Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 223

Search results for: LNG flame

223 A Numerical Study on the Influence of CO2 Dilution on Combustion Characteristics of a Turbulent Diffusion Flame

Authors: Yasaman Tohidi, Rouzbeh Riazi, Shidvash Vakilipour, Masoud Mohammadi


The objective of the present study is to numerically investigate the effect of CO2 replacement of N2 in air stream on the flame characteristics of the CH4 turbulent diffusion flame. The Open source Field Operation and Manipulation (OpenFOAM) has been used as the computational tool. In this regard, laminar flamelet and modified k-ε models have been utilized as combustion and turbulence models, respectively. Results reveal that the presence of CO2 in air stream changes the flame shape and maximum flame temperature. Also, CO2 dilution causes an increment in CO mass fraction.

Keywords: CH4 diffusion flame, CO2 dilution, OpenFOAM, turbulent flame

Procedia PDF Downloads 174
222 Flame Spread along Fuel Cylinders in High Pressures

Authors: Yanli Zhao, Jian Chen, Shouxiang Lu


Flame spread over solid fuels in high pressure situations such as nuclear containment shells and hyperbaric oxygen chamber has potential to result in catastrophic disaster, thus requiring best knowledge. This paper reveals experimentally the flame spread behaviors over fuel cylinders in high pressures. The fuel used in this study is polyethylene and polymethyl methacrylate cylinders with 4mm diameter. Ambient gas is fixed as air and total pressures are varied from naturally normal pressure (100kPa) to elevated pressure (400kPa). Flame appearance, burning rate and flame spread were investigated experimentally and theoretically. Results show that high pressure significantly affects the flame appearance, which is as the pressure increases, flame color changes from luminous yellow to orange and the orange part extends down towards the base of flame. Besides, the average flame width and height, and the burning rate are proved to increase with increasing pressure. What is more, flame spread rates become higher as pressure increases due to the enhancement of heat transfer from flame to solid surface in elevated pressure by performing a simplified heat balance analysis.

Keywords: cylinder fuel, flame spread, heat transfer, high pressure

Procedia PDF Downloads 283
221 Thermal Performance of Dual Flame Impinging Normally on to a Flat Surface

Authors: Satpal Singh, Subhash Chander


An experimental study has been conducted to evaluate the thermal performance of the CNG/air dual flame impinging normally on to a flat surface. The stability limits for the dual flame under both impinging and free conditions have been evaluated to select experimental operating range. Dual flame shape and structure have been explained with direct flame image and schematic diagram indicating modification in recirculation zone in presence of inner flame. Effects of various operating parameters like H/Dh, Re(o), Φ(o), and θ(o) on heat transfer characteristics have been discussed. Inner non-swirling flame Reynolds number (Re(i)) and equivalence ratio (Φ(i)) were kept constant. Heating patterns in the impingement region around the stagnation point have been altered significantly with change in the values of H/Dh, Re(o), Φ(o), and θ(o). The axial flow of inner flame has been notably effected with increase in Re(o). Heating was most favorable near stoichiometeric conditions of the outer swirling flame. However, the effect of change in swirl intensity (expressed in terms of θ(o)) on overall heat transfer efficiency was not as significant as in the case of other parameters. It has been inferred that best performance (higher uniformity and efficiency) of the dual flame impinging on a flat surface can be achieved at moderate value of separation distance (H/Dh of 2-3) and outer swirling flame Reynolds number (Re(o) of 7000-9000) under stoichiometeric conditions.

Keywords: dual flame, heat transfer, impingement, swirling insert, transmission efficiency

Procedia PDF Downloads 213
220 An Experimental Study on the Measurement of Fuel to Air Ratio Using Flame Chemiluminescence

Authors: Sewon Kim, Chang Yeop Lee, Minjun Kwon


This study is aiming at establishing the relationship between the optical signal of flame and an equivalent ratio of flame. In this experiment, flame optical signal in a furnace is measured using photodiode. The combustion system which is composed of metal fiber burner and vertical furnace and flame chemiluminescence is measured at various experimental conditions. In this study, the flame chemiluminescence of laminar premixed flame is measured by using commercially available photodiode. It is experimentally investigated the relationship between equivalent ratio and photodiode signal. In addition, The strategy of combustion control method is proposed by using the optical signal and fuel pressure. The results showed that certain relationship between optical data of photodiode and equivalence ratio exists and this leads to the successful application of this system for instantaneous measurement of equivalence ration of the combustion system.

