Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 204

Search results for: tire pyrolysis oil

204 The Study of Tire Pyrolysis Fuel in CI Diesel Engine for Spray Combustion Character and Performance

Authors: Chun Pao Kuo, Chi Tong Lin


The study explored atomization characteristics of tire pyrolysis fuel and its impacts on using three types of fuel: diesel oil mixed with 10% of tire pyrolysis fuel (called T10), diesel oil mixed with 20% tire pyrolysis (called T20), and consumer-grade diesel oil (D100). The investigators used the fuel for simulation and tests at various fuel injection timing, engine speed, and fuel injection speed to inspect impacts from fuel type on oil droplet atomization speed and output power. Actual vehicle tests were conducted using a 5-ton sedan (Hino) with 3660 cc displacement and a front-end inline four-cylinder diesel engine, and this type of vehicle is easily available from the market. A dynamometer was used to set up three engine speeds for the dynamometer testing at different injection timing and pressure. Next, an exhaust analyzer was used to measure exhaust pollution at different conditions to explore the effect of fuel types and injection speeds on output power in order to establish the best operation conditions for tire pyrolysis fuel.

Keywords: diesel engine, exhaust pollution, fuel injection timing, tire pyrolysis oil

Procedia PDF Downloads 278
203 Pyrolysis of the Reed (Phragmites australis) and Evaluation of Pyrolysis Products

Authors: Ahmet Helvaci, Selcuk Dogan


Reed in especially almost all the lakes in Western Anatolia grows naturally. Due to the abundance of reed, pyrolysis of reed is very economical and practical application. In this study, it is aimed to determine the optimum conditions for the pyrolysis of the reed which is a cheap and abundant raw material and to evaluate pyrolysis products. For this purpose, reed was used obtained from Eber Lake located in the borders of Bolvadin county of Afyonkarahisar. Optimum pyrolysis conditions have been determined by examining the effects of changes in pyrolysis temperature and pyrolysis time. The evaluation of the obtained liquid and solid pyrolysis products has been investigated. Especially evaluability of solid carbon black production of tires has been investigated. Tire samples were prepared with carbon black samples obtained as a result of the pyrolysis process at different temperatures. Then, performance tests were made and compared with reference carbon blacks, used in the market and standards. At the same time, surface area measurement analysis of carbon black samples was made and compared again with reference carbon blacks. In addition, the fuel values of liquid products were also determined by calorimeter. It has been determined that the best surface area (about 370 m²/g) for carbon black samples, for tire production is 40 minutes at 500ᵒC. It was also found that the best result for evaluation studies in tire production was carbon black samples obtained at 450ᵒC pyrolysis temperature. In addition, it was seen that the calorimetry results of the liquid product obtained during 60 minutes of pyrolysis were quite good (around 5500 kcal/kg).

Keywords: evaluation of products, optimization, pyrolysis, reed

Procedia PDF Downloads 104
202 Impact of Zeolite NaY Synthesized from Kaolin on the Properties of Pyrolytic Oil Derived from Used Tire

Authors: Julius Ilawe Osayi, Peter Osifo


Solid waste disposal, such as used tires is a global challenge as well as energy crisis due to rising energy demand amidst price uncertainty and depleting fossil fuel reserves. Therefore, the effectiveness of pyrolysis as a disposal method that can transform used tires into liquid fuel and other end-products has made the process attractive to researchers. Although used tires have been converted to liquid fuel using pyrolysis, there is the need to improve on the liquid fuel properties. Hence, this paper reports the investigation of zeolite NaY synthesized from kaolin, a locally abundant soil material in the Benin metropolis as a suitable catalyst and its effect on the properties of pyrolytic oil produced from used tires. The pyrolysis process was conducted for a range of 1 to 10 wt.% of catalyst concentration to used tire at a temperature of 600 oC, a heating rate of 15oC/min and particle size of 6mm. Although no significant increase in pyrolytic oil yield was observed compared to the previously investigated non-catalytic pyrolysis of a used tire. However, the Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR); and Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) characterization results revealed the pyrolytic oil to possess an improved physicochemical and fuel properties alongside valuable industrial chemical species. This confirms the possibility of transforming kaolin into a catalyst suitable for improved fuel properties of the liquid fraction obtainable from thermal cracking of hydrocarbon materials.

Keywords: catalytic pyrolysis, fossil fuel, kaolin, pyrolytic oil, used tyres, Zeolite NaY

Procedia PDF Downloads 51
201 Fuel Properties of Distilled Tire Pyrolytic Oil and Its Blends with Biodiesel and Commercial Diesel Fuel

Authors: Moshe Mello, Hilary Rutto, Tumisang Seodigeng


Tires are extremely challenging to recycle due to the available chemically cross-linked polymer which constitutes their nature and therefore, they are neither fusible nor soluble and consequently, cannot be remoulded into other shapes without serious degradation. Pyrolysis of tires produces four valuable products namely; char, steel, tire pyrolytic oil (TPO) and non-condensable gases. TPO has been reported to have similar properties to commercial diesel fuel (CDF). In this study, distillation of TPO was carried out in a batch distillation column and biodiesel was produced from waste cooking oil. FTIR analysis proved that TPO can be used as a fuel due to the available compounds detected and GC analysis displayed 94% biodiesel concentration from waste cooking oil. Different blends of TPO/biodiesel, TPO/CDF and biodiesel/CDF were prepared at different ratios. Fuel properties such as viscosity, density, flash point, and calorific value were studied. Viscosity and density models were also studied to measure the quality of different blends.

