Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 46

Search results for: Milan Sebok

46 Failure Analysis of the Gasoline Engines Injection System

Authors: Jozef Jurcik, Miroslav Gutten, Milan Sebok, Daniel Korenciak, Jerzy Roj

Abstract:

The paper presents the research results of electronic fuel injection system, which can be used for diagnostics of automotive systems. In the paper is described the construction and operation of a typical fuel injection system and analyzed its electronic part. It has also been proposed method for the detection of the injector malfunction, based on the analysis of differential current or voltage characteristics. In order to detect the fault state, it is needed to use self-learning process, by the use of an appropriate self-learning algorithm.

Keywords: electronic fuel injector, diagnostics, measurement, testing device

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45 Practical Survival Strategies among Undocumented and Documented Brazilian Immigrants in Europe: A Comparative Study in Milan and London

Authors: Edmar Jose da Rocha

Abstract:

This paper is a study on Brazilian irregular migrants living and working in two global cities in Europe, Milan and London. The aim of the journal is to show out why Brazilian choose irregular migration to Milan and London as a strategy. Few studies in Europe have focused on groups coming from the same place of origin and residing in different cities in comparative studies. It is this international comparison that makes this research original. Both in London and Milan there is an economic migration. The reasons showed to migrate to Milan were marriage, citizenship and work. The reasons indicated to migrate to London were work, studies and a better life. In London marriage is a channel for regularisation and citizenship. In both countries, fake documents is a channel for undocumented people to get a job and health care.

Keywords: border, immigration, integration, survival strategies, undocumented, regularisation

Procedia PDF Downloads 211
44 Analysis of Automotive Sensor for Engine Knock System

Authors: Miroslav Gutten, Jozef Jurcik, Daniel Korenciak, Milan Sebok, Matej Kuceraa

Abstract:

This paper deals with the phenomenon of the undesirable detonation combustion in internal combustion engines. A control unit of the engine monitors these detonations using piezoelectric knock sensors. With the control of these sensors the detonations can be objectively measured just outside the car. If this component provides small amplitude of the output voltage it could happen that there would have been in the areas of the engine ignition combustion. The paper deals with the design of a simple device for the detection of this disorder. A construction of the testing device for the knock sensor suitable for diagnostics of knock combustion in internal combustion engines will be presented. The output signal of presented sensor will be described by Bessel functions. Using the first voltage extremes on the characteristics it is possible to create a reference for the evaluation of the polynomial residue. It should be taken into account that the velocity of sound in air is 330 m/s. This sound impinges on the walls of the combustion chamber and is detected by the sensor. The resonant frequency of the clicking of the motor is usually in the range from 5 kHz to 15 kHz. The sensor worked in the field to 37 kHz, which shall be taken into account on an own sensor resonance.

Keywords: diagnostics, knock sensor, measurement, testing device

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43 “The Unbearable Lightness of Being” Book as an Interdisciplinary Study Basis for Students’ Learning Process about Love and Politics at Old Communist Czechoslovakia

Authors: Clarissa Valença Travassos da Silva

Abstract:

In this article, it is intended to study the book “The unbearable Lightness of Being” by the Czech Republican writer Milan Kundera. The main objective is to be an interdisciplinary study basis for students in the world about love and politics at old communist Czechoslovakia. Love is presented by discussing the relationship between Tomas and Tereza and the discovery of true love. Furthermore, it is debated the Russian invasion in Czechoslovakia and the outcomes of it for the personages, all this related to the contradiction of lightness and heaviness in life. For the production of this didactic material, the researcher based her work on the original book, “The Unbearable Lightness of Being” by Kundera, Milan Kundera’s interviews, Friedrich Nietzche, Zygmunt Bauman and George Orwell, among Brazilian and international articles on the issue.