Keywords: flame chemiluminescence, photo diode, equivalence ratio, combustion control

Procedia PDF Downloads 308
219 Experimental Investigation of Partially Premixed Laminar Methane/Air Co-Flow Flames Using Mach-Zehnder Interferometry

Authors: Misagh Irandoost Shahrestani, Mehdi Ashjaee, Shahrokh Zandieh Vakili


In this paper, partially premixed laminar methane/air co-flow flame is studied experimentally. Methane-air flame was established on an axisymmetric coannular burner. The fuel-air jet flows from the central tube while the secondary air flows from the region between the inner and the outer tube. The aim is to investigate the flame features and to develop a nonintrusive method for temperature measurement of methane/air partially premixed flame using Mach-Zehnder interferometry method. Different equivalence ratios and Reynolds numbers are considered. Flame generic visible appearance was also investigated and its various structures were studied. Three distinguished flame regimes were seen based on its appearance. A double flame structure can be seen for the equivalence ratio in the range of 1<Φ<2.1. By adding air to the mixture up to Φ=4 the flame has the characteristics of both premixed and non-premixed flames. Finally for 4<Φ<∞ the flame mainly becomes non-premixed like and the luminous sooting region on its tip is the obvious feature of this type of flames. The Mach-Zehnder method is used to obtain temperature field of a transparent fluid by means of index of refraction. Temperature obtained from optical techniques was compared with that of obtained from thermocouples in order to validate the results. Good agreement was observed for these two methods.

Keywords: flame structure, Mach-Zehnder interferometry, partially premixed flame, temperature field

Procedia PDF Downloads 384
218 A Numerical Study on the Effects of N2 Dilution on the Flame Structure and Temperature Distribution of Swirl Diffusion Flames

Authors: Yasaman Tohidi, Shidvash Vakilipour, Saeed Ebadi Tavallaee, Shahin Vakilipoor Takaloo, Hossein Amiri


The numerical modeling is performed to study the effects of N2 addition to the fuel stream on the flame structure and temperature distribution of methane-air swirl diffusion flames with different swirl intensities. The Open source Field Operation and Manipulation (OpenFOAM) has been utilized as the computational tool. Flamelet approach along with modified k-ε model is employed to model the flame characteristics.  The results indicate that the presence of N2 in the fuel stream leads to the flame temperature reduction. By increasing of swirl intensity, the flame structure changes significantly. The flame has a conical shape in low swirl intensity; however, it has an hour glass-shape with a shorter length in high swirl intensity. The effects of N2 dilution decrease the flame length in all swirl intensities; however, the rate of reduction is more noticeable in low swirl intensity.

Keywords: swirl diffusion flame, N2 dilution, OpenFOAM, swirl intensity

Procedia PDF Downloads 70
217 Prediction of the Tunnel Fire Flame Length by Hybrid Model of Neural Network and Genetic Algorithms

Authors: Behzad Niknam, Kourosh Shahriar, Hassan Madani


This paper demonstrates the applicability of Hybrid Neural Networks that combine with back propagation networks (BPN) and Genetic Algorithms (GAs) for predicting the flame length of tunnel fire A hybrid neural network model has been developed to predict the flame length of tunnel fire based parameters such as Fire Heat Release rate, air velocity, tunnel width, height and cross section area. The network has been trained with experimental data obtained from experimental work. The hybrid neural network model learned the relationship for predicting the flame length in just 3000 training epochs. After successful learning, the model predicted the flame length.

Keywords: tunnel fire, flame length, ANN, genetic algorithm

Procedia PDF Downloads 524
216 Temperature Field Measurement of Premixed Landfill Gas Laminar Flame in a Cylindrical Slot Burner Using Mach-Zehnder Interferometry

Authors: Bahareh Najafian Ashrafi, Hossein Zeidabadinejad, Mehdi Ashjaee


The temperature field is a key factor of flame heat transfer rate and therefore should be measured accurately. In this study, the Mach-Zehnder Interferometry method is applied to measure the temperature field of premixed air/landfill gas (LFG60:60% CH4+40% CO2) laminar flame. The three-dimensional flame of cylindrical slot burner can assume to be two-dimensional due to the high aspect ratio (L/W=10) of the rectangular slot. So, the method converts two-dimensional flame to closed isothermal curves called fringes and the outer fringes temperature is measured by thermocouples. The experiments are carried out for Reynolds numbers and equivalence ratios ranging from 100 to 400 and 1.0 to 1.4, respectively. Results show that by increasing the equivalence ratio or Reynolds number, the flame height increases. The maximum flame temperature decreases by increasing the equivalence ratio but does not change considerably by changing the Reynolds number.

