Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 166

Search results for: used cooking oil

166 Kinetics of Cu(II) Transport through Bulk Liquid Membrane with Different Membrane Materials

Authors: Siu Hua Chang, Ayub Md Som, Jagannathan Krishnan


The kinetics of Cu(II) transport through a bulk liquid membrane with different membrane materials was investigated in this work. Three types of membrane materials were used: Fresh cooking oil, waste cooking oil, and kerosene each of which was mixed with di-2-ethylhexylphosphoric acid (carrier) and tributylphosphate (modifier). Kinetic models derived from the kinetic laws of two consecutive irreversible first-order reactions were used to study the facilitated transport of Cu(II) across the source, membrane, and receiving phases of bulk liquid membrane. It was found that the transport kinetics of Cu(II) across the source phase was not affected by different types of membrane materials but decreased considerably when the membrane materials changed from kerosene, waste cooking oil to fresh cooking oil. The rate constants of Cu(II) removal and recovery processes through the bulk liquid membrane were also determined.

Keywords: transport kinetics, Cu(II), bulk liquid membrane, waste cooking oil

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165 Biodiesel Production From Waste Cooking Oil Using g-C3N4 Photocatalyst

Authors: A. Elgendi, H. Farag, M. E. Ossman, M. Abd-Elfatah


This paper explores the using of waste cooking oil (WCO) as an attractive option to reduce the raw material cost for the biodiesel production. This can be achieved through two steps; esterification using g-C3N4photocatalyst and then alkali transesterification. Several parameters have been studied to determine the yield of the biodiesel produced such as: Reaction time (2-6 hrs), catalyst concentration (0.3-1.5 wt.%), number of UV lamps (1or 3 lamps) and methanol: oil ratio (6:1-12:1). From the obtained results, the highest percentage yield was obtained using methanol: Oil molar ratio of 12:1, catalyst dosage 0.3%, time of 4 hrs and using 1 lamp. From the results it was clear that the produced biodiesel from waste cooking oil can be used as fuel.

Keywords: biodiesel, heterogeneous catalyst, photocatalytic esterification, waste cooking oil

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164 Chemistry and Sources of Solid Biofuel Derived Ambient Aerosols during Cooking and Non-Cooking Hours in Rural Area of Khairatpur, North-Central India

Authors: Sudha Shukla, Bablu Kumar, Gyan Prakash Gupta, U. C. Kulshrestha


Air pollutants emitted from solid biofuels during cooking are the major contributors to poor air quality, respiratory problems, and radiative forcing, etc. in rural areas of most of developing countries. The present study reports the chemical characteristics and sources of ambient aerosols and traces gases during cooking and non-cooking hours emitted during biofuel combustion in a village in North-Central India. Fine aerosol samples along with gaseous species (Sox, NOx, and NH₃) were collected during September 2010-March 2011 at Khairatpur village (KPV) which is located in the Uttar Pradesh state in North-Central India. Results indicated that most of the major ions in aerosols and Sox, NOx, and NH₃ gases were found to be higher during cooking hours as compared to non-cooking hours suggesting that solid biofuel combustion is an important source of air pollution. Results of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) revealed that combustion of solid biofuel, vehicular emissions, and brick kilns were the major sources of fine aerosols and trace gases in the village. A health survey was conducted to find out the relation between users of biofuels and their health effects and the results revealed that most of the women in the village were suffering from diseases associated with biofuel combustion during cooking.

Keywords: ambient aerosols, biofuel combustion, cooking, health survey, rural area

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163 Physical, Textural and Sensory Properties of Noodles Supplemented with Tilapia Bone Flour (Tilapia nilotica)

Authors: Supatchalee Sirichokworrakit


Fishbone of Nile tilapia (Tilapia nilotica), waste from the frozen Nile tilapia fillet factory, is one of calcium sources. In order to increase fish bone powder value, this study aimed to investigate the effect of tilapia bone flour (TBF) addition (5, 10, 15% by flour weight) on cooking quality, texture and sensory attributes of noodles. The results indicated that tensile strength, color value (a*) and water absorption of noodles significantly decreased (p≤0.05) as the levels of TBF increased from 0-15%. While cooking loss, cooking time and color values (L* and b*) of noodles significantly increased (p≤0.05). Sensory evaluation indicated that noodles with 5% TBF received the highest overall acceptability score.

Keywords: tilapia bone flour, noodles, cooking quality, calcium

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162 Influence of the Cooking Technique on the Iodine Content of Frozen Hake

Authors: F. Deng, R. Sanchez, A. Beltran, S. Maestre


The high nutritional value associated with seafood is related to the presence of essential trace elements. Moreover, seafood is considered an important source of energy, proteins, and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Generally, seafood is consumed cooked. Consequently, the nutritional value could be degraded. Seafood, such as fish, shellfish, and seaweed, could be considered as one of the main iodine sources. The deficient or excessive consumption of iodine could cause dysfunction and pathologies related to the thyroid gland. The main objective of this work is to evaluated iodine stability in hake (Merluccius) undergone different culinary techniques. The culinary process considered were: boiling, steaming, microwave cooking, baking, cooking en papillote (twisted cover with the shape of a sweet wrapper) and coating with a batter of flour and deep-frying. The determination of iodine was carried by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Regarding sample handling strategies, liquid-liquid extraction has demonstrated to be a powerful pre-concentration and clean-up approach for trace metal analysis by ICP techniques. Extraction with tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH reagent) was used as a sample preparation method in this work. Based on the results, it can be concluded that the stability of iodine was degraded with the cooking processes. The major degradation was observed for the boiling and microwave cooking processes. The content of iodine in hake decreased up to 60% and 52%, respectively. However, if the boiling cooking liquid is preserved, this loss that has been generated during cooking is reduced. Only when the fish was cooked by following the cooking en papillote process the iodine content was preserved.