Keywords: lightness, heaviness, Russia, Czechoslovakia, love

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42 Analysis of Transformer by Gas and Moisture Sensor during Laboratory Time Monitoring

Authors: Miroslav Gutten, Daniel Korenciak, Milan Simko, Milan Chupac

Abstract:

Ensure the reliable and correct function of transformers is the main essence of on-line non-destructive diagnostic tool, which allows the accurately track of the status parameters. Devices for on-line diagnostics are very costly. However, there are devices, whose price is relatively low and when used correctly, they can be executed a complex diagnostics. One of these devices is sensor HYDRAN M2, which is used to detect the moisture and gas content in the insulation oil. Using the sensor HYDRAN M2 in combination with temperature, load measurement, and physicochemical analysis can be made the economically inexpensive diagnostic system, which use is not restricted to distribution transformers. This system was tested in educational laboratory environment at measured oil transformer 22/0.4 kV. From the conclusions referred in article is possible to determine, which kind of fault was occurred in the transformer and how was an impact on the temperature, evolution of gases and water content.

Keywords: transformer, diagnostics, gas and moisture sensor, monitoring

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41 Measuring the Influence of Functional Proximity on Environmental Urban Performance via Integrated Modification Methodology: Four Study Cases in Milan

Authors: M. Tadi, M. Hadi Mohammad Zadeh, Ozge Ogut

Abstract:

Although how cities’ forms are structured is studied, more efforts are needed on systemic comprehensions and evaluations of the urban morphology through quantitative metrics that are able to describe the performance of a city in relation to its formal properties. More research is required in this direction in order to better describe the urban form characteristics and their impact on the environmental performance of cities and to increase their sustainability stewardship. With the aim of developing a better understanding of the built environment’s systemic structure, the intention of this paper is to present a holistic methodology for studying the behavior of the built environment and investigate the methods for measuring the effect of urban structure to the environmental performance. This goal will be pursued through an inquiry into the morphological components of the urban systems and the complex relationships between them. Particularly, this paper focuses on proximity, referring to the proximity of different land-uses, is a concept with which Integrated Modification Methodology (IMM) explains how land-use allocation might affect the choice of mobility in neighborhoods, and especially, encourage or discourage non-motived mobility. This paper uses proximity to demonstrate that the structure attributes can quantifiably relate to the performing behavior in the city. The target is to devise a mathematical pattern from the structural elements and correlate it directly with urban performance indicators concerned with environmental sustainability. The paper presents some results of this rigorous investigation of urban proximity and its correlation with performance indicators in four different areas in the city of Milan, each of them characterized by different morphological features.

Keywords: built environment, ecology, sustainable indicators, sustainability, urban morphology

Procedia PDF Downloads 44
40 Towards a Framework for Evaluating Scientific Efficiency of World-Class Universities

Authors: Veljko Jeremic, Milica Kostic Stankovic, Aleksandar Markovic, Milan Martic

Abstract:

Evaluating the efficiency of decision making units has been frequently elaborated on in numerous publications. In this paper, the theoretical framework for a novel method of Distance Based Analysis (DBA) is presented. In addition, the method is performed on a sample of the ARWU’s top 54 Universities of the United States, the findings of which clearly demonstrate that the best ranked Universities are far from also being the most efficient.

Keywords: evaluating efficiency, distance based analysis, ranking of universities, ARWU

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39 Change of Internal Friction on Magnesium Alloy with 5.48% Al Dependence on the Temperature

Authors: Milan Uhríčik, Andrea Soviarová, Zuzana Dresslerová, Peter Palček, Alan Vaško

Abstract:

The article is focused on the analysis changes dependence on the temperature on the magnesium alloy with 5,48% Al, 0,813% Zn and 0,398% Mn by internal friction. Internal friction is a property of the material is measured on the ultrasonic resonant aparature at a frequency about f = 20470 Hz. The measured temperature range was from 30 °C up to 420 °C. Precisely measurement of the internal friction can be monitored ongoing structural changes and various mechanisms that prevent these changes.

Keywords: internal friction, magnesium alloy, temperature, resonant frequency

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38 Democracy in Gaming: An Artificial Neural Network Based Approach towards Rule Evolution

Authors: Nelvin Joseph, K. Krishna Milan Rao, Praveen Dwarakanath

Abstract:

The explosive growth of Smart phones around the world has led to the shift of the primary engagement tool for entertainment from traditional consoles and music players to an all integrated device. Augmented Reality is the next big shift in bringing in a new dimension to the play. The paper explores the construct and working of the community engine in Delta T – an Augmented Reality game that allows users to evolve rules in the game basis collective bargaining mirroring democracy even in a gaming world.