Keywords: biodiesel, distillation, pyrolysis, tire

Procedia PDF Downloads 41
200 Pyrolysis of Dursunbey Lignite and Pyrolysis Kinetics

Authors: H. Sütçü, C. Efe


In this study, pyrolysis characteristics of Dursunbey-Balıkesir lignite and its pyrolysis kinetics are examined. The pyrolysis experiments carried out at three different heating rates are performed by using thermogravimetric method. Kinetic parameters are calculated by Coats & Redfern kinetic model and the degree of pyrolysis process is determined for each of the heating rate.

Keywords: lignite, thermogravimetric analysis, pyrolysis, kinetics

Procedia PDF Downloads 235
199 Design of Semi-Automatic Vent and Flash Remover

Authors: Inba Blesso P., Senthil Kumar P.


The main consideration of any tire manufacturing process is wear resistance. One of the factors that cause tire wear is improper removal of vent and flash from the tire surface. The contact point between tyre surface and vent is highly supposed to wear. When the vehicle running at higher speed with heavy load, the tire vent and flash is wearing initially and it makes few of the tire surface material to wear along with it. Hence, provision must be given to efficient removal vent and flash thereby tire wear. Human efforts in trimming of tire vent results in time consuming and inaccurate output. Hence, this lead to the reduction in production rate and profit. Thus, the development of automated system can helps to attain minimum time consumption and provide a possible way to get the profitable production. Semi-automated system that employs Pneumatic actuators and sequencing circuits are focused in this study. By implementing this, one can achieve the accurate results with reduction in time and profitable output.

Keywords: tire manufacturing, pneumatic system, vent and flash removal, engineering and technology

Procedia PDF Downloads 254
198 Potential of Pyrolytic Tire Char Use in Agriculture

Authors: M. L. Moyo


Concerns about climate change, food productivity, and the ever-increasing cost of commercial fertilizer products is forcing have spurred interest in the production of alternatives or substitutes for commercial fertilizer products. In this study, the potential of pyrolytic tire char (PT-char) to improve soil productivity was investigated. The use of carbonized biomass, which is commonly termed biochar or biofertilizer and exhibits similar properties to PT-char in agriculture is not new, with historical evidence pointing to the use of charcoal for soil improvement by indigenous Amazon people for several centuries. Due to minimal market value or use of PT-char, huge quantities are currently stockpiled in South Africa. This successively reduces revenue and decreases investments in waste tire recycling efforts as PT-char constitutes 40 % weight of the total waste tire pyrolysis products. The physicochemical analysis results reported in this study showed that PT-char contains a low concentration of essential plant elements (P and K) and, therefore, cannot be used for increasing nutrient availability in soils. A low presence of heavy metals (Ni, Pb, and Cd), which may be harmful to the environment at high application rates was also observed. In addition, the results revealed that PT-char contains very high levels of Zn, a widely known phytotoxicity causing agents in plants. However, the study also illustrated that PT-char is made up of a highly aromatic and condensed carbon structure. PT-char is therefore highly stable, less prone to microbial degradation, and has a low chemical reactivity in soils. Considering these characteristics, PT-char meets the requirements for use as a carbon sequestration agent, which may be useful in mitigating climate change.

Keywords: agriculture, carbon sequestration, physicochemical analysis, pyrolytic tire char, soil amendment.

Procedia PDF Downloads 22
197 Preparation of Chemically Activated Carbon from Waste Tire Char for Lead Ions Adsorption and Optimization Using Response Surface Methodology

Authors: Lucky Malise, Hilary Rutto, Tumisang Seodigeng


The use of tires in automobiles is very important in the automobile industry. However, there is a serious environmental problem concerning the disposal of these rubber tires once they become worn out. The main aim of this study was to prepare activated carbon from waste tire pyrolysis char by impregnating KOH on pyrolytic char. Adsorption studies on lead onto chemically activated carbon was carried out using response surface methodology. The effect of process parameters such as temperature (°C), adsorbent dosage (g/1000ml), pH, contact time (minutes) and initial lead concentration (mg/l) on the adsorption capacity were investigated. It was found that the adsorption capacity increases with an increase in contact time, pH, temperature and decreases with an increase in lead concentration. Optimization of the process variables was done using a numerical optimization method. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectra (FTIR) analysis, XRay diffraction (XRD), Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and scanning electron microscope was used to characterize the pyrolytic carbon char before and after activation. The optimum points 1g/ 100 ml for adsorbent dosage, 7 for pH value of the solution, 115.2 min for contact time, 100 mg/l for initial metal concentration, and 25°C for temperature were obtained to achieve the highest adsorption capacity of 93.176 mg/g with a desirability of 0.994. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectra (FTIR) analysis and Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) show the presence of oxygen-containing functional groups on the surface of the activated carbon produced and that the weight loss taking place during the activation step is small.

