Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 59

Search results for: hyperspectral

59 Hyperspectral Image Classification Using Tree Search Algorithm

Authors: Shreya Pare, Parvin Akhter


Remotely sensing image classification becomes a very challenging task owing to the high dimensionality of hyperspectral images. The pixel-wise classification methods fail to take the spatial structure information of an image. Therefore, to improve the performance of classification, spatial information can be integrated into the classification process. In this paper, the multilevel thresholding algorithm based on a modified fuzzy entropy function is used to perform the segmentation of hyperspectral images. The fuzzy parameters of the MFE function have been optimized by using a new meta-heuristic algorithm based on the Tree-Search algorithm. The segmented image is classified by a large distribution machine (LDM) classifier. Experimental results are shown on a hyperspectral image dataset. The experimental outputs indicate that the proposed technique (MFE-TSA-LDM) achieves much higher classification accuracy for hyperspectral images when compared to state-of-art classification techniques. The proposed algorithm provides accurate segmentation and classification maps, thus becoming more suitable for image classification with large spatial structures.

Keywords: classification, hyperspectral images, large distribution margin, modified fuzzy entropy function, multilevel thresholding, tree search algorithm, hyperspectral image classification using tree search algorithm

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58 Sparse Unmixing of Hyperspectral Data by Exploiting Joint-Sparsity and Rank-Deficiency

Authors: Fanqiang Kong, Chending Bian


In this work, we exploit two assumed properties of the abundances of the observed signatures (endmembers) in order to reconstruct the abundances from hyperspectral data. Joint-sparsity is the first property of the abundances, which assumes the adjacent pixels can be expressed as different linear combinations of same materials. The second property is rank-deficiency where the number of endmembers participating in hyperspectral data is very small compared with the dimensionality of spectral library, which means that the abundances matrix of the endmembers is a low-rank matrix. These assumptions lead to an optimization problem for the sparse unmixing model that requires minimizing a combined l2,p-norm and nuclear norm. We propose a variable splitting and augmented Lagrangian algorithm to solve the optimization problem. Experimental evaluation carried out on synthetic and real hyperspectral data shows that the proposed method outperforms the state-of-the-art algorithms with a better spectral unmixing accuracy.

Keywords: hyperspectral unmixing, joint-sparse, low-rank representation, abundance estimation

Procedia PDF Downloads 143
57 Virtual Dimension Analysis of Hyperspectral Imaging to Characterize a Mining Sample

Authors: L. Chevez, A. Apaza, J. Rodriguez, R. Puga, H. Loro, Juan Z. Davalos


Virtual Dimension (VD) procedure is used to analyze Hyperspectral Image (HIS) treatment-data in order to estimate the abundance of mineral components of a mining sample. Hyperspectral images coming from reflectance spectra (NIR region) are pre-treated using Standard Normal Variance (SNV) and Minimum Noise Fraction (MNF) methodologies. The endmember components are identified by the Simplex Growing Algorithm (SVG) and after adjusted to the reflectance spectra of reference-databases using Simulated Annealing (SA) methodology. The obtained abundance of minerals of the sample studied is very near to the ones obtained using XRD with a total relative error of 2%.

Keywords: hyperspectral imaging, minimum noise fraction, MNF, simplex growing algorithm, SGA, standard normal variance, SNV, virtual dimension, XRD

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56 Water Depth and Optical Attenuation Characteristics of Natural Water Reservoirs nearby Kolkata City Assessed from Hyperion Hyperspectral and LISS-3 Multispectral Images

Authors: Barun Raychaudhuri


A methodology is proposed for estimating the optical attenuation and proportional depth variation of shallow inland water. The process is demonstrated with EO-1 Hyperion hyperspectral and IRS-P6 LISS-3 multispectral images of Kolkata city nearby area centered around 22º33′ N 88º26′ E. The attenuation coefficient of water was found to change with fine resolution of wavebands and in presence of suspended organic matter in water.

Keywords: hyperion, hyperspectral, Kolkata, water depth

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55 Band Characterization and Development of Hyperspectral Indices for Retrieving Chlorophyll Content

Authors: Ramandeep Kaur M. Malhi, Prashant K. Srivastava, G.Sandhya Kiran


Quantitative estimates of foliar biochemicals, namely chlorophyll content (CC), serve as key information for the assessment of plant productivity, stress, and the availability of nutrients. This also plays a critical role in predicting the dynamic response of any vegetation to altering climate conditions. The advent of hyperspectral data with an enhanced number of available wavelengths has increased the possibility of acquiring improved information on CC. Retrieval of CC is extensively carried through well known spectral indices derived from hyperspectral data. In the present study, an attempt is made to develop hyperspectral indices by identifying optimum bands for CC estimation in Butea monosperma (Lam.) Taub growing in forests of Shoolpaneshwar Wildlife Sanctuary, Narmada district, Gujarat State, India. 196 narrow bands of EO-1 Hyperion images were screened, and the best optimum wavelength from blue, green, red, and near infrared (NIR) regions were identified based on the coefficient of determination (R²) between band reflectance and laboratory estimated CC. The identified optimum wavelengths were then employed for developing 12 hyperspectral indices. These spectral index values and CC values were then correlated to investigate the relation between laboratory measured CC and spectral indices. Band 15 of blue range and Band 22 of green range, Band 40 of the red region, and Band 79 of NIR region were found to be optimum bands for estimating CC. The optimum band based combinations on hyperspectral data proved to be the most effective indices for quantifying Butea CC with NDVI and TVI identified as the best (R² > 0.7, p < 0.01). The study demonstrated the significance of band characterization in the development of the best hyperspectral indices for the chlorophyll estimation, which can aid in monitoring the vitality of forests.

