Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4

Search results for: iso-octane

4 Preparation and Characterization of Nickel-Tungsten Nanoparticles Using Microemulsion Mediated Synthesis

Authors: S. Pal, R. Singh, S. Sivakumar, D. Kunzru


AOT stabilized reverse micelles of deionized water, dispersed in isooctane have been used to synthesize bimetallic nickel tungsten nanoparticles. Prepared nanoparticles were supported on γ-Al2O3 followed by calcination at 500oC. Characterizations of the nanoparticles were done by TEM, XRD, FTIR, XRF, TGA and BET. XRF results showed that this method gave good composition control with W/Ni weight ratio equal to 3.2. TEM images showed particle size of 5-10 nm. Removal of surfactant after calcination was confirmed by TGA and FTIR.

Keywords: nanoparticles, reverse micelles, nickel, tungsten

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3 Production of Organic Solvent Tolerant Hydrolytic Enzymes (Amylase and Protease) by Bacteria Isolated from Soil of a Dairy Farm

Authors: Alok Kumar, Hari Ram, Lebin Thomas, Ved Pal Singh


Organic solvent tolerant amylases and proteases of microbial origin are in great demand for their application in transglycosylation of water-insoluble flavanoids and in peptide synthesizing reaction in organic media. Most of the amylases and proteases are unstable in presence of organic solvent. In the present work two different bacterial strains M-11 and VP-07 were isolated from the soil sample of a dairy farm in Delhi, India, for the efficient production of extracellular amylase and protease through their screening on starch agar (SA) and skimmed milk agar (SMA) plates, respectively. Both the strains (M-11 and VP-07) were identified based on morphological, biochemical and 16S rRNA gene sequencing methods. After analysis through Ez-Taxon software, the strains M-11 and VP-07 were found to have maximum pairwise similarity of 98.63% and 100% with Bacillus subtilis subsp. inaquosorum BGSC 3A28 and Bacillus anthracis ATCC 14578 and were therefore identified as Bacillus sp. UKS1 and Bacillus sp. UKS2, respectively. Time course study of enzyme activity and bacterial growth has shown that both strains exhibited typical sigmoid growth behavior and maximum production of amylase (180 U/ml) and protease (78 U/ml) by these strains (UKS1 and UKS2) was commenced during stationary phase of growth at 24 and 20 h, respectively. Thereafter, both amylase and protease were tested for their tolerance towards organic solvents and were found to be active as well stable in p-xylene (130% and 115%), chloroform (110% and 112%), isooctane (119% and 107%), benzene (121% and 104%), n-hexane (116% and 103%) and toluene (112% and 101%, respectively). Owing to such properties, these enzymes can be exploited for their potential application in industries for organic synthesis.

Keywords: amylase, enzyme activity, industrial applications, organic solvent tolerant, protease

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2 Safety Evaluation of Post-Consumer Recycled PET Materials in Chilean Industry by Overall Migration Tests

Authors: Evelyn Ilabaca, Ximena Valenzuela, Alejandra Torres, María José Galotto, Abel Guarda