Keywords: landfill gas, Mach-Zehender interferometry, premix flame, slot burner, temperature filed

Procedia PDF Downloads 68
215 Aspects Concerning Flame Propagation of Various Fuels in Combustion Chamber of Four Valve Engines

Authors: Zoran Jovanovic, Zoran Masonicic, S. Dragutinovic, Z. Sakota


In this paper, results concerning flame propagation of various fuels in a particular combustion chamber with four tilted valves were elucidated. Flame propagation was represented by the evolution of spatial distribution of temperature in various cut-planes within combustion chamber while the flame front location was determined by dint of zones with maximum temperature gradient. The results presented are only a small part of broader on-going scrutinizing activity in the field of multidimensional modeling of reactive flows in combustion chambers with complicated geometries encompassing various models of turbulence, different fuels and combustion models. In the case of turbulence two different models were applied i.e. standard k-ε model of turbulence and k-ξ-f model of turbulence. In this paper flame propagation results were analyzed and presented for two different hydrocarbon fuels, such as CH4 and C8H18. In the case of combustion all differences ensuing from different turbulence models, obvious for non-reactive flows are annihilated entirely. Namely the interplay between fluid flow pattern and flame propagation is invariant as regards turbulence models and fuels applied. Namely the interplay between fluid flow pattern and flame propagation is entirely invariant as regards fuel variation indicating that the flame propagation through unburned mixture of CH4 and C8H18 fuels is not chemically controlled.

Keywords: automotive flows, flame propagation, combustion modelling, CNG

Procedia PDF Downloads 184
214 Eco-Ways to Reduce Environmental Impacts of Flame Retardant Textiles at the End of Life

Authors: Sohail Yasin, Massimo Curti, Nemeshwaree Behary, Giorgio Rovero


It is well-known that the presence of discarded textile products in municipal landfills poses environmental problems due to leaching of chemical products from the textile to the environment. Incineration of such textiles is considered to be an efficient way to produce energy and reduce environmental impacts of textile materials at their end-of life stage. However, the presence of flame retardant products on textiles would decrease the energy yield and emit toxic gases during incineration stage. While some non-durable flame retardants can be removed by wet treatments (e.g. washing), these substances pollute water and pose concerns towards environmental health. Our study shows that infrared radiation can be used efficiently to degrade flame retardant products on the textiles. This method is finalized to minimize the decrease in energy yield during the incineration or gasification processes of flame retardant cotton fabrics.

Keywords: degradation, flame retardant, infrared radiation, cotton, incineration

Procedia PDF Downloads 254
213 Influence of Flame-Holder on Existence Important Parameters in a Duct Combustion Simulator

Authors: Mohammad Mahdi Doustdar, Mohammad Mojtahedpoor


The effects of flame-holder position, the ratio of flame holder diameter to combustion chamber diameter and injection angle on fuel propulsive droplets sizing and effective mass fraction have been studied by a cold flow. We named the mass of fuel vapor inside the flammability limit as the effective mass fraction. An empty cylinder as well as a flame-holder which are as a simulator for duct combustion has been considered. The airflow comes into the cylinder from one side and injection operation will be done by four nozzles which are located on the entrance of cylinder. To fulfill the calculations a modified version of KIVA-3V code which is a transient, three-dimensional, multi phase, multi component code for the analysis of chemically reacting flows with sprays, is used.

Keywords: KIVA-3V, flame-holder, duct combustion, effective mass fraction, mean diameter of droplets

Procedia PDF Downloads 508
212 Flame Acceleration of Premixed Natural Gas/Air Explosion in Closed Pipe

Authors: H. Mat Kiah, Rafiziana M. Kasmani, Norazana Ibrahim, Roshafima R. Ali, Aziatul N.Sadikin


An experimental study has been done to investigate the flame acceleration in a closed pipe. A horizontal steel pipe, 2m long and 0.1 m in diameter (L/D of 20), was used in this work. For tests with 90 degree bends, the bend had a radius of 0.1 m and thus, the pipe was lengthened 1 m (based on the centreline length of the segment). Ignition was affected one end of the vessel while the other end was closed. Only stoichiometric concentration (Ф, = 1.0) of natural gas/air mixtures will be reported in this paper. It was demonstrated that bend pipe configuration gave three times higher in maximum over-pressure (5.5 bars) compared to straight pipe (2.0 bars). From the results, the highest flame speed of 63 m s-1 was observed in a gas explosion with bent pipe, greater by a factor of ~3 as compared with straight pipe (23 m s-1). This occurs because bending acts similar to an obstacle, in which this mechanism can induce more turbulence, initiating combustion in an unburned pocket at the corner region and causing a high mass burning rate which increases the flame speed.

Keywords: bending, gas explosion, bending, flame acceleration, over-pressure

Procedia PDF Downloads 314
211 Enhancing of Flame Retardancy and Hydrophobicity of Cotton by Coating a Phosphorous, Silica, Nitrogen Containing Bio-Flame Retardant Liquid for Upholstery Application

