Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6739

Search results for: water wash

6739 Short Term Tests on Performance Evaluation of Water-Washed and Dry-Washed Biodiesel from Used Cooking Oil

Authors: Shumani Ramuhaheli, Christopher C. Enweremadu, Hilary L. Rutto

Abstract:

In this study, biodiesel from used cooking oil was produced as purified by washing with water (water wash) and amberlite (dry wash). The work presents the results of short term tests on performance characteristics of diesel engine using both biodiesel-fuel samples. In this investigation, the water wash biodiesel and dry wash biodiesel and diesel were compared for performance using a four-cylinder diesel engine. The torque, brake power, specific fuel consumption and brake thermal efficiency were analyzed. The tests showed that in all cases, dry wash biodiesel performed marginally poorer compared to water wash biodiesel. Except for brake thermal efficiency, diesel fuel had better engine performance characteristics compared to the biodiesel-fuel samples. According to these results, dry washing of biodiesel has a marginal effect on engine performance.

Keywords: biodiesel, engine performance, used cooking oil, water wash, dry wash

Procedia PDF Downloads 251
6738 Impact of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Interventions on Water Quality in Primary Schools of Pakistan

Authors: Jamil Ahmed, Li P. Wong, Yan P. Chua

Abstract:

The United Nation's sustainable development goals include the target to ensure access to water and sanitation for all; however, very few studies have assessed school-based drinking water in Pakistan. The purpose of this study was to characterize water quality in primary schools of Pakistan and to characterize how recent WASH interventions were associated with school water quality. We conducted a representative cross-sectional study of primary schools in the Sindh province of Pakistan. We used structured observations and structured interviews to ascertain the school’s WASH conditions. Our primary exposures of interest were the implementation of previous WASH interventions in the school and the water source type. Outcomes of interest included water quality (measured by various chemical and microbiological indicators) and water availability at the school’s primary drinking water source. We used log-binomial regression to characterize how WASH exposures were associated with water quality outcomes. We collected data from 256 schools. Groundwater was the primary drinking water source at most schools (87%). Water testing showed that 14% of the school’s water had arsenic above the WHO recommendations, and over 50% of the water samples exceeded recommendations for both lead and cadmium. A majority of the water sources (52%) had fecal coliform contamination. None of the schools had nitrate contamination (0%), and few had fluoride contamination (5%). Regression results indicated that having a recent WASH intervention at the school was not associated with either arsenic contamination (prevalence ratio=0.97; 95% CI: 0.46-2.1) or with fecal coliform contamination (PR=0.88; 95% CI: 0.67-1.17). Our assessment unveiled several water quality gaps that exist, including high heavy metal and fecal contamination. Our findings will help various stakeholders to take suitable action to improve water quality in Pakistani schools.

Keywords: WASH interventions, water quality, primary school children, heavy metals

Procedia PDF Downloads 16
6737 Efficient Reduction of Organophosphate Pesticide from Fruits and Vegetables Using Cost Effective Neutralizer

Authors: Debjani Dasgupta, Aman Zalawadia, Anuj Thapa, Pranjali Sing, Ashish Dabade

Abstract:

Organophosphate group pesticides are common pesticide group, which gain entry into food product due to incomplete removal of pesticide residues. The current food industry raw material handling process is not sufficient to eliminate pesticide residues. A neutralizer was used to neutralize the residues of pesticide on Vitis vinifera (Grapes). The water based dilution of neutralizer was demonstrated on fruits like grapes. Analysis for pesticides in water wash and neutralizer wash was carried out using GCMS. Fruits washed with neutralizer exhibited 72.95% removal of pesticides compared with normal water wash method. An economical chemical neutralizer can be used to remove such residues in raw material handling at industrial scale with minor modification in process to achieve minimum pesticide entry into final food products.

Keywords: GCMS, organophosphate, raw material handling, Vitis vinifera, pesticide neutralizer

Procedia PDF Downloads 88
6736 Comparison of an Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket and an Anaerobic Filter for Treating Wheat Straw Wash Water

Authors: Syazwani Idrus, Charles Banks, Sonia Heaven

Abstract:

The effect of osmotic stress was carried out to determine the ability for biogas production in two types of digesters; anaerobic sludge blanket and anaerobic filters in treating wheat straw washed water. Two anaerobic filters (AF1 and 2) and two UASB reactors (U1 and 2) with working volumes of 1.5 L were employed at mesophilic temperatures (37°C). Digesters AF1 and two were seeded with an inoculum which had previously been fed on with a synthetic wastewater includingSodium Chloride and Potassium Chloride. Digesters U1 and two were seeded with 1 kg wet weight of granular sludge which had previously been treating paper mill effluent. During the first 48 days, all digesters were successfully acclimated with synthetic wastewater (SW) to organic loading rate (OLR) of 6 g COD l^-1 day-1. Specific methane production (SMP) of 0.333 l CH4 g-1 COD). The feed was then changed to wash water from a washing operation to reduce the salt content of wheat straw (wheat straw wash water, WSW) at the same OLR. SMP fell sharply in all reactors to less than 0.1 l CH4 g^-1 COD, with the AF affected more than the UASB. The OLR was reduced to 2.5 g COD l^-1 day^-1 to allow adaptation to WSW, and both the UASB and the AF reactors achieved an SMP of 0.21 l CH4 g^-1 COD added at 82% of COD removal. This study also revealed the accumulation of potassium (K) inside the UASB granules to a concentration of 4.5 mg K g^-1 wet weight of granular sludge. The phenomenon of lower SMP and accumulation of K indicates the effect of osmotic stress when fed on WSW. This finding is consistent with the theory that methanogenic organisms operate a Potassium pump to maintain ionic equilibrium, and as this is an energy-driven process, it will, therefore, reduce the overall methane yield.

