Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6680

Search results for: fuel characteristics

6680 Combustion Characteristics of Bioethanol-Biodiesel-Diesel Fuel Blends Used in a Common Rail Diesel Engine

Authors: Hasan Aydogan


The changes in the performance, emission and combustion characteristics of bioethanol-safflower biodiesel and diesel fuel blends used in a common rail diesel engine were investigated in this experimental study. E20B20D60 (20% bioethanol, 20% biodiesel, 60% diesel fuel by volume), E30B20D50, E50B20D30 and diesel fuel (D) were used as fuel. The tests were performed at full throttle valve opening and variable engine speeds. The results of the tests showed decreases in engine power, engine torque, carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbon (HC) and smoke density values with the use of bioethanol-biodiesel and diesel fuel blends, whereas, increases were observed in nitrogen oxide (NOx) and brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) values. When combustion characteristics were examined, it was seen that the values were close to one another.

Keywords: bioethanol, biodiesel, safflower, combustion characteristics

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6679 Implications of Fuel Reloading in Heterogeneous Thorium-Based Fuel Designs for Improved Fuel Cycle Characteristics

Authors: Hendrik Bernard Van Der Walt, Frik Van Niekerk


Fuel models render a reduction in BOL when thorium is added to a reactor core. Thorium emulates the role of a fertile poison, and is beneficial for reducing beginning of cycle (BOC) excess reactivity. In spite of the build-up of 233U over the duration of a fuel cycle, the effects of fuel reloading have a significant impact on fuel viability, especially in the case of heterogeneous thorium-based fuels. The most common practice of compensating for the reduction of BOC reactivity is the addition of fissile isotopes (uranium fuel with increased enrichment or plutonium). This study introduces a heterogeneous thorium-based fuel with minimal fissile isotope additions. A pseudo reloading scheme was developed for numerical simulations of an infinite reactor based on the North-Anna 1 reactor operating in Virginia, USA. Use of this reloading pattern allows new thorium-based fuel to be loaded into the reactor model as part of a phasing in strategy at the end of any conventional reactor cycle. Results demonstrate the effects of thorium-based fuel on fuel cycle characteristics such as fuel cycle length, neutron economy and material matrix. Application of the above mentioned approach delivered promising results and presents a heterogeneous thorium-based fuel which could replace conventional fuel of typical, currently operating (or future) reactors without the need for expensive reactor redesign or fuel recycling strategies.

Keywords: nuclear fuel, nuclear characteristics, nuclear fuel cycle, thorium-based fuel, heterogeneous design, fuel reloading

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6678 Nuclear Characteristics of a Heterogeneous Thorium-Based Fuel Design Aimed at Increasing Fuel Cycle Length of a Typical PWR

Authors: Hendrik Bernard Van Der Walt, Frik Van Niekerk


Heterogeneous thorium-based fuels have been proposed as an alternative for conventional reactor fuels and many studies have shown promising results. Fuel cycle characteristics still have to be explored in detail. This study investigates the use of a novel thorium-based fuel design aimed at increasing fuel cycle length of a typical PWR with an explicit focus on thorium- uranium content, neutron spectrum, flux considerations and neutron economy.As nuclear reactions are highly dependent on reactor flux and material matrix, analytical and numerical calculations have been completed to predict the behaviour of the proposed nuclear fuel. The proposed design utilizes various ratios of thorium oxide and uranium oxide pellets within fuel pins, divided into heterogeneous sections of specified length. This design renders multiple regions with unique characteristics. The goal of this study is to determine and optimally utilize these characteristics. Proliferation considerations result in the need for denaturing of heterogeneous regions, which renders more unique characteristics, these aspects were examined in this study. Finally, the use of fertile thorium to emulate a burnable poison for managing excess BOL reactivity has been investigated, as well as an option for flux shaping in a typical PWR.