Keywords: augmented reality, artificial neural networks, mobile application, human computer interaction, community engine

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37 Identification of the Orthotropic Parameters of Cortical Bone under Nanoindentation

Authors: D. Remache, M. Semaan, C. Baron, M. Pithioux, P. Chabrand, J. M. Rossi, J. L. Milan

Abstract:

A good understanding of the mechanical properties of the bone implies a better understanding of its various diseases, such as osteoporosis. Berkovich nanoindentation tests were performed on the human cortical bone to extract its orthotropic parameters. The nanoindentation experiments were then simulated by the finite element method. Different configurations of interactions between the tip indenter and the bone were simulated. The orthotropic parameters of the material were identified by the inverse method for each configuration. The friction effect on the bone mechanical properties was then discussed. It was found that the inverse method using the finite element method is a very efficient method to predict the mechanical behavior of the bone.

Keywords: mechanical behavior of bone, nanoindentation, finite element analysis, inverse optimization approaches

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36 Nano Effects of Nitrogen Ion Implantation on TiN Hard Coatings Deposited by Physical Vapour Deposition and Ion Beam Assisted Deposition

Authors: Branko Skoric, Aleksandar Miletic, Pal Terek, Lazar Kovacevic, Milan Kukuruzovic

Abstract:

In this paper, we present the results of a study of TiN thin films which are deposited by a Physical Vapour Deposition (PVD) and Ion Beam Assisted Deposition (IBAD). In the present investigation the subsequent ion implantation was provided with N5+ ions. The ion implantation was applied to enhance the mechanical properties of surface. The thin film deposition process exerts a number of effects such as crystallographic orientation, morphology, topography, densification of the films. A variety of analytic techniques were used for characterization, such as scratch test, calo test, Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Atomic Force Microscope (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Energy Dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX).

Keywords: coating, super hard, ion implantation, nanohardness

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35 Properties of Composite Materials Made from Surface Treated Particles from Annual Plants

Authors: Štěpán Hýsek, Petra Gajdačová, Milan Podlena

Abstract:

Annual plants are becoming more and more popular source of lignin and cellulose. In those days a lot of research is carried out in order to evaluate the possibility of utilization of fibres and particles from these plants in composite materials production. These lingo-cellulosic materials seem to be a great alternative to wood, however, due to waxy and silica layers on the surface of these stalks, one additional technological step is needed–erosion of the layers for the purpose of achieving better adhesion between particle and adhesive. In this research, we used several kinds of particle pre-treatment, in order to modify surface properties of these particles. Further, an adhesive was applied to the particles using laboratory blender and board were produced using laboratory press. Both physical and mechanical properties of boards were observed. It was found out that the surface modification of particles had statistically significant effect on properties of produced boards.

Keywords: annual plant, composites, mechanical properties, particleboard

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34 The Next Frontier for Mobile Based Augmented Reality: An Evaluation of AR Uptake in India

Authors: K. Krishna Milan Rao, Nelvin Joseph, Praveen Dwarakanath

Abstract:

Augmented and Virtual Realties is quickly becoming a hotbed of activity with millions of dollars being spent on R & D and companies such as Google and Microsoft rushing to stake their claim. Augmented reality (AR) is however marching ahead due to the spread of the ideal AR device – the smartphone. Despite its potential, there remains a deep digital divide between the Developed and Developing Countries. The Technological Acceptance Model (TAM) and Hofstede cultural dimensions also predict the behaviour intention to uptake AR in India will be large. This paper takes a quantified approach by collecting 340 survey responses to AR scenarios and analyzing them through statistics. The Survey responses show that the Intention to Use, Perceived Usefulness and Perceived Enjoyment dimensions are high among the urban population in India. This along with the exponential smartphone indicates that India is on the cusp of a boom in the AR sector.