Keywords: cooking process, ICP-MS, iodine, hake

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161 The Effect of Cinnamaldehyde on Escherichia coli Survival during Low Temperature Long Time Cooking

Authors: Fuji Astuti, Helen Onyeaka


The aim of the study was to investigate the combine effects of cinnamaldehyde (0.25 and 0.45% v/v) on thermal resistance of pathogenic Escherichia coli during low temperature long time (LT-LT) cooking below 60℃. Three different static temperatures (48, 53 and 50℃) were performed, and the number of viable cells was studied. The starting concentrations of cells were 10⁸ CFU/ml. In this experiment, heat treatment efficiency for safe reduction indicated by decimal logarithm reduction of viable recovered cells, which was monitored for heating over 6 hours. Thermal inactivation was measured by means of establishing the death curves between the mean log surviving cells (log₁₀ CFU/ml) and designated time points (minutes) for each temperature test. The findings depicted that addition of cinnamaldehyde exhibited to elevate the thermal sensitivity of E. coli. However, the injured cells found to be well-adapted to all temperature tests after certain time point of cooking, in which they grew to more than 10⁵ CFU/ml.

Keywords: cinnamaldehyde, decimal logarithm reduction, Escherichia coli, LT-LT cooking

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160 Effect of Two Cooking Methods on Kinetics of Polyphenol Content, Flavonoid Content and Color of a Tunisian Meal: Molokheiya (Corchorus olitorius)

Authors: S. Njoumi, L. Ben Haj Said, M. J. Amiot, S. Bellagha


The main objective of this research was to establish the kinetics of variation of total polyphenol content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) in Tunisian Corchorus olitorius powder and in a traditional home cooked-meal (Molokheiya) when using stewing and stir-frying as cooking methods, but also to compare the effect of these two common cooking practices on water content, TPC, TFC and color. The L*, a* and b* coordinates values of the Molokheiya varied from 24.955±0.039 to 21.301±0.036, from -1.556±0.048 to 0.23±0.026 and from 5.675±0.052 to 6.313±0.103 when using stewing and from 21.328±0.025 to 20.56±0.021, from -1.093± 0.011to 0.121±0.007 and from 5.708±0.020 to 6.263±0.007 when using stir-frying, respectively. TPC and TFC increased during cooking. TPC of Molokheiya varied from 29.852±0.866 mg GAE/100 g to 220.416±0.519 mg GAE/100 g after 150 min of stewing and from 25.257±0.259 mg GAE/100 g to 208.897 ±0.173 mg GAE/100 g using stir-frying method during 150 min. TFC of Molokheiya varied from 48.229±1.47 mg QE/100 g to 843.802±1.841 mg QE/100 g when using stewing and from 37.031± 0.368 mg QE/100 g to 775.312±0.736 mg QE/100 g when using stir-frying. Kinetics followed similar curves in all cases but resulted in different final TPC and TFC. The shape of the kinetics curves suggests zero-order kinetics. The mathematical relations and the numerical approach used to model the kinetics of polyphenol and flavonoid contents in Molokheiya are described.

Keywords: Corchorus olitorius, Molokheiya, phenolic compounds, kinetic

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159 Cooking Attributes of Rice Stored under Varying Temperature and Moisture Regimes

Authors: Lakshmi E. Jayachandran, Manepally Rajkumar, Pavuluri Srinivasa Rao


The objective of this research was to study the changes in eating quality of rice during storage under varying temperature and moisture regimes. Paddy (IR-36) with high amylose content (27%) was stored at a temperature range between 10 to 40°C and moisture content from 9 to 18% (d.b.) for 6 months. Drastic changes in color and parameters representing cooking qualities, cooked rice texture, and surface morphology occurred after 4 months of storage, especially at elevated temperature conditions. Head rice yield was stable throughout the storage except at extreme conditions of temperature and moisture content. Yellowing of rice was prominent at combinations of high temperature and moisture content, both of which had a synergistic effect on the b* values of rice. The cooking time, length expansion ratio and volume expansion ratio of all the rice samples increased with prolonged storage. The texture parameter, primarily, the hardness, cohesiveness, and adhesiveness of cooked rice samples were higher following storage at elevated temperature. Surface morphology was also significantly affected in stored rice as compared to fresh rice. Storage of rice at 10°C with a grain moisture content of 10% for 2 months gave cooked rice samples with good palatability and minimal cooking time. The temperature was found to be the most prominent storage parameter for rough rice, followed by moisture content and storage duration, influencing the quality of rice.

Keywords: rice, cooking quality, storage, surface morphology

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158 Effects of Cooking and Drying on the Phenolic Compounds, and Antioxidant Activity of Cleome gynandra (Spider Plant)

Authors: E. Kayitesi, S. Moyo, V. Mavumengwana


Cleome gynandra (spider plant) is an African green leafy vegetable categorized as an indigenous, underutilized and has been reported to contain essential phenolic compounds. Phenolic compounds play a significant role in human diets due to their proposed health benefits. These compounds however may be affected by different processing methods such as cooking and drying. Cleome gynandra was subjected to boiling, steam blanching, and drying processes and analysed for Total Phenolic Content (TPC), Total Flavonoid Content (TFC), antioxidant activity and flavonoid composition. Cooking and drying significantly (p < 0.05) increased the levels of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of the vegetable. The boiled sample filtrate exhibited the lowest TPC followed by the raw sample while the steamed sample depicted the highest TPC levels. Antioxidant activity results showed that steamed sample showed the highest DPPH, FRAP and ABTS with mean values of 499.38 ± 2.44, 578.68 ± 5.19, and 214.39 ± 12.33 μM Trolox Equivalent/g respectively. An increase in quercetin-3-rutinoside, quercetin-rhamnoside and kaempferol-3-rutinoside occurred after all the cooking and drying methods employed. Cooking and drying exerted positive effects on the vegetable’s phenolic content, antioxidant activity as a whole, but with varied effects on the individual flavonoid molecules. The results obtained help in defining the importance of African green leafy vegetable and resultant processed products as functional foods and their potential to exert health promoting properties.