Keywords: nuclear fuel, nuclear characteristics, nuclear fuel cycle, thorium-based fuel, heterogeneous design

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6677 Comparative Parametric and Emission Characteristics of Single Cylinder Spark Ignition Engine Using Gasoline, Ethanol, and H₂O as Micro Emulsion Fuels

Authors: Ufaith Qadri, M Marouf Wani


In this paper, the performance and emission characteristics of a Single Cylinder Spark Ignition engine have been investigated. The research is based on micro emulsion application as fuel in a gasoline engine. We have analyzed many micro emulsion compositions in various proportions, for predicting the performance of the Spark Ignition engine. This new technology of fuel modifications is emerging very rapidly as lot of research is going on in the field of micro emulsion fuels in Compression Ignition engines, but the micro emulsion fuel used in a Gasoline engine is very rare. The use of micro emulsion as fuel in a Spark Ignition engine is virtually unexplored. So, our main goal is to see the performance and emission characteristics of micro emulsions as fuel, in Spark Ignition engines, and finding which composition is more efficient. In this research, we have used various micro emulsion fuels whose composition varies for all the three blends, and their performance and emission characteristic were predicted in AVL Boost software. Conventional Gasoline fuel 90%, 80% and 85% were blended with co-surfactant Ethanol in different compositions, and water was used as an additive for making it crystal clear transparent micro emulsion fuel, which is thermodynamically stable. By comparing the performances of engines, the power has shown similarity for micro emulsion fuel and conventional Gasoline fuel. On the other hand, Torque and BMEP shows increase for all the micro emulsion fuels. Micro emulsion fuel shows higher thermal efficiency and lower Specific Fuel Consumption for all the compositions as compared to the Gasoline fuel. Carbon monoxide and Hydro carbon emissions were also measured. The result shows that emissions decrease for all the composition of micro emulsion fuels, and proved to be the most efficient fuel both in terms of performance and emission characteristics.

Keywords: AVL Boost, emissions, microemulsions, performance, Spark Ignition (SI) engine

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6676 Performance and Emission Characteristics of Diesel Engine Fuelled with Palm Biodiesel Blends

Authors: Jalpit B. Prajapati, Ketankumar G. Patel


Palm oil may be employed in diesel engine as an alternative fuel. Biofuel has so far been backed by government policies in the quest for low carbon fuel in the near future and promises to ensure energy security through partially replacing fossil fuels. This paper presents an experimental investigation of performance and emission characteristics by using palm oil in diesel engine. The properties of palm oil can be compared favorably with the characteristics required for internal combustion engine fuels especially diesel engine. Experiments will be performed for fixed compression ratio i.e. 18 using biodiesel-diesel blends i.e. B0, B10, B20, B30, B40, B50 with load variation from no load to full load and compared with base cases i.e. engine using diesel as a fuel. The parameters studied in performance characteristics are brake power, brake specific fuel consumption and brake thermal efficiency, in emission characteristics are carbon monoxide, unburnt hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxide. After experimental results B20 (20% palm oil and 80% diesel) is best in performance, but NOx formation is little higher in B20.

Keywords: palm biodiesel, performance, emission, diesel-biodiesel blend

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6675 Study of Dual Fuel Engine as Environmentally Friendly Engine

Authors: Nilam S. Octaviani, Semin


The diesel engine is an internal combustion engine that uses compressed air to combust. The diesel engines are widely used in the world because it has the most excellent combustion efficiency than other types of internal combustion engine.  However, the exhaust emissions of it produce pollutants that are harmful to human health and the environment. Therefore, natural gas used as an alternative fuel using on compression ignition engine to respond those environment issues. This paper aims to discuss the comparison of the technical characteristics and exhaust gases emission from conventional diesel engine and dual fuel diesel engine. According to the study, the dual fuel engine applications have a lower compression pressure and has longer ignition delay compared with normal diesel mode. The engine power is decreased at dual fuel mode. However, the exhaust gases emission on dual fuel engine significantly reduce the nitrogen oxide (NOx), carbon dioxide (CO2) and particular metter (PM) emissions.

Keywords: diesel engine, dual fuel diesel engine, emission reduction, technical characteristics

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6674 Dependence of Autoignition Delay Period on Equivalence Ratio for i-Octane, Primary Reference Fuel

Authors: Sunil Verma


In today’s world non-renewable sources are depleting quickly, so there is a need to produce efficient and unconventional engines to minimize the use of fuel. Also, there are many fatal accidents happening every year during extraction, distillation, transportation and storage of fuel. Reason for explosions of gaseous fuel is unwanted autoignition. Autoignition characterstics of fuel are mandatory to study to build efficient engines and to avoid accidents. This report is concerned with study of autoignition delay characteristics of iso-octane by using rapid compression machine. The paper clearly explains the dependence of ignition delay characteristics on variation of equivalence ratios from lean to rich mixtures. The equivalence ratio is varied from 0.3 to 1.2.

