Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1728

Search results for: partial oxidation

1728 Ultra-Low NOx Combustion Technology of Liquid Fuel Burner

Authors: Sewon Kim, Changyeop Lee

Abstract:

A new concept of in-furnace partial oxidation combustion is successfully applied in this research. The burner is designed such that liquid fuel is prevaporized in the furnace then injected into a fuel rich combustion zone so that a partial oxidation reaction occurs. The effects of equivalence ratio, thermal load, injection distance and fuel distribution ratio on the NOx and CO are experimentally investigated. This newly developed burner showed very low NOx emission level, about 15 ppm when light oil is used as a fuel.

Keywords: burner, low NOx, liquid fuel, partial oxidation

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1727 The Experiment and Simulation Analysis of the Effect of CO₂ and Steam Addition on Syngas Composition of Natural Gas Non-Catalyst Partial Oxidation

Authors: Zhenghua Dai, Jianliang Xu, Fuchen Wang

Abstract:

Non-catalyst partial oxidation technology has been widely used to produce syngas by reforming of hydrocarbon, including gas (natural gas, shale gas, refinery gas, coalbed gas, coke oven gas, pyrolysis gas, etc.) and liquid (residual oil, asphalt, deoiled asphalt, biomass oil, etc.). For natural gas non-catalyst partial oxidation, the H₂/CO(v/v) of syngas is about 1.8, which is agreed well with the request of FT synthesis. But for other process, such as carbonylation and glycol, the H₂/CO(v/v) should be close to 1 and 2 respectively. So the syngas composition of non-catalyst partial oxidation should be adjusted to satisfy the request of different chemical synthesis. That means a multi-reforming method by CO₂ and H₂O addition. The natural gas non-catalytic partial oxidation hot model was established. The effects of O₂/CH4 ratio, steam, and CO₂ on the syngas composition were studied. The results of the experiment indicate that the addition of CO₂ and steam into the reformer can be applied to change the syngas H₂/CO ratio. The reactor network model (RN model) was established according to the flow partition of industrial reformer and GRI-Mech 3.0. The RN model results agree well with the industrial data. The effects of steam, CO₂ on the syngas compositions were studied with the RN model.

Keywords: non-catalyst partial oxidation, natural gas, H₂/CO, CO₂ and H₂O addition, multi-reforming method

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1726 Formation of ZnS/ZnO Heterojunction for Photocatalytic Hydrogen Evolution Using Partial Oxidation and Chemical Precipitation Synthesis Methods

Authors: Saba Didarataee, Abbas Ali Khodadadi, Yadollah Mortazavi, Fatemeh Mousavi

Abstract:

Photocatalytic water splitting is one of the most attractive alternative methods for hydrogen evolution. A variety of nanoparticle engineering techniques were introduced to improve the activity of semiconductor photocatalysts. Among these methods, heterojunction formation is an appealing method due to its ability to effectively preventing electron-hole recombination and improving photocatalytic activity. Reaching an optimal ratio of the two target semiconductors for the formation of heterojunctions is still an open question. Considering environmental issues as well as the cost and availability, ZnS and ZnO are frequently studied as potential choices. In this study, first, the ZnS nanoparticle was synthesized in a hydrothermal process; the formation of ZnS nanorods with a diameter of 14-30 nm was confirmed by field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM). Then two different methods, partial oxidation and chemical precipitation were employed to construct ZnS/ZnO core-shell heterojunction. X-ray diffraction (XRD), BET, and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) analysis were carried out to determine crystallite phase, surface area, and bandgap of photocatalysts. Furthermore, the temperature of oxidation was specified by a temperature programmed oxidation (TPO) and was fixed at 510℃, at which mild oxidation occurred. The bandgap was calculated by the Kubelka-Munk method and decreased by increasing oxide content from 3.53 (pure ZnS) to 3.18 (pure ZnO). The optimal samples were determined by testing the photocatalytic activity of hydrogen evolution in a quartz photoreactor with side irradiation of UVC lamps with a wavelength of 254 nm. In both procedures, it was observed that the photocatalytic activity of the ZnS/ZnO composite was sensibly higher than the pure ZnS and ZnO, which is attributed to forming a type-II heterostructure. The best ratio of oxide to sulfide was 0.24 and 0.37 in partial oxidation and chemical precipitation, respectively. The highest hydrogen evolution was 1081 µmol/gr.h, gained from partial oxidizing of ZnS nanoparticles at 510℃ for 30 minutes.