Keywords: wheat straw wash water, upflow anaerobic sludge blanket, anaerobic filter, specific methane production, osmotic stress

Procedia PDF Downloads 258
6735 Wash Fastness of Textile Fibers Dyed with Natural Dye from Eucalyptus Wood Steaming Waste

Authors: Ticiane Rossi, Maurício C. Araújo, José O. Brito, Harold S. Freeman

Abstract:

Natural dyes are gaining interest due their expected low risk to human health and to the environment. In this study, the wash fastness of a natural coloring matter from the liquid waste produced in the steam treatment of eucalyptus wood in textile fabrics was investigated. Specifically, eucalyptus wood extract was used to dye cotton, nylon and wool in an exhaust dyeing process without the addition of the traditional mordanting agents and then submitted to wash fastness analysis. The resulting dyed fabrics were evaluated for color fastness. It was found that wash fastness of dyed fabrics was very good to cotton and excellent to nylon and wool.

Keywords: eucalyptus, natural dye, textile fibers, wash fastness

Procedia PDF Downloads 462
6734 Disconnect between Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Related Behaviours of Children in School and Family

Authors: Rehan Mohammad

Abstract:

Background: Improved Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) practices in schools ensure children’s health, well-being and cognitive performance. In India under various WASH interventions in schools, teachers, and other staff make every possible effort to educate children about personal hygiene, sanitation practices and harms of open defecation. However, once children get back to their families, they see other practicing inappropriate WASH behaviors, and they consequently start following them. This show disconnect between school behavior and family behavior, which needs to be bridged to achieve desired WASH outcomes. Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study is to assess the factors causing disconnect of WASH-related behaviors between school and the family of children. It also suggests behavior change interventions to bridge the gap. Methodology: The present study has chosen a mixed- method approach. Both quantitative and qualitative methods of data collection have been used in the present study. The purposive sampling for data collection has been chosen. The data have been collected from 20% children in each age group of 04-08 years and 09-12 years spread over three primary schools and 20% of households to which they belong to which is spread over three slum communities in south district of Delhi. Results: The present study shows that despite of several behavior change interventions at school level, children still practice inappropriate WASH behaviors due to disconnect between school and family behaviors. These behaviors show variation from one age group to another. The inappropriate WASH behaviors being practiced by children include open defecation, wrong disposal of garbage, not keeping personal hygiene, not practicing hand washing practices during critical junctures and not washing fruits and vegetables before eating. The present study has highlighted that 80% of children in the age group of 04-08 years still practice inappropriate WASH behaviors when they go back to their families after school whereas, this percentage has reduced to 40% in case of children in the age group 09-12 years. Present study uncovers association between school and family teaching which creates a huge gap between WASH-related behavioral practices. The study has established that children learn and de-learn the WASH behaviors due to the evident disconnect between behavior change interventions at schools and household level. The study has also made it clear that children understand the significance of appropriate WASH practices but owing to the disconnect the behaviors remain unsettled. The study proposes several behavior change interventions to sync the behaviors of children at school and family level to ensure children’s health, well-being and cognitive performance.

Keywords: behavioral interventions, child health, family behavior, school behavior, WASH

Procedia PDF Downloads 28
6733 The Effects of Applying Wash and Green-A Syrups as Substitution of Sugar on Dough and Cake Properties

Authors: Banafsheh Aghamohammadi, Masoud Honarvar, Babak Ghiassi Tarzi

Abstract:

Usage of different components has been considered to improve the quality and nutritional properties of cakes in recent years. The effects of applying some sweeteners, instead of sugar, have been evaluated in cakes and many bread formulas up to now; but there has not been any research about the usage of by-products of sugar factories such as Wash and Green-A Syrups in cake formulas. In this research, the effects of substituting 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of sugar with Wash and Green-A Syrups on some dough and cake properties, such as pH, viscosity, density, volume, weight loss, moisture, water activity, texture, staling, color and sensory evaluations, are studied. The results of these experiments showed that the pH values were not significantly different among any of the all cake batters and also most of the cake samples. Although differences among viscosity and specific gravity of all treatments were both significant and insignificant, these two parameters resulted in higher volume in all samples than the blank one. The differences in weight loss, moisture content and water activity of samples were insignificant. Evaluating of texture showed that the softness of most of samples is increased and the staling is decreased. Crumb color and sensory evaluations of samples were also affected by the replacement of sucrose with Wash and Green-A Syrups. According to the results, we can increase the shelf life and improve the quality and nutritional values of cake by using these kinds of syrups in the formulation.

Keywords: cake, green-A syrup, quality tests, sensory evaluation, wash syrup

Procedia PDF Downloads 87
6732 Training During Emergency Response to Build Resiliency in Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene

Authors: Lee Boudreau, Ash Kumar Khaitu, Laura A. S. MacDonald

Abstract:

In April 2015, a magnitude 7.8 earthquake struck Nepal, killing, injuring, and displacing thousands of people. The earthquake also damaged water and sanitation service networks, leading to a high risk of diarrheal disease and the associated negative health impacts. In response to the disaster, the Environment and Public Health Organization (ENPHO), a Kathmandu-based non-governmental organization, worked with the Centre for Affordable Water and Sanitation Technology (CAWST), a Canadian education, training and consulting organization, to develop two training programs to educate volunteers on water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) needs. The first training program was intended for acute response, with the second focusing on longer term recovery. A key focus was to equip the volunteers with the knowledge and skills to formulate useful WASH advice in the unanticipated circumstances they would encounter when working in affected areas. Within the first two weeks of the disaster, a two-day acute response training was developed, which focused on enabling volunteers to educate those affected by the disaster about local WASH issues, their link to health, and their increased importance immediately following emergency situations. Between March and October 2015, a total of 19 training events took place, with over 470 volunteers trained. The trained volunteers distributed hygiene kits and liquid chlorine for household water treatment. They also facilitated health messaging and WASH awareness activities in affected communities. A three-day recovery phase training was also developed and has been delivered to volunteers in Nepal since October 2015. This training focused on WASH issues during the recovery and reconstruction phases. The interventions and recommendations in the recovery phase training focus on long-term WASH solutions, and so form a link between emergency relief strategies and long-term development goals. ENPHO has trained 226 volunteers during the recovery phase, with training ongoing as of April 2016. In the aftermath of the earthquake, ENPHO found that its existing pool of volunteers were more than willing to help those in their communities who were more in need. By training these and new volunteers, ENPHO was able to reach many more communities in the immediate aftermath of the disaster; together they reached 11 of the 14 earthquake-affected districts. The collaboration between ENPHO and CAWST in developing the training materials was a highly collaborative and iterative process, which enabled the training materials to be developed within a short response time. By training volunteers on basic WASH topics during both the immediate response and the recovery phase, ENPHO and CAWST have been able to link immediate emergency relief to long-term developmental goals. While the recovery phase training continues in Nepal, CAWST is planning to decontextualize the training used in both phases so that it can be applied to other emergency situations in the future. The training materials will become part of the open content materials available on CAWST’s WASH Resources website.

Keywords: water and sanitation, emergency response, education and training, building resilience

Procedia PDF Downloads 212
6731 A Practical Methodology for Evaluating Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Education and Training Programs

Authors: Brittany E. Coff, Tommy K. K. Ngai, Laura A. S. MacDonald

Abstract:

Many organizations in the Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) sector provide education and training in order to increase the effectiveness of their WASH interventions. A key challenge for these organizations is measuring how well their education and training activities contribute to WASH improvements. It is crucial for implementers to understand the returns of their education and training activities so that they can improve and make better progress toward the desired outcomes. This paper presents information on CAWST’s development and piloting of the evaluation methodology. The Centre for Affordable Water and Sanitation Technology (CAWST) has developed a methodology for evaluating education and training activities, so that organizations can understand the effectiveness of their WASH activities and improve accordingly. CAWST developed this methodology through a series of research partnerships, followed by staged field pilots in Nepal, Peru, Ethiopia and Haiti. During the research partnerships, CAWST collaborated with universities in the UK and Canada to: review a range of available evaluation frameworks, investigate existing practices for evaluating education activities, and develop a draft methodology for evaluating education programs. The draft methodology was then piloted in three separate studies to evaluate CAWST’s, and CAWST’s partner’s, WASH education programs. Each of the pilot studies evaluated education programs in different locations, with different objectives, and at different times within the project cycles. The evaluations in Nepal and Peru were conducted in 2013 and investigated the outcomes and impacts of CAWST’s WASH education services in those countries over the past 5-10 years. In 2014, the methodology was applied to complete a rigorous evaluation of a 3-day WASH Awareness training program in Ethiopia, one year after the training had occurred. In 2015, the methodology was applied in Haiti to complete a rapid assessment of a Community Health Promotion program, which informed the development of an improved training program. After each pilot evaluation, the methodology was reviewed and improvements were made. A key concept within the methodology is that in order for training activities to lead to improved WASH practices at the community level, it is not enough for participants to acquire new knowledge and skills; they must also apply the new skills and influence the behavior of others following the training. The steps of the methodology include: development of a Theory of Change for the education program, application of the Kirkpatrick model to develop indicators, development of data collection tools, data collection, data analysis and interpretation, and use of the findings for improvement. The methodology was applied in different ways for each pilot and was found to be practical to apply and adapt to meet the needs of each case. It was useful in gathering specific information on the outcomes of the education and training activities, and in developing recommendations for program improvement. Based on the results of the pilot studies, CAWST is developing a set of support materials to enable other WASH implementers to apply the methodology. By using this methodology, more WASH organizations will be able to understand the outcomes and impacts of their training activities, leading to higher quality education programs and improved WASH outcomes.

Keywords: education and training, capacity building, evaluation, water and sanitation

Procedia PDF Downloads 201
6730 An Online Space for Practitioners in the Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Sector

Authors: Olivier Mills, Bernard McDonell, Laura A. S. MacDonald

Abstract:

The increasing availability and quality of internet access throughout the developing world provides an opportunity to utilize online spaces to disseminate water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) knowledge to practitioners. Since 2001, CAWST has provided in-person education, training and consulting services to thousands of WASH practitioners all over the world, supporting them to start, troubleshoot, improve and expand their WASH projects. As CAWST continues to grow, the organization faces challenges in meeting demand from clients and in providing consistent, timely technical support. In 2012, CAWST began utilizing online spaces to expand its reach by developing a series of resources websites and webinars. CAWST has developed a WASH Education and Training resources website, a Biosand Filter (BSF) Knowledge Base, a Household Water Treatment and Safe Storage Knowledge Base, a mobile app for offline users, a live chat support tool, a WASH e-library, and a series of webinar-style online training sessions to complement its in-person capacity development services. In order to determine the preliminary outcomes of providing these online services, CAWST has monitored and analyzed registration to the online spaces, downloads of the educational materials, and webinar attendance; as well as conducted user surveys. The purpose of this analysis was to find out who was using the online spaces, where users came from, and how the resources were being used. CAWST’s WASH Resources website has served over 5,800 registered users from 3,000 organizations in 183 countries. Additionally, the BSF Knowledge Base has served over 1000 registered users from 68 countries, and over 540 people from 73 countries have attended CAWST’s online training sessions. This indicates that the online spaces are effectively reaching a large numbers of users, from a range of countries. A 2016 survey of the Biosand Filter Knowledge Base showed that approximately 61% of users are practitioners, and 39% are either researchers or students. Of the respondents, 46% reported using the BSF Knowledge Base to initiate a BSF project and 43% reported using the information to train BSF technicians. Finally, 61% indicated they would like even greater support from CAWST’s Technical Advisors going forward. The analysis has provided an encouraging indication that CAWST’s online spaces are contributing to its objective of engaging and supporting WASH practitioners to start, improve and expand their initiatives. CAWST has learned several lessons during the development of these online spaces, in particular related to the resources needed to create and maintain the spaces, and respond to the demand created. CAWST plans to continue expanding its online spaces, improving user experience of the sites, and involving new contributors and content types. Through the use of online spaces, CAWST has been able to increase its global reach and impact without significantly increasing its human resources by connecting WASH practitioners with the information they most need, in a practical and accessible manner. This paper presents on CAWST’s use of online spaces through the CAWST-developed platforms discussed above and the analysis of the use of these platforms.