Keywords: autoignition, iso-octane, combustion, rapid compression machine, equivalence ratio, ignition delay

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6673 Low NOx Combustion of Pulverized Petroleum Cokes

Authors: Sewon Kim, Minjun Kwon, Changyeop Lee


This study is aimed to study combustion characteristics of low NOx burner using petroleum cokes as fuel. The petroleum coke, which is produced through the oil refining process, is an attractive fuel in terms of its high heating value and low price. But petroleum coke is a challenging fuel because of its low volatile content, high sulfur and nitrogen content, which give rise to undesirable emission characteristics and low ignitability. Therefore, the research and development regarding the petroleum coke burner is needed for applying this industrial system. In this study, combustion and emission characteristics of petroleum cokes burner are experimentally investigated in an industrial steam boiler. The low NOx burner is designed to control fuel and air mixing to achieve staged combustion, which, in turn reduces both flame temperature and oxygen. Air distribution ratio of triple staged air are optimized experimentally. The result showed that NOx concentration is lowest when overfire air is used, and the burner function at a fuel rich condition. That is, the burner is operated at the equivalence ratio of 1.67 and overall equivalence ratio including overfire air is kept 0.87.

Keywords: petroleum cokes, low NOx, combustion, equivalence ratio

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6672 Analysis of Performance-Emission Characteristics of a Single Cylinder Diesel Engine Fueled with Coconut Oil

Authors: Purna Singh, Vaibhav Tripathi, Vinayak Kalluri, Sumit Roy


The present experimental work was carried out to investigate performance and emission characteristics of single cylinder diesel engine operating under dual-fuel mode with coconut oil blended with diesel. Coconut oil is one of the edible oil which is abundant in tropical countries and has properties like diesel. To this end, performance and emission parameters of diesel-coconut oil blends were reported in the current study. The results were drawn at different load steps of engine operation with 10% and 20% of coconut oil linearly blended with diesel. From the results, it was evident that coconut oil can be successfully replaced up to 20% of diesel without hampering the performance-emission characteristics of the existing diesel engine.

Keywords: coconut oil, alternative fuel, emissions, dual-fuel

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6671 Numerical Investigation of the Electromagnetic Common Rail Injector Characteristics

Authors: Rafal Sochaczewski, Ksenia Siadkowska, Tytus Tulwin


The paper describes the modeling of a fuel injector for common rail systems. A one-dimensional model of a solenoid-valve-controlled injector with Valve Closes Orifice (VCO) spray was modelled in the AVL Hydsim. This model shows the dynamic phenomena that occur in the injector. The accuracy of the calibration, based on a regulation of the parameters of the control valve and the nozzle needle lift, was verified by comparing the numerical results of injector flow rate. Our model is capable of a precise simulation of injector operating parameters in relation to injection time and fuel pressure in a fuel rail. As a result, there were made characteristics of the injector flow rate and backflow.

Keywords: common rail, diesel engine, fuel injector, modeling

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6670 Investigation on the Performance and Emission Characteristics of Biodiesel (Animal Oil): Ethanol Blends in a Single Cylinder Diesel Engine

Authors: A. Veeresh Babu, M. Vijay Kumar, P. Ravi Kumar, Katam Ganesh Babu


Biodiesel can be considered as a potential alternative fuel for compression ignition engines. These can be obtained from various resources. However, the usage of biodiesel in high percentage in compression ignition may cause some technical problems because of their higher viscosity, high pour point, and low volatility. Ethanol can be used as a fuel extender to enable use of higher percentage of biodiesel in CI engine. Blends of ethanol-animal fat oil biodiesel-diesel have been prepared and experimental study has been carried out. We have found that B40E20 fuel blend (40% biodiesel and 20 % ethanol in diesel) reduces the specific fuel consumption and improves brake thermal efficiency of engine compared to B40 fuel blend. We observed that fuel characteristics improved considerably with addition of ethanol to biodiesel. Emissions of CO, HC and smoke were reduced while CO2 emissions were increased because of more complete combustion of the blend.