Authors: Li Maksym, Prabhakar M. N., Jung-Il Song


In this study, a flame retardant and hydrophobic cotton textile were prepared by utilizing a renewable halogen-free bio-based solution based on chitosan, urea, and phytic acid, named bio-flame retardant liquid (BFL), through facile dip-coating technology. Deposition of BFL on the surface of the cotton was confirmed by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscope coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer. Thermal and flame retardant properties of the cottons were studied with thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, vertical flame test, cone calorimeter test. Only with 8.8% of dry weight gain treaded cotton showed self-extinguish properties during fire test. Cone calorimeter test revealed a reduction of peak heat release rate from 203.2 to 21 kW/m2 and total heat release from 20.1 to 2.8 MJ/m2. Incidentally, BFL remarkably improved the thermal stability of flame retardant cotton from expressed in an enhanced amount of char at 700 °C (6.7 vs. 33.5%). BFL initiates the formation of phosphorous and silica contain char layer whichrestrains the propagation of heat and oxygen to unburned materialstrengthen by the liberation of non-combustible gases, which reduce the concentration of flammable volatiles and oxygen hence reducing the flammability of cotton. In addition, hydrophobicity and specific ignition test for upholstery application were performed. In conjunction, the proposed flame retardant cotton is potentially translatable to be utilized as upholstery materials in public transport.

Keywords: cotton farbic, flame retardancy, surface coating, intumescent mechanism

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210 Characterization of the Ignitability and Flame Regression Behaviour of Flame Retarded Natural Fibre Composite Panel

Authors: Timine Suoware, Sylvester Edelugo, Charles Amgbari


Natural fibre composites (NFC) are becoming very attractive especially for automotive interior and non-structural building applications because they are biodegradable, low cost, lightweight and environmentally friendly. NFC are known to release high combustible products during exposure to heat atmosphere and this behaviour has raised concerns to end users. To improve on their fire response, flame retardants (FR) such as aluminium tri-hydroxide (ATH) and ammonium polyphosphate (APP) are incorporated during processing to delay the start and spread of fire. In this paper, APP was modified with Gum Arabic powder (GAP) and synergized with carbon black (CB) to form new FR species. Four FR species at 0, 12, 15 and 18% loading ratio were added to oil palm fibre polyester composite (OPFC) panels as follows; OPFC12%APP-GAP, OPFC15%APP-GAP/CB, OPFC18%ATH/APP-GAP and OPFC18%ATH/APPGAP/CB. The panels were produced using hand lay-up compression moulding and cured at room temperature. Specimens were cut from the panels and these were tested for ignition time (Tig), peak heat released rate (HRRp), average heat release rate (HRRavg), peak mass loss rate (MLRp), residual mass (Rm) and average smoke production rate (SPRavg) using cone calorimeter apparatus as well as the available flame energy (ɸ) in driving the flame using radiant panel flame spread apparatus. From the ignitability data obtained at 50 kW/m2 heat flux (HF), it shows that the hybrid FR modified with APP that is OPFC18%ATH/APP-GAP exhibited superior flame retardancy and the improvement was based on comparison with those without FR which stood at Tig = 20 s, HRRp = 86.6 kW/m2, HRRavg = 55.8 kW/m2, MLRp =0.131 g/s, Rm = 54.6% and SPRavg = 0.05 m2/s representing respectively 17.6%, 67.4%, 62.8%, 50.9%, 565% and 62.5% improvements less than those without FR (OPFC0%). In terms of flame spread, the least flame energy (ɸ) of 0.49 kW2/s3 for OPFC18%ATH/APP-GAP caused early flame regression. This was less than 39.6 kW2/s3 compared to those without FR (OPFC0%). It can be concluded that hybrid FR modified with APP could be useful in the automotive and building industries to delay the start and spread of fire.

Keywords: flame retardant, flame regression, oil palm fibre, composite panel

Procedia PDF Downloads 43
209 Flame Retardant Study of Methylol Melamine Phosphate-Treated Cotton Fibre

Authors: Nurudeen Afolami Ayeni, Kasali Bello


Methylolmelamine with increasing degree of methylol substitution and the phosphates derivatives were used to resinate cotton fabric (CF). The resination was carried out at different curing time and curing temperature. Generally, the results show a reduction in the flame propagation rate of the treated fabrics compared to the untreated cotton fabric (CF). While the flame retardancy of methylolmelamine-treated fibre could be attributed to the degree of crosslinking of fibre-resin network which promotes stability, the methylolmelamine phosphate-treated fabrics show better retardancy due to the intumescences action of the phosphate resin upon decomposition in the resin – fabric network.

Keywords: cotton fabric, flame retardant, methylolmelamine, crosslinking, resination

Procedia PDF Downloads 298
208 Flame Volume Prediction and Validation for Lean Blowout of Gas Turbine Combustor

Authors: Ejaz Ahmed, Huang Yong


The operation of aero engines has a critical importance in the vicinity of lean blowout (LBO) limits. Lefebvre’s model of LBO based on empirical correlation has been extended to flame volume concept by the authors. The flame volume takes into account the effects of geometric configuration, the complex spatial interaction of mixing, turbulence, heat transfer and combustion processes inside the gas turbine combustion chamber. For these reasons, flame volume based LBO predictions are more accurate. Although LBO prediction accuracy has improved, it poses a challenge associated with Vf estimation in real gas turbine combustors. This work extends the approach of flame volume prediction previously based on fuel iterative approximation with cold flow simulations to reactive flow simulations. Flame volume for 11 combustor configurations has been simulated and validated against experimental data. To make prediction methodology robust as required in the preliminary design stage, reactive flow simulations were carried out with the combination of probability density function (PDF) and discrete phase model (DPM) in FLUENT 15.0. The criterion for flame identification was defined. Two important parameters i.e. critical injection diameter (Dp,crit) and critical temperature (Tcrit) were identified, and their influence on reactive flow simulation was studied for Vf estimation. Obtained results exhibit ±15% error in Vf estimation with experimental data.