Keywords: band, characterization, chlorophyll, hyperspectral, indices

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54 Approach Based on Fuzzy C-Means for Band Selection in Hyperspectral Images

Authors: Diego Saqui, José H. Saito, José R. Campos, Lúcio A. de C. Jorge


Hyperspectral images and remote sensing are important for many applications. A problem in the use of these images is the high volume of data to be processed, stored and transferred. Dimensionality reduction techniques can be used to reduce the volume of data. In this paper, an approach to band selection based on clustering algorithms is presented. This approach allows to reduce the volume of data. The proposed structure is based on Fuzzy C-Means (or K-Means) and NWHFC algorithms. New attributes in relation to other studies in the literature, such as kurtosis and low correlation, are also considered. A comparison of the results of the approach using the Fuzzy C-Means and K-Means with different attributes is performed. The use of both algorithms show similar good results but, particularly when used attributes variance and kurtosis in the clustering process, however applicable in hyperspectral images.

Keywords: band selection, fuzzy c-means, k-means, hyperspectral image

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53 Sparsity-Based Unsupervised Unmixing of Hyperspectral Imaging Data Using Basis Pursuit

Authors: Ahmed Elrewainy


Mixing in the hyperspectral imaging occurs due to the low spatial resolutions of the used cameras. The existing pure materials “endmembers” in the scene share the spectra pixels with different amounts called “abundances”. Unmixing of the data cube is an important task to know the present endmembers in the cube for the analysis of these images. Unsupervised unmixing is done with no information about the given data cube. Sparsity is one of the recent approaches used in the source recovery or unmixing techniques. The l1-norm optimization problem “basis pursuit” could be used as a sparsity-based approach to solve this unmixing problem where the endmembers is assumed to be sparse in an appropriate domain known as dictionary. This optimization problem is solved using proximal method “iterative thresholding”. The l1-norm basis pursuit optimization problem as a sparsity-based unmixing technique was used to unmix real and synthetic hyperspectral data cubes.

Keywords: basis pursuit, blind source separation, hyperspectral imaging, spectral unmixing, wavelets

Procedia PDF Downloads 138
52 Near-Infrared Hyperspectral Imaging Spectroscopy to Detect Microplastics and Pieces of Plastic in Almond Flour

Authors: H. Apaza, L. Chévez, H. Loro


Plastic and microplastic pollution in human food chain is a big problem for human health that requires more elaborated techniques that can identify their presences in different kinds of food. Hyperspectral imaging technique is an optical technique than can detect the presence of different elements in an image and can be used to detect plastics and microplastics in a scene. To do this statistical techniques are required that need to be evaluated and compared in order to find the more efficient ones. In this work, two problems related to the presence of plastics are addressed, the first is to detect and identify pieces of plastic immersed in almond seeds, and the second problem is to detect and quantify microplastic in almond flour. To do this we make use of the analysis hyperspectral images taken in the range of 900 to 1700 nm using 4 unmixing techniques of hyperspectral imaging which are: least squares unmixing (LSU), non-negatively constrained least squares unmixing (NCLSU), fully constrained least squares unmixing (FCLSU), and scaled constrained least squares unmixing (SCLSU). NCLSU, FCLSU, SCLSU techniques manage to find the region where the plastic is found and also manage to quantify the amount of microplastic contained in the almond flour. The SCLSU technique estimated a 13.03% abundance of microplastics and 86.97% of almond flour compared to 16.66% of microplastics and 83.33% abundance of almond flour prepared for the experiment. Results show the feasibility of applying near-infrared hyperspectral image analysis for the detection of plastic contaminants in food.

Keywords: food, plastic, microplastic, NIR hyperspectral imaging, unmixing

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51 Non-Local Simultaneous Sparse Unmixing for Hyperspectral Data

Authors: Fanqiang Kong, Chending Bian


Sparse unmixing is a promising approach in a semisupervised fashion by assuming that the observed pixels of a hyperspectral image can be expressed in the form of linear combination of only a few pure spectral signatures (end members) in an available spectral library. However, the sparse unmixing problem still remains a great challenge at finding the optimal subset of endmembers for the observed data from a large standard spectral library, without considering the spatial information. Under such circumstances, a sparse unmixing algorithm termed as non-local simultaneous sparse unmixing (NLSSU) is presented. In NLSSU, the non-local simultaneous sparse representation method for endmember selection of sparse unmixing, is used to finding the optimal subset of endmembers for the similar image patch set in the hyperspectral image. And then, the non-local means method, as a regularizer for abundance estimation of sparse unmixing, is used to exploit the abundance image non-local self-similarity. Experimental results on both simulated and real data demonstrate that NLSSU outperforms the other algorithms, with a better spectral unmixing accuracy.