Keywords: waste tire pyrolysis char, chemical activation, central composite design (CCD), adsorption capacity, numerical optimization

Procedia PDF Downloads 70
196 Soil Stress State under Tractive Tire and Compaction Model

Authors: Prathuang Usaborisut, Dithaporn Thungsotanon


Soil compaction induced by a tractor towing trailer becomes a major problem associated to sugarcane productivity. Soil beneath the tractor’s tire is not only under compressing stress but also shearing stress. Therefore, in order to help to understand such effects on soil, this research aimed to determine stress state in soil and predict compaction of soil under a tractive tire. The octahedral stress ratios under the tires were higher than one and much higher under higher draft forces. Moreover, the ratio was increasing with increase of number of tire’s passage. Soil compaction model was developed using data acquired from triaxial tests. The model was then used to predict soil bulk density under tractive tire. The maximum error was about 4% at 15 cm depth under lower draft force and tended to increase with depth and draft force. At depth of 30 cm and under higher draft force, the maximum error was about 16%.

Keywords: draft force, soil compaction model, stress state, tractive tire

Procedia PDF Downloads 222
195 Liquid Fuel Production via Catalytic Pyrolysis of Waste Oil

Authors: Malee Santikunaporn, Neera Wongtyanuwat, Channarong Asavatesanupap


Pyrolysis of waste oil is an effective process to produce high quality liquid fuels. In this work, pyrolysis experiments of waste oil over Y zeolite were carried out in a semi-batch reactor under a flow of nitrogen at atmospheric pressure and at different reaction temperatures (350-450 oC). The products were gas, liquid fuel, and residue. Only liquid fuel was further characterized for its composition and properties by using gas chromatography, thermogravimetric analyzer, and bomb calorimeter. Experimental results indicated that the pyrolysis reaction temperature significantly affected both yield and composition distribution of pyrolysis oil. An increase in reaction temperature resulted in increased fuel yield, especially gasoline fraction. To obtain high amount of fuel, the optimal reaction temperature should be higher than 350 oC. A presence of Y zeolite in the system enhanced the cracking activity. In addition, the pyrolysis oil yield is proportional to the catalyst quantity.

Keywords: gasoline, diesel, pyrolysis, waste oil, Y zeolite

Procedia PDF Downloads 49
194 Development of Adsorbents for Removal of Hydrogen Sulfide and Ammonia Using Pyrolytic Carbon Black form Waste Tires

Authors: Yang Gon Seo, Chang-Joon Kim, Dae Hyeok Kim


It is estimated that 1.5 billion tires are produced worldwide each year which will eventually end up as waste tires representing a major potential waste and environmental problem. Pyrolysis has been great interest in alternative treatment processes for waste tires to produce valuable oil, gas and solid products. The oil and gas products may be used directly as a fuel or a chemical feedstock. The solid produced from the pyrolysis of tires ranges typically from 30 to 45 wt% and have high carbon contents of up to 90 wt%. However, most notably the solid have high sulfur contents from 2 to 3 wt% and ash contents from 8 to 15 wt% related to the additive metals. Upgrading tire pyrolysis products to high-value products has concentrated on solid upgrading to higher quality carbon black and to activated carbon. Hydrogen sulfide and ammonia are one of the common malodorous compounds that can be found in emissions from many sewages treatment plants and industrial plants. Therefore, removing these harmful gasses from emissions is of significance in both life and industry because they can cause health problems to human and detrimental effects on the catalysts. In this work, pyrolytic carbon black from waste tires was used to develop adsorbent with good adsorption capacity for removal of hydrogen and ammonia. Pyrolytic carbon blacks were prepared by pyrolysis of waste tire chips ranged from 5 to 20 mm under the nitrogen atmosphere at 600℃ for 1 hour. Pellet-type adsorbents were prepared by a mixture of carbon black, metal oxide and sodium hydroxide or hydrochloric acid, and their adsorption capacities were estimated by using the breakthrough curve of a continuous fixed bed adsorption column at ambient condition. The adsorbent was manufactured with a mixture of carbon black, iron oxide(III), and sodium hydroxide showed the maximum working capacity of hydrogen sulfide. For ammonia, maximum working capacity was obtained by the adsorbent manufactured with a mixture of carbon black, copper oxide(II), and hydrochloric acid.