One of the biggest problems in food packaging industry, especially with the plastic materials, is the fact that these materials are usually obtained from non-renewable resources and also remain as waste after its use, causing environmental issues. This is an international concern and particular attention is given to reduction, reuse and recycling strategies for decreasing the waste from plastic packaging industry. In general, polyethylenes represent most plastic waste and recycling process of post-consumer polyethylene terephthalate (PCR-PET) has been studied. US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) and Southern Common Market (MERCOSUR) have generated different legislative documents to control the use of PCR-PET in the production of plastic packaging intended direct food contact in order to ensure the capacity of recycling process to remove possible contaminants that can migrate into food. Consequently, it is necessary to demonstrate by challenge test that the recycling process is able to remove specific contaminants, obtaining a safe recycled plastic to human health. These documents establish that the concentration limit for substitute contaminants in PET is 220 ppb (ug/kg) and the specific migration limit is 10 ppb (ug/kg) for each contaminant, in addition to assure the sensorial characteristics of food are not affected. Moreover, under the Commission Regulation (EU) N°10/2011 on plastic materials and articles intended to come into contact with food, it is established that overall migration limit is 10 mg of substances per 1 dm2 of surface area of the plastic material. Thus, the aim of this work is to determine the safety of PCR-PET-containing food packaging materials in Chile by measuring their overall migration, and their comparison with the established limits at international level. This information will serve as a basis to provide a regulation to control and regulate the use of recycled plastic materials in the manufacture of plastic packaging intended to be in direct contact with food. The methodology used involves a procedure according to EN-1186:2002 with some modifications. The food simulants used were ethanol 10 % (v/v) and acetic acid 3 % (v/v) as aqueous food simulants, and ethanol 95 % (v/v) and isooctane as substitutes of fatty food simulants. In this study, preliminary results showed that Chilean food packaging plastics with different PCR-PET percentages agree with the European Legislation for food aqueous character.

Keywords: contaminants, polyethylene terephthalate, plastic food packaging, recycling

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1 Catalytic Alkylation of C2-C4 Hydrocarbons

Authors: Bolysbek Utelbayev, Tasmagambetova Aigerim, Toktasyn Raila, Markayev Yergali, Myrzakhanov Maxat


Intensive development of secondary processes of destructive processing of crude oil has led to the occurrence of oil refining factories resources of C2-C4 hydrocarbons. Except for oil gases also contain basically C2-C4 hydrocarbon gases where some of the amounts are burned. All these data has induced interest to the study of producing alkylate from hydrocarbons С2-С4 which being as components of motor fuels. The purpose of this work was studying transformation propane-propene, butane-butene fractions at the presence of the ruthenium-chromic support catalyst whereas the carrier is served pillar - structural montmorillonite containing in native bentonite clay. In this work is considered condition and structure of the bentonite clay from the South-Kazakhstan area of the Republic Kazakhstan. For preparation rhodium support catalyst (0,5-1,0 mass. % Rh) was used chloride of rhodium-RhCl3∙3H2O, as a carrier was used modified bentonite clay. For modifying natural clay to pillar structural form were used polyhydroxy complexes of chromium. To aqueous solution of chloride chromium gradually flowed the solution of sodium hydroxide at gradual hashing up to pH~3-4. The concentration of chloride chromium was paid off proceeding from calculation 5-30 mmole Cr3+ per gram clay. Suspension bentonite (~1,0 mass. %) received by intensive washing it in water during 4 h, pH-water extract of clay makes -8-9. The acidity of environment supervised by means of digital pH meter OP-208/1. In order to prevent coagulation of a solution polyhydroxy complexes of chromium, it was slowly added to a suspension of clay. "Reserve of basicity" Cr3+:/OH-allowing to prevent coagulation chloride of rhodium made 1/3. After endurance processed suspensions of clay during 24 h, a deposit was washed by water and condensed. The sample, after separate from a liquid phase, dried at first at the room temperature, and then at 110°C (2h) with the subsequent rise the temperature up to 180°C (4h). After cooling the firm mass was pounded to a powder, it was shifted infractions with the certain sizes of particles. Fractions of particles modifying clay in the further were impregnated with an aqueous solution with rhodium-RhCl3∙3H2O (0,5-1,0 mаss % Rh ). Obtained pillar structural bentonite approaches heat resistance and its porous structure above the 773K. Pillar structural bentonite was used for preparation 1.0% Ru/Carrier (modifying bentonite) support catalysts where is realised alkylation of C2-C4 hydrocarbons. The process of alkylation is carried out at a partial pressure of hydrogen 0.5-1.0MPa. Outcome 2.2.4 three methyl pentane and 2.2.3 trimethylpentane achieved 40%. At alkylation butane-butene mixture outcome of the isooctane is achieved 60%. In this condition of studying the ethene is not undergoing to alkylation.

Keywords: alkylation, butene, pillar structure, ruthenium catalyst

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