Keywords: diesel, biodiesel, ethanol, CI engine, engine performance, exhaust emission

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6669 Performance and Combustion Characteristics of a DI Diesel Engine Fueled with Jatropha Methyl Esters and its Blends

Authors: Ajay V. Kolhe, R. E. Shelke, S. S. Khandare


This study discusses the performance and combustion characteristics of a direct injection diesel engine fueled with Jatropha methyl ester (JME). In order to determine the performance and combustion characteristics, the experiments were conducted at the constant speed mode (1500rpm) under the full load condition of the engine on single cylinder 4-stroke CI engine. The result indicated that when the test engine was fuelled with JME, the engine performance slightly weakened, the combustion characteristics slightly changed when compared to petroleum based diesel fuel. The biodiesel caused reduction in carbon monoxide (CO), unburned hydrocarbon (HC) emissions, but they caused to increases in nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions. The useful brake power obtained is similar to diesel fuel for all loads. Oxygen content in the exhaust is more with JME blend due to the reason that fuel itself contains oxygen. JME as a new Biodiesel and its blends can be used in diesel engines without any engine modification.

Keywords: biodiesel, combustion, CI engine, jatropha curcas oil, performance and emission

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6668 The Study of Tire Pyrolysis Fuel in CI Diesel Engine for Spray Combustion Character and Performance

Authors: Chun Pao Kuo, Chi Tong Lin


The study explored atomization characteristics of tire pyrolysis fuel and its impacts on using three types of fuel: diesel oil mixed with 10% of tire pyrolysis fuel (called T10), diesel oil mixed with 20% tire pyrolysis (called T20), and consumer-grade diesel oil (D100). The investigators used the fuel for simulation and tests at various fuel injection timing, engine speed, and fuel injection speed to inspect impacts from fuel type on oil droplet atomization speed and output power. Actual vehicle tests were conducted using a 5-ton sedan (Hino) with 3660 cc displacement and a front-end inline four-cylinder diesel engine, and this type of vehicle is easily available from the market. A dynamometer was used to set up three engine speeds for the dynamometer testing at different injection timing and pressure. Next, an exhaust analyzer was used to measure exhaust pollution at different conditions to explore the effect of fuel types and injection speeds on output power in order to establish the best operation conditions for tire pyrolysis fuel.

Keywords: diesel engine, exhaust pollution, fuel injection timing, tire pyrolysis oil

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6667 An Experimental Comparative Study of SI Engine Performance and Emission Characteristics Fuelled with Various Gasoline-Alcohol Blends

Authors: M. Mourad, K. Abdelgawwad


This experimental investigation aimed to determine the influence of using different types of alcohol and gasoline blends such as ethanol - butanol - propanol on the performance of spark ignition engine. The experimental work studied the effect of various fuel blends such as ethanol – butanol/gasoline and propanol/gasoline with two rates of 15% and 20%, at different operating conditions (engine speed and loads), on engine performance emission characteristics. Laboratory experiments are carried out on a four-cylinder spark ignition (SI) engine. In this practical study, all considerations and precautions are taken into account to ensure the quality and accuracy of practical experiments and different measurements. The results show that the performance of the engine improved significantly in the case of ethanol/butanol-gasoline blends. The results also indicated that the engine emitted pollutants such as CO, hydrocarbon (HC) for alcohol fuel blends compared to base gasoline NOx emission increased for different fuel blends either ethanol/butanol-gasoline or propanol-gasoline fuel blend.

Keywords: gasoline engine, performance, emission, fuel blends

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6666 Simulation on Fuel Metering Unit Used for TurboShaft Engine Model

Authors: Bin Wang, Hengyu Ji, Zhifeng Ye


Fuel Metering Unit (FMU) in fuel system of an aeroengine sometimes has direct influence on the engine performance, which is neglected for the sake of easy access to mathematical model of the engine in most cases. In order to verify the influence of FMU on an engine model, this paper presents a co-simulation of a stepping motor driven FMU (digital FMU) in a turboshaft aeroengine, using AMESim and MATLAB to obtain the steady and dynamic characteristics of the FMU. For this method, mechanical and hydraulic section of the unit is modeled through AMESim, while the stepping motor is mathematically modeled through MATLAB/Simulink. Combining these two sub-models yields an AMESim/MATLAB co-model of the FMU. A simplified component level model for the turboshaft engine is established and connected with the FMU model. Simulation results on the full model show that the engine model considering FMU characteristics describes the engine more precisely especially in its transition state. An FMU dynamics will cut down the rotation speed of the high pressure shaft and the inlet pressure of the combustor during the step response. The work in this paper reveals the impact of FMU on engine operation characteristics and provides a reference to an engine model for ground tests.