Keywords: adsorbent, ammonia, pyrolytic carbon black, hydrogen sulfide, metal oxide

Procedia PDF Downloads 132
193 Steady State Rolling and Dynamic Response of a Tire at Low Frequency

Authors: Md Monir Hossain, Anne Staples, Kuya Takami, Tomonari Furukawa


Tire noise has a significant impact on ride quality and vehicle interior comfort, even at low frequency. Reduction of tire noise is especially important due to strict state and federal environmental regulations. The primary sources of tire noise are the low frequency structure-borne noise and the noise that originates from the release of trapped air between the tire tread and road surface during each revolution of the tire. The frequency response of the tire changes at low and high frequency. At low frequency, the tension and bending moment become dominant, while the internal structure and local deformation become dominant at higher frequencies. Here, we analyze tire response in terms of deformation and rolling velocity at low revolution frequency. An Abaqus FEA finite element model is used to calculate the static and dynamic response of a rolling tire under different rolling conditions. The natural frequencies and mode shapes of a deformed tire are calculated with the FEA package where the subspace-based steady state dynamic analysis calculates dynamic response of tire subjected to harmonic excitation. The analysis was conducted on the dynamic response at the road (contact point of tire and road surface) and side nodes of a static and rolling tire when the tire was excited with 200 N vertical load for a frequency ranging from 20 to 200 Hz. The results show that frequency has little effect on tire deformation up to 80 Hz. But between 80 and 200 Hz, the radial and lateral components of displacement of the road and side nodes exhibited significant oscillation. For the static analysis, the fluctuation was sharp and frequent and decreased with frequency. In contrast, the fluctuation was periodic in nature for the dynamic response of the rolling tire. In addition to the dynamic analysis, a steady state rolling analysis was also performed on the tire traveling at ground velocity with a constant angular motion. The purpose of the computation was to demonstrate the effect of rotating motion on deformation and rolling velocity with respect to a fixed Newtonian reference point. The analysis showed a significant variation in deformation and rolling velocity due to centrifugal and Coriolis acceleration with respect to a fixed Newtonian point on ground.

Keywords: natural frequency, rotational motion, steady state rolling, subspace-based steady state dynamic analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 244
192 Co-Pyrolysis of Olive Pomace with Plastic Wastes and Characterization of Pyrolysis Products

Authors: Merve Sogancioglu, Esra Yel, Ferda Tartar, Nihan Canan Iskender


Waste polyethylene (PE) is classified as waste low density polyethylene (LDPE) and waste high density polyethylene (HDPE) according to their densities. Pyrolysis of plastic waste may have an important role in dealing with the enormous amounts of plastic waste produced all over the world, by decreasing their negative impact on the environment. This waste may be converted into economically valuable hydrocarbons, which can be used both as fuels and as feed stock in the petrochemical industry. End product yields and properties depend on the plastic waste composition. Pyrolytic biochar is one of the most important products of waste plastics pyrolysis. In this study, HDPE and LDPE plastic wastes were co-pyrolyzed together with waste olive pomace. Pyrolysis runs were performed at temperature 700°C with heating rates of 5°C/min. Higher pyrolysis oil and gas yields were observed by the using waste olive pomace. The biochar yields of HDPE- olive pomace and LDPEolive pomace were 6.37% and 7.26% respectively for 50% olive pomace doses. The calorific value of HDPE-olive pomace and LDPE-olive pomace of pyrolysis oil were 8350 and 8495 kCal.

Keywords: biochar, co-pyrolysis, waste plastic, waste olive pomace

Procedia PDF Downloads 162
191 A Finite Element Based Predictive Stone Lofting Simulation Methodology for Automotive Vehicles

Authors: Gaurav Bisht, Rahul Rathnakumar, Ravikumar Duggirala


Predictive simulations are one of the key focus areas in safety-critical industries such as aerospace and high-performance automotive engineering. The stone-chipping study is one such effort taken up by the industry to predict and evaluate the damage caused due to gravel impact on vehicles. This paper describes a finite elements based method that can simulate the ejection of gravel chips from a vehicle tire. The FE simulations were used to obtain the initial ejection velocity of the stones for various driving conditions using a computational contact mechanics approach. To verify the accuracy of the tire model, several parametric studies were conducted. The FE simulations resulted in stone loft velocities ranging from 0–8 m/s, regardless of tire speed. The stress on the tire at the instant of initial contact with the stone increased linearly with vehicle speed. Mesh convergence studies indicated that a highly resolved tire mesh tends to result in better momentum transfer between the tire and the stone. A fine tire mesh also showed a linearly increasing relationship between the tire forward speed and stone lofting speed, which was not observed in coarser meshes. However, it also highlighted a potential challenge, in that the ejection velocity vector of the stone seemed to be sensitive to the mesh, owing to the FE-based contact mechanical formulation of the problem.

Keywords: abaqus, contact mechanics, foreign object debris, stone chipping

Procedia PDF Downloads 145
190 Pyrolysis and Combustion Kinetics of Palm Kernel Shell Using Thermogravimetric Analysis

Authors: Kanit Manatura


The combustion and pyrolysis behavior of Palm Kernel Shell (PKS) were investigated in a thermogravimetric analyzer. A 10 mg sample of each biomass was heated from 30 °C to 800 °C at four heating rates (within 5, 10, 15 and 30 °C/min) in nitrogen and dry air flow of 20 ml/min instead of pyrolysis and combustion process respectively. During pyrolysis, thermal decomposition occurred on three different stages include dehydration, hemicellulose-cellulose and lignin decomposition on each temperature range. The TG/DTG curves showed the degradation behavior and the pyrolysis/combustion characteristics of the PKS samples which led to apply in thermogravimetric analysis. The kinetic factors including activation energy and pre-exponential factor were determined by the Coats-Redfern method. The obtained kinetic factors are used to simulate the thermal decomposition and compare with experimental data. Rising heating rate leads to shift the mass loss towards higher temperature.