Keywords: hyperspectral unmixing, simultaneous sparse representation, sparse regression, non-local means

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50 Estimation of Foliar Nitrogen in Selected Vegetation Communities of Uttrakhand Himalayas Using Hyperspectral Satellite Remote Sensing

Authors: Yogita Mishra, Arijit Roy, Dhruval Bhavsar


The study estimates the nitrogen concentration in selected vegetation community’s i.e. chir pine (pinusroxburghii) by using hyperspectral satellite data and also identified the appropriate spectral bands and nitrogen indices. The Short Wave InfraRed reflectance spectrum at 1790 nm and 1680 nm shows the maximum possible absorption by nitrogen in selected species. Among the nitrogen indices, log normalized nitrogen index performed positively and negatively too. The strong positive correlation is taken out from 1510 nm and 760 nm for the pinusroxburghii for leaf nitrogen concentration and leaf nitrogen mass while using NDNI. The regression value of R² developed by using linear equation achieved maximum at 0.7525 for the analysis of satellite image data and R² is maximum at 0.547 for ground truth data for pinusroxburghii respectively.

Keywords: hyperspectral, NDNI, nitrogen concentration, regression value

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49 Hyperspectral Band Selection for Oil Spill Detection Using Deep Neural Network

Authors: Asmau Mukhtar Ahmed, Olga Duran


Hydrocarbon (HC) spills constitute a significant problem that causes great concern to the environment. With the latest technology (hyperspectral images) and state of the earth techniques (image processing tools), hydrocarbon spills can easily be detected at an early stage to mitigate the effects caused by such menace. In this study; a controlled laboratory experiment was used, and clay soil was mixed and homogenized with different hydrocarbon types (diesel, bio-diesel, and petrol). The different mixtures were scanned with HYSPEX hyperspectral camera under constant illumination to generate the hypersectral datasets used for this experiment. So far, the Short Wave Infrared Region (SWIR) has been exploited in detecting HC spills with excellent accuracy. However, the Near-Infrared Region (NIR) is somewhat unexplored with regards to HC contamination and how it affects the spectrum of soils. In this study, Deep Neural Network (DNN) was applied to the controlled datasets to detect and quantify the amount of HC spills in soils in the Near-Infrared Region. The initial results are extremely encouraging because it indicates that the DNN was able to identify features of HC in the Near-Infrared Region with a good level of accuracy.

Keywords: hydrocarbon, Deep Neural Network, short wave infrared region, near-infrared region, hyperspectral image

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48 Chemical Image Processing for Food Safety, Classification and Authentication

Authors: Isik Riza Türkmen, Simon Friedrich, Ervinatasia Djaw


The application of chemical imaging for food safety and authentication studies has recently become a popular research topic in the food industry, as recent technological advances have led to increased computational power to run data- and computational-intensive machine learning algorithms on laboratory computers. As a result, data intensive hyperspectral image acquisition and processing has gained acceptance and prestige in the food industry, enabling a wide range of digital transformation applications that accompany various research efforts from farm to fork. We focus on two case studies: In the first, we address the application of digital image processing for sorting coffee brands based on aroma characteristics and origin. In the second application, we address the safety and authentication of minced meat by processing hyperspectral images captured in the near-infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum. Methods are developed for the processing of hyperspectral image data that enables visual data exploration using unsupervised clustering and for the prediction of various food safety and authenticity properties based on supervised learning.

Keywords: hyperspectral imaging, food safety and authentication, unsupervised learning, supervised learning

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47 Continual Learning Using Data Generation for Hyperspectral Remote Sensing Scene Classification

Authors: Samiah Alammari, Nassim Ammour


When providing a massive number of tasks successively to a deep learning process, a good performance of the model requires preserving the previous tasks data to retrain the model for each upcoming classification. Otherwise, the model performs poorly due to the catastrophic forgetting phenomenon. To overcome this shortcoming, we developed a successful continual learning deep model for remote sensing hyperspectral image regions classification. The proposed neural network architecture encapsulates two trainable subnetworks. The first module adapts its weights by minimizing the discrimination error between the land-cover classes during the new task learning, and the second module tries to learn how to replicate the data of the previous tasks by discovering the latent data structure of the new task dataset. We conduct experiments on HSI dataset Indian Pines. The results confirm the capability of the proposed method.

Keywords: continual learning, data reconstruction, remote sensing, hyperspectral image segmentation

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46 Tree Species Classification Using Effective Features of Polarimetric SAR and Hyperspectral Images

Authors: Milad Vahidi, Mahmod R. Sahebi, Mehrnoosh Omati, Reza Mohammadi


Forest management organizations need information to perform their work effectively. Remote sensing is an effective method to acquire information from the Earth. Two datasets of remote sensing images were used to classify forested regions. Firstly, all of extractable features from hyperspectral and PolSAR images were extracted. The optical features were spectral indexes related to the chemical, water contents, structural indexes, effective bands and absorption features. Also, PolSAR features were the original data, target decomposition components, and SAR discriminators features. Secondly, the particle swarm optimization (PSO) and the genetic algorithms (GA) were applied to select optimization features. Furthermore, the support vector machine (SVM) classifier was used to classify the image. The results showed that the combination of PSO and SVM had higher overall accuracy than the other cases. This combination provided overall accuracy about 90.56%. The effective features were the spectral index, the bands in shortwave infrared (SWIR) and the visible ranges and certain PolSAR features.