Keywords: mobile augmented reality, technology acceptance model, Hofstede, cultural dimensions, India

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33 Hypermarkets Product Awareness of Halal Branding in the Kingdom of Bahrain

Authors: Imelda Atengco Milan

Abstract:

This research is aimed to assess the effectiveness and status of Islamic branding amongst hypermarkets from respondents perspective in the Kingdom of Bahrain such as Lulu, Geant and Carrefour and It was identified in terms of pure advertisement, religious norms and culture, certified halal product/ brand, consumption barriers and attitude towards other products/ brand. Included here are also the essentials in modern marketing including problems encountered and recommendations which will be revealed through the findings of the study. The methods used are descriptive and quantitative with sample analysis through quite a number of populations. Formulation of Sample questionnaire is done according to the variables and items used to measure reliability of statistics. The measurement of validity on the conduct of the surveys has been done according to Chronbach’s value (greater than 0.7). Pearson correlation was used as part of statistical analysis as well. It must show continuously that the model used is aligned towards factors indicated.

Keywords: pure advertisement, religious norms & culture, certified halal product, attitude towards other brand and consumption barriers

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32 Mechanical Cortical Bone Characterization with the Finite Element Method Based Inverse Method

Authors: Djamel Remache, Marie Semaan, Cécile Baron, Martine Pithioux, Patrick Chabrand, Jean-Marie Rossi, Jean-Louis Milan

Abstract:

Cortical bone is a complex multi-scale structure. Even though several works have contributed significantly to understanding its mechanical behavior, this behavior remains poorly understood. Nanoindentation testing is one of the primary testing techniques for the mechanical characterization of bone at small scales. The purpose of this study was to provide new nanoindentation data of cortical bovine bone in different directions and at different bone microstructures (osteonal, interstitial and laminar bone), and then to identify anisotropic properties of samples with FEM (finite element method) based inverse method. Experimentally and numerical results were compared. Experimental and numerical results were compared. The results compared were in good agreement.

Keywords: mechanical behavior of bone, nanoindentation, finite element analysis, inverse optimization approach

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31 The High Temperature Damage of DV–2 Turbine Blade Made from Ni–Base Superalloy

Authors: Juraj Belan, Lenka Hurtalová, Eva Tillová, Alan Vaško, Milan Uhríčik

Abstract:

High-pressure turbine (HPT) blades of DV–2 jet engines are made from Ni–base superalloy, a former Soviet Union production, specified as ŽS6K. For improving its high-temperature resistance are blades covered with Al–Si diffusion layer. A regular operation temperature of HPT blades vary from 705°C to 750°C depending on jet engine regime. An over-crossing working temperature range causes degradation of protective alitize layer as well as base material–gamma matrix and gamma prime particles what decreases turbine blade lifetime. High-temperature degradation has mainly diffusion mechanism and causes coarsening of strengthening phase gamma prime and protective alitize layer thickness growing. All changes have a significant influence on high-temperature properties of base material.

Keywords: alitize layer, gamma prime phase, high-temperature degradation, Ni–base superalloy ŽS6K, turbine blade

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30 2D and 3D Unsteady Simulation of the Heat Transfer in the Sample during Heat Treatment by Moving Heat Source

Authors: Zdeněk Veselý, Milan Honner, Jiří Mach

Abstract:

The aim of the performed work is to establish the 2D and 3D model of direct unsteady task of sample heat treatment by moving source employing computer model on the basis of finite element method. The complex boundary condition on heat loaded sample surface is the essential feature of the task. Computer model describes heat treatment of the sample during heat source movement over the sample surface. It is started from the 2D task of sample cross section as a basic model. Possibilities of extension from 2D to 3D task are discussed. The effect of the addition of third model dimension on the temperature distribution in the sample is showed. Comparison of various model parameters on the sample temperatures is observed. Influence of heat source motion on the depth of material heat treatment is shown for several velocities of the movement. Presented computer model is prepared for the utilization in laser treatment of machine parts.