Keywords: education and training, knowledge sharing, online resources, water and sanitation

Procedia PDF Downloads 172
6729 Optimizing Water Consumption of a Washer-Dryer Which Contains Water Condensation Technology under a Constraint of Energy Consumption and Drying Performance

Authors: Aysegul Sarac

Abstract:

Washer-dryers are the machines which can either wash the laundries or can dry them. In other words, we can define a washer-dryer as a washing machine and a dryer in one machine. Washing machines are characterized by the loading capacity, cabinet depth and spin speed. Dryers are characterized by the drying technology. On the other hand, energy efficiency, water consumption, and noise levels are main characteristics that influence customer decisions to buy washers. Water condensation technology is the most common drying technology existing in the washer-dryer market. Water condensation technology uses water to dry the laundry inside the machine. Thus, in this type of the drying technology water consumption is at high levels comparing other technologies. Water condensation technology sprays cold water in the drum to condense the humidity of hot weather in order to dry the laundry inside. Thus, water consumption influences the drying performance. The scope of this study is to optimize water consumption during drying process under a constraint of energy consumption and drying performance. We are using 6-Sigma methodology to find the optimum water consumption by comparing drying performances of different drying algorithms.

Keywords: optimization, 6-Sigma methodology, washer-dryers, water condensation technology

Procedia PDF Downloads 221
6728 Saving the Decolonized Subject from Neglected Tropical Diseases: Public Health Campaign and Household-Centred Sanitation in Colonial West Africa, 1900-1960

Authors: Adebisi David Alade

Abstract:

In pre-colonial West Africa, the deadliness of the climate vis-a- vis malaria and other tropical diseases to Europeans turned the region into the “white man’s grave.” Thus, immediately after the partition of Africa in 1885, civilisatrice and mise en valeur not only became a pretext for the establishment of colonial rule; from a medical point of view, the control and possible eradication of disease in the continent emerged as one of the first concerns of the European colonizers. Though geared toward making Africa exploitable, historical evidence suggests that some colonial Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) policies and projects reduced certain tropical diseases in some West African communities. Exploring some of these disease control interventions by way of historical revisionism, this paper challenges the orthodox interpretation of colonial sanitation and public health measures in West Africa. This paper critiques the deployment of race and class as analytical tools for the study of colonial WASH projects, an exercise which often reduces the complexity and ambiguity of colonialism to the binary of colonizer and the colonized. Since West Africa presently ranks high among regions with Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs), it is imperative to decentre colonial racism and economic exploitation in African history in order to give room for Africans to see themselves in other ways. Far from resolving the problem of NTDs by fiat in the region, this study seeks to highlight important blind spots in African colonial history in an attempt to prevent post-colonial African leaders from throwing away the baby with the bath water. As scholars researching colonial sanitation and public health in the continent rarely examine its complex meaning and content, this paper submits that the outright demonization of colonial rule across space and time continues to build ideological wall between the present and the past which not only inhibit fruitful borrowing from colonial administration of West Africa, but also prevents a wide understanding of the challenges of WASH policies and projects in most West African states.

Keywords: colonial rule, disease control, neglected tropical diseases, WASH

Procedia PDF Downloads 44
6727 Effect of Different Types of Washes on the Fabric Strength of Denim

Authors: Hina Gul Rajpoot, Wazeer Hussain Solangi

Abstract:

Experimental Design (DOE) economically maximizes information; we deliberately change one or more process variables (looms) in order to observe the effect the changes have on one or more response fabric properties. In DOE obtained data can be analyzed to yield valid and objective conclusions. An Experimental Design is lying out of a detailed experimental plan in advance and maximizes the amount of "information" that can be obtained for a given amount of experimental. Fabric of 36 inches having following weaves was used. 3/1 twill, warp cotton (10.5 den), weft Lycra (16 spandex * 70 den) Ends per inch86, Picks per inch 52 and washes process includes Stone wash, Rinse wash, Bleaching and Enzyme wash. Once the samples were ready, they were subjected to tensile and tear strength tests, for these two kinds of samples were considered. One washed fabric samples of warp direction type and other type of the samples was weft direction. Then five samples from each were considered for tensile and teat strength tests separately then takes the mean value. The results found that the lowest strength damaged in the weft direction observed by tensile strength test & Enzyme wash. Maximum breaking load of the enzyme washed fabric sample was 42 kg.