Keywords: heterostructure, hydrogen, partial oxidation, photocatalyst, water splitting, ZnS

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1725 Low NOx Combustion Technology for Minimizing NOx

Authors: Sewon Kim, Changyeop Lee

Abstract:

A noble low NOx combustion technology, based on partial oxidation combustion concept in a fuel rich combustion zone, is successfully applied in this research. The burner is designed such that a portion of fuel is heated and pre-vaporized in the furnace then injected into a fuel rich combustion zone so that a partial oxidation reaction occurs. The effects of equivalence ratio, thermal load, and fuel distribution ratio on the emissions of NOx and CO are experimentally investigated. This newly developed combustion technology is successfully applied to industrial furnace, and showed extremely low NOx emission levels.

Keywords: low NOx, combustion, burner, fuel rich

Procedia PDF Downloads 320
1724 Comparative Study of Isothermal and Cyclic Oxidation on Titanium Alloys

Authors: Poonam Yadav, Dong Bok Lee

Abstract:

Isothermal oxidation at 800°C for 50h and Cyclic oxidation at 600°C and 800°C for 40h of Pure Ti and Ti64 were performed in a muffle furnace. In Cyclic oxidation, massive scale spallation occurred, and the oxide scale cracks and peels off were observed at high temperature, it represents oxide scale that formed during cyclic oxidation was spalled out owing to stresses due to thermal shock generated during repetitive oxidation and subsequent cooling. The thickness of scale is larger in cyclic oxidation than the isothermal case. This is due to inward diffusion of oxygen through oxide scales and/or pores and cracks in cyclic oxidation.

Keywords: cyclic, diffusion, isothermal, cyclic

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1723 Reforming of CO₂-Containing Natural Gas by Using an AC Gliding Arc Discharge Plasma System

Authors: Krittiya Pornmai, Sumaeth Chavadej

Abstract:

The increasing in global energy demand has affected the climate change caused by the generation of greenhouse gases. Therefore, the objective of this work was to investigate a direct production of synthesis gas from a CO₂-containing natural gas by using gliding arc discharge plasma technology. In this research, the effects of steam reforming, combined steam reforming and partial oxidation, and using multistage gliding arc discharge system on the process performance have been discussed. The simulated natural gas used in this study contains 70% methane, 5% ethane, 5% propane, and 20% carbon dioxide. In comparison with different plasma reforming processes (under their optimum conditions), the steam reforming provides the highest H₂ selectivity resulting from the cracking reaction of steam. In addition, the combined steam reforming and partial oxidation process gives a very high CO production implying that the addition of both oxygen and steam can offer the acceptably highest synthesis gas production. The stage number of plasma reactor plays an important role in the improvement of CO₂ conversion. Moreover, 3 stage number of plasma reactor is considered as an optimum stage number for the reforming of CO₂-containing natural gas with steam and partial oxidation in term of providing low energy consumption as compared with other plasma reforming processes.

Keywords: natural gas, reforming process, gliding arc discharge, plasma technology

Procedia PDF Downloads 80
1722 Selective Oxidation of 6Mn-2Si Advanced High Strength Steels during Intercritical Annealing Treatment

Authors: Maedeh Pourmajidian, Joseph R. McDermid

Abstract:

Advanced High Strength Steels are revolutionizing both the steel and automotive industries due to their high specific strength and ability to absorb energy during crash events. This allows manufacturers to design vehicles with significantly increased fuel efficiency without compromising passenger safety. To maintain the structural integrity of the fabricated parts, they must be protected from corrosion damage through continuous hot-dip galvanizing process, which is challenging due to selective oxidation of Mn and Si on the surface of this AHSSs. The effects of process atmosphere oxygen partial pressure and small additions of Sn on the selective oxidation of a medium-Mn C-6Mn-2Si advanced high strength steel was investigated. Intercritical annealing heat treatments were carried out at 690˚C in an N2-5%H2 process atmosphere under dew points ranging from –50˚C to +5˚C. Surface oxide chemistries, morphologies, and thicknesses were determined at a variety of length scales by several techniques, including SEM, TEM+EELS, and XPS. TEM observations of the sample cross-sections revealed the transition to internal oxidation at the +5˚C dew point. EELS results suggested that the internal oxides network was composed of a multi-layer oxide structure with varying chemistry from oxide core towards the outer part. The combined effect of employing a known surface active element as a function of process atmosphere on the surface structure development and the possible impact on reactive wetting of the steel substrates by the continuous galvanizing zinc bath will be discussed.