Keywords: fuel metering unit, stepping motor, AMESim/Matlab, full digital simulation

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6665 An Evolutionary Algorithm for Optimal Fuel-Type Configurations in Car Lines

Authors: Charalampos Saridakis, Stelios Tsafarakis


Although environmental concern is on the rise across Europe, current market data indicate that adoption rates of environmentally friendly vehicles remain extremely low. Against this background, the aim of this paper is to a) assess preferences of European consumers for clean-fuel cars and their characteristics and b) design car lines that optimize the combination of fuel types among models in the line-up. In this direction, the authors introduce a new evolutionary mechanism and implement it to stated-preference data derived from a large-scale choice-based conjoint experiment that measures consumer preferences for various factors affecting clean-fuel vehicle (CFV) adoption. The proposed two-step methodology provides interesting insights into how new and existing fuel-types can be combined in a car line that maximizes customer satisfaction.

Keywords: clean-fuel vehicles, product line design, conjoint analysis, choice experiment, differential evolution

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6664 Reburning Characteristics of Biomass Syngas in a Pilot Scale Heavy Oil Furnace

Authors: Sang Heon Han, Daejun Chang, Won Yang


NOx reduction characteristics of syngas fuel were numerically investigated for the 2MW pilot scale heavy oil furnace of KITECH (Korea Institute of Industrial Technology). The secondary fuel and syngas was fed into the furnace with two purposes- partial replacement of main fuel and reburning of NOx. Some portion of syngas was fed into the flame zone to partially replace the heavy oil, while the other portion was fed into the furnace downstream to reduce NOx generation. The numerical prediction was verified by comparing it with the experimental results. Syngas of KITECH’s experiment, assumed to be produced from biomass, had very low calorific value and contained 3% hydrocarbon. This study investigated the precise behavior of NOx generation and NOx reduction as well as thermo-fluidic characteristics inside the furnace, which was unavailable with experiment. In addition to 3% hydrocarbon syngas, 5%, and 7% hydrocarbon syngas were numerically tested as reburning fuels to analyze the effect of hydrocarbon proportion to NOx reduction. The prediction showed that the 3% hydrocarbon syngas is as much effective as 7% hydrocarbon syngas in reducing NOx.

Keywords: syngas, reburning, heavy oil, furnace

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6663 Combustion Characteristics of Wet Woody Biomass in a Grate Furnace: Including Measurements within the Bed

Authors: Narges Razmjoo, Hamid Sefidari, Michael Strand


Biomass combustion is a growing technique for heat and power production due to the increasing stringent regulations with CO2 emissions. Grate-fired systems have been regarded as a common and popular combustion technology for burning woody biomass. However, some grate furnaces are not well optimized and may emit significant amount of unwanted compounds such as dust, NOx, CO, and unburned gaseous components. The combustion characteristics inside the fuel bed are of practical interest, as they are directly related to the release of volatiles and affect the stability and the efficiency of the fuel bed combustion. Although numerous studies have been presented on the grate firing of biomass, to the author’s knowledge, none of them have conducted a detailed experimental study within the fuel bed. It is difficult to conduct measurements of temperature and gas species inside the burning bed of the fuel in full-scale boilers. Results from such inside bed measurements can also be applied by the numerical experts for modeling the fuel bed combustion. The current work presents an experimental investigation into the combustion behavior of wet woody biomass (53 %) in a 4 MW reciprocating grate boiler, by focusing on the gas species distribution along the height of the fuel bed. The local concentrations of gases (CO, CO2, CH4, NO, and O2) inside the fuel bed were measured through a glass port situated on the side wall of the furnace. The measurements were carried out at five different heights of the fuel bed, by means of a bent stainless steel probe containing a type-k thermocouple. The sample gas extracted from the fuel bed, through the probe, was filtered and dried and then was analyzed using two infrared spectrometers. Temperatures of about 200-1100 °C were measured close to the grate, indicating that char combustion is occurring at the bottom of the fuel bed and propagates upward. The CO and CO2 concentration varied in the range of 15-35 vol % and 3-16 vol %, respectively, and NO concentration varied between 10-140 ppm. The profile of the gas concentrations distribution along the bed height provided a good overview of the combustion sub-processes in the fuel bed.