Keywords: computer simulation, unsteady model, heat treatment, complex boundary condition, moving heat source

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29 Some Conjectures and Programs about Computing the Detour Index of Molecular Graphs of Nanotubes

Authors: Shokofeh Ebrtahimi

Abstract:

Let G be the chemical graph of a molecule. The matrix D = [dij ] is called the detour matrix of G, if dij is the length of longest path between atoms i and j. The sum of all entries above the main diagonal of D is called the detour index of G.Chemical graph theory is the topology branch of mathematical chemistry which applies graph theory to mathematical modelling of chemical phenomena.[1] The pioneers of the chemical graph theory are Alexandru Balaban, Ante Graovac, Ivan Gutman, Haruo Hosoya, Milan Randić and Nenad TrinajstićLet G be the chemical graph of a molecule. The matrix D = [dij ] is called the detour matrix of G, if dij is the length of longest path between atoms i and j. The sum of all entries above the main diagonal of D is called the detour index of G. In this paper, a new program for computing the detour index of molecular graphs of nanotubes by heptagons is determineded. Some Conjectures about detour index of Molecular graphs of nanotubes is included.

Keywords: chemical graph, detour matrix, Detour index, carbon nanotube

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28 Review for Mechanical Tests of Corner Joints on Wooden Windows and Effects to the Stiffness

Authors: Milan Podlena, Stepan Hysek, Jiri Prochazka, Martin Bohm, Jan Bomba

Abstract:

Corner joints are the weakest part of windows, where the members are connected together. Since the dimensions of the windows started become bigger, the strength requirements for corner joints started to increase as well. Therefore, the aim of this study was to test the samples of corner joints of wooden windows. Moisture content of test specimens was stabilized in the climate chamber. After conditioning, test specimens were loaded in the laboratory conditions onto an universal testing machine and the failure load was measured. Data was recalculated by using goniometric, bending moment and stiffness equation to the stiffness coefficients and the bending moments were investigated. The results showed difference that was observed for the mortise with tenon joint and the dowel joint. This difference was explained by a varied adhesive bond area, which is related to the dimensions of dowels (diameter and length) as well. The bending moments and stiffness ware (except of type of corner joint) also affected by type of used adhesive, type of dowels and wood species.

Keywords: corner joint, wooden window, bending moment, stiffness

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27 Uses and Manufacturing of Beech Corrugated Plywood

Authors: Prochazka Jiri, Beranek Tomas, Podlena Milan, Zeidler Ales

Abstract:

The poster deals with the issue of ISO shipping containers’ sheathing made of corrugated plywood instead of traditional corrugated metal sheets. It was found that the corrugated plywood is a suitable material for the sheathing due to its great flexural strength perpendicular to the course of the wave, sufficient impact resistance, surface compressive strength and low weight. Three sample sets of different thicknesses 5, 8 and 10 mm were tested in the experiments. The tests have shown that the 5 cm corrugated plywood is the most suitable thickness for sheathing. Experiments showed that to increase bending strength at needed value, it was necessary to increase the weight of the timber only by 1.6%. Flat cash test showed that 5 mm corrugated plywood is sufficient material for sheathing from a mechanical point of view. Angle of corrugation was found as a very important factor which massively affects the mechanical properties. The impact strength test has shown that plywood is relatively tough material in direction of corrugation. It was calculated that the use of corrugated plywood sheathing for the containers can reduce the weight of the walls up to 75%. Corrugated plywood is also suitable material for web of I-joists and wide interior design applications.

Keywords: corrugated plywood, veneer, beech plywood, ISO shipping container, I-joist

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26 Antioxidant Characteristics of Serbian Conifers

Authors: Dubravka Štajner, Boris M. Popović, Saša Orlović, Ružica Ždero, Milan Popović, Aleksandra Popović

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Many plants possess antioxidant ingredients that provides efficacy by additive or synergistic activities. Present article highlights an antioxidant capacity of Serbian conifer plants. Antioxidant activities of the crude extracts were assessed using different assays. In this study, quantities of phenolic compounds (total phenols, flavonoids, tannins and proanthocyanidins), contents of photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll a and b and carotenoids), soluble proteins and proline were examined. MDA quantities and ability of extracts to remove reactive nitrogen and oxygen species (RNOS) were also investigated. Furthermore, antioxidant activities of extracts against DPPH∙, ferric reducing antioxidant power, permanganate reducing antioxidant capacity were also determined. According to almost all used assays, antioxidant and scavenging capacities of silver fir (Abies alba Mill.), and Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) were superior compared to spruce. Presented results implicated that leaves of Douglas fir and silver fir possessed outstanding antioxidant characteristics that could diminish damage caused by oxygen radicals which are responsible for many of the bodily changes and susceptibility to different diseases.