Keywords: twill, indigo dye, tear strength, loom, ball warp, denier or den, seam, waist band, pilling, selvage

Procedia PDF Downloads 142
6726 Multiparametric Optimization of Water Treatment Process for Thermal Power Plants

Authors: Balgaisha Mukanova, Natalya Glazyrina, Sergey Glazyrin

Abstract:

The formulated problem of optimization of the technological process of water treatment for thermal power plants is considered in this article. The problem is of multiparametric nature. To optimize the process, namely, reduce the amount of waste water, a new technology was developed to reuse such water. A mathematical model of the technology of wastewater reuse was developed. Optimization parameters were determined. The model consists of a material balance equation, an equation describing the kinetics of ion exchange for the non-equilibrium case and an equation for the ion exchange isotherm. The material balance equation includes a nonlinear term that depends on the kinetics of ion exchange. A direct problem of calculating the impurity concentration at the outlet of the water treatment plant was numerically solved. The direct problem was approximated by an implicit point-to-point computation difference scheme. The inverse problem was formulated as relates to determination of the parameters of the mathematical model of the water treatment plant operating in non-equilibrium conditions. The formulated inverse problem was solved. Following the results of calculation the time of start of the filter regeneration process was determined, as well as the period of regeneration process and the amount of regeneration and wash water. Multi-parameter optimization of water treatment process for thermal power plants allowed decreasing the amount of wastewater by 15%.

Keywords: direct problem, multiparametric optimization, optimization parameters, water treatment

Procedia PDF Downloads 234
6725 Low Temperature Biological Treatment of Chemical Oxygen Demand for Agricultural Water Reuse Application Using Robust Biocatalysts

Authors: Vedansh Gupta, Allyson Lutz, Ameen Razavi, Fatemeh Shirazi

Abstract:

The agriculture industry is especially vulnerable to forecasted water shortages. In the fresh and fresh-cut produce sector, conventional flume-based washing with recirculation exhibits high water demand. This leads to a large water footprint and possible cross-contamination of pathogens. These can be alleviated through advanced water reuse processes, such as membrane technologies including reverse osmosis (RO). Water reuse technologies effectively remove dissolved constituents but can easily foul without pre-treatment. Biological treatment is effective for the removal of organic compounds responsible for fouling, but not at the low temperatures encountered at most produce processing facilities. This study showed that the Microvi MicroNiche Engineering (MNE) technology effectively removes organic compounds (> 80%) at low temperatures (6-8 °C) from wash water. The MNE technology uses synthetic microorganism-material composites with negligible solids production, making it advantageously situated as an effective bio-pretreatment for RO. A preliminary technoeconomic analysis showed 60-80% savings in operation and maintenance costs (OPEX) when using the Microvi MNE technology for organics removal. This study and the accompanying economic analysis indicated that the proposed technology process will substantially reduce the cost barrier for adopting water reuse practices, thereby contributing to increased food safety and furthering sustainable water reuse processes across the agricultural industry.

Keywords: biological pre-treatment, innovative technology, vegetable processing, water reuse, agriculture, reverse osmosis, MNE biocatalysts

Procedia PDF Downloads 18
6724 Impact of Water Interventions under WASH Program in the South-west Coastal Region of Bangladesh

Authors: S. M. Ashikur Elahee, Md. Zahidur Rahman, Md. Shofiqur Rahman

Abstract:

This study evaluated the impact of different water interventions under WASH program on access of household's to safe drinking water. Following survey method, the study was carried out in two Upazila of South-west coastal region of Bangladesh namely Koyra from Khulna and Shymnagar from Satkhira district. Being an explanatory study, a total of 200 household's selected applying random sampling technique were interviewed using a structured interview schedule. The predicted probability suggests that around 62 percent household's are out of year-round access to safe drinking water whereby, only 25 percent household's have access at SPHERE standard (913 Liters/per person/per year). Besides, majority (78 percent) of the household's have not accessed at both indicators simultaneously. The distance from household residence to the water source varies from 0 to 25 kilometer with an average distance of 2.03 kilometers. The study also reveals that the increase in monthly income around BDT 1,000 leads to additional 11 liters (coefficient 0.01 at p < 0.1) consumption of safe drinking water for a person/year. As expected, lining up time has significant negative relationship with dependent variables i.e., for higher lining up time, the probability of getting access for both SPHERE standard and year round access variables becomes lower. According to ordinary least square (OLS) regression results, water consumption decreases at 93 liters for per person/year of a household if one member is added to that household. Regarding water consumption intensity, ordered logistic regression (OLR) model shows that one-minute increase of lining up time for water collection tends to reduce water consumption intensity. On the other hand, as per OLS regression results, for one-minute increase of lining up time, the water consumption decreases by around 8 liters. Considering access to Deep Tube Well (DTW) as a reference dummy, in OLR, the household under Pond Sand Filter (PSF), Shallow Tube Well (STW), Reverse Osmosis (RO) and Rainwater Harvester System (RWHS) are respectively 37 percent, 29 percent, 61 percent and 27 percent less likely to ensure year round access of water consumption. In line of health impact, different type of water born diseases like diarrhea, cholera, and typhoid are common among the coastal community caused by microbial impurities i.e., Bacteria, Protozoa. High turbidity and TDS in pond water caused by reduction of water depth, presence of suspended particle and inorganic salt stimulate the growth of bacteria, protozoa, and algae causes affecting health hazard. Meanwhile, excessive growth of Algae in pond water caused by excessive nitrate in drinking water adversely effects on child health. In lieu of ensuring access at SPHERE standard, we need to increase the number of water interventions at reasonable distance, preferably a half kilometer away from the dwelling place, ensuring community peoples involved with its installation process where collectively owned water intervention is found more effective than privately owned. In addition, a demand-responsive approach to supply of piped water should be adopted to allow consumer demand to guide investment in domestic water supply in future.