Keywords: Cleome gynandra, phenolic compounds, cooking, drying, health promoting properties

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157 Effect of Different Flours on the Physical and Sensorial Characteristics of Meatballs

Authors: Elif Aykin Dincer, Ozlem Kilic, Busra F. Bilgic, Mustafa Erbas


Stale breads and rusk flour are used traditionally in meatballs produced in Turkey as a structure enhancer. This study researches the possibilities of using retrograded wheat flour in the meatball production and compares the physical and sensorial characteristics of these meatballs with stale bread (traditional) and rusk (commercial) used meatballs. The cooking loss of meatballs produced with using retrograded flour was similar to that of commercial meatballs. These meatballs have an advantage with respect to cooking loss compared to traditional meatballs. Doses of retrograded flour from 5% to 20% led to a significant decrease in cooking loss, from 21.95% to 6.19%, and in the diameter of meatballs, from 18.60% to 12.74%, but to an increase in the thickness of meatballs, from 28.82% to 41.39%, respectively, compared to the control (0%). The springiness of the traditional meatballs was significantly higher than that of the other meatballs. This might have been due to the bread crumbs having a naturally springy structure. Moreover, the addition of retrograded flour in the meatballs significantly (P<0.05) affected the hardness, springiness and cohesiveness of the meatballs with respect to textural properties. In conclusion, it is considered that the use of 10% retrograded flour is ideal to improve the sensorial values of meatballs and the properties of their structure.

Keywords: cooking loss, flour, hardness, meatball, sensorial characteristics

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156 Performance and Emissions Analysis of Diesel Engine with Bio-Diesel of Waste Cooking Oils

Authors: Mukesh Kumar, Onkar Singh, Naveen Kumar, Amar Deep


The waste cooking oil is taken as feedstock for biodiesel production. For this research, waste cooking oil is collected from many hotels and restaurants, and then biodiesel is prepared for experimentation purpose. The prepared biodiesel is mixed with mineral diesel in the proportion of 10%, 20%, and 30% to perform tests on a diesel engine. The experimental analysis is carried out at different load conditions to analyze the impact of the blending ratio on the performance and emission parameters. When the blending proportion of biodiesel is increased, then the highest pressure reduces due to the fall in the calorific value of the blended mixture. Experimental analysis shows a promising decrease in nitrogen oxides (NOx). A mixture of 20% biodiesel and mineral diesel is the best negotiation, mixing ratio, and beyond that, a remarkable reduction in the outcome of the performance has been observed.

Keywords: alternative sources, diesel engine, emissions, performance

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155 A Study of Impact of Changing Fuel Practices on Organic Carbon and Elemental Carbon Levels in Indoor Air in Two States of India

Authors: Kopal Verma, Umesh C. Kulshrestha


India is a rural major country and majority of rural population is dependent on burning of biomass as fuel for domestic cooking on traditional stoves (Chullahs) and heating purposes. This results into indoor air pollution and ultimately affects health of the residents. Still, a very small fraction of rural population has been benefitted by the facilities of Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) cylinders. Different regions of country follow different methods and use different type of biomass for cooking. So in order to study the differences in cooking practices and resulting indoor air pollution, this study was carried out in two rural areas of India viz. Budhwada, Madhya Pradesh and Baggi, Himachal Pradesh. Both the regions have significant differences in terms of topography, culture and daily practices. Budhwada lies in plain area and Baggi belongs to hilly terrain. The study of carbonaceous aerosols was carried out in four different houses of each village. The residents were asked to bring slight change in their practices by cooking only with biomass (BB) then with a mix of biomass and LPG (BL) and then finally only with LPG (LP). It was found that in BB, average values of organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) were 28% and 44% lower in Budhwada than in Baggi whereas a reverse trend was found where OC and EC was respectively more by 56% and 26% with BL and by 54% and 29% with LP in Budhwada than in Baggi. Although, a significant reduction was found both in Budhwada (OC by 49% and EC by 34%) as well as in Baggi (OC by 84% and EC by 73%) when cooking was shifted from BB to LP. The OC/EC ratio was much higher for Budhwada (BB=9.9; BL=2.5; LP=6.1) than for Baggi (BB=1.7; BL=1.6; LP=1.3). The correlation in OC and EC was found to be excellent in Baggi (r²=0.93) and relatively poor in Budhwada (r²=0.65). A questionnaire filled by the residents suggested that they agree to the health benefits of using LPG over biomass burning but the challenges of supply of LPG and changing the prevailing tradition of cooking on Chullah are making it difficult for them to make this shift.

Keywords: biomass burning, elemental carbon, liquefied petroluem gas, organic carbon

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154 Effects of Boiling Temperature and Time on Colour, Texture and Sensory Properties of Volutharpa ampullacea perryi Meat

Authors: Xianbao Sun, Jinlong Zhao, Shudong He, Jing Li


Volutharpa ampullacea perryi is a high-protein marine shellfish. However, few data are available on the effects of boiling temperatures and time on quality of the meat. In this study, colour, texture and sensory characteristics of Volutharpa ampullacea perryi meat during the boiling cooking processes (75-100 °C, 5-60 min) were investigated by colors analysis, texture profile analysis (TPA), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and sensory evaluation. The ratio of cooking loss gradually increased with the increase of temperature and time. The colour of meat became lighter and more yellower from 85 °C to 95 °C in a short time (5-20 min), but it became brown after a 30 min treatment. TPA results showed that the Volutharpa ampullacea perryi meat were more firm and less cohesive after a higher temperature (95-100 °C) treatment even in a short period (5-15 min). Based on the SEM analysis, it was easily found that the myofibrils structure was destroyed at a higher temperature (85-100 °C). Sensory data revealed that the meat cooked at 85-90 °C in 10-20 min showed higher scores in overall acceptance, as well as color, hardness and taste. Based on these results, it could be constructed that Volutharpa ampullacea perryi meat should be heated on a suitable condition (such as 85 °C 15 min or 90 °C 10 min) in the boiling cooking to be ensure a better acceptability.