Keywords: experimental, fuel bed, grate firing, wood combustion

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6662 Technical and Environmental Improvement of LNG Carrier's Propulsion Machinery by Using Jatropha Biao Diesel Fuel

Authors: E. H. Hegazy, M. A. Mosaad, A. A. Tawfik, A. A. Hassan, M. Abbas


The rapid depletion of petroleum reserves and rising oil prices has led to the search for alternative fuels. A promising alternative fuel Jatropha Methyl Easter, JME, has drawn the attention of researchers in recent times as a high potential substrate for production of biodiesel fuel. In this paper, the combustion, performance and emission characteristics of a single cylinder diesel engine when fuelled with JME, diesel oil and natural gas are evaluated experimentally and theoretically. The experimental results showed that the thermal and volumetric efficiency of diesel engine is higher than Jatropha biodiesel engine. The specific fuel consumption, exhaust gas temperature, HC, CO2 and NO were comparatively higher in Jatropha biodiesel, while CO emission is appreciable decreased. CFD investigation was carried out in the present work to compare diesel fuel oil and JME. The CFD simulation offers a powerful and convenient way to help understanding physical and chemical processes involved internal combustion engines for diesel oil fuel and JME fuel. The CFD concluded that the deviation between diesel fuel pressure and JME not exceeds 3 bar and the trend for compression pressure almost the same, also the temperature deviation between diesel fuel and JME not exceeds 40 k and the trend for temperature almost the same. Finally the maximum heat release rate of JME is lower than that of diesel fuel. The experimental and CFD investigation indicated that the Jatropha biodiesel can be used instead of diesel fuel oil with safe engine operation.

Keywords: dual fuel diesel engine, natural gas, Jatropha Methyl Easter, volumetric efficiency, emissions, CFD

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6661 Structure of Turbulence Flow in the Wire-Wrappes Fuel Assemblies of BREST-OD-300

Authors: Dmitry V. Fomichev, Vladimir I. Solonin


In this paper, experimental and numerical study of hydrodynamic characteristics of the air coolant flow in the test wire-wrapped assembly is presented. The test assembly has 37 rods, which are similar to the real fuel pins of the BREST-OD-300 fuel assemblies geometrically. Air open loop test facility installed at the “Nuclear Power Plants and Installations” department of BMSTU was used to obtain the experimental data. The obtaining altitudinal distribution of static pressure in the near-wall test assembly as well as velocity and temperature distribution of coolant flow in the test sections can give us some new knowledge about the mechanism of formation of the turbulence flow structure in the wire wrapped fuel assemblies. Numerical simulations of the turbulence flow has been accomplished using ANSYS Fluent 14.5. Different non-local turbulence models have been considered, such as standard and RNG k-e models and k-w SST model. Results of numerical simulations of the flow based on the considered turbulence models give the best agreement with the experimental data and help us to carry out strong analysis of flow characteristics.

Keywords: wire-spaces fuel assembly, turbulent flow structure, computation fluid dynamics

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6660 Short Term Tests on Performance Evaluation of Water-Washed and Dry-Washed Biodiesel from Used Cooking Oil

Authors: Shumani Ramuhaheli, Christopher C. Enweremadu, Hilary L. Rutto


In this study, biodiesel from used cooking oil was produced as purified by washing with water (water wash) and amberlite (dry wash). The work presents the results of short term tests on performance characteristics of diesel engine using both biodiesel-fuel samples. In this investigation, the water wash biodiesel and dry wash biodiesel and diesel were compared for performance using a four-cylinder diesel engine. The torque, brake power, specific fuel consumption and brake thermal efficiency were analyzed. The tests showed that in all cases, dry wash biodiesel performed marginally poorer compared to water wash biodiesel. Except for brake thermal efficiency, diesel fuel had better engine performance characteristics compared to the biodiesel-fuel samples. According to these results, dry washing of biodiesel has a marginal effect on engine performance.

Keywords: biodiesel, engine performance, used cooking oil, water wash, dry wash

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6659 Characterization of Forest Fire Fuel in Shivalik Himalayas Using Hyperspectral Remote Sensing