Keywords: CFD, combustion, gas turbine combustor, lean blowout

Procedia PDF Downloads 201
207 Experimental Study of LPG Diffusion Flame at Elevated Preheated Air Temperatures

Authors: Ahmed A. El-Kafy Amer, H. M. Gad, A. I. Ibrahim, S. I. Abdel-Mageed, T. M. Farag


This paper represents an experimental study of LPG diffusion flame at elevated air preheated temperatures. The flame is stabilized in a vertical water-cooled combustor by using air swirler. An experimental test rig was designed to investigate the different operating conditions. The burner head is designed so that the LPG fuel issued centrally and surrounded by the swirling air issues from an air swirler. There are three air swirlers having the same dimensions but having different blade angles to give different swirl numbers of 0.5, 0.87 and 1.5. The combustion air was heated electrically before entering the combustor up to a temperature about 500 K. Three air to fuel mass ratios of 30, 40 and 50 were also studied. The effect of air preheated temperature, swirl number and air to fuel mass ratios on the temperature maps, visible flame length, high temperature region (size) and exhaust species concentrations are studied. Some results show that as the air preheated temperature increases, the volume of high temperature region also increased but the flame length decreased. Increasing the air preheated temperature, EINOx, EICO2 and EIO2 increased, while EICO decreased. Increasing the air preheated temperature from 300 to 500 K, for all air swirl numbers used, the highest increase in EINOx, EICO2 and EIO2 are 141, 4 and 65%, respectively.

Keywords: air preheated temperature, air swirler, flame length, emission index

Procedia PDF Downloads 408
206 Effects of Injection Conditions on Flame Structures in Gas-Centered Swirl Coaxial Injector

Authors: Wooseok Song, Sunjung Park, Jongkwon Lee, Jaye Koo


The objective of this paper is to observe the effects of injection conditions on flame structures in gas-centered swirl coaxial injector. Gaseous oxygen and liquid kerosene were used as propellants. For different injection conditions, two types of injector, which only differ in the diameter of the tangential inlet, were used in this study. In addition, oxidizer injection pressure was varied to control the combustion chamber pressure in different types of injector. In order to analyze the combustion instability intensity, the dynamic pressure was measured in both the combustion chamber and propellants lines. With the increase in differential pressure between the propellant injection pressure and the combustion chamber pressure, the combustion instability intensity increased. In addition, the flame structure was recorded using a high-speed camera to detect CH* chemiluminescence intensity. With the change in the injection conditions in the gas-centered swirl coaxial injector, the flame structure changed.

Keywords: liquid rocket engine, flame structure, combustion instability, dynamic pressure

Procedia PDF Downloads 146
205 High-Speed LIF-OH Imaging of H2-Air Turbulent Premixed Flames

Authors: Ahmed A. Al-Harbi


This paper presents a comparative study of effects of the repeated solid obstacles on the propagation of H2-Air premixed flames. Pressure, speed of the flame front as well as structure of reaction zones are studied for hydrogen. Two equivalence ratios are examined for different configurations of three baffle plates and two obstacles with a square cross-section having blockage ratios of either 0.24 or 0.5. Hydrogen fuel mixtures with two equivalence ratios of 0.7 and 0.8 are studied and this is limited by the excessive overpressures. The results show that the peak pressure and its rate of change can be increased by increasing the blockage ratio or by decreasing the space between successive baffles. As illustrated by the high speed images of LIF-OH, the degree of wrinkling and contortion in the flame front increase as the blockages increase. The images also show how the flame front relaminarises with increasing distances between obstacles, which accounts for the pressure decrease with increasing separation. It is also found that more than one obstacle is needed to achieve a turbulent flame structure with intense corrugations.

Keywords: premixed propagating flames, flame-obstacle interaction, turbulent premixed flames, overpressure, transient flames

Procedia PDF Downloads 312
204 Investigation of the Effect of Phosphorous on the Flame Retardant Polyacrylonitrile Nanofiber

Authors: Mustafa Yılmaz, Ahmet Akar, Nesrin Köken, Nilgün Kızılcan


Commercially available poly(acrylonitrile-co-vinyl acetate) P(AN-VA) or poly(acrylonitrile-co-methyl acrylate) P(AN-MA) are not satisfactory to meet the demand in flame and fire-resistance. In this work, vinylphosphonic acid is used during polymerization of acrylonitrile, vinyl acetate, methacrylic acid to produce fire-retardant polymers. These phosphorus containing polymers are successfully spun in the form of nanofibers. Properties such as water absorption of polymers are also determined and compared with commercial polymers.