Keywords: conifers, antioxidant activity, reducing power, lipid peroxidation

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25 Best Practices for Healthy Estuaries

Authors: Hassan Badkoobehi, Pradip Peter Dey, Mohammad Amin, Milan Jose Carlos, Basmal Hana, Fadi Zaco

Abstract:

The economy of coastline areas depends on the natural splendor of estuaries. When estuaries are improperly managed or polluted, long or short term damage to local economy or harm to local life forms can be caused. Estuaries are shelters for thousands of species such as birds, mammals, fish, crustaceans, insects, reptiles, and amphibians. The delicate balance of these life forms in estuaries requires careful planning for the benefit of all. The commercial value of estuaries is very important; recreational activities that people enjoy like boating, kayaking, windsurfing, swimming, bird-watching and fishing are marketable. Estuaries are national treasures with vital community and ecological resources. Years of estuarine environmental studies have produced extensive results that merit consideration. This study reviews research results from various sources and suggests best strategies for maintaining healthy estuaries in the current socioeconomic conditions. The main hypothesis is that many estuaries can be restored to their original healthy status in a cost effective manner with restoration or prevention plans suggested in published studies.

Keywords: environment, pollution, sustainable, wildlife

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24 Structural, Magnetic, Dielectric, and Electrical Properties of ZnFe2O4 Nanoparticles

Authors: Raghvendra Singh Yadav, Ivo Kuřitka, Jarmila Vilcakova, Pavel Urbanek, Michal Machovsky, Milan Masař, Martin Holek

Abstract:

ZnFe2O4 spinel ferrite nanoparticles were synthesized by sol-gel auto-combustion method. The synthesized spinel ferrite nanoparticles were annealed at different higher temperature to achieve different size nanoparticles. The as synthesized and annealed samples were characterized by powder X-ray Diffraction Spectroscopy, Raman Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, UV-Vis absorption Spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy. The magnetic properties were studied by vibrating sample magnetometer. The variation in magnetic parameters was noticed with variation in grain size. The dielectric constant and dielectric loss with variation of frequency shows normal behaviour of spinel ferrite. The variation in conductivity with variation in grain size is noticed. Modulus and Impedance Spectroscopy shows the role of grain and grain boundary on the electrical resistance and capacitance of different grain sized spinel ferrite nanoparticles. Acknowledgment: This work was supported by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic – Program NPU I (LO1504).

Keywords: spinel ferrite, nanoparticles, magnetic properties, dielectric properties

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23 Particleboard Production from Atmospheric Plasma Treated Wheat Straw Particles

Authors: Štěpán Hýsek, Milan Podlena, Miloš Pavelek, Matěj Hodoušek, Martin Böhm, Petra Gajdačová

Abstract:

Particle boards have being used in the civil engineering as a decking for load bearing and non-load bearing vertical walls and horizontal panels (e. g. floors, ceiling, roofs) in a large scale. When the straw is used as non-wood material for manufacturing of lignocellulosic panels, problems with wax layer on the surface of the material can occur. Higher percentage of silica and wax cause the problems with the adhesion of the adhesive and this is the reason why it is necessary to break the surface layer for the better bonding effect. Surface treatment of the particles cause better mechanical properties, physical properties and the overall better results of the composite material are reached. Plasma application is one possibility how to modify the surface layer. The aim of this research is to modify the surface of straw particles by using cold plasma treatment. Surface properties of lignocellulosic materials were observed before and after cold plasma treatment. Cold plasma does not cause any structural changes deeply in the material. There are only changes in surface layers, which are required. Results proved that the plasma application influenced the properties of surface layers and the properties of composite material.