Authors: Neha Devi, P. K. Joshi


Fire fuel map is one of the most critical factors for planning and managing the fire hazard and risk. One of the most significant forms of global disturbance, impacting community dynamics, biogeochemical cycles and local and regional climate across a wide range of ecosystems ranging from boreal forests to tropical rainforest is wildfire Assessment of fire danger is a function of forest type, fuelwood stock volume, moisture content, degree of senescence and fire management strategy adopted in the ground. Remote sensing has potential of reduction the uncertainty in mapping fuels. Hyperspectral remote sensing is emerging to be a very promising technology for wildfire fuels characterization. Fine spectral information also facilitates mapping of biophysical and chemical information that is directly related to the quality of forest fire fuels including above ground live biomass, canopy moisture, etc. We used Hyperion imagery acquired in February, 2016 and analysed four fuel characteristics using Hyperion sensor data on-board EO-1 satellite, acquired over the Shiwalik Himalayas covering the area of Champawat, Uttarakhand state. The main objective of this study was to present an overview of methodologies for mapping fuel properties using hyperspectral remote sensing data. Fuel characteristics analysed include fuel biomass, fuel moisture, and fuel condition and fuel type. Fuel moisture and fuel biomass were assessed through the expression of the liquid water bands. Fuel condition and type was assessed using green vegetation, non-photosynthetic vegetation and soil as Endmember for spectral mixture analysis. Linear Spectral Unmixing, a partial spectral unmixing algorithm, was used to identify the spectral abundance of green vegetation, non-photosynthetic vegetation and soil.

Keywords: forest fire fuel, Hyperion, hyperspectral, linear spectral unmixing, spectral mixture analysis

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6658 A CFD Analysis of Hydraulic Characteristics of the Rod Bundles in the BREST-OD-300 Wire-Spaced Fuel Assemblies

Authors: Dmitry V. Fomichev, Vladimir V. Solonin


This paper presents the findings from a numerical simulation of the flow in 37-rod fuel assembly models spaced by a double-wire trapezoidal wrapping as applied to the BREST-OD-300 experimental nuclear reactor. Data on a high static pressure distribution within the models, and equations for determining the fuel bundle flow friction factors have been obtained. Recommendations are provided on using the closing turbulence models available in the ANSYS Fluent. A comparative analysis has been performed against the existing empirical equations for determining the flow friction factors. The calculated and experimental data fit has been shown. An analysis into the experimental data and results of the numerical simulation of the BREST-OD-300 fuel rod assembly hydrodynamic performance are presented.

Keywords: BREST-OD-300, ware-spaces, fuel assembly, computation fluid dynamics

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6657 Motorist Driving Strategy-Related Factors Affecting Vehicle Fuel Efficiency

Authors: Aydin Azizi, Abdurrahman Tanira


With the onset of climate change and limited fuel resources, improving fuel efficiency has become an important part of the motor industry. To maximize fuel efficiency, development of technologies must come hand-in-hand with awareness of efficient driving strategies. This study aims to explore the various driving habits that can impact fuel efficiency by reviewing available literature. Such habits include sudden and unnecessary acceleration or deceleration, improper hardware maintenance, driving above or below optimum speed and idling. By studying such habits and ultimately applying it to driving techniques, in combination with improved mechanics of the car, will optimize the use of fuel.

Keywords: fuel efficiency, driving techniques, optimum speed, optimizing fuel consumption

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6656 Failure Analysis of the Gasoline Engines Injection System

Authors: Jozef Jurcik, Miroslav Gutten, Milan Sebok, Daniel Korenciak, Jerzy Roj


The paper presents the research results of electronic fuel injection system, which can be used for diagnostics of automotive systems. In the paper is described the construction and operation of a typical fuel injection system and analyzed its electronic part. It has also been proposed method for the detection of the injector malfunction, based on the analysis of differential current or voltage characteristics. In order to detect the fault state, it is needed to use self-learning process, by the use of an appropriate self-learning algorithm.

Keywords: electronic fuel injector, diagnostics, measurement, testing device

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6655 Ultra-Low NOx Combustion Technology of Liquid Fuel Burner

Authors: Sewon Kim, Changyeop Lee


A new concept of in-furnace partial oxidation combustion is successfully applied in this research. The burner is designed such that liquid fuel is prevaporized in the furnace then injected into a fuel rich combustion zone so that a partial oxidation reaction occurs. The effects of equivalence ratio, thermal load, injection distance and fuel distribution ratio on the NOx and CO are experimentally investigated. This newly developed burner showed very low NOx emission level, about 15 ppm when light oil is used as a fuel.

Keywords: burner, low NOx, liquid fuel, partial oxidation

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6654 Study on NOₓ Emission Characteristics of Internal Gas Recirculation Technique

Authors: DaeHae Kim, MinJun Kwon, Sewon Kim


This study is aimed to develop ultra-low NOₓ burner using the internal recirculation of flue gas inside the combustion chamber that utilizes the momentum of intake fuel and air. Detailed experimental investigations are carried out to study these fluid dynamic effects on the emission characteristics of newly developed burner in industrial steam boiler system. Experimental parameters are distance of Venturi tube from burner, Coanda nozzle gap distance, and air sleeve length at various fuel/air ratio and thermal heat load conditions. The results showed that NOₓ concentration decreases as the distance of Venturi tube from burner increases. The CO concentration values at all operating conditions were negligible. In addition, the increase of the Coanda nozzle gap distance decreased the NOₓ concentration. It is experimentally found out that both fuel injection recirculation and air injection recirculation technique was very effective in reducing NOₓ formation.