Keywords: flame retardant, nanofiber, polyacrylonitrile, phosphorous compound, membrane

Procedia PDF Downloads 118
203 Synergistic Studies of Multi-Flame Retarders Using Silica Nanoparticles, and Nitrogen and Phosphorus-Based Compounds for Polystyrene Using Response Surface Methodology

Authors: Florencio D. De Los Reyes, Magdaleno R. Vasquez Jr., Mark Daniel G. De Luna, Peerasak Paoprasert


The effect of adding silica nanoparticles (SiNPs) obtained from rice husk, and phosphorus and nitrogen based compounds namely 9,10-dihydro-9-oxa-10-phosphaphenantrene-10-oxide (DOPO) and melamine, respectively, on the flammability of polystyrene (PS) was studied using response surface methodology (RSM). The flammability of PS was reduced as the limiting oxygen index (LOI) values increased when the flame retardant additives were added. DOPO exhibited the best retarding property increasing the LOI value of PS by 42.4%. A quadratic model for LOI was obtained from the RSM results, with percent loading of SiNPs, DOPO, and melamine, as independent variables. The observed increase in the LOI value as the percent loading of the flame retardant additives is increased, was attributed both to the main effects and synergistic effects of the parameters, as the LOI response of SiNPs is greatly enhanced by the addition of DOPO and melamine, as shown by the response surface plots. This indicates the potential of producing a cheaper, effective, and non-toxic multi-flame retardant system for the polymeric system via different flame retarding mechanisms.

Keywords: flame retardancy, polystyrene, response surface methodology, rice husk, silica nanoparticle

Procedia PDF Downloads 206
202 Soot Formation in the Field of Combustion

Authors: Nacira Mecheri, N. Boussid


A new chemical mechanism designed to study the process of forming the first aromatic ring (benzene) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from a flame of acetylene (C2H2) has been developed. The mechanism developed, contains 50 chemical species involved in 268 reversible elementary reactions. The comparison between the results from modelling and experimental measurements allowed us to test the validity of the postulated mechanism in specific experimental conditions. Kinetic analysis of the flame by calculating the maximum rates for each elementary reaction, allowed us to identify key reactions pathways of consumption and formation of main precursors of soot.

Keywords: benzene, PAH, acetylene, modeling, flame, soot

Procedia PDF Downloads 244
201 Advanced Phosphorus-Containing Polymer Materials towards Eco-Friendly Flame Retardant Epoxy Thermosets

Authors: Ionela-Daniela Carja, Diana Serbezeanu, Tachita Vlad-Bubulac, Corneliu Hamciuc


Nowadays, epoxy materials are extensively used in ever more areas and under ever more demanding environmental conditions due to their remarkable combination of properties, light weight and ease of processing. However, these materials greatly increase the fire risk due to their flammability and possible release of toxic by-products as a result of their chemical composition which consists mainly from carbon and hydrogen atoms. Therefore, improving the fire retardant behaviour to prevent the loss of life and property is of particular concern among government regulatory bodies, consumers and manufacturers alike. Modification of epoxy resins with organophosphorus compounds, as reactive flame retardants or additives, is the key to achieving non-flammable advanced epoxy materials. Herein, a detailed characterization of fire behaviour for a series of phosphorus-containing epoxy thermosets is reported. A carefully designed phosphorus flame retardant additive was simply blended with a bifunctional bisphenol-A based epoxy resin. Further thermal cross-linking in the presence of various aminic hardeners led to eco-friendly flame retardant epoxy resins. The type of hardener, concentration of flame retardant additive, compatibility between the components of the mixture, char formation and morphology, thermal stability, flame retardant mechanisms were investigated. It was found that even a very low content of phosphorus introduced into the epoxy matrix increased the limiting oxygen index value to about 30%. In addition, the peak of the heat release rate value decreased up to 45% as compared to the one of the neat epoxy system. The main flame retardant mechanism was the condensed-phase one as revealed by SEM and XPS measurements.