Keywords: 3G AHSS, hot-dip galvanizing, oxygen partial pressure, selective oxidation

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1721 Isothermal and Cyclic Oxidation of the Ti-6Al-4V Alloy

Authors: Poonam Yadav, Dong Bok Lee

Abstract:

In this study, the Ti-6Al-4V alloy was isothermally and cyclically oxidized at 800oC for 40 hours in air, and its oxidation behavior was characterized in terms of its oxidation rate, scaling rate, and scale spallation tendency. The isothermal oxidation tests indicated that Ti-6Al-4V oxidized fast and almost linearly, forming thick oxide scales. However, the scales that formed during isothermal oxidation were adherent. The cyclic oxidation tests indicated that the scales that formed on Ti-6Al-4V were highly susceptible to spallation owing to the large growth stress arisen and the thermal stress imposed during thermal cyclings. The formed scales frequently delaminated into several pieces owing to the excessive stress aroused by the repetitive thermal shock. Particularly, excessive oxidation and heavy spallation occurred at the edge of Ti-6Al-4V during cyclic oxidation.

Keywords: cyclic, isothermal, oxidation, spallation

Procedia PDF Downloads 271
1720 Oxidation of Lignin for Production of Chemicals

Authors: Abayneh Getachew Demesa

Abstract:

Interest in renewable feedstock for the chemical industry has increased considerably over the last decades, mainly due to environmental concerns and foreseeable shortage of fossil raw materials. Lignocellulosic biomass is an abundant source of bio-based raw material that is readily available and can be utilized as an alternative source for chemical production. Lignin accrues in enormous amounts as a by-product of the pulping process in the pulp and paper industry. It is estimated that 70 million tons of lignin are annually processed worldwide from the pulp and paper industry alone. Despite its attractive chemical composition, lignin is still insufficiently exploited and mainly regarded as bio-waste. Therefore, an environmentally benign process that can completely and competitively convert lignin into different value-added chemicals is needed to launch its commercial success on industrial scale. Partial wet oxidation by molecular oxygen has received increased attention as a potential process for production of chemicals from biomass wastes. In this paper, the production of chemicals by oxidation of lignin is investigated. The factors influencing the different types of products formed during the oxidation of lignin and their yields and compositions are discussed.

Keywords: biomass, lignin, waste, chemicals

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1719 Thermochemical Study of the Degradation of the Panels of Wings in a Space Shuttle by Utilization of HSC Chemistry Software and Its Database

Authors: Ahmed Ait Hou

Abstract:

The wing leading edge and nose cone of the space shuttle are fabricated from a reinforced carbon/carbon material. This material attains its durability from a diffusion coating of silicon carbide (SiC) and a glass sealant. During re-entry into the atmosphere, this material is subject to an oxidizing high-temperature environment. The use of thermochemical calculations resulting at the HSC CHEMISTRY software and its database allows us to interpret the phenomena of oxidation and chloridation observed on the wing leading edge and nose cone of the space shuttle during its mission in space. First study is the monitoring of the oxidation reaction of SiC. It has been demonstrated that thermal oxidation of the SiC gives the two compounds SiO₂(s) and CO(g). In the extreme conditions of very low oxygen partial pressures and high temperatures, there is a reaction between SiC and SiO₂, leading to SiO(g) and CO(g). We had represented the phase stability diagram of Si-C-O system calculated by the use of the HSC Chemistry at 1300°C. The principal characteristic of this diagram of predominance is the line of SiC + SiO₂ coexistence. Second study is the monitoring of the chloridation reaction of SiC. The other problem encountered in addition to oxidation is the phenomenon of chloridation due to the presence of NaCl. Indeed, after many missions, the leading edge wing surfaces have exhibited small pinholes. We have used the HSC Chemistry database to analyze these various reactions. Our calculations concorde with the phenomena we announced in research work resulting in NASA LEWIS Research center.

Keywords: thermochchemicals calculations, HSC software, oxidation and chloridation, wings in space

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1718 Effect of Oxidation on Wetting Behavior between Silicon and Silicon Carbide

Authors: Zineb Benouahmane, Zhang Lifeng

Abstract:

Experimental oxidation tests at high temperature (1300°C-1500°C) on α-SiC samples have been performed with different holding times and atmosphere (air, argon). Oxidized samples were then analyzed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy coupled to SEM and DAKTEK surface profiler verification. The oxidation rate and the mas gain were found to increase with temperature and holding times, corresponding to a passive oxidation regime which lead to the formation of SiO2 layer. The sessile drop method is employed in order to measure the wetting angles between Si/SiC system at high temperature (1430°C-1550°C). Contact angle can be varied between 44 °C to 85°C, by controlling the oxygen content in α-SiC. Increasing the temperature occurred the infiltration of liquid silicon and deoxidation of the coating.