Keywords: hyperspectral, PolSAR, feature selection, SVM

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45 Application of Advanced Remote Sensing Data in Mineral Exploration in the Vicinity of Heavy Dense Forest Cover Area of Jharkhand and Odisha State Mining Area

Authors: Hemant Kumar, R. N. K. Sharma, A. P. Krishna


The study has been carried out on the Saranda in Jharkhand and a part of Odisha state. Geospatial data of Hyperion, a remote sensing satellite, have been used. This study has used a wide variety of patterns related to image processing to enhance and extract the mining class of Fe and Mn ores.Landsat-8, OLI sensor data have also been used to correctly explore related minerals. In this way, various processes have been applied to increase the mineralogy class and comparative evaluation with related frequency done. The Hyperion dataset for hyperspectral remote sensing has been specifically verified as an effective tool for mineral or rock information extraction within the band range of shortwave infrared used. The abundant spatial and spectral information contained in hyperspectral images enables the differentiation of different objects of any object into targeted applications for exploration such as exploration detection, mining.

Keywords: Hyperion, hyperspectral, sensor, Landsat-8

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44 A Nonlinear Feature Selection Method for Hyperspectral Image Classification

Authors: Pei-Jyun Hsieh, Cheng-Hsuan Li, Bor-Chen Kuo


For hyperspectral image classification, feature reduction is an important pre-processing for avoiding the Hughes phenomena due to the difficulty for collecting training samples. Hence, lots of researches developed feature selection methods such as F-score, HSIC (Hilbert-Schmidt Independence Criterion), and etc., to improve hyperspectral image classification. However, most of them only consider the class separability in the original space, i.e., a linear class separability. In this study, we proposed a nonlinear class separability measure based on kernel trick for selecting an appropriate feature subset. The proposed nonlinear class separability was formed by a generalized RBF kernel with different bandwidths with respect to different features. Moreover, it considered the within-class separability and the between-class separability. A genetic algorithm was applied to tune these bandwidths such that the smallest with-class separability and the largest between-class separability simultaneously. This indicates the corresponding feature space is more suitable for classification. In addition, the corresponding nonlinear classification boundary can separate classes very well. These optimal bandwidths also show the importance of bands for hyperspectral image classification. The reciprocals of these bandwidths can be viewed as weights of bands. The smaller bandwidth, the larger weight of the band, and the more importance for classification. Hence, the descending order of the reciprocals of the bands gives an order for selecting the appropriate feature subsets. In the experiments, three hyperspectral image data sets, the Indian Pine Site data set, the PAVIA data set, and the Salinas A data set, were used to demonstrate the selected feature subsets by the proposed nonlinear feature selection method are more appropriate for hyperspectral image classification. Only ten percent of samples were randomly selected to form the training dataset. All non-background samples were used to form the testing dataset. The support vector machine was applied to classify these testing samples based on selected feature subsets. According to the experiments on the Indian Pine Site data set with 220 bands, the highest accuracies by applying the proposed method, F-score, and HSIC are 0.8795, 0.8795, and 0.87404, respectively. However, the proposed method selects 158 features. F-score and HSIC select 168 features and 217 features, respectively. Moreover, the classification accuracies increase dramatically only using first few features. The classification accuracies with respect to feature subsets of 10 features, 20 features, 50 features, and 110 features are 0.69587, 0.7348, 0.79217, and 0.84164, respectively. Furthermore, only using half selected features (110 features) of the proposed method, the corresponding classification accuracy (0.84168) is approximate to the highest classification accuracy, 0.8795. For other two hyperspectral image data sets, the PAVIA data set and Salinas A data set, we can obtain the similar results. These results illustrate our proposed method can efficiently find feature subsets to improve hyperspectral image classification. One can apply the proposed method to determine the suitable feature subset first according to specific purposes. Then researchers can only use the corresponding sensors to obtain the hyperspectral image and classify the samples. This can not only improve the classification performance but also reduce the cost for obtaining hyperspectral images.

Keywords: hyperspectral image classification, nonlinear feature selection, kernel trick, support vector machine

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43 A Non-Destructive Estimation Method for Internal Time in Perilla Leaf Using Hyperspectral Data

Authors: Shogo Nagano, Yusuke Tanigaki, Hirokazu Fukuda


Vegetables harvested early in the morning or late in the afternoon are valued in plant production, and so the time of harvest is important. The biological functions known as circadian clocks have a significant effect on this harvest timing. The purpose of this study was to non-destructively estimate the circadian clock and so construct a method for determining a suitable harvest time. We took eight samples of green busil (Perilla frutescens var. crispa) every 4 hours, six times for 1 day and analyzed all samples at the same time. A hyperspectral camera was used to collect spectrum intensities at 141 different wavelengths (350–1050 nm). Calculation of correlations between spectrum intensity of each wavelength and harvest time suggested the suitability of the hyperspectral camera for non-destructive estimation. However, even the highest correlated wavelength had a weak correlation, so we used machine learning to raise the accuracy of estimation and constructed a machine learning model to estimate the internal time of the circadian clock. Artificial neural networks (ANN) were used for machine learning because this is an effective analysis method for large amounts of data. Using the estimation model resulted in an error between estimated and real times of 3 min. The estimations were made in less than 2 hours. Thus, we successfully demonstrated this method of non-destructively estimating internal time.