Keywords: access, impact, safe drinking water, Sphere standard, water interventions

Procedia PDF Downloads 115
6723 Plaque Removal Efficacy of Different Dental Care Products during Fixed Orthodontic Appliance Therapy

Authors: Zeynep Karakoc, Hasan Ilhan Mutaf

Abstract:

Plaque removal efficacy of different dental brushes and mouth wash during fixed orthodontic appliance therapy was evaluated in this single-blind, crossover and prospective study. Thirty orthodontic patients aged 18 and over undergoing fixed appliance therapy at the end of leveling stage were divided into three groups. Subjects brushed their teeth with a toothbrush under standardized conditions for a period of 30 days prior to inter-dental care products. The same procedure was repeated each time with a different, randomly assigned inter-dental care products in a crossover design. (Inter-dental brush, powered inter-dental brush and mouth wash). At start and end of each removal period, plaque indexes of participants were scored. Each brush achieved statistically significant plaque removal; however, there were no statistical differences among groups for all surfaces of teeth when the plaque score was evaluated. The mouth wash group presented significant improvement in reduction of visible plaque on mesial and distal surfaces of posterior teeth. (-60.9 %, P< .001) Plaque removal for right and left side of mouth showed no significant differences within groups, only mouth wash was more efficient in right side than left side. It is concluded that effectiveness of plaque removal may not be related to the kind of inter-dental products directly. However, toothbrush when used with inter-dental care products is significantly better at removing plaque deposits from fixed appliance patients.

Keywords: orthodontics, dental care, brush, plaque

Procedia PDF Downloads 139
6722 Baby Bed Sheets with a Nanofiber Membrane

Authors: Roman Knizek, Denisa Knizkova, Vladimir Bajzik

Abstract:

Nowadays there are countless kinds of bedsheets or mattress covers for little children which should stop any liquid getting into the mattress. It is quite easy to wash the cover of the mattress, but it is almost impossible to clean the body of a mattress which is made of latex foam, wool or synthetic materials. Children bedsheets or mattress covers are often made with plastic coating which is not steam or air permeable and therefore is not very hygienic. This is our goal: by laminating a nanofiber membrane to a suitable bedsheet textile material, we can create a bedsheet which is waterproof but at the same time steam permeable and also partially breathable, thanks to the membrane. For the same reason, nanofiber membranes are widely used in outdoor clothing. The comfort properties and durability of the new nano-membrane bedsheet were studied. The following comfort properties were investigated: steam permeability - measured in accordance with Standard ISO 11902 hydrostatic resistances - measured in accordance with Standard ISO 811 and air permeability - measured in accordance with Standard ISO 9237. The durability or more precisely the wash resistance of the nano-membrane bedsheet was also measured by submitting the sheet to 30 washing cycles. The result of our work is a children's bedsheet with a nano-membrane. The nano-membrane is made of polyurethane to keep maximum flexibility and elasticity which are essential for this product. The comfort properties of this new bedsheet are very good especially its steam permeability and hydrostatic resistance.

Keywords: bed sheet, hydrostatic resistance, nanofiber membrane, water vapour permeable

Procedia PDF Downloads 88
6721 Fairly Irrigation Water Distribution between Upstream and Downstream Water Users in Water Shortage Periods

Authors: S. M. Hashemy Shahdany

Abstract:

Equitable water delivery becomes one of the main concerns for water authorities in arid regions. Due to water scarcity, providing reliable amount of water is not possible for most of the irrigation districts in arid regions. In this paper, water level difference control is applied to keep the water level errors equal in adjacent reaches. Distant downstream decentralized configurations of the control method are designed and tested under a realistic scenario shows canal operation under water shortage. The simulation results show that the difference controllers share the water level error among all of the users in a fair way. Therefore, water deficit has a similar influence on downstream as well as upstream and water offtakes.

Keywords: equitable water distribution, precise agriculture, sustainable agriculture, water shortage

Procedia PDF Downloads 294
6720 Efficacy of Carvacrol as an Antimicrobial Wash Treatment for Reducing Both Campylobacter jejuni and Aerobic Bacterial Counts on Chicken Skin

Authors: Sandip Shrestha, Ann M. Donoghue, Komala Arsi, Basanta R. Wagle, Abhinav Upadhyay, Dan J. Donoghue

Abstract:

Campylobacter, one of the major cause of foodborne illness worldwide, is commonly present in the intestinal tract of poultry. Many strategies are currently being investigated to reduce Campylobacter counts on commercial poultry during processing with limited success. This study investigated the efficacy of the generally recognized as safe compound, carvacrol (CR), a component of wild oregano oil as a wash treatment for reducing C. jejuni and aerobic bacteria on chicken skin. A total of two trials were conducted, and in each trial, a total of 75 skin samples (4cm × 4cm each) were randomly allocated into 5 treatment groups (0%, 0.25%, 0.5%, 1% and 2% CR). Skin samples were inoculated with a cocktail of four wild strains of C. jejuni (~ 8 log10 CFU/skin). After 30 min of attachment, inoculated skin samples were dipped in the respective treatment solution for 1 min, allowed to drip dry for 2 min and processed at 0, 8, 24 h post treatment for enumeration of C. jejuni and aerobic bacterial counts (n=5/treatment/time point). The data were analyzed by ANOVA using PROC GLM procedure of SAS 9.3. All the tested doses of CR suspension consistently reduced C. jejuni counts across all time points. The 2% CR wash was the most effective treatment and reduced C. jejuni counts by ~4 log₁₀ CFU/sample (P < 0.05). Aerobic counts were reduced for the 0.5% CR dose at 0 and 24h in Trial 1 and at 0, 8 and 24h in Trial 2. The 1 and 2% CR doses consistently reduced aerobic counts in both trials up to 2 log₁₀ CFU/skin.