Keywords: oxidation, wettability, silicon, SiC

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1717 Electro-Oxidation of Glycerol Using Nickel Deposited Carbon Ceramic Electrode and Product Analysis Using High Performance Liquid Chromatography

Authors: Mulatu Kassie Birhanu

Abstract:

Electro-oxidation of glycerol is an important process to convert the less price glycerol into other expensive (essential) and energy-rich chemicals. In this study, nickel was electro-deposited on laboratory-made carbon ceramic electrode (CCE) substrate using electrochemical techniques that is cyclic voltammetry (CV) to prepare an electro-catalyst (Ni/CCE) for electro-oxidation of glycerol. Carbon ceramic electrode was prepared from graphite and methyl tri-methoxy silane (MTMOS) through the processes called hydrolysis and condensation with methanol in acidic media (HCl) by a sol-gel technique. Physico-chemical characterization of bare CCE and modified (deposited) CCE (Ni/CCE) was measured and evaluated by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Electro-oxidation of glycerol was performed in 0.1 M glycerol in alkaline media (0.5 M NaOH). High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) technique was used to identify and determine the concentration of glycerol, reaction intermediates and oxidized products of glycerol after its electro-oxidation is performed. The conversion (%) of electro-oxidation of glycerol during 9-hour oxidation was 73% and 36% at 1.8V and 1.6V vs. RHE, respectively. Formate, oxalate, glycolate and glycerate are the main oxidation products of glycerol with selectivity (%) of 75%, 8.6%, 1.1% and 0.95 % at 1.8 V vs. RHE and 55.4%, 2.2%, 1.0% and 0.6% at 1.6 V vs. RHE respectively. The result indicates that formate is the main product in the electro-oxidation of glycerol on Ni/CCE using the indicated applied potentials.

Keywords: carbon-ceramic electrode, electrodeposition, electro-oxidation, Methyltrimethoxysilane

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1716 Catalytic Effect of Graphene Oxide on the Oxidation of Paraffin-Based Fuels

Authors: Lin-Lin Liu, Song-Qi Hu, Yin Wang

Abstract:

Paraffin-based fuels are regarded to be a promising fuel of hybrid rocked motor because of the high regression rate, low price, and environmental friendliness. Graphene Oxide (GO) is an attractive energetic material which is expected to be widely used in propellants, explosives, and some high energy fuels. Paraffin-based fuels with paraffin and GO as raw materials were prepared, and the oxidation process of the samples was investigated by thermogravimetric analysis differential scanning calorimetry (TG/DSC) under oxygen (O₂) and nitrous oxide (N₂O) atmospheres. The oxidation reaction kinetics of the fuels was estimated through the non-isothermal measurements and model-free isoconversional methods based on the experimental results of TGA. The results show that paraffin-based fuels are easier oxidized under O₂ rather than N₂O with atmospheres due to the lower activation energy; GO plays a catalytic role for the oxidation of paraffin-based fuels under the both atmospheres, and the activation energy of the oxidation process decreases with the increase of GO; catalytic effect of GO on the oxidation of paraffin-based fuels are more obvious under O₂ atmospheres than under N₂O atmospheres.

Keywords: graphene oxide, paraffin-based fuels, oxidation, activation energy, TGA

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1715 On the Relation between λ-Symmetries and μ-Symmetries of Partial Differential Equations

Authors: Teoman Ozer, Ozlem Orhan

Abstract:

This study deals with symmetry group properties and conservation laws of partial differential equations. We give a geometrical interpretation of notion of μ-prolongations of vector fields and of the related concept of μ-symmetry for partial differential equations. We show that these are in providing symmetry reduction of partial differential equations and systems and invariant solutions.

Keywords: λ-symmetry, μ-symmetry, classification, invariant solution

Procedia PDF Downloads 192
1714 Optimizing Oxidation Process Parameters of Al-Li Base Alloys Using Taguchi Method

Authors: Muna K. Abbass, Laith A. Mohammed, Muntaha K. Abbas

Abstract:

The oxidation of Al-Li base alloy containing small amounts of rare earth (RE) oxides such as 0.2 wt% Y2O3 and 0.2wt% Nd2O3 particles have been studied at temperatures: 400ºC, 500ºC and 550°C for 60hr in a dry air. Alloys used in this study were prepared by melting and casting in a permanent steel mould under controlled atmosphere. Identification of oxidation kinetics was carried out by using weight gain/surface area (∆W/A) measurements while scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and x-ray diffraction analysis were used for micro structural morphologies and phase identification of the oxide scales. It was observed that the oxidation kinetic for all studied alloys follows the parabolic law in most experimental tests under the different oxidation temperatures. It was also found that the alloy containing 0.2 wt %Y 2O3 particles possess the lowest oxidation rate and shows great improvements in oxidation resistance compared to the alloy containing 0.2 wt % Nd2O3 particles and Al-Li base alloy. In this work, Taguchi method is performed to estimate the optimum weight gain /area (∆W/A) parameter in oxidation process of Al-Li base alloys to obtain a minimum thickness of oxidation layer. Taguchi method is used to formulate the experimental layout, to analyses the effect of each parameter (time, temperature and alloy type) on the oxidation generation and to predict the optimal choice for each parameter and analyzed the effect of these parameters on the weight gain /area (∆W/A) parameter. The analysis shows that, the temperature significantly affects on the (∆W/A) parameter.