Keywords: Volutharpa ampullacea perryi meat, boiling cooking, colour, sensory, texture

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153 Clove Essential Oil Improves Lipid Peroxidation and Antioxidant Activity in Tilapia Fish Fillet Cooked by Grilling and Microwaving

Authors: E. Oskoueian, E. Maroufyan, Y. M. Goh, E. Ramezani-Fard, M. Ebrahimi


The fish meat plays an important role in the human health as it contains high quality protein. The tilapia fish considered as the third largest group of farmed fish. The oxidative deterioration of fish meat may occur during the cooking process. The proper cooking process and using natural antioxidant to prevent oxidation and enhance the quality of the tilapia fish fillet is necessary. Hence, this research was carried out to evaluate the potential of clove essential oil to prevent lipid peroxidation and enhance the antioxidant activity of tilapia fish fillet cooked using microwave and griller. The results showed that cooking using microwave significantly (p < 0.05) increased the lipid peroxidation and decreased the DPPH and ferric reducing activity power of the fish fillet as compared to grilling. The fortification of fish fillet using clove essential oil prevented from lipid peroxidation and enhanced the antioxidant activity of the fish fillet significantly (p < 0.05). Consequently, fortification of tilapia fish fillet using clove essential oil followed by cooking using griller to have high quality cooked fish meat is recommended.

Keywords: antioxidant activity, fillet, fish, fortification, lipid peroxidation

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152 Effect of Cooking Time, Seed-To-Water Ratio and Soaking Time on the Proximate Composition and Functional Properties of Tetracarpidium conophorum (Nigerian Walnut) Seeds

Authors: J. O. Idoko, C. N. Michael, T. O. Fasuan


This study investigated the effects of cooking time, seed-to-water ratio and soaking time on proximate and functional properties of African walnut seed using Box-Behnken design and Response Surface Methodology (BBD-RSM) with a view to increase its utilization in the food industry. African walnut seeds were sorted washed, soaked, cooked, dehulled, sliced, dried and milled. Proximate analysis and functional properties of the samples were evaluated using standard procedures. Data obtained were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Quadratic models were obtained to predict the proximate and functional qualities as a function of cooking time, seed-to-water ratio and soaking time. The results showed that the crude protein ranged between 11.80% and 23.50%, moisture content ranged between 1.00% and 4.66%, ash content ranged between 3.35% and 5.25%, crude fibre ranged from 0.10% to 7.25% and carbohydrate ranged from 1.22% to 29.35%. The functional properties showed that soluble protein ranged from 16.26% to 42.96%, viscosity ranged from 23.43 mPas to 57 mPas, emulsifying capacity ranged from 17.14% to 39.43% and water absorption capacity ranged from 232% to 297%. An increase in the volume of water used during cooking resulted in loss of water soluble protein through leaching, the length of soaking time and the moisture content of the dried product are inversely related, ash content is inversely related to the cooking time and amount of water used, extraction of fat is enhanced by increase in soaking time while increase in cooking and soaking times result into decrease in fibre content. The results obtained indicated that African walnut could be used in several food formulations as protein supplement and binder.

Keywords: African walnut, functional properties, proximate analysis, response surface methodology

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151 Lubricating Grease from Waste Cooking Oil and Waste Motor Sludge

Authors: Aseem Rajvanshi, Pankaj Kumar Pandey


Increase in population has increased the demand of energy to fulfill all its needs. This will result in burden on fossil fuels especially crude oil. Waste oil due to its disposal problem creates environmental degradation. In this context, this paper studies utilization of waste cooking oil and waste motor sludge for making lubricating grease. Experimental studies have been performed by variation in time and concentration of mixture of waste cooking oil and waste motor sludge. The samples were analyzed using penetration test (ASTM D-217), dropping point (ASTM D-566), work penetration (ASTM D-217) and copper strip test (ASTM D-408). Among 6 samples, sample 6 gives the best results with a good drop point and a fine penetration value. The dropping point and penetration test values were found to be 205 °C and 315, respectively. The penetration value falls under the category of NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute) consistency number 1.

Keywords: crude oil, copper strip corrosion test, dropping point, penetration test

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150 Control of Indoor Carbon through Soft Approaches in Himachal Pradesh, India

Authors: Kopal Verma, Umesh C. Kulshrestha


The mountainous regions are very crucial for a country because of their importance for weather, water supply, forests, and various other socio-economic benefits. But the increasing population and its demand for energy and infrastructure have contributed very high loadings of air pollution. Various activities such as cooking, heating, manufacturing, transport, etc. contribute various particulate and gaseous pollutants in the atmosphere. This study was focused upon indoor air pollution and was carried out in four rural households of the Baggi village located in the Hamirpur District of the Himachal Pradesh state. The residents of Baggi village use biomass as fuel for cooking on traditional stove (Chullah). The biomass types include wood (mainly Beul, Grewia Optiva), crop residue and dung cakes. This study aimed to determine the organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), major cations and anions in the indoor air of each household. During non-cooking hours, it was found that the indoor air contained OC and EC as low as 21µg/m³ and 17µg/m³ respectively. But during cooking hours (with biomass burning), the levels of OC and EC were raised significantly by 91.2% and 85.4% respectively. Then the residents were advised to switch over as per our soft approach options. In the first approach change, they were asked to prepare the meal partially on Chullah using biomass and partially with liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). By doing this change, a considerable reduction in OC (53.1%) and in EC (41.8%) was noticed. The second change of approach included the cooking of entire meal by using LPG. This resulted in the reduction of OC (84.1%) and EC (73.3%) as compared to the values obtained during cooking entirely with biomass. The carbonaceous aerosol levels were higher in the morning hours than in the evening hours because of more biomass burning activity in the morning. According to a general survey done with the residents, the study provided them an awareness about the air pollution and the harmful effects of biomass burning. Some of them correlated their ailments like weakened eyesight, fatigue and respiratory problems with indoor air pollution. This study demonstrated that by replacing biomass with clean fuel such as LPG, the indoor concentrations of EC and OC can be reduced substantially.