Keywords: Campylobacter jejuni, carvcrol, chicken skin, postharvest

Procedia PDF Downloads 39
6719 Backwash Optimization for Drinking Water Treatment Biological Filters

Authors: Sarra K. Ikhlef, Onita Basu

Abstract:

Natural organic matter (NOM) removal efficiency using drinking water treatment biological filters can be highly influenced by backwashing conditions. Backwashing has the ability to remove the accumulated biomass and particles in order to regenerate the biological filters' removal capacity and prevent excessive headloss buildup. A lab scale system consisting of 3 biological filters was used in this study to examine the implications of different backwash strategies on biological filtration performance. The backwash procedures were evaluated based on their impacts on dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removals, biological filters’ biomass, backwash water volume usage, and particle removal. Results showed that under nutrient limited conditions, the simultaneous use of air and water under collapse pulsing conditions lead to a DOC removal of 22% which was significantly higher (p>0.05) than the 12% removal observed under water only backwash conditions. Employing a bed expansion of 20% under nutrient supplemented conditions compared to a 30% reference bed expansion while using the same amount of water volume lead to similar DOC removals. On the other hand, utilizing a higher bed expansion (40%) lead to significantly lower DOC removals (23%). Also, a backwash strategy that reduced the backwash water volume usage by about 20% resulted in similar DOC removals observed with the reference backwash. The backwash procedures investigated in this study showed no consistent impact on biological filters' biomass concentrations as measured by the phospholipids and the adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP) methods. Moreover, none of these two analyses showed a direct correlation with DOC removal. On the other hand, dissolved oxygen (DO) uptake showed a direct correlation with DOC removals. The addition of the extended terminal subfluidization wash (ETSW) demonstrated no apparent impact on DOC removals. ETSW also successfully eliminated the filter ripening sequence (FRS). As a result, the additional water usage resulting from implementing ETSW was compensated by water savings after restart. Results from this study provide insight to researchers and water treatment utilities on how to better optimize the backwashing procedure for the goal of optimizing the overall biological filtration process.

Keywords: biological filtration, backwashing, collapse pulsing, ETSW

Procedia PDF Downloads 164
6718 Biochemical Evaluation of Air Conditioning West Water in Jeddah City: Concept of Sustainable Water Resources

Authors: D. Alromi, A. Alansari, S. Alghamdi, E. Jambi

Abstract:

As the need for water is increasing globally, and the available water resources are barely meeting the current quality of life and economy. Air conditioning (AC) condensate water could be explored as an alternative water source, which could be considered within the global calculations of the water supply. The objective of this study is to better understand the potential for recovery of condensate water from air conditioning systems. The results generated so far showed that the AC produces a high quantity of water, and data analysis revealed that the amount of water is positively and significantly correlated with the humidity (P <= 0.05). In the meantime, the amount of heavy metals has been measuring using ICP-OES. The results, in terms of quantity, clearly show that the AC can be used as an alternative source of water, especially in the regions characterized by high humidity. The results also showed that the amount of produced water depends on the type of AC.

Keywords: air conditioning systems, water quantity, water resources, wastewater

Procedia PDF Downloads 21
6717 Importance of Determining the Water Needs of Crops in the Management of Water Resources in the Province of Djelfa

Authors: Imessaoudene Y., Mouhouche B., Sengouga A., Kadir M.

Abstract:

The objective of this work is to determine the virtual water of main crops grown in the province of Djelfa and water use efficiency (W.U.E.), Which is essential to approach the application and better integration with the offer in the region. In the case of agricultural production, virtual water is the volume of water evapo-transpired by crops. It depends on particular on the expertise of its producers and its global production area, warm and dry climates induce higher consumption. At the scale of the province, the determination of the quantities of virtual water is done by calculating the unit water requirements related to water irrigated hectare and total rainfall over the crop using the Cropwat 8.0 F.A.O. software. Quantifying the volume of agricultural virtual water of crops practiced in the study area demonstrates the quantitative importance of these volumes of water in terms of available water resources in the province, so the advantages which can be the concept of virtual water as an analysis tool and decision support for the management and distribution of water in scarcity situation.

Keywords: virtual water, water use efficiency, water requirements, Djelfa

Procedia PDF Downloads 302
6716 Water Crisis Management in a Tourism Dependent Community

Authors: Aishath Shakeela

Abstract:

At a global level, water stewardship, water stress and water security are crucial factors in tourism planning and development considerations. Challenges associated with water is of particular concern to the Maldives as there is limited availability of freshwater, high dependency on desalinated water, and high unit cost associated with desalinating water. While the Maldives is promoted as an example of sustainable tourism, a key sustainability challenge facing tourism dependent communities is the efficient use and management of available water resources. A water crisis event in the capital island of Maldives highlighted how precarious water related issues are in this tourism dependent destination. Applying netnography, the focus of this working paper is to present community perceptions of how government policies addressed Malé Water and Sewerage Company (MWSC) water crisis event.

Keywords: crisis management, government policies, Maldives, tourism, water

Procedia PDF Downloads 375
6715 Solar Aided Vacuum Desalination of Sea-Water

Authors: Miraz Hafiz Rossy

Abstract:

As part of planning to address shortfalls in fresh water supply for the world, Sea water can be a huge source of fresh water. But Desalinating sea water to get fresh water could require a lots of fossil fuels. To save the fossil fuel in terms of save the green world but meet the up growing need for fresh water, a very useful but energy efficient method needs to be introduced. Vacuum desalination of sea water using only the Renewable energy can be an effective solution to this issue. Taking advantage of sensitivity of water's boiling point to air pressure a vacuum desalination water treatment plant can be designed which would only use sea water as feed water and solar energy as fuel to produce fresh drinking water. The study indicates that reducing the air pressure to a certain value water can be boiled at very low temperature. Using solar energy to provide the condensation and the vacuum creation would be very useful and efficient. Compared to existing resources, desalination is considered to be expensive, but using only renewable energy the cost can be reduced significantly. Despite its very few drawbacks, it can be considered a possible solution to the world's fresh water shortages.