Keywords: artificial neural network (ANN), circadian clock, green busil, hyperspectral camera, non-destructive evaluation

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42 Hyperspectral Data Classification Algorithm Based on the Deep Belief and Self-Organizing Neural Network

Authors: Li Qingjian, Li Ke, He Chun, Huang Yong


In this paper, the method of combining the Pohl Seidman's deep belief network with the self-organizing neural network is proposed to classify the target. This method is mainly aimed at the high nonlinearity of the hyperspectral image, the high sample dimension and the difficulty in designing the classifier. The main feature of original data is extracted by deep belief network. In the process of extracting features, adding known labels samples to fine tune the network, enriching the main characteristics. Then, the extracted feature vectors are classified into the self-organizing neural network. This method can effectively reduce the dimensions of data in the spectrum dimension in the preservation of large amounts of raw data information, to solve the traditional clustering and the long training time when labeled samples less deep learning algorithm for training problems, improve the classification accuracy and robustness. Through the data simulation, the results show that the proposed network structure can get a higher classification precision in the case of a small number of known label samples.

Keywords: DBN, SOM, pattern classification, hyperspectral, data compression

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41 Classification of Germinatable Mung Bean by Near Infrared Hyperspectral Imaging

Authors: Kaewkarn Phuangsombat, Arthit Phuangsombat, Anupun Terdwongworakul


Hard seeds will not grow and can cause mold in sprouting process. Thus, the hard seeds need to be separated from the normal seeds. Near infrared hyperspectral imaging in a range of 900 to 1700 nm was implemented to develop a model by partial least squares discriminant analysis to discriminate the hard seeds from the normal seeds. The orientation of the seeds was also studied to compare the performance of the models. The model based on hilum-up orientation achieved the best result giving the coefficient of determination of 0.98, and root mean square error of prediction of 0.07 with classification accuracy was equal to 100%.

Keywords: mung bean, near infrared, germinatability, hard seed

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40 Hyperspectral Mapping Methods for Differentiating Mangrove Species along Karachi Coast

Authors: Sher Muhammad, Mirza Muhammad Waqar


It is necessary to monitor and identify mangroves types and spatial extent near coastal areas because it plays an important role in coastal ecosystem and environmental protection. This research aims at identifying and mapping mangroves types along Karachi coast ranging from 24.79 to 24.85 degree in latitude and 66.91 to 66.97 degree in longitude using hyperspectral remote sensing data and techniques. Image acquired during February, 2012 through Hyperion sensor have been used for this research. Image preprocessing includes geometric and radiometric correction followed by Minimum Noise Fraction (MNF) and Pixel Purity Index (PPI). The output of MNF and PPI has been analyzed by visualizing it in n-dimensions for end-member extraction. Well-distributed clusters on the n-dimensional scatter plot have been selected with the region of interest (ROI) tool as end members. These end members have been used as an input for classification techniques applied to identify and map mangroves species including Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM), Spectral Feature Fitting (SFF), and Spectral Information Diversion (SID). Only two types of mangroves namely Avicennia Marina (white mangroves) and Avicennia Germinans (black mangroves) have been observed throughout the study area.

Keywords: mangrove, hyperspectral, hyperion, SAM, SFF, SID

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39 Identification and Classification of Medicinal Plants of Indian Himalayan Region Using Hyperspectral Remote Sensing and Machine Learning Techniques

Authors: Kishor Chandra Kandpal, Amit Kumar


The Indian Himalaya region harbours approximately 1748 plants of medicinal importance, and as per International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), the 112 plant species among these are threatened and endangered. To ease the pressure on these plants, the government of India is encouraging its in-situ cultivation. The Saussurea costus, Valeriana jatamansi, and Picrorhiza kurroa have also been prioritized for large scale cultivation owing to their market demand, conservation value and medicinal properties. These species are found from 1000 m to 4000 m elevation ranges in the Indian Himalaya. Identification of these plants in the field requires taxonomic skills, which is one of the major bottleneck in the conservation and management of these plants. In recent years, Hyperspectral remote sensing techniques have been precisely used for the discrimination of plant species with the help of their unique spectral signatures. In this background, a spectral library of the above 03 medicinal plants was prepared by collecting the spectral data using a handheld spectroradiometer (325 to 1075 nm) from farmer’s fields of Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand states of Indian Himalaya. The Random forest (RF) model was implied on the spectral data for the classification of the medicinal plants. The 80:20 standard split ratio was followed for training and validation of the RF model, which resulted in training accuracy of 84.39 % (kappa coefficient = 0.72) and testing accuracy of 85.29 % (kappa coefficient = 0.77). This RF classifier has identified green (555 to 598 nm), red (605 nm), and near-infrared (725 to 840 nm) wavelength regions suitable for the discrimination of these species. The findings of this study have provided a technique for rapid and onsite identification of the above medicinal plants in the field. This will also be a key input for the classification of hyperspectral remote sensing images for mapping of these species in farmer’s field on a regional scale. This is a pioneer study in the Indian Himalaya region for medicinal plants in which the applicability of hyperspectral remote sensing has been explored.