Keywords: biomass burning, carbonaceous aerosol, elemental carbon, organic carbon, LPG

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149 Short Term Tests on Performance Evaluation of Water-Washed and Dry-Washed Biodiesel from Used Cooking Oil

Authors: Shumani Ramuhaheli, Christopher C. Enweremadu, Hilary L. Rutto


In this study, biodiesel from used cooking oil was produced as purified by washing with water (water wash) and amberlite (dry wash). The work presents the results of short term tests on performance characteristics of diesel engine using both biodiesel-fuel samples. In this investigation, the water wash biodiesel and dry wash biodiesel and diesel were compared for performance using a four-cylinder diesel engine. The torque, brake power, specific fuel consumption and brake thermal efficiency were analyzed. The tests showed that in all cases, dry wash biodiesel performed marginally poorer compared to water wash biodiesel. Except for brake thermal efficiency, diesel fuel had better engine performance characteristics compared to the biodiesel-fuel samples. According to these results, dry washing of biodiesel has a marginal effect on engine performance.

Keywords: biodiesel, engine performance, used cooking oil, water wash, dry wash

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148 Evaluation of Chromium Fortified - Parboiled Rice Coated with Herbal Extracts: Cooking Quality and Sensory Properties

Authors: Wisnu Adi Yulianto, Agus Slamet, Sri Luwihana, Septian Albar Dwi Suprayogi


Parboiled rice was developed to produce rice, which has a low glycemic index for diabetics. However, diabetics also have a chromium (Cr) deficiency. Thus, it is important to fortify rice with Cr to increase the Cr content. Moreover, parboiled rice becomes rancid easily and has a musty odor, rendering the rice unfavorable. Natural herbs such as pandan leaves (Pandanus amaryllifolius Roxb.), bay leaves (Syzygium polyanthum [Wigh] Walp) and cinnamon bark powder (Cinnamomon cassia) are commonly added to food as aroma enhancers. Previous research has shown that these herbs could improve insulin sensitivity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of herbal extract coatings on the cooking quality and the preference level of chromium fortified - parboiled rice (CFPR). The rice grain variety used for this experiment was Ciherang and the fortificant was CrCl3. The three herbal extracts used for coating the CFPR were cinnamon, pandan and bay leaf, with concentration variations of 3%, 6%, and 9% (w/w) for each of the extracts. The samples were analyzed for their alkali spreading value, cooking time, elongation, water uptake ratio, solid loss, colour and lightness; and their sensory properties were determined by means of an organoleptic test. The research showed that coating the CFPR with pandan and cinnamon extracts at a concentration of 3% each produced a preferred CFPR. When coated with those herbal extracts the CFPR had the following cooking quality properties: alkali spreading value 5 (intermediate gelatinization temperature), cooking time, 26-27 min, color value, 14.95-15.00, lightness, 42.30 – 44.06, elongation, 1.53 – 1.54, water uptake ratio , 4.05-4.06, and solid loss, 0.09/100 g – 0.13 g/100 g.

Keywords: bay leaves, chromium, cinnamon, pandan leaves, parboiled rice

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147 Measuring the Effect of Ventilation on Cooking in Indoor Air Quality by Low-Cost Air Sensors

Authors: Andres Gonzalez, Adam Boies, Jacob Swanson, David Kittelson


The concern of the indoor air quality (IAQ) has been increasing due to its risk to human health. The smoking, sweeping, and stove and stovetop use are the activities that have a major contribution to the indoor air pollution. Outdoor air pollution also affects IAQ. The most important factors over IAQ from cooking activities are the materials, fuels, foods, and ventilation. The low-cost, mobile air quality monitoring (LCMAQM) sensors, is reachable technology to assess the IAQ. This is because of the lower cost of LCMAQM compared to conventional instruments. The IAQ was assessed, using LCMAQM, during cooking activities in a University of Minnesota graduate-housing evaluating different ventilation systems. The gases measured are carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO2). The particles measured are particle matter (PM) 2.5 micrometer (µm) and lung deposited surface area (LDSA). The measurements are being conducted during April 2019 in Como Student Community Cooperative (CSCC) that is a graduate housing at the University of Minnesota. The measurements are conducted using an electric stove for cooking. The amount and type of food and oil using for cooking are the same for each measurement. There are six measurements: two experiments measure air quality without any ventilation, two using an extractor as mechanical ventilation, and two using the extractor and windows open as mechanical and natural ventilation. 3The results of experiments show that natural ventilation is most efficient system to control particles and CO2. The natural ventilation reduces the concentration in 79% for LDSA and 55% for PM2.5, compared to the no ventilation. In the same way, CO2 reduces its concentration in 35%. A well-mixed vessel model was implemented to assess particle the formation and decay rates. Removal rates by the extractor were significantly higher for LDSA, which is dominated by smaller particles, than for PM2.5, but in both cases much lower compared to the natural ventilation. There was significant day to day variation in particle concentrations under nominally identical conditions. This may be related to the fat content of the food. Further research is needed to assess the impact of the fat in food on particle generations.