Keywords: Al-Li base alloy, oxidation, Taguchi method, temperature

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1713 Microstructures of Si Surfaces Fabricated by Electrochemical Anodic Oxidation with Agarose Stamps

Authors: Hang Zhou, Limin Zhu

Abstract:

This paper investigates the fabrication of microstructures on Si surfaces by using electrochemical anodic oxidation with agarose stamps. The fabricating process is based on a selective anodic oxidation reaction that occurs in the contact area between a stamp and a Si substrate. The stamp which is soaked in electrolyte previously acts as a current flow channel. After forming the oxide patterns as an etching mask, a KOH aqueous is used for the wet etching of Si. A complicated microstructure array of 1 cm2 was fabricated by the method with high accuracy.

Keywords: microstructures, anodic oxidation, silicon, agarose stamps

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1712 Phenol Degradation via Photocatalytic Oxidation Using Fe Doped TiO₂

Authors: Sherif Ismail

Abstract:

Degradation of phenol-contaminated wastewater using Photocatalytic oxidation process was investigated in batch experiments using Fe doped TiO₂. Moreover, the effect of oxygen aeration on the performance of photocatalytic oxidation process by iron (Fe⁺²) doped titanium dioxide (TiO₂) was assessed. Photocatalytic oxidation using Fe doped TiO₂ effectively reduce the phenol concentration in wastewater with optimum condition of light intensity, pH, catalyst-dosing and initial concentration of phenol were 50 W/m2, 5.3, 600 mg/l and 10 mg/l respectively. The results obtained that removal efficiency of phenol was 88% after 180 min in case of N₂ addition. However, aeration by oxygen resulted in a 99% removal efficiency in 120 min. The results of photo-catalysis oxidation experiments fitted the pseudo-first-order kinetic equation with high correlation. Costs estimation of 30 m3/d full-scale photo-catalysis oxidation plant was assessed.

Keywords: phenol degradation, Fe-doped TiO2, AOPs, cost analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 90
1711 Microstructure and Oxidation Behaviors of Al, Y Modified Silicide Coatings Prepared on an Nb-Si Based Ultrahigh Temperature Alloy

Authors: Xiping Guo, Jing Li

Abstract:

The microstructure of an Si-Al-Y co-deposition coating prepared on an Nb-Si based ultra high temperature alloy by pack cementation process at 1250°C for eight hours was studied. The results showed that the coating was composed of a (Nb,X)Si₂ (X represents Ti, Cr and Hf elements) outer layer, a (Ti,Nb)₅Si₄ middle layer and an Al, Cr-rich inner layer. For comparison, the oxidation behaviors of the coating at 800, 1050 and 1350°C were investigated respectively. Linear oxidation kinetics was found with the parabolic rate constants of 5.29×10⁻², 9×10⁻²and 5.81 mg² cm⁻⁴ h⁻¹, respectively. Catastrophic pesting oxidation has not been found at 800°C even for 100 h. The surface of the scale was covered by compact glassy SiO₂ film. The coating was able to effectively protect the Nb-Si based alloy from oxidation at 1350°C for at least 100 h. The formation process of the scale was testified following an epitaxial growth mechanism. The mechanism responsible for the oxidation behavior of the Si-Al-Y co-deposition coating at 800, 1050 and 1350°C was proposed.

Keywords: Nb-Si based ultra high temperature alloy, oxidation resistance, pack cementation, silicide coating, Al and Y modified

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1710 Investigating Water-Oxidation Using a Ru(III) Carboxamide Water Coordinated Complex

Authors: Yosra M. Badiei, Evelyn Ortiz, Marisa Portenti, David Szalda

Abstract:

Water-oxidation half-reaction is a critical reaction that can be driven by a sustainable energy source (e.g., solar or wind) and be coupled with a chemical fuel making reaction which stores the released electrons and protons from water (e.g., H₂ or methanol). The use of molecular water-oxidation catalysts (WOC) allow the rationale design of redox active metal centers and provides a better understanding of their structure-activity-relationship. Herein, the structure of a Ru(III) complex bearing a doubly deprotonated N,N'-bis(aryl)pyridine-2,6-dicarboxamide ligand which contains a water molecule in its primary coordination sphere was elucidated by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Further spectroscopic experimental data and pH-dependent electrochemical studies reveal its water-oxidation reactivity. Emphasis on mechanistic details for O₂ formation of this complex will be addressed.