Keywords: himalaya, hyperspectral remote sensing, machine learning; medicinal plants, random forests

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38 Analysis of Detection Concealed Objects Based on Multispectral and Hyperspectral Signatures

Authors: M. Kastek, M. Kowalski, M. Szustakowski, H. Polakowski, T. Sosnowski


Development of highly efficient security systems is one of the most urgent topics for science and engineering. There are many kinds of threats and many methods of prevention. It is very important to detect a threat as early as possible in order to neutralize it. One of the very challenging problems is detection of dangerous objects hidden under human’s clothing. This problem is particularly important for safety of airport passengers. In order to develop methods and algorithms to detect hidden objects it is necessary to determine the thermal signatures of such objects of interest. The laboratory measurements were conducted to determine the thermal signatures of dangerous tools hidden under various clothes in different ambient conditions. Cameras used for measurements were working in spectral range 0.6-12.5 μm An infrared imaging Fourier transform spectroradiometer was also used, working in spectral range 7.7-11.7 μm. Analysis of registered thermograms and hyperspectral datacubes has yielded the thermal signatures for two types of guns, two types of knives and home-made explosive bombs. The determined thermal signatures will be used in the development of method and algorithms of image analysis implemented in proposed monitoring systems.

Keywords: hyperspectral detection, nultispectral detection, image processing, monitoring systems

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37 Potassium-Phosphorus-Nitrogen Detection and Spectral Segmentation Analysis Using Polarized Hyperspectral Imagery and Machine Learning

Authors: Nicholas V. Scott, Jack McCarthy


Military, law enforcement, and counter terrorism organizations are often tasked with target detection and image characterization of scenes containing explosive materials in various types of environments where light scattering intensity is high. Mitigation of this photonic noise using classical digital filtration and signal processing can be difficult. This is partially due to the lack of robust image processing methods for photonic noise removal, which strongly influence high resolution target detection and machine learning-based pattern recognition. Such analysis is crucial to the delivery of reliable intelligence. Polarization filters are a possible method for ambient glare reduction by allowing only certain modes of the electromagnetic field to be captured, providing strong scene contrast. An experiment was carried out utilizing a polarization lens attached to a hyperspectral imagery camera for the purpose of exploring the degree to which an imaged polarized scene of potassium, phosphorus, and nitrogen mixture allows for improved target detection and image segmentation. Preliminary imagery results based on the application of machine learning algorithms, including competitive leaky learning and distance metric analysis, to polarized hyperspectral imagery, suggest that polarization filters provide a slight advantage in image segmentation. The results of this work have implications for understanding the presence of explosive material in dry, desert areas where reflective glare is a significant impediment to scene characterization.

Keywords: explosive material, hyperspectral imagery, image segmentation, machine learning, polarization

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36 An Adaptive Dimensionality Reduction Approach for Hyperspectral Imagery Semantic Interpretation

Authors: Akrem Sellami, Imed Riadh Farah, Basel Solaiman


With the development of HyperSpectral Imagery (HSI) technology, the spectral resolution of HSI became denser, which resulted in large number of spectral bands, high correlation between neighboring, and high data redundancy. However, the semantic interpretation is a challenging task for HSI analysis due to the high dimensionality and the high correlation of the different spectral bands. In fact, this work presents a dimensionality reduction approach that allows to overcome the different issues improving the semantic interpretation of HSI. Therefore, in order to preserve the spatial information, the Tensor Locality Preserving Projection (TLPP) has been applied to transform the original HSI. In the second step, knowledge has been extracted based on the adjacency graph to describe the different pixels. Based on the transformation matrix using TLPP, a weighted matrix has been constructed to rank the different spectral bands based on their contribution score. Thus, the relevant bands have been adaptively selected based on the weighted matrix. The performance of the presented approach has been validated by implementing several experiments, and the obtained results demonstrate the efficiency of this approach compared to various existing dimensionality reduction techniques. Also, according to the experimental results, we can conclude that this approach can adaptively select the relevant spectral improving the semantic interpretation of HSI.

Keywords: band selection, dimensionality reduction, feature extraction, hyperspectral imagery, semantic interpretation

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35 Enhanced Image Representation for Deep Belief Network Classification of Hyperspectral Images

Authors: Khitem Amiri, Mohamed Farah


Image classification is a challenging task and is gaining lots of interest since it helps us to understand the content of images. Recently Deep Learning (DL) based methods gave very interesting results on several benchmarks. For Hyperspectral images (HSI), the application of DL techniques is still challenging due to the scarcity of labeled data and to the curse of dimensionality. Among other approaches, Deep Belief Network (DBN) based approaches gave a fair classification accuracy. In this paper, we address the problem of the curse of dimensionality by reducing the number of bands and replacing the HSI channels by the channels representing radiometric indices. Therefore, instead of using all the HSI bands, we compute the radiometric indices such as NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index), NDWI (Normalized Difference Water Index), etc, and we use the combination of these indices as input for the Deep Belief Network (DBN) based classification model. Thus, we keep almost all the pertinent spectral information while reducing considerably the size of the image. In order to test our image representation, we applied our method on several HSI datasets including the Indian pines dataset, Jasper Ridge data and it gave comparable results to the state of the art methods while reducing considerably the time of training and testing.