Keywords: combustion, palm kernel shell, pyrolysis, thermogravimetric analyzer

Procedia PDF Downloads 72
189 Comparative Studies on Thin Film of ZnO Deposited by Spray Pyrolysis and Sputtering Technique

Authors: Musa Momoh, A. U. Moreh, A. M. Bayawa, Sanusi Abdullahi, I. Atiku


In this study, thin films of ZnO were synthesized by two techniques namely RF sputtering and spray pyrolysis. The films were deposited on corning glass. The primary materials used are 99.99% pure. The optical and structural properties of the samples were studied. It has been noted that the samples deposited by Spray pyrolysis have and average transmittance, refractive index and extinction coefficient as 80-90%, 1.33-1.44 and 13.11-27.52 respectively. Those deposited by sputtering method are 34-80%, 1.51-1.52 and 3.15-3.28. The XRD patterns of the samples show that they are polycrystalline.

Keywords: zinc oxide, spray pyrolysis, rf sputtering, optical properties, electrical properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 131
188 Co-Pyrolysis of Bituminous Coal with Peat by Thermogravimetric Analysis

Authors: Ceren Efe, Hale Sütçü


In this study, the pyrolysis of bituminous coal, peat and their blends formed by mixing various ratios of them were examined by thermogravimetric analysis method. Thermogravimetric analyses of peat, bituminous coal and their blends in the proportions of 25 %, 50 % and 75 % were performed at heating rate of 10 °C/min and from the room temperature until to 800 °C temperature, in a nitrogen atmosphere of 100 ml/min. Kinetic parameters for the pyrolysis process were calculated using Coats&Redfern kinetic model.

Keywords: bituminous coal, peat, pyrolysis, thermogravimetric analysis, Coats&Redfern

Procedia PDF Downloads 118
187 Co-Pyrolysis Characteristics of Waste Polyolefins

Authors: Si̇nem Uğuz, Yuksel Ardali


Nowadays rapid population growth causes a mandatory increase in consumption. As a result of production activities which meet this consumption, energy sources decrease rapidly on our world. As well as with this production activities various waste occurs. At the end of the production and accumulation of this waste need a mandatory disposal. In this context, copyrolysis of waste polyolefins were investigated. In this study for pyrolysis process, polyethylene and polyprophylene are selected as polyolefins. The pyrolysis behavior (efficiency of solid, liquid and gas production) of selected materials were examined at the different temperatures and different mixtures. Pyrolysis process was carried out at 550 °C and 600 °C without air in a fixed bed pyrolysis oven solid under the nitrogen flow to provide inertness of medium. Elemental analyses (C, H, O, N, S) of this solid and liquid (bitumen) products were made and the calorific value was calculated. The availability of liquid product as a fuel was investigated. In addition different products’ amounts formed like solid, liquid and gas at different temperatures were evaluated.

Keywords: alternative energy, elemental analysis, pyrolysis, waste reduction

Procedia PDF Downloads 211
186 A Novel Approach for Energy Utilisation in a Pyrolysis Plant

Authors: S. Murugan, Bohumil Horak


Pyrolysis is one of the possible technologies to derive energy from waste organic substances. In recent years, pilot level and demonstrated plants have been installed in few countries. The heat energy lost during the process is not effectively utilized resulting in less savings of energy and money. This paper proposes a novel approach to integrate a combined heat and power unit(CHP) and reduce the primary energy consumption in a tyre pyrolysis pilot plant. The proposal primarily uses the micro combined heat and power concept that will help to produce both heat and power in the process.

Keywords: pyrolysis, waste tyres, waste plastics, biomass, waste heat

Procedia PDF Downloads 219
185 Bio-Oil Production and Chromatographic Characterization from the Pyrolysis of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunches

Authors: Arif Ferdiyanto, Fajar Hamida, Arif Hidayat


Oil palm empty fruit bunches, derived biomass available in Indonesia, is one of the potential biomass to produce biofuels like bio-oil due to its abundant supply and favorable physicochemical characteristics. An interesting alternative of utilising the oil palm empty fruit bunches is in the production of bio-oil by pyrolysis. Pyrolysis of oil palm empty fruit bunches to bio-oil is being considered for national energy security and environmental advantages. The aim of this study was to produce bio-oil by pyrolysis of oil palm empty fruit bunches at various temperature and observe its detailed chemical composition. The biomass was submitted to a pyrolysis in a batch reactor. Experiments were carried out at a temperature range of 450–600°C and heating rate range of 10-20°C/min. The yield of bio-oil was found to be maximum at the temperature of 600°C. The bio-oils detailed compositions were investigated using FTIR and GC-MS. The bio-char produced as a co-product can be a potential soil amendment with multiple benefits including soil fertility and for solid fuel applications that also contributes to the preservation of the environment. The present investigation suggests the suitability of oil palm empty fruit bunches as a potential feedstock for exploitation of energy and biomaterials through pyrolysis process.