Keywords: cooking, indoor air quality, low-cost sensor, ventilation

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146 Effect of Cooking Process on the Antioxidant Activity of Different Variants of Tomato-Based Sofrito

Authors: Ana Beltran Sanahuja, A. Valdés García, Saray Lopez De Pablo Gallego, Maria Soledad Prats Moya


Tomato consumption has greatly increased worldwide in the last few years, mostly due to a growing demand for products like sofrito. In this sense, regular consumption of tomato-based products has been consistently associated with a reduction in the incidence of chronic degenerative diseases. The sofrito is a homemade tomato sauce typical of the Mediterranean area, which contains as main ingredients: tomato, onion, garlic and olive oil. There are also sofrito’s variations by adding other spices which bring at the same time not only color, flavor, smell and or aroma; they also provide medicinal properties, due to their antioxidant power. This protective effect has mainly been attributed to the predominant bioactive compounds present in sofrito, such as lycopene and other carotenoids as well as more than 40 different polyphenols. Regarding the cooking process, it is known that it can modify the properties and the availability of nutrients in sofrito; however, there is not enough information regarding this issue. For this reason, the aim of the present work is to evaluate the cooking effect on the antioxidant capacity of different variants of tomato-based sofrito combined with other spices, through the analysis of total phenols content (TPC) and to evaluate the antioxidant capacity by using the method of free radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). Based on the results obtained, it can be confirmed that the basic sofrito composed of tomato, onion, garlic and olive oil and the sofrito with 1 g of rosemary added, are the ones with the highest content of phenols presenting greater antioxidant power than other industrial sofrito, and that of other variables of sofrito with added thyme or higher amounts of garlic. Moreover, it has been observed that in the elaboration of the tomato-based sofrito, it is possible to cook until 60 minutes, since the cooking process increases the bioavailability of the carotenoids when breaking the cell walls, which weakens the binding forces between the carotenoids and increases the levels of antioxidants present, confirmed both with the TPC and DPPH methods. It can be concluded that the cooking process of different variants of tomato-based sofrito, including spices, can improve the antioxidant capacity. The synergistic effects of different antioxidants may have a greater protective effect; increasing, also, the digestibility of proteins. In addition, the antioxidants help to deactivate the free radicals of diseases such as atherosclerosis, aging, immune suppression, cancer, and diabetes.

Keywords: antioxidants, cooking process, phenols sofrito

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145 Quality of Bali Beef and Broiler after Immersion in Liquid Smoke on Different Concentrations and Storage Times

Authors: E. Abustam, M. Yusuf, H. M. Ali, M. I. Said, F. N. Yuliati


The aim of this study was to improve the durability and quality of Bali beef (M. Longissimus dorsi) and broiler carcass through the addition of liquid smoke as a natural preservative. This study was using Longissimus dorsi muscle from male Bali beef aged 3 years, broiler breast and thigh aged 40 days. Three types of meat were marinated in liquid smoke with concentrations of 0, 5, and 10% for 30 minutes at the level of 20% of the sample weight (w/w). The samples were storage at 2-5°C for 1 month. This study designed as a factorial experiment 3 x 3 x 4 based on a completely randomized design with 5 replications; the first factor was meat type (beef, chicken breast and chicken thigh); the 2nd factor was liquid smoke concentrations (0, 5, and 10%), and the 3rd factor was storage duration (1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks). Parameters measured were TBA value, total bacterial colonies, water holding capacity (WHC), shear force value both before and after cooking (80°C – 15min.), and cooking loss. The results showed that the type of meat produced WHC, shear force value, cooking loss and TBA differed between the three types of meat. Higher concentration of liquid smoke, the WHC, shear force value, TBA, and total bacterial colonies were decreased; at a concentration of 10% of liquid smoke, the total bacterial colonies decreased by 57.3% from untreated with liquid smoke. Longer storage, the total bacterial colonies and WHC were increased, while the shear force value and cooking loss were decreased. It can be concluded that a 10% concentration of liquid smoke was able to maintain fat oxidation and bacterial growth in Bali beef and chicken breast and thigh.

Keywords: Bali beef, chicken meat, liquid smoke, meat quality

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144 Factors Influencing the Choice of Food Intake of Students of the Federal Polytechnic, Bida, Niger State, Nigeria

Authors: Adekunle Ayodeji Folorunso, Aisha S. Habeeb


The purpose of this study was to determine the factors influencing the student’s choice of food intake, a case study of the Federal Polytechnic, Bida. A review of the past work was done, and many key points were noted. A sample population of 1000 students was selected randomly (i.e. 200 students from each school) who were in the 2011/2012 academic session. The factor influencing the students' foods intake ranges from economic factors (food cost, income, availability of food), physical factors (easy to cook, shortest time), social factors (cultural, family and meal pattern) attitudes, belief and knowledge about food were discovered. The data collected were tabulated in frequency and percentages. It was revealed that ‘easy method of cooking and preparation’ influenced students’ choice of food intake more (34%) and the food frequency questionnaire shows that the students eat more of carbohydrates foods compared to other classes of food. The cooking skills of students were low (1%) which may be responsible for the limitations in the food choices. It is, therefore, recommended that students should be equipped with sound cooking skills to increase their range of food intake. Variety is needed in diet/meal because the required nutrients are scattered among many different foods.

Keywords: factors, food intake, influencing, choice, students

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143 Long-Term Exposure Assessments for Cooking Workers Exposed to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Aldehydes Containing in Cooking Fumes