Keywords: hyperspectral images, deep belief network, radiometric indices, image classification

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34 Hyperspectral Imaging and Nonlinear Fukunaga-Koontz Transform Based Food Inspection

Authors: Hamidullah Binol, Abdullah Bal


Nowadays, food safety is a great public concern; therefore, robust and effective techniques are required for detecting the safety situation of goods. Hyperspectral Imaging (HSI) is an attractive material for researchers to inspect food quality and safety estimation such as meat quality assessment, automated poultry carcass inspection, quality evaluation of fish, bruise detection of apples, quality analysis and grading of citrus fruits, bruise detection of strawberry, visualization of sugar distribution of melons, measuring ripening of tomatoes, defect detection of pickling cucumber, and classification of wheat kernels. HSI can be used to concurrently collect large amounts of spatial and spectral data on the objects being observed. This technique yields with exceptional detection skills, which otherwise cannot be achieved with either imaging or spectroscopy alone. This paper presents a nonlinear technique based on kernel Fukunaga-Koontz transform (KFKT) for detection of fat content in ground meat using HSI. The KFKT which is the nonlinear version of FKT is one of the most effective techniques for solving problems involving two-pattern nature. The conventional FKT method has been improved with kernel machines for increasing the nonlinear discrimination ability and capturing higher order of statistics of data. The proposed approach in this paper aims to segment the fat content of the ground meat by regarding the fat as target class which is tried to be separated from the remaining classes (as clutter). We have applied the KFKT on visible and nearinfrared (VNIR) hyperspectral images of ground meat to determine fat percentage. The experimental studies indicate that the proposed technique produces high detection performance for fat ratio in ground meat.

Keywords: food (ground meat) inspection, Fukunaga-Koontz transform, hyperspectral imaging, kernel methods

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33 Kernel-Based Double Nearest Proportion Feature Extraction for Hyperspectral Image Classification

Authors: Hung-Sheng Lin, Cheng-Hsuan Li


Over the past few years, kernel-based algorithms have been widely used to extend some linear feature extraction methods such as principal component analysis (PCA), linear discriminate analysis (LDA), and nonparametric weighted feature extraction (NWFE) to their nonlinear versions, kernel principal component analysis (KPCA), generalized discriminate analysis (GDA), and kernel nonparametric weighted feature extraction (KNWFE), respectively. These nonlinear feature extraction methods can detect nonlinear directions with the largest nonlinear variance or the largest class separability based on the given kernel function. Moreover, they have been applied to improve the target detection or the image classification of hyperspectral images. The double nearest proportion feature extraction (DNP) can effectively reduce the overlap effect and have good performance in hyperspectral image classification. The DNP structure is an extension of the k-nearest neighbor technique. For each sample, there are two corresponding nearest proportions of samples, the self-class nearest proportion and the other-class nearest proportion. The term “nearest proportion” used here consider both the local information and other more global information. With these settings, the effect of the overlap between the sample distributions can be reduced. Usually, the maximum likelihood estimator and the related unbiased estimator are not ideal estimators in high dimensional inference problems, particularly in small data-size situation. Hence, an improved estimator by shrinkage estimation (regularization) is proposed. Based on the DNP structure, LDA is included as a special case. In this paper, the kernel method is applied to extend DNP to kernel-based DNP (KDNP). In addition to the advantages of DNP, KDNP surpasses DNP in the experimental results. According to the experiments on the real hyperspectral image data sets, the classification performance of KDNP is better than that of PCA, LDA, NWFE, and their kernel versions, KPCA, GDA, and KNWFE.

Keywords: feature extraction, kernel method, double nearest proportion feature extraction, kernel double nearest feature extraction

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32 Characterization of Forest Fire Fuel in Shivalik Himalayas Using Hyperspectral Remote Sensing

Authors: Neha Devi, P. K. Joshi


Fire fuel map is one of the most critical factors for planning and managing the fire hazard and risk. One of the most significant forms of global disturbance, impacting community dynamics, biogeochemical cycles and local and regional climate across a wide range of ecosystems ranging from boreal forests to tropical rainforest is wildfire Assessment of fire danger is a function of forest type, fuelwood stock volume, moisture content, degree of senescence and fire management strategy adopted in the ground. Remote sensing has potential of reduction the uncertainty in mapping fuels. Hyperspectral remote sensing is emerging to be a very promising technology for wildfire fuels characterization. Fine spectral information also facilitates mapping of biophysical and chemical information that is directly related to the quality of forest fire fuels including above ground live biomass, canopy moisture, etc. We used Hyperion imagery acquired in February, 2016 and analysed four fuel characteristics using Hyperion sensor data on-board EO-1 satellite, acquired over the Shiwalik Himalayas covering the area of Champawat, Uttarakhand state. The main objective of this study was to present an overview of methodologies for mapping fuel properties using hyperspectral remote sensing data. Fuel characteristics analysed include fuel biomass, fuel moisture, and fuel condition and fuel type. Fuel moisture and fuel biomass were assessed through the expression of the liquid water bands. Fuel condition and type was assessed using green vegetation, non-photosynthetic vegetation and soil as Endmember for spectral mixture analysis. Linear Spectral Unmixing, a partial spectral unmixing algorithm, was used to identify the spectral abundance of green vegetation, non-photosynthetic vegetation and soil.