Keywords: bio-oil, oil palm empty fruit bunches, pyrolysis, renewable energy

Procedia PDF Downloads 166
184 A Comparative Study on Biochar from Slow Pyrolysis of Corn Cob and Cassava Wastes

Authors: Adilah Shariff, Nurhidayah Mohamed Noor, Alexander Lau, Muhammad Azwan Mohd Ali


Biomass such as corn and cassava wastes if left to decay will release significant quantities of greenhouse gases (GHG) including carbon dioxide and methane. The biomass wastes can be converted into biochar via thermochemical process such as slow pyrolysis. This approach can reduce the biomass wastes as well as preserve its carbon content. Biochar has the potential to be used as a carbon sequester and soil amendment. The aim of this study is to investigate the characteristics of the corn cob, cassava stem, and cassava rhizome in order to identify their potential as pyrolysis feedstocks for biochar production. This was achieved by using the proximate and elemental analyses as well as calorific value and lignocellulosic determination. The second objective is to investigate the effect of pyrolysis temperature on the biochar produced. A fixed bed slow pyrolysis reactor was used to pyrolyze the corn cob, cassava stem, and cassava rhizome. The pyrolysis temperatures were varied between 400 °C and 600 °C, while the heating rate and the holding time were fixed at 5 °C/min and 1 hour, respectively. Corn cob, cassava stem, and cassava rhizome were found to be suitable feedstocks for pyrolysis process because they contained a high percentage of volatile matter more than 80 mf wt.%. All the three feedstocks contained low nitrogen and sulphur content less than 1 mf wt.%. Therefore, during the pyrolysis process, the feedstocks give off very low rate of GHG such as nitrogen oxides and sulphur oxides. Independent of the types of biomass, the percentage of biochar yield is inversely proportional to the pyrolysis temperature. The highest biochar yield for each studied temperature is from slow pyrolysis of cassava rhizome as the feedstock contained the highest percentage of ash compared to the other two feedstocks. The percentage of fixed carbon in all the biochars increased as the pyrolysis temperature increased. The increment of pyrolysis temperature from 400 °C to 600 °C increased the fixed carbon of corn cob biochar, cassava stem biochar and cassava rhizome biochar by 26.35%, 10.98%, and 6.20% respectively. Irrespective of the pyrolysis temperature, all the biochars produced were found to contain more than 60 mf wt.% fixed carbon content, much higher than its feedstocks.

Keywords: biochar, biomass, cassava wastes, corn cob, pyrolysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 175
183 Effect of Segregation on the Reaction Rate of Sewage Sludge Pyrolysis in a Bubbling Fluidized Bed

Authors: A. Soria-Verdugo, A. Morato-Godino, L. M. García-Gutiérrez, N. García-Hernando


The evolution of the pyrolysis of sewage sludge in a fixed and a fluidized bed was analyzed using a novel measuring technique. This original measuring technique consists of installing the whole reactor over a precision scale, capable of measuring the mass of the complete reactor with enough precision to detect the mass released by the sewage sludge sample during its pyrolysis. The inert conditions required for the pyrolysis process were obtained supplying the bed with a nitrogen flowrate, and the bed temperature was adjusted to either 500 ºC or 600 ºC using a group of three electric resistors. The sewage sludge sample was supplied through the top of the bed in a batch of 10 g. The measurement of the mass released by the sewage sludge sample was employed to determine the evolution of the reaction rate during the pyrolysis, the total amount of volatile matter released, and the pyrolysis time. The pyrolysis tests of sewage sludge in the fluidized bed were conducted using two different bed materials of the same size but different densities: silica sand and sepiolite particles. The higher density of silica sand particles induces a flotsam behavior for the sewage sludge particles which move close to the bed surface. In contrast, the lower density of sepiolite produces a neutrally-buoyant behavior for the sewage sludge particles, which shows a proper circulation throughout the whole bed in this case. The analysis of the evolution of the pyrolysis process in both fluidized beds show that the pyrolysis is faster when buoyancy effects are negligible, i.e. in the bed conformed by sepiolite particles. Moreover, sepiolite was found to show an absorbent capability for the volatile matter released during the pyrolysis of sewage sludge.