Keywords: condensed-phase mechanism, eco-friendly phosphorus flame retardant, epoxy resin, thermal stability

Procedia PDF Downloads 226
200 A FR Fire-Off with Polysilicic Acid for Pes/Co Blends

Authors: Raziye Atakan, Ebru Celebi, Gulay Ozcan, Neda Soydan, A. Sezai Sarac


In this study, a novel polymeric flame retardant chemical with phosphorous-nitrogen synergism was synthesized by polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), hydrophilic polyester resin (PR), phosphoric acid and dicyandiamide (DCDA). Polyester/Cotton (Pes/Co) blend fabrics were treated via pad-dry-cure process with this synthesized chemical. PVA (PR)-P-DCDA has shown that it is an effective flame retardant on the fabrics. In order to improve durable flame retardancy for cotton part of the blend, polysilicic acid and citric acid monohydrate auxiliaries were added in FR finishing bath at different concentrations. Flammability and characteristic properties of the sample were tested according to relevant ISO standard and procedures. To do so, ISO 6940 vertical flammability test, TGA, DTA, LOI and FTIR analysis have been performed. The obtained results showed that this new finishing formulation is a good char-forming agent for the PES/CO blends and polysilicic acid could be used for cellulosic blends with PVA (PR)-P-DCDA.

Keywords: flame retardancy, flammability, Pes/Co blends, polysilicic acid

Procedia PDF Downloads 210
199 Determination of Brominated Flame Retardants In Recycled Plastic Toys Using Thermal Desorption GC/MS

Authors: Athena Nguyen, Rojin Belganeh


In recycling plastics industries, waste plastics are converted into monomers and other useful molecules by chemical reactions. Thermal energy generated by incineration is recovered when waste plastics melt. During the process, Flame retardants containing products get in, and brominated flame retardants (BFRs) are often used to reduce the flammability of products. Some of the originally formulated brominated flame retardants additives are restricted by the RoHS Directive, such as PBDE and PBB. The determination of BFRs other than those restricted by the RoHS directive is required. Frontier Lab developed a pyrolyzer based on the vertical micro-furnace design. The multi-mode pyrolyzer with different modes of operations, including evolve gas analysis (EGA), flash pyrolysis, thermal desorption, heart cutting, allows users to choose among the techniques for their analysis purposes. The method requires very little sample preparation. The first step is to perform an EGA using temperature programs. This technique provides information about the thermal temperature behaviors of the sample. The EGA thermogram is then used to determine the next steps in the analysis process. In this presentation, with an Optimal thermal temperature zone identified based on EGA thermogram, thermal desorption GC/MS is a chosen technique for the determination of brominated flame retardants in recycled plastic toys. Five types of general-purpose brominated flame retardants other than those restricted by the RoHS Directive are determined by the standard addition method.

Keywords: gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, pyrolysis, pyrolyzer, thermal desorption-GC/MS

Procedia PDF Downloads 103
198 Flame Retardancy of Organophosphorus Compound on Cellulose - an Eco Friendly Concern

Authors: M. A. Hannan, N. Matthias Neisius


Organophosphorus compound diethyloxymethyl-9-oxa-10-phosphaphenanthrene-10-oxide (DOPAC) was applied on cotton cellulose to impart eco-friendly flame retardant property to it. Here acetal linkage was introduced rather than conventionally used ester linkage to rescue from the undurability problem of flame retardant compound. Some acidic catalysts, sodium dihydrogen phosphate (NaH2PO4), ammonium dihydrogen phosphate (NH4H2PO4) and phosphoric acid (H3PO4) were successfully used to form acetal linkage between the base material and flame retardant compound. Inspiring limiting oxygen index (LOI) value of 22.4 was found after exclusive washing treatment. A good outcome of total heat of combustion (THC) 6.05 KJ/g was found possible during pyrolysis combustion flow calorimetry (PCFC) test of the treated sample. Low temperature dehydration with sufficient amount of char residue (14.89%) was experienced in case of treated sample. In addition, the temperature of peak heat release rate (TPHRR) 343.061°C supported the expected low temperature pyrolysis in condensed phase mechanism. With the consequence of pyrolysis effects, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) also reported inspiring weight retention% of the treated samples.

Keywords: acetal linkage, char residue, cotton cellulose, flame retardant, loi, low temperature pyrolysis, organophosphorus, THC, THRR

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197 Flame Kernel Growth and Related Effects of Spark Plug Electrodes: Fluid Motion Interaction in an Optically Accessible DISI Engine

Authors: A. Schirru, A. Irimescu, S. Merola, A. d’Adamo, S. Fontanesi


One of the aspects that are usually neglected during the design phase of an engine is the effect of the spark plug on the flow field inside the combustion chamber. Because of the difficulties in the experimental investigation of the mutual interaction between flow alteration and early flame kernel convection effect inside the engine combustion chamber, CFD-3D simulation is usually exploited in such cases. Experimentally speaking, a particular type of engine has to be used in order to directly observe the flame propagation process. In this study, a double electrode spark plug was fitted into an optically accessible engine and a high-speed camera was used to capture the initial stages of the combustion process. Both the arc and the kernel phases were observed. Then, a morphologic analysis was carried out and the position of the center of mass of the flame, relative to the spark plug position, was calculated. The crossflow orientation was chosen for the spark plug and the kernel growth process was observed for different air-fuel ratios. It was observed that during a normal cycle the flow field between the electrodes tends to transport the arc deforming it. Because of that, the kernel growth phase takes place away from the electrodes and the flame propagates with a preferential direction dictated by the flow field.

