples’ surface were investigated by SEM, EDX and XRD analyses that revealed the formation of magnesium and calcium phosphates with different morphologies according to the pH.

Keywords: biodegradable, electrochemical polarization means, orthopedics, immersion test, simulated body fluid

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