Keywords: bubbling fluidized bed, pyrolysis, reaction rate, segregation effects, sewage sludge

Procedia PDF Downloads 229
182 A Numerical and Experimental Study on Fast Pyrolysis of Single Wood Particle

Authors: Hamid Rezaei, Xiaotao Bi, C. Jim Lim, Anthony Lau, Shahab Sokhansanj


A one-dimensional heat transfer model coupled with the kinetic information has been used to predict the overall pyrolysis mass loss of a single wood particle. The kinetic parameters were determined experimentally and the regime and characteristics of the conversion were evaluated in terms of the particle size and reactor temperature. The order of overall mass loss changed from n=1 at temperatures lower than 350 °C to n=0.5 at temperatures higher that 350 °C. Conversion time analysis showed that particles larger than 0.5 mm were controlled by internal thermal resistances. The valid range of particle size to use the simplified lumped model depends on the fluid temperature around the particles. The critical particle size was 0.6-0.7 mm for the fluid temperature of 500 °C and 0.9-1.0 mm for the fluid temperature of 100 °C. Experimental pyrolysis of moist particles did not show distinct drying and pyrolysis stages. The process was divided into two hypothetical drying and pyrolysis dominated zones and empirical correlations are developed to predict the rate of mass loss in each zone.

Keywords: pyrolysis, kinetics, model, single particle

Procedia PDF Downloads 158
181 Modelling and Simulation of Biomass Pyrolysis

Authors: P. Ahuja, K. S. S. Sai Krishna


There is a concern over the energy shortage in the modern societies as it is one of the primary necessities. Renewable energy, mainly biomass, is found to be one feasible solution as it is inexhaustible and clean energy source all over the world. Out of various methods, thermo chemical conversion is considered to be the most common and convenient method to extract energy from biomass. The thermo-chemical methods that are employed are gasification, liquefaction and combustion. On gasification biomass yields biogas, on liquefaction biomass yields bio-oil and on combustion biomass yields bio-char. Any attempt to biomass gasification, liquefaction or combustion calls for a good understanding of biomass pyrolysis. So, Irrespective of the method used the first step towards the thermo-chemical treatment of biomass is pyrolysis. Pyrolysis mainly converts the solid mass into liquid with gas and residual char as the byproducts. Liquid is used for the production of heat, power and many other chemicals whereas the gas and char can be used as fuels to generate heat.

Keywords: biomass, fluidisation, pyrolysis, simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 224
180 Analysis of Bio-Oil Produced from Sugar Cane Bagasse Pyrolysis

Authors: D. S. Fardhyanti, M. Megawati, H. Prasetiawan, U. Mediaty


Currently, fossil fuel is supplying most of world’s energy resources. However, fossil fuel resources are depleted rapidly and require an alternative energy to overcome the increasing of energy demands. Bio-oil is one of a promising alternative renewable energy resources which is converted from biomass through pyrolysis or fast pyrolysis process. Bio-oil is a dark liquid fuel, has a smelling smoke and usually obtained from sugar cane, wood, coconut shell and any other biomass. Sugar cane content analysis showed that the content of oligosaccharide, hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin was 16.69%, 25.66%, 51.27% and 6.38% respectively. Sugar cane is a potential sources for bio-oil production shown by its high content of cellulose. In this study, production of bio-oil from sugar cane bagasse was investigated via fast pyrolysis reactor. Fast pyrolysis was carried out at 500 °C with a heating rate of 10 °C and 1 hour holding time at pyrolysis temperature. Physical properties and chemical composition of bio-oil were analyzed. The viscosity, density, calorific value and molecular weight of produced bio-oil was 3.12 cp, 2.78 g/cm3, 11,048.44 cals/g, and 222.67 respectively. The Bio-oil chemical composition was investigated using GC-MS. Percentage value of furfural, phenol, 3-methyl 1,2-cyclopentanedione, 5-methyl-3-methylene 5-hexen-2-one, 4-methyl phenol, 4-ethyl phenol, 1,2-benzenediol, and 2,6-dimethoxy phenol was 20.76%, 16.42%, 10.86%, 7.54%, 7.05%, 7.72%, 5.27% and 6.79% respectively.

Keywords: bio-oil, pyrolysis, bagasse, sugar cane, gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy

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179 Slow Pyrolysis of Bio-Wastes: Environmental, Exergetic, and Energetic (3E) Assessment

Authors: Daniela Zalazar-GarciA, Erick Torres, GermaN Mazza


Slow pyrolysis of a pellet of pistachio waste was studied using a lab-scale stainless-steel reactor. Experiments were conducted at different heating rates (5, 10, and 15 K/min). A 3-E (environmental, exergetic, and energetic) analysis for the processing of 20 kg/h of bio-waste was carried out. Experimental results showed that biochar and gas yields decreased with an increase in the heating rate (43 to 36 % and 28 to 24 %, respectively), while the bio-oil yield increased (29 to 40 %). Finally, from the 3-E analysis and the experimental results, it can be suggested that an increase in the heating rate resulted in a higher pyrolysis exergetic efficiency (70 %) due to an increase of the bio-oil yield with high-energy content.