Keywords: forest fire fuel, Hyperion, hyperspectral, linear spectral unmixing, spectral mixture analysis

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31 Heuristic Spatial-Spectral Hyperspectral Image Segmentation Using Bands Quartile Box Plot Profiles

Authors: Mohamed A. Almoghalis, Osman M. Hegazy, Ibrahim F. Imam, Ali H. Elbastawessy


This paper presents a new hyperspectral image segmentation scheme with respect to both spatial and spectral contexts. The scheme uses the 8-pixels spatial pattern to build a weight structure that holds the number of outlier bands for each pixel among its neighborhood windows in different directions. The number of outlier bands for a pixel is obtained using bands quartile box plots profile among spatial 8-pixels pattern windows. The quartile box plot weight structure represents the spatial-spectral context in the image. Instead of starting segmentation process by single pixels, the proposed methodology starts by pixels groups that proved to share the same spectral features with respect to their spatial context. As a result, the segmentation scheme starts with Jigsaw pieces that build a mosaic image. The following step builds a model for each Jigsaw piece in the mosaic image. Each Jigsaw piece will be merged with another Jigsaw piece using KNN applied to their bands' quartile box plots profiles. The scheme iterates till required number of segments reached. Experiments use two data sets obtained from Earth Observer 1 (EO-1) sensor for Egypt and France. Initial results qualitative analysis showed encouraging results compared with ground truth. Quantitative analysis for the results will be included in the final paper.

Keywords: hyperspectral image segmentation, image processing, remote sensing, box plot

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30 Rapid, Direct, Real-Time Method for Bacteria Detection on Surfaces

Authors: Evgenia Iakovleva, Juha Koivisto, Pasi Karppinen, J. Inkinen, Mikko Alava


Preventing the spread of infectious diseases throughout the worldwide is one of the most important tasks of modern health care. Infectious diseases not only account for one fifth of the deaths in the world, but also cause many pathological complications for the human health. Touch surfaces pose an important vector for the spread of infections by varying microorganisms, including antimicrobial resistant organisms. Further, antimicrobial resistance is reply of bacteria to the overused or inappropriate used of antibiotics everywhere. The biggest challenges in bacterial detection by existing methods are non-direct determination, long time of analysis, the sample preparation, use of chemicals and expensive equipment, and availability of qualified specialists. Therefore, a high-performance, rapid, real-time detection is demanded in rapid practical bacterial detection and to control the epidemiological hazard. Among the known methods for determining bacteria on the surfaces, Hyperspectral methods can be used as direct and rapid methods for microorganism detection on different kind of surfaces based on fluorescence without sampling, sample preparation and chemicals. The aim of this study was to assess the relevance of such systems to remote sensing of surfaces for microorganisms detection to prevent a global spread of infectious diseases. Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli with different concentrations (from 0 to 10x8 cell/100µL) were detected with hyperspectral camera using different filters as visible visualization of bacteria and background spots on the steel plate. A method of internal standards was applied for monitoring the correctness of the analysis results. Distances from sample to hyperspectral camera and light source are 25 cm and 40 cm, respectively. Each sample is optically imaged from the surface by hyperspectral imaging system, utilizing a JAI CM-140GE-UV camera. Light source is BeamZ FLATPAR DMX Tri-light, 3W tri-colour LEDs (red, blue and green). Light colors are changed through DMX USB Pro interface. The developed system was calibrated following a standard procedure of setting exposure and focused for light with λ=525 nm. The filter is ThorLabs KuriousTM hyperspectral filter controller with wavelengths from 420 to 720 nm. All data collection, pro-processing and multivariate analysis was performed using LabVIEW and Python software. The studied human eye visible and invisible bacterial stains clustered apart from a reference steel material by clustering analysis using different light sources and filter wavelengths. The calculation of random and systematic errors of the analysis results proved the applicability of the method in real conditions. Validation experiments have been carried out with photometry and ATP swab-test. The lower detection limit of developed method is several orders of magnitude lower than for both validation methods. All parameters of the experiments were the same, except for the light. Hyperspectral imaging method allows to separate not only bacteria and surfaces, but also different types of bacteria, such as Gram-negative Escherichia coli and Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis. Developed method allows skipping the sample preparation and the use of chemicals, unlike all other microbiological methods. The time of analysis with novel hyperspectral system is a few seconds, which is innovative in the field of microbiological tests.

Keywords: Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, hyperspectral imaging, microorganisms detection

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