Keywords: Coanda effect, combustion, burner, low NOₓ

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6653 Isolation and Characterization of an Ethanol Resistant Bacterium from Sap of Saccharum officinarum for Efficient Fermentation

Authors: Rukshika S Hewawasam, Sisira K. Weliwegamage, Sanath Rajapakse, Subramanium Sotheeswaran


Bio fuel is one of the emerging industries around the world due to arise of crisis in petroleum fuel. Fermentation is a cost effective and eco-friendly process in production of bio-fuel. So inventions in microbes, substrates, technologies in fermentation cause new modifications in fermentation. One major problem in microbial ethanol fermentation is the low resistance of conventional microorganisms to the high ethanol concentrations, which ultimately lead to decrease in the efficiency of the process. In the present investigation, an ethanol resistant bacterium was isolated from sap of Saccharum officinarum (sugar cane). The optimal cultural conditions such as pH, temperature, incubation period, and microbiological characteristics, morphological characteristics, biochemical characteristics, ethanol tolerance, sugar tolerance, growth curve assay were investigated. Isolated microorganism was tolerated to 18% (V/V) of ethanol concentration in the medium and 40% (V/V) glucose concentration in the medium. Biochemical characteristics have revealed as Gram negative, non-motile, negative for Indole test ,Methyl Red test, Voges- Proskauer`s test, Citrate Utilization test, and Urease test. Positive results for Oxidase test was shown by isolated bacterium. Sucrose, Glucose, Fructose, Maltose, Dextrose, Arabinose, Raffinose, Lactose, and Sachcharose can be utilized by this particular bacterium. It is a significant feature in effective fermentation. The fermentation process was carried out in glucose medium under optimum conditions; pH 4, temperature 30˚C, and incubated for 72 hours. Maximum ethanol production was recorded as 12.0±0.6% (V/V). Methanol was not detected in the final product of the fermentation process. This bacterium is especially useful in bio-fuel production due to high ethanol tolerance of this microorganism; it can be used to enhance the fermentation process over conventional microorganisms. Investigations are currently conducted on establishing the identity of the bacterium

Keywords: bacterium, bio-fuel, ethanol tolerance, fermentation

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6652 A Review of Ethanol-Diesel Blend as a Fuel in Compression-Ignition Engine

Authors: Ibrahim Yahuza, Habou Dandakouta


The use of ethanol blended with diesel is receiving more attention by many researchers in the recent time. It was shown that ethanol–diesel blends were technically acceptable for existing diesel engines. Ethanol, as an attractive alternative fuel, is a renewable bio-based resource and it is oxygenated, thereby providing the potential to reduce particulate emissions in compression–ignition engines. In this review, the properties and specifications of ethanol blended with diesel fuel are discussed. Special emphasis is placed on the factors critical to the potential commercial use of these blends. These factors include blend properties such as stability, viscosity and lubricity, safety and materials compatibility. The effect of the fuel on engine performance, durability and emissions is also considered. The formulation of additives to correct certain key properties and maintain blend stability is suggested as a critical factor in ensuring fuel compatibility with engines. However, maintaining vehicle safety with these blends may require special materials and modification of the fuel tank design. Further work is required in specifying acceptable fuel characteristics, confirming the long-term effects on engine durability, and ensuring safety in handling and storing ethanol–diesel blends.

Keywords: ethanol, renewable, blend, bio-fuel, diesel engines

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6651 Reliability Analysis of a Fuel Supply System in Automobile Engine

Authors: Chitaranjan Sharma


The present paper deals with the analysis of a fuel supply system in an automobile engine of a four wheeler which is having both the option of fuel i.e. PETROL and CNG. Since CNG is cheaper than petrol so the priority is given to consume CNG as compared to petrol. An automatic switch is used to start petrol supply at the time of failure of CNG supply. Using regenerative point technique with Markov renewal process, the reliability characteristics which are useful to system designers are obtained.

Keywords: reliability, redundancy, repair time, transition, probability, regenerative points, markov renewal, process

Procedia PDF Downloads 417