Authors: Chun-Yu Chen, Kua-Rong Wu, Yu-Cheng Chen, Perng-Jy Tsai


Cooking fumes are known containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and aldehydes, and some of them have been proven carcinogenic or possibly carcinogenic to humans. Considering their chronic health effects, long-term exposure data is required for assessing cooking workers’ lifetime health risks. Previous exposure assessment studies, due to both time and cost constraints, mostly were based on the cross-sectional data. Therefore, establishing a long-term exposure data has become an important issue for conducting health risk assessment for cooking workers. An approach was proposed in this study. Here, the generation rates of both PAHs and aldehydes from a cooking process were determined by placing a sampling train exactly under the under the exhaust fan under the both the total enclosure condition and normal operating condition, respectively. Subtracting the concentration collected by the former (representing the total emitted concentration) from that of the latter (representing the hood collected concentration), the fugitive emitted concentration was determined. The above data was further converted to determine the generation rates based on the flow rates specified for the exhaust fan. The determinations of the above generation rates were conducted in a testing chamber with a selected cooking process (deep-frying chicken nuggets under 3 L peanut oil at 200°C). The sampling train installed under the exhaust fan consisted respectively an IOM inhalable sampler with a glass fiber filter for collecting particle-phase PAHs, followed by a XAD-2 tube for gas-phase PAHs. The above was also used to sample aldehydes, however, installed with a filter pre-coated with DNPH, and followed by a 2,4-DNPH-cartridge for collecting particle-phase and gas-phase aldehydes, respectively. PAHs and aldehydes samples were analyzed by GC/MS-MS (Agilent 7890B), and HPLC-UV (HITACHI L-7100), respectively. The obtained generation rates of both PAHs and aldehydes were applied to the near-field/ far-field exposure model to estimate the exposures of cooks (the estimated near-field concentration), and helpers (the estimated far-field concentration). For validating purposes, both PAHs and aldehydes samplings were conducted simultaneously using the same sampling train at both near-field and far-field sites of the testing chamber. The sampling results, together with the use of the mixed-effect model, were used to calibrate the estimated near-field/ far-field exposures. In the present study, the obtained emission rates were further converted to emission factor of both PAHs and aldehydes according to the amount of food oil consumed. Applying the long-term food oil consumption records, the emission rates for both PAHs and aldehydes were determined, and the long-term exposure databanks for cooks (the estimated near-field concentration), and helpers (the estimated far-field concentration) were then determined. Results show that the proposed approach was adequate to determine the generation rates of both PAHs and aldehydes under various fan exhaust flow rate conditions. The estimated near-field/ far-field exposures, though were significantly different from that obtained from the field, can be calibrated using the mixed effect model. Finally, the established long-term data bank could provide a useful basis for conducting long-term exposure assessments for cooking workers exposed to PAHs and aldehydes.

Keywords: aldehydes, cooking oil fumes, long-term exposure assessment, modeling, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)

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142 The Effects of Different Amounts of Additional Moisture on the Physical Properties of Cow Pea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) Extrudates

Authors: L. Strauta, S. Muižniece-Brasava


Even though legumes possess high nutritional value and have a rather high protein content for plant origin products, they are underutilized mostly due to their lengthy cooking time. To increase the presence of legume-based products in human diet, new extruded products were made of cow peas (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.). But as it is known, adding different moisture content to flour before extrusion can change the physical properties of the extruded product. Experiments were carried out to estimate the optimal moisture content for cow pea extrusion. After extrusion, the pH level had dropped from 6.7 to 6.5 and the lowest hardness rate was observed in the samples with additional 9 g 100g-1 of moisture - 28±4N, but the volume mass of the samples with additional 9 g100g-1 of water was 263±3 g L-1; all samples were approximately 7±1mm long.

Keywords: cow pea, extrusion–cooking, moisture, size

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141 Influence of Thermal Processing Methods on Antinutrient of Artocarpus heterophyllus Seeds

Authors: Marina Zulkifli, Mohd Faizal Mashhod, Noriham Abdullah


The aim of this study was to determine the antinutrient compounds of jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) seeds as affected by thermal processes. Two types of heat treatments were applied namely boiling and microwave cooking. Results of this study showed that boiling caused a significant decrease in phytate content (30.01%), oxalate content (33.22%), saponin content (35.69%) and tannin content (44.58%) as compared to microwave cooking and raw seed. The percentage loss of antinutrient compounds in microwaved seed was: phytate 24.58%, oxalate 27.28%, saponin 16.50% and tannin 32.21%. Hence, these findings suggested that boiling is an effective treatment to reduce the level of toxic compounds in foods.

Keywords: jackfruit, heat treatments, antinutrient compounds, thermal processing

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140 Exergy: An Effective Tool to Quantify Sustainable Development of Biodiesel Production

Authors: Mahmoud Karimi, Golmohammad Khoobbakht


This study focuses on the exergy flow analysis in the transesterification of waste cooking oil with methanol to decrease the consumption of materials and energy and promote the use of renewable resources. The exergy analysis performed is based on the thermodynamic performance parameters namely exergy destruction and exergy efficiency to investigate the effects of variable parameters on renewability of transesterification. The experiment variables were methanol to WCO ratio, catalyst concentration and reaction temperature in the transesterification reaction. The optimum condition with yield of 90.2% and exergy efficiency of 95.2% was obtained at methanol to oil molar ratio of 8:1, 1 wt.% of KOH, at 55 °C. In this condition, the total waste exergy was found to be 45.4 MJ for 1 kg biodiesel production. However high yield in the optimal condition resulted high exergy efficiency in the transesterification of WCO with methanol.

Keywords: biodiesel, exergy, thermodynamic analysis, transesterification, waste cooking oil

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139 Role of Collaborative Cultural Model to Step on Cleaner Energy: A Case of Kathmandu City Core

Authors: Bindu Shrestha, Sudarshan R. Tiwari, Sushil B. Bajracharya


Urban household cooking fuel choice is highly influenced by human behavior and energy culture parameters such as cognitive norms, material culture and practices. Although these parameters have a leading role in Kathmandu for cleaner households, they are not incorporated in the city’s energy policy. This paper aims to identify trade-offs to transform resident behavior in cooking pattern towards cleaner technology from the questionnaire survey, observation, mapping, interview, and quantitative analysis. The analysis recommends implementing a Collaborative Cultural Model (CCM) for changing impact on the neighborhood from the policy level. The results showed that each household produces 439.56 kg of carbon emission each year and 20 percent used unclean technology due to low-income level. Residents who used liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) as their cooking fuel suffered from an energy crisis every year that has created fuel hoarding, which ultimately creates more energy demand and carbon exposure. In conclusion, the carbon emission can be reduced by improving the residents’ energy consumption culture. It recommended the city to use holistic action of changing habits as soft power of collaboration in two-way participation approach within residents, private sectors, and government to change their energy culture and behavior in policy level.