Keywords: water-oxidation, catalysis, ruthenium, artificial photosynthesis

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1709 Theoretical Study of the Mechanism of the Oxidation of Linoleic Acid by 1O2

Authors: Rayenne Djemil

Abstract:

The mechanism of oxidation reaction of linoleic acid C18: 2 (9 cis12) by singlet oxygen 1O2 were theoretically investigated via using quantum chemical methods. We explored the four reaction pathways at PM3, Hartree-Fock HF and, B3LYP functional associated with the base 6-31G (d) level. The results are in favor of the first and the last reaction ways. The transition states were found by QST3 method. Thus the pathways between the transition state structures and their corresponding minima have been identified by the IRC calculations. The thermodynamic study showed that the four ways of oxidation of linoleic acid are spontaneous, exothermic and, the enthalpy values confirm that conjugate hydroperoxydes are the most favorable products.

Keywords: echanism, quantum mechanics, oxidation, linoleic acid H

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1708 Oxidation of Alcohols Types Using Nano-Graphene Oxide (NGO) as Heterogeneous Catalyst

Authors: Ali Gharib, Leila Vojdanifard, Nader Noroozi Pesyan, Mina Roshani

Abstract:

We describe an efficient method for oxidation of alcohols to related aldehydes and ketones by hydrogen peroxide as oxidizing agent, under reflux conditions. Nano-graphene oxide (NGO) as a heterogeneous catalyst was used and had their activity compared with other various catalysts. This catalyst was found to be an excellent catalyst for oxidation of alcohols. The effects of various parameters, including catalyst type, nature of the substituent in the alcohols and temperature, on the yield of the carboxylic acids were studied. Nano-graphene oxide was synthesized by the oxidation of graphite powders. This nanocatalyst was found to be highly efficient in this reaction and products were obtained in good to excellent yields. The recovered nano-catalyst was successfully reused for several runs without significant loss in its catalytic activity.

Keywords: nano-graphene oxide, oxidation, aldehyde, ketone, catalyst

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1707 Degradation of Amitriptyline Hydrochloride, Methyl Salicylate and 2-Phenoxyethanol in Water Systems by the Combination UV/Cl2

Authors: F. Javier Benitez, Francisco J. Real, Juan Luis Acero, Francisco Casas

Abstract:

Three emerging contaminants (amitriptyline hydrochloride, methyl salicylate and 2-phenoxyethanol) frequently found in waste-waters were selected to be individually degraded in ultra-pure water by the combined advanced oxidation process constituted by UV radiation and chlorine. The influence of pH, initial chlorine concentration and nature of the contaminants was firstly explored. The trend for the reactivity of the selected compounds was deduced: amitriptyline hydrochloride > methyl salicylate > 2-phenoxyethanol. A later kinetic study was carried out and focused on the specific evaluation of the first-order rate constants and the determination of the partial contribution to the global reaction of the direct photochemical pathway and the radical pathway. A comparison between the rate constant values among photochemical experiments without and with the presence of Cl2 reveals a clear increase in the oxidation efficiency of the combined process with respect to the photochemical reaction alone. In a second stage, the simultaneous oxidation of mixtures of the selected contaminants in several types of water (ultrapure water, surface water from a reservoir, and two secondary effluents) was also performed by the same combination UV/Cl2 under more realistic operating conditions. The efficiency of this combined system UV/Cl2 was compared to other oxidants such as the UV/S2O82- and UV/H2O2 AOPs. Results confirmed that the UV/Cl2 system provides higher elimination efficiencies among the AOPs tested.

Keywords: emerging contaminants, UV/chlorine advanced oxidation process, amitriptyline, methyl salicylate, 2-phenoxyethanol, chlorination, photolysis

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1706 Characteristics of Different Solar PV Modules under Partial Shading

Authors: Hla Hla Khaing, Yit Jian Liang, Nant Nyein Moe Htay, Jiang Fan

Abstract:

Partial shadowing is one of the problems that are always faced in terrestrial applications of solar photovoltaic (PV). The effects of partial shadow on the energy yield of conventional mono-crystalline and multi-crystalline PV modules have been researched for a long time. With deployment of new thin-film solar PV modules in the market, it is important to understand the performance of new PV modules operating under the partial shadow in the tropical zone. This paper addresses the impacts of different partial shadowing on the operating characteristics of four different types of solar PV modules that include multi-crystalline, amorphous thin-film, CdTe thin-film and CIGS thin-film PV modules.