Keywords: 3E assessment, bio-waste pellet, life cycle assessment, slow pyrolysis

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178 A Study of Heavy Hydrocarbons Upgrading by Microwave Pyrolysis

Authors: Thanida Sritangthong, Suksun Amornraksa


By-product upgrading is crucial in hydrocarbon industries as it can increase overall profit margin of the business. Microwave-assisted pyrolysis is relatively new technique which induces heat directly to raw materials. This results in a more energy saving and more energy-efficient process. It is also a promising method to enhance and accelerate chemical reactions, thus reducing the pyrolysis reaction time and increasing the quality of value-added products from different kinds of feedstocks. In this study, upgrading opportunity of fuel oil by-product from an olefins plant is investigated by means of microwave pyrolysis. The experiment was conducted in a lab-scale quartz reactor placed inside a 1,100 watts household microwave oven. Operating temperature was varied from 500 to 900C to observe the consequence on the quality of pyrolysis products. Several microwave receptors i.e. activated carbon, silicon carbide (SiC) and copper oxide (CuO) were used as a material to enhance the heating and reaction in the reactor. The effect of residence time was determined by adjusting flow rate of N2 carrier gas. The chemical composition and product yield were analyzed by using gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The results showed that hydrogen, methane, ethylene, and ethane were obtained as the main gaseous products from all operating temperatures while the main liquid products were alkane, cycloalkane and polycyclic aromatic groups. The results indicated that microwave pyrolysis has a potential to upgrade low value hydrocarbons to high value products.

Keywords: fuel oil, heavy hydrocarbons, microwave pyrolysis, pyrolysis

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177 Investigation of Biochar from Banana Peel

Authors: Anurita Selvarajoo, Svenja Hanson


Growing energy needs and increasing environmental issues are creating awareness for alternative energy which substitutes the non-renewable and polluting fossil fuels. Agricultural wastes are a good feedstock for biochar production through the pyrolysis process. There is potential to generate solid fuel from agricultural wastes, as there are large quantities of agricultural wastes available in Malaysia. This paper outlines the experimental study on the pyrolysis of banana peel. The effects of pyrolysis temperatures on the yield of biochar from the banana peel were investigated. Banana peel was pyrolysed in a horizontal tubular reactor under inert atmosphere by varying the temperatures between 300 and 700 0C. With increasing temperature, the total biochar yield decreased with increased heating value. It was found that the pyrolysis temperature had major effect on the yield of biochar product. It also exerted major influence on the heating value and C,H and O composition. The obtained biochar ranged between 31.9 to 56.7 %wt, at different pyrolysis temperatures. The optimum biochar yield was obtained at 325 0C. Biochar yield obtained at optimum temperature was 47 % wt with a heating value of 25.9 MJ kg-1. The study has been performed in order to demonstrate that agricultural wastes like banana peel are also important source of solid fuel.

Keywords: agricultural Wastes, banana peel, biochar, pyrolysis

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176 Deformulation and Comparative Analysis of Apparently Similar Polymers Using Multiple Modes of Pyrolysis-Gc/Ms

Authors: Athena Nguyen, Rojin Belganeh


Detecting and identifying differences in like polymer materials are key factors in deformulation, comparative analysis as well as reverse engineering. Pyrolysis-GC/MS is an easy solid sample introduction technique which expands the application areas of gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The Micro-furnace pyrolyzer is directly interfaced with the GC injector preventing any potential of cold spot, carryover, and cross contamination. This presentation demonstrates the study of two similar polymers by performing different mode of operations in the same system: Evolve gas analysis (EGA), Flash pyrolysis, Thermal desorption analysis, and Heart-cutting analysis. Unknown polymer materials and their chemical compositions are identified.

Keywords: gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, pyrolysis, pyrolyzer, thermal desorption-GC/MS

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175 Analysis of Bio-Oil Produced by Pyrolysis of Coconut Shell

Authors: D. S. Fardhyanti, A. Damayanti


The utilization of biomass as a source of new and renewable energy is being carried out. One of the technologies to convert biomass as an energy source is pyrolysis which is converting biomass into more valuable products, such as bio-oil. Bio-oil is a liquid which is produced by steam condensation process from the pyrolysis of coconut shells. The composition of a coconut shell e.g. hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin will be oxidized to phenolic compounds as the main component of the bio-oil. The phenolic compounds in bio-oil are corrosive; they cause various difficulties in the combustion system because of a high viscosity, low calorific value, corrosiveness, and instability. Phenolic compounds are very valuable components which phenol has used as the main component for the manufacture of antiseptic, disinfectant (known as Lysol) and deodorizer. The experiments typically occurred at the atmospheric pressure in a pyrolysis reactor at temperatures ranging from 300 oC to 350 oC with a heating rate of 10 oC/min and a holding time of 1 hour at the pyrolysis temperature. The Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy (GC-MS) was used to analyze the bio-oil components. The obtained bio-oil has the viscosity of 1.46 cP, the density of 1.50 g/cm3, the calorific value of 16.9 MJ/kg, and the molecular weight of 1996.64. By GC-MS, the analysis of bio-oil showed that it contained phenol (40.01%), ethyl ester (37.60%), 2-methoxy-phenol (7.02%), furfural (5.45%), formic acid (4.02%), 1-hydroxy-2-butanone (3.89%), and 3-methyl-1,2-cyclopentanedione (2.01%).

Keywords: bio-oil, pyrolysis, coconut shell, phenol, gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy

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