Keywords: composite, lignocellulosic materials, straw, cold plasma, surface treatment

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22 A Metallography Study of Secondary A226 Aluminium Alloy Used in Automotive Industries

Authors: Lenka Hurtalová, Eva Tillová, Mária Chalupová, Juraj Belan, Milan Uhríčik

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The secondary alloy A226 is used for many automotive casting produced by mould casting and high pressure die-casting. This alloy has excellent castability, good mechanical properties and cost-effectiveness. Production of primary aluminium alloys belong to heavy source fouling of life environs. The European Union calls for the emission reduction and reduction in energy consumption, therefore, increase production of recycled (secondary) aluminium cast alloys. The contribution is deal with influence of recycling on the quality of the casting made from A226 in automotive industry. The properties of the casting made from secondary aluminium alloys were compared with the required properties of primary aluminium alloys. The effect of recycling on microstructure was observed using combination different analytical techniques (light microscopy upon black-white etching, scanning electron microscopy-SEM upon deep etching and energy dispersive X-ray analysis-EDX). These techniques were used for the identification of the various structure parameters, which was used to compare secondary alloy microstructure with primary alloy microstructure.

Keywords: A226 secondary aluminium alloy, deep etching, mechanical properties, recycling foundry aluminium alloy

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21 Plasma Treatment of a Lignite Using Water-Stabilized Plasma Torch at Atmospheric Pressure

Authors: Anton Serov, Alan Maslani, Michal Hlina, Vladimir Kopecky, Milan Hrabovsky

Abstract:

Recycling of organic waste is an increasingly hot topic in recent years. This issue becomes even more interesting if the raw material for the fuel production can be obtained as the result of that recycling. A process of high-temperature decomposition of a lignite (a non-hydrolysable complex organic compound) was studied on the plasma gasification reactor PLASGAS, where water-stabilized plasma torch was used as a source of high enthalpy plasma. The plasma torch power was 120 kW and allowed heating of the reactor to more than 1000 °C. The material feeding rate in the gasification reactor was selected 30 and 60 kg per hour that could be compared with small industrial production. An efficiency estimation of the thermal decomposition process was done. A balance of the torch energy distribution was studied as well as an influence of the lignite particle size and an addition of methane (CH4) in a reaction volume on the syngas composition (H2+CO). It was found that the ratio H2:CO had values in the range of 1,5 to 2,5 depending on the experimental conditions. The recycling process occurred at atmospheric pressure that was one of the important benefits because of the lack of expensive vacuum pump systems. The work was supported by the Grant Agency of the Czech Republic under the project GA15-19444S.

Keywords: atmospheric pressure, lignite, plasma treatment, water-stabilized plasma torch

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20 Evaulation of Food Safety Management in Central Elementary School Canteens in Tuguegarao City, Philippines

Authors: Lea B. Milan

Abstract:

This descriptive study evaluated the existing Food Safety Management in Central Elementary School Canteens of Region 3. It made used of survey questionnaires, interview guide questions and validated knowledge test on food for data gathering. Results of the study revealed that school principals and canteen managers shared responsibilities in food safety management of school canteen. It also showed that the schools applied different methods of communication, monitoring and evaluation of food safety management. The study further revealed that implementation of monitoring and evaluation of food safety compliance are not being practiced in all elementary schools in the region. The study also showed that school canteens in the Region 3 do not have the thermometers and timers to use to conduct proper monitoring of foods during storage, preparation and serving. It was also found out from the study that canteen personnel lacks the basic knowledge and trainings on food safety. Potential source of physical, chemical and biological hazards that could contaminate foods were also found present in the canteen facilities of the elementary schools in the region. Moreover, evaluation showed that the existing implementation of food safety management in the Central Elementary School Canteens of Region 3 were below the expected level and the need to strengthen the appreciation and advocacy on food safety management in school canteens of Region 3 is still wanting.