Keywords: partial shade, CdTe, CIGS, multi-crystalline (mc-Si), amorphous silicon (a-Si), bypass diode

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1705 Inter-Filling of CaO and MgO Mixed Layer in Surface Behavior of Al-Mg Alloys Containing Al2Ca

Authors: Seong-Ho Ha, Young-Ok Yoon, Shae K. Kim

Abstract:

Oxide layer of normal Al-Mg alloy can be characterized by upper MgO and lower MgAl2O4 spinel. The formation of the MgO outmost layer occurs by the surface segregation of Mg in the initial oxidation. After then, the oxidation is proceeded with the formation of MgA12O4 spinel beneath the MgO. Growth of the oxide layer is accelerated by constant formation of MgA12O4 spinel. On the other hand, the oxidation resistance of Al-Mg alloys can be significantly improved simply by Mg+Al2Ca master alloy use as the Mg alloying element and such an improvement is attributed to the CaO/MgO mixed layer. Al-Mg alloy containing Al2Ca shows CaO as the upper layer and MgO as the lower one without MgA12O4 spinel. Such a dense oxide film acts as a protective layer. However, the CaO/MgO scale has the outmost MgO, partly, after a long time exposure to a harsh oxidation condition. The aim of this study is to investigate the inter-filling behaviour of CaO and MgO mixed layer in oxidation resistance mechanism of Al-Mg alloys containing Al2Ca. The process of outmost MgO layer formation will be clarified.

Keywords: Al-Mg alloy, Al2Ca, oxidation, MgO

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1704 Comparison of Structure and Corrosion Properties of Titanium Oxide Films Prepared by Thermal Oxidation, DC Plasma Oxidation, and by the Sol-Gel

Authors: O. Çomaklı, M. Yazıcı, T. Yetim, A. F. Yetim, A. Çelik

Abstract:

In this work, TiO₂ films were deposited on Cp-Ti substrates by thermal oxidation, DC plasma oxidation, and by the sol-gel method. Microstructures of uncoated and TiO₂ film coated samples were examined by X-ray diffraction and SEM. Thin oxide film consisting of anatase (A) and rutile (R) TiO₂ structures was observed on the surface of CP-Ti by under three different treatments. Also, the more intense anatase and rutile peaks appeared at samples plasma oxidized at 700˚C. The thicknesses of films were about 1.8 μm at the TiO₂ film coated samples by sol-gel and about 2.7 μm at thermal oxidated samples, while it was measured as 3.9 μm at the plasma oxidated samples. Electrochemical corrosion behaviour of uncoated and coated specimens was mainly carried out by potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in simulated body fluid (SBF) solution. Results showed that at the plasma oxidated samples exhibited a better resistance property to corrosion than that of other treatments.

Keywords: TiO₂, CP-Ti, corrosion properties, thermal oxidation, plasma oxidation, sol-gel

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1703 Nadler's Fixed Point Theorem on Partial Metric Spaces and its Application to a Homotopy Result

Authors: Hemant Kumar Pathak

Abstract:

In 1994, Matthews (S.G. Matthews, Partial metric topology, in: Proc. 8th Summer Conference on General Topology and Applications, in: Ann. New York Acad. Sci., vol. 728, 1994, pp. 183-197) introduced the concept of a partial metric as a part of the study of denotational semantics of data flow networks. He gave a modified version of the Banach contraction principle, more suitable in this context. In fact, (complete) partial metric spaces constitute a suitable framework to model several distinguished examples of the theory of computation and also to model metric spaces via domain theory. In this paper, we introduce the concept of almost partial Hausdorff metric. We prove a fixed point theorem for multi-valued mappings on partial metric space using the concept of almost partial Hausdorff metric and prove an analogous to the well-known Nadler’s fixed point theorem. In the sequel, we derive a homotopy result as an application of our main result.