Keywords: energy consumption pattern, collaborative cultural model, energy culture, fuel stacking

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138 Comparative Study on the Thickening/Viscosity of Ogbono Seed Powder from Irvingia gabonenesis and Irvingia wombolu Species

Authors: Orlando Ketebu


Ogbono seed is the seed obtained from African bush mango (Irvingia gabonenesis) and bitter bush mango (Irvingia wombolu). Irvingia gabonenesis is known for its sweet edible pulp while Irvingia wombolu has a bitter pulp. Their seed powder is used in cooking soup known as ogbono soup in Nigeria and in West Africa. The powder thickens when cooked and researches have shown that it has medicinal uses such as lowering cholesterol; aiding weight loss and helps in improving diabetes control. The nutritional composition of the seeds indicated that Irvingia gabonenesis contains 8.60% protein, 13.8% carbohydrate, 2.0% moisture, 1.5% crude fiber, 16.4% ash, and Irvingia wombolu contains 7.38% protein, 25.75% carbohydrate, 11.7% moisture, 0.84% crude fiber, 2.50% ash. Solvent extraction of these seeds has shown that the seed of the two species are oil seeds with approximately 70 % and 52 % for Irvingia gabonenesis and Irvingia wombolu respectively. One major setback using ogbono seed powder in cooking soup is identifying the specie of ogbono seed powder that thickens most within the same cooking condition and how temperature affects the thickness of ogbono seed powder which determines its viscosity and in turn affects the quality of the soup and its nutrients. This research work monitored how the viscosity of ogbono species after being sun dried for one week changes with temperature. The result showed that heating 20 grams of powdered Irvingia gabonenesis and Irvingia wombolu at 30 OC, 45 OC, 55 OC, 65 OC, 75 OC, 85 OC and 95OC respectively in 200 ml beaker mixed with 100 ml of water, the viscosity of both species decreases with increase temperature with Irvingia wombolu having higher average viscosity in Pascal seconds (Pa.s) of 1.059, 1.042, 0.961, 0.778, 0.684, 0.675, and 0.495 at 30 OC, 45 OC, 55 OC, 65 OC, 75 OC, 85 OC and 95 OC respectively compared to Irvingia gabonenesis with result 0.982, 0.920, 0.720, 0.646, 0.597 and 0.446 at 30 OC, 45 OC, 55 OC, 65 OC, 75 OC, 85 OC and 95 OC respectively. Also from the experiment carried out it was found out that the viscosity of both species decreases with ageing of the seeds and the quantity of ogbono seed powder used and amount of water added also affected the viscosity of both species. In conclusion, it was observed that under the same cooking conditions (temperature range, quantity of water added, time and quantity of ogbono seed powder used), Irvingia wombolu had higher viscosity which is a measure of its thickness and quality of nutrients compared to Irvingia gabonenesis and the viscosity of both species decreases with increasing temperature.

Keywords: ogbono seed powder, temperature, viscosity , soup

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137 Study of White Salted Noodles Air Dehydration Assisted by Microwave as Compared to Conventional Air Dried Process

Authors: Chiun-C. R. Wang, I-Yu Chiu


Drying is the most difficult and critical step to control in the dried salted noodles production. Microwave drying has the specific advantage of rapid and uniform heating due to the penetration of microwaves into the body of the product. Microwave-assisted facility offers a quick and energy saving method during food dehydration as compares to the conventional air-dried method for the noodle preparation. Recently, numerous studies in the rheological characteristics of pasta or spaghetti were carried out with microwave–assisted and conventional air driers and many agricultural products were dried successfully. There is very few research associated with the evaluation of physicochemical characteristics and cooking quality of microwave-assisted air dried salted noodles. The purposes of this study were to compare the difference between conventional air and microwave-assisted air drying method on the physicochemical properties and eating quality of rice bran noodles. Three different microwave power including 0.5 KW, 0.75 KW and 1.0 KW installing with 50℃ hot air were applied for dehydration of rice bran noodles in this study. Three proportion of rice bran ranging in 0-20% were incorporated into salted noodles processing. The appearance, optimum cooking time, cooking yield and losses, textural profiles analysis, and sensory evaluation of rice bran noodles were measured in this study. The results indicated that high power (1.0 KW) microwave facility caused partially burnt and porous on the surface of rice bran noodles. However, no significant difference of noodle was appeared on the surface of noodles between low power (0.5 KW) microwave-assisted salted noodles and control set. The optimum cooking time of noodles was decreased as higher power microwave was applied or higher proportion of rice bran was incorporated in the preparation of salted noodles. The higher proportion of rice bran (20%) or higher power of microwave-assisted dried noodles obtained the higher color intensity and the higher cooking losses as compared with conventional air dried noodles. Meanwhile, the higher power of microwave-assisted air dried noodles indicated the larger air cell inside the noodles and appeared little burnt stripe on the surface of noodles. The firmness of cooked rice bran noodles slightly decreased in the cooked noodles which were dried by high power microwave-assisted method. The shearing force, tensile strength, elasticity and texture profiles of cooked rice noodles decreased with the progress of the proportion of rice bran. The results of sensory evaluation indicated conventional dried noodles obtained the higher springiness, cohesiveness and overall acceptability of cooked noodles than high power (1.0 KW) microwave-assisted dried noodles. However, low power (0.5 KW) microwave-assisted dried noodles showed the comparable sensory attributes and acceptability with conventional dried noodles. Moreover, the sensory attributes including firmness, springiness, cohesiveness decreased, but stickiness increased with the increases of rice bran proportion in the salted noodles. These results inferred that incorporation of lower proportion of rice bran and lower power microwave-assisted dried noodles processing could produce faster cooking time and more acceptable quality of cooked noodles as compared to conventional dried noodles.

Keywords: white salted noodles, microwave-assisted air drying processing, cooking yield, appearance, texture profiles, scanning electrical microscopy, sensory evaluation

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