Keywords: food safety management, food safety school catering, food safety, school food safety management

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19 Influence of La³⁺ on Structural, Magnetic, Optical and Dielectric Properties in CoFe₂O₄ Nanoparticles Synthesized by Starch-Assisted Sol-Gel Combustion Method

Authors: Raghvendra Singh Yadav, Ivo Kuřitka, Jarmila Vilcakova, Pavel Urbánek, Michal Machovsky, Milan Masař, Martin Holek

Abstract:

Herein, we reported the influence of La³⁺ substitution on structural, magnetic and dielectric properties of CoFe₂O₄ nanoparticles synthesized by starch-assisted sol-gel combustion method. X-ray diffraction pattern confirmed the formation of cubic spinel structure of La³⁺ ions doped CoFe₂O₄ nanoparticles. Raman and Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy study also confirmed cubic spinel structure of La³⁺ substituted CoFe₂O₄ nanoparticles. The field emission scanning electron microscopy study revealed that La³⁺ substituted CoFe2O4 nanoparticles were in the range of 10-40 nm. The magnetic properties of La³⁺ substituted CoFe₂O₄ nanoparticles were investigated by using vibrating sample magnetometer. The variation in saturation magnetization, coercivity and remanent magnetization with La³⁺ concentration in CoFe2O4 nanoparticles was observed. The variation of real and imaginary part of dielectric constant, tan δ, and AC conductivity were studied with change of concentration of La³⁺ ions in CoFe₂O₄ nanoparticles. The variation in optical properties was studied via UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy. Acknowledgment: This work was supported by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic – Program NPU I (LO1504).

Keywords: starch, sol-gel combustion method, nanoparticles, magnetic properties, dielectric properties

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18 Safety Risks of Gaseous Toxic Compounds Released from Li Batteries

Authors: Jan Karl, Ondrej Suchy, Eliska Fiserova, Milan Ruzicka

Abstract:

The evolving electromobility and all the electronics also bring an increase of danger with used Li-batteries. Li-batteries have been used in many industries, and currently many types of the batteries are available. Batteries have different compositions that affect their behavior. In the field of Li-battery safety, there are some areas of little discussion, such as extinguishing of fires caused by Li-batteries as well as toxicity of gaseous compounds released from Li batteries, transport or storage. Technical Institute of Fire Protection, which is a part of Fire Brigades of the Czech Republic, is dealing with the safety of Li batteries. That is the reason why we are dealing with toxicity of gaseous compounds released under conditions of fire, mechanical damage, overcharging and other emergencies that may occur. This is necessary for protection of intervening of fire brigade units, people in the vicinity and other envirnomental consequences. In this work, different types of batteries (Li-ion, Li-Po, LTO, LFP) with different kind of damage were tested, and the toxicity and total amount of released gases were studied. These values were evaluated according to their environmental hazard. FTIR spectroscopy was used for the evaluation of toxicity. We used a FTIR gas cell for continuous measurement. The total amount of released gases was determined by collecting the total gas phase through the absorbers and then determining the toxicants absorbed into the solutions. Based on the obtained results, it is possible to determine the protective equipment necessary for the event of an emergency with a Li-battery, to define the environmental load and the immediate danger in an emergency.

Keywords: Li-battery, toxicity, gaseous toxic compounds, FTIR spectroscopy

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17 Mechanical Characterization of Porcine Skin with the Finite Element Method Based Inverse Optimization Approach

Authors: Djamel Remache, Serge Dos Santos, Michael Cliez, Michel Gratton, Patrick Chabrand, Jean-Marie Rossi, Jean-Louis Milan

Abstract:

Skin tissue is an inhomogeneous and anisotropic material. Uniaxial tensile testing is one of the primary testing techniques for the mechanical characterization of skin at large scales. In order to predict the mechanical behavior of materials, the direct or inverse analytical approaches are often used. However, in case of an inhomogeneous and anisotropic material as skin tissue, analytical approaches are not able to provide solutions. The numerical simulation is thus necessary. In this work, the uniaxial tensile test and the FEM (finite element method) based inverse method were used to identify the anisotropic mechanical properties of porcine skin tissue. The uniaxial tensile experiments were performed using Instron 8800 tensile machine®. The uniaxial tensile test was simulated with FEM, and then the inverse optimization approach (or the inverse calibration) was used for the identification of mechanical properties of the samples. Experimentally results were compared to finite element solutions. The results showed that the finite element model predictions of the mechanical behavior of the tested skin samples were well correlated with experimental results.

Keywords: mechanical skin tissue behavior, uniaxial tensile test, finite element analysis, inverse optimization approach

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