Keywords: fixed point, partial metric space, homotopy, physical sciences

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1702 The Effect of Oxidation Stability Improvement in Calophyllum Inophyllum Palm Oil Methyl Ester Production

Authors: Natalina, Hwai Chyuan Onga, W. T. Chonga

Abstract:

Oxidation stability of biodiesel is very important in fuel handling especially for remote location of biodiesel application. Variety of feedstocks and biodiesel production process resulted many variation of biodiesel oxidation stability. The current study relates to investigation of the impact of fatty acid composition that caused by natural and production process of calophyllum inophyllum palm oil methyl ester that correlated with improvement of biodiesel oxidation stability. Firstly, biodiesel was produced from crude oil of palm oil, calophyllum inophyllum and mixing of calophyllum inophyllum and palm oil. The production process of calophyllum inophyllum palm oil methyl ester (CIPOME) was divided by including washing process and without washing. Secondly, the oxidation stability was measured from the palm oil methyl ester (POME), calophyllum inophyllum methyl ester (CIME), CIPOME with washing process and CIPOME without washing process. Then, in order to find the differences of fatty acid compositions all of the biodiesels were measured by gas chromatography analysis. It was found that mixing calophyllum inophyllum into palm oil increased the oxidation stability. Washing process influenced the CIPOME fatty acid composition, and reduction of washing process during the production process gave significant oxidation stability number of CIPOME (38 h to 114 h).

Keywords: biodiesel, oxidation stability, calophyllum inophyllum, water content

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1701 Influence of Grain Shape, Size and Grain Boundary Diffusion on High Temperature Oxidation of Metal

Authors: Sneha Samal, Iva Petrikova, Bohdana Marvalova

Abstract:

Influence of grain size, shape and grain boundary diffusion at high temperature oxidation of pure metal is investigated as the function of microstructure evolution in this article. The oxidized scale depends on the geometrical parameter of the metal-scale system and grain shape, size, diffusion through boundary layers and influence of the contamination. The creation of the inner layer and the morphological structure develops from the internal stress generated during the growth of the scale. The oxidation rate depends on the cation and anion mobile transport of the metal in the inward and outward direction of the diffusion layer. Oxidation rate decreases with decreasing the grain size of the pure metal, whereas zinc deviates from this principle. A strong correlation between the surface roughness evolution, grain size, crystalline properties and oxidation mechanism of the oxidized metal was established.

Keywords: high temperature oxidation, pure metals, grain size, shape and grain boundary

Procedia PDF Downloads 377
1700 Isolation of Soil Thiobacterii and Determination of Their Bio-Oxidation Activity

Authors: A. Kistaubayeva, I. Savitskaya, D. Ibrayeva, M. Abdulzhanova, N. Voronova

Abstract:

36 strains of sulfur-oxidizing bacteria were isolated in Southern Kazakhstan soda-saline soils and identified. Screening of strains according bio-oxidation (destruction thiosulfate to sulfate) and enzymatic (Thiosulfate dehydrogenises and thiosulfate reductase) activity was conducted. There were selected modes of aeration and culture conditions (pH, temperature), which provide optimum harvest cells. These strains can be used in bio-melioration technology.

Keywords: elemental sulfur, oxidation activity, Тhiobacilli, fertilizers, heterotrophic S-oxidizers

Procedia PDF Downloads 302
1699 Effect of Particle Size and Concentration of Pomegranate (Punica granatum l.) Peel Powder on Suppression of Oxidation of Edible Plant Oils

Authors: D. G. D. C. L. Munasinghe, M. S. Gunawardana, P. H. P. Prasanna, C. S. Ranadheera, T. Madhujith

Abstract:

Lipid oxidation is an important process that affects the shelf life of edible oils. Oxidation produces off flavors, off odors and chemical compounds that lead to adverse health effects. Chemical mechanisms such as autoxidation, photo-oxidation and thermal oxidation are responsible for lipid oxidation. Refined, Bleached and Deodorized (RBD) coconut oil, Virgin Coconut Oil (VCO) and corn oil are widely used plant oils. Pomegranate fruit is known to possess high antioxidative efficacy. Peel of pomegranate contains high antioxidant activity than aril and pulp membrane. The study attempted to study the effect of particle size and concentration of pomegranate peel powder on suppression of oxidation of RBD coconut oil, VCO and corn oil. Pomegranate peel powder was incorporated into each oil sample as micro (< 250 µm) and nano particles (280 - 300 nm) at 100 ppm and 200 ppm concentrations. The control sample of each oil was prepared, devoid of pomegranate peel powder. The stability of oils against autoxidation was evaluated by storing oil samples at 60 °C for 28 days. The level of oxidation was assessed by peroxide value and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances on 0,1,3,5,7,14 and 28 day, respectively. VCO containing pomegranate particles of 280 - 300 nm at 200 ppm showed the highest oxidative stability followed by RBD coconut oil and corn oil. Results revealed that pomegranate peel powder with 280 - 300 nm particle size at 200 ppm concentration was the best in mitigating oxidation of RBD coconut oil, VCO and corn oil. There is a huge potential of utilizing pomegranate peel powder as an antioxidant agent in reducing oxidation of edible plant oils.

Keywords: antioxidant, autoxidation, micro particles, nano particles, pomegranate peel powder

Procedia PDF Downloads 372