Keywords: Combustion, Optically Accessible Engine, Spark-Ignition Engine, Sparl Orientation, Kernel Growth

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196 Study of a Lean Premixed Combustor: A Thermo Acoustic Analysis

Authors: Minoo Ghasemzadeh, Rouzbeh Riazi, Shidvash Vakilipour, Alireza Ramezani


In this study, thermo acoustic oscillations of a lean premixed combustor has been investigated, and a mono-dimensional code was developed in this regard. The linearized equations of motion are solved for perturbations with time dependence〖 e〗^iwt. Two flame models were considered in this paper and the effect of mean flow and boundary conditions were also investigated. After manipulation of flame heat release equation together with the equations of flow perturbation within the main components of the combustor model (i.e., plenum/ premixed duct/ and combustion chamber) and by considering proper boundary conditions between the components of model, a system of eight homogeneous equations can be obtained. This simplification, for the main components of the combustor model, is convenient since low frequency acoustic waves are not affected by bends. Moreover, some elements in the combustor are smaller than the wavelength of propagated acoustic perturbations. A convection time is also assumed to characterize the required time for the acoustic velocity fluctuations to travel from the point of injection to the location of flame front in the combustion chamber. The influence of an extended flame model on the acoustic frequencies of combustor was also investigated, assuming the effect of flame speed as a function of equivalence ratio perturbation, on the rate of flame heat release. The abovementioned system of equations has a related eigenvalue equation which has complex roots. The sign of imaginary part of these roots determines whether the disturbances grow or decay and the real part of these roots would give the frequency of the modes. The results show a reasonable agreement between the predicted values of dominant frequencies in the present model and those calculated in previous related studies.

Keywords: combustion instability, dominant frequencies, flame speed, premixed combustor

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195 Experimental Measurements of Fire Retardants on Plywood at Fire Test

Authors: Gisele C. A. Martins, Leonardo A. Marcolin, Laurenn B. de Macedo, Francisco A. Rocco Lahr, Carlito Calil Jr


The use and development of wood composite materials increased in the past few years. However, in Brazil there are some restrictions on these products regarding their use since it could be considered a potential risk in a fire situation. Thus, becomes evident the need for research aiming to fit these in safety standards. This study aims to evaluate the efficiency of two new fire retardant products produced by a Brazilian industry. Tests were performed on plywood panels of Pinus spp previously immersed, varying the products concentrations and compared with untreated samples. The test used to evaluate the flame spread in a panel was the modified Schlyter test. The product in question was proved efficient, before and after shutting off the burner. Comparing panels with the panels without treatment, there was a decrease of 400% of the height of the flame spread on the treated ones.

Keywords: fire retardant, flame spread, plywood, wood-based material

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194 Flame Propagation Velocity of Selected Gas Mixtures Depending on the Temperature

Authors: Kaczmarzyk Piotr, Anna Dziechciarz, Wojciech Klapsa


The purpose of this paper is demonstration the test results of research influence of temperature on the velocity of flame propagation using gas and air mixtures for selected gas mixtures. The research was conducted on the test apparatus in the form of duct 2 m long. The test apparatus was funded from the project: “Development of methods to neutralize threats of explosion for determined tanks contained technical gases, including alternative sources of supply in the fire environment, taking into account needs of rescuers” number: DOB-BIO6/02/50/2014. The Project is funded by The National Centre for Research and Development. This paper presents the results of measurement of rate of pressure rise and rate in flame propagation, using test apparatus for mixtures air and methane or air and propane. This paper presents the results performed using the test apparatus in the form of duct measuring the rate of flame and overpressure wave. Studies were performed using three gas mixtures with different concentrations: Methane (3% to 8% vol), Propane (3% to 6% vol). As regard to the above concentrations, tests were carried out at temperatures 20 and 30 ̊C. The gas mixture was supplied to the inside of the duct by the partial pressure molecules. Data acquisition was made using 5 dynamic pressure transducers and 5 ionization probes, arranged along of the duct. Temperature conditions changes were performed using heater which was mounted on the duct’s bottom. During the tests, following parameters were recorded: maximum explosion pressure, maximum pressure recorded by sensors and voltage recorded by ionization probes. Performed tests, for flammable gas and air mixtures, indicate that temperature changes have an influence on overpressure velocity. It should be noted, that temperature changes do not have a major impact on the flame front velocity. In the case of propane and air mixtures (temperature 30 ̊C) was observed DDT (Deflagration to Detonation) phenomena. The velocity increased from 2 to 20 m/s. This kind of explosion could turn into a detonation, but the duct length is too short (2 m).

Keywords: flame propagation, flame propagation velocity, explosion, propane, methane

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