Keywords: desalination, scarcity of fresh water, water purification, water treatment

Procedia PDF Downloads 183
6714 Sustainable Water Resource Management and Challenges in Indian Agriculture

Authors: Rajendra Kumar Isaac, Monisha Isaac

Abstract:

India, having a vast cultivable area and regional climatic variability, encounters water Resource Management Problems at various levels. The agricultural production of India needs to be increased to meet out projected population growth. Sustainable water resource is the only option to ensure food security, especially in northern Indian states, where the ground and surface water resources are fast depleting. Various tools and technologies available for management of scarce water resources have been discussed. It was concluded that multiple use of water, adopting latest water management options, identification of climate adoptable cropping and farming systems, can enhance water productivity and would encounter the fast growing water management and water shortage problems in Indian agriculture.

Keywords: water resource management, sustainable, water management technologies, water productivity, agriculture

Procedia PDF Downloads 257
6713 Addressing the Water Shortage in Beijing: Increasing Water Use Efficiency in Domestic Sector

Authors: Chenhong Peng

Abstract:

Beijing, the capital city of China, is running out of water. The water resource per capita in Beijing is only 106 cubic meter, accounts for 5% of the country’s average level and less than 2% of the world average level. The tension between water supply and demand is extremely serious. For one hand, the surface and ground water have been over-exploited during the last decades; for the other hand, water demand keep increasing as the result of population and economic growth. There is a massive gap between water supply and demand. This paper will focus on addressing the water shortage in Beijing city by increasing water use efficiency in domestic sector. First, we will emphasize on the changing structure of water supply and demand in Beijing under the economic development and restructure during the last decade. Second, by analyzing the water use efficiency in agriculture, industry and domestic sectors in Beijing, we identify that the key determinant for addressing the water crisis is to increase the water use efficiency in domestic sector. Third, this article will explore the two primary causes for the water use inefficiency in Beijing: The ineffective water pricing policy and the poor water education and communication policy. Finally, policy recommendation will offered to improve the water use efficiency in domestic sector by making and implementing an effective water pricing policy and people-engaged water education and communication policy.

Keywords: Beijing, water use efficiency, domestic sector, water pricing policy, water education policy

Procedia PDF Downloads 384
6712 An Approach to Spatial Planning for Water Conservation: The Case of Kovada Sub-Watershed (Turkey)

Authors: Aybike Ayfer Karadağ

Abstract:

Today, the amount of water available is decreasing day by day due to global warming, environmental problems and population increase. To protect water resources, it is necessary to take a lot of measures from the global scale to the local scale. Some of these measures are related to spatial planning studies. In this study, the impact of water process analysis was assessed in the development of spatial planning for water conservation. The study was conducted in the Kovada sub-watershed (Isparta, Turkey). By means of water process analysis, the way to reach underground water of surface water in the study area is mapped. In this context, plant cover, soil and rock permeability were evaluated holistically with geographic information systems technologies. Then, on the map, water permeability is classified and this is spatially expressed. The findings show that the permeability of the water is different in the study case. As a result, the water permeability map needs to be included in the planning for water conservation planning.

Keywords: water, conservation, spatial planning, water process analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 68
6711 The Affect of Water Quality on the Ultrasonic Attenuation of Bone Mimic

Authors: A. Elsariti, T. Evans

Abstract:

The propagation mechanisms in the trabecular bone are poorly understood and have been the subject of extended debate; also, steel wool has been evaluated as a potential bone mimic, Its advantages are ready availability, low cost and a wide range of sizes. In this study, both distilled and tap water were used to estimate the ultrasonic attenuation in coarse steel wool. It is clear from the results that the attenuation of coarse steel wool increased as the distance between the transducers decreased, and it is higher in tap water than distilled water. At 9cm distance between the transducers the attenuation was approximately 0.97 and 4.7 dB in distilled and tap water respectively. While it is 6.97 and 12.2 dB in distilled and tap water respectively at distance 4cm. This change in the attenuation between both distilled and tap water is probably due to gas bubbles in the tap water.

Keywords: bone mimic, porosity, tap water, distilled water, ultrasonic attenuation

Procedia PDF Downloads 404
6710 Spatial Distribution of Cellular Water in Pear Fruit: An Experimental Investigation

Authors: Md. Imran H. Khan, T. Farrell, M. A. Karim

Abstract:

Highly porous and hygroscopic characteristics of pear make it complex to understand the cellular level water distribution. In pear tissue, water is mainly distributed in three different spaces namely, intercellular water, intracellular water, and cell wall water. Understanding of these three types of water in pear tissue is crucial for predicting actual heat and mass transfer during drying. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the proportion of intercellular water, intracellular water, and cell wall water inside the pear tissue. During this study, Green Anjou Pear was taken for the investigation. The experiment was performed using 1H-NMR- T2 relaxometry. Various types of water component were calculated by using multi-component fits of the T2 relaxation curves. The experimental result showed that in pear tissue 78-82% water exist in intracellular space; 12-16% water in intercellular space and only 2-4% water exist in the cell wall space. The investigated results quantify different types of water in plant-based food tissue. The highest proportion of water exists in intracellular spaces. It was also investigated that the physical properties of pear and the proportion of the different types of water has a strong relationship. Cell wall water depends on the proportion of solid in the sample tissue whereas free water depends on the porosity of the material.

Keywords: intracellular water, intercellular water, cell wall water, physical property, pear

Procedia PDF Downloads 133