Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 49

Search results for: burner

49 Ultra-Low NOx Combustion Technology of Liquid Fuel Burner

Authors: Sewon Kim, Changyeop Lee


A new concept of in-furnace partial oxidation combustion is successfully applied in this research. The burner is designed such that liquid fuel is prevaporized in the furnace then injected into a fuel rich combustion zone so that a partial oxidation reaction occurs. The effects of equivalence ratio, thermal load, injection distance and fuel distribution ratio on the NOx and CO are experimentally investigated. This newly developed burner showed very low NOx emission level, about 15 ppm when light oil is used as a fuel.

Keywords: burner, low NOx, liquid fuel, partial oxidation

Procedia PDF Downloads 241
48 Low NOx Combustion of Pulverized Petroleum Cokes

Authors: Sewon Kim, Minjun Kwon, Changyeop Lee


This study is aimed to study combustion characteristics of low NOx burner using petroleum cokes as fuel. The petroleum coke, which is produced through the oil refining process, is an attractive fuel in terms of its high heating value and low price. But petroleum coke is a challenging fuel because of its low volatile content, high sulfur and nitrogen content, which give rise to undesirable emission characteristics and low ignitability. Therefore, the research and development regarding the petroleum coke burner is needed for applying this industrial system. In this study, combustion and emission characteristics of petroleum cokes burner are experimentally investigated in an industrial steam boiler. The low NOx burner is designed to control fuel and air mixing to achieve staged combustion, which, in turn reduces both flame temperature and oxygen. Air distribution ratio of triple staged air are optimized experimentally. The result showed that NOx concentration is lowest when overfire air is used, and the burner function at a fuel rich condition. That is, the burner is operated at the equivalence ratio of 1.67 and overall equivalence ratio including overfire air is kept 0.87.

Keywords: petroleum cokes, low NOx, combustion, equivalence ratio

Procedia PDF Downloads 555
47 Study on NOₓ Emission Characteristics of Internal Gas Recirculation Technique

Authors: DaeHae Kim, MinJun Kwon, Sewon Kim


This study is aimed to develop ultra-low NOₓ burner using the internal recirculation of flue gas inside the combustion chamber that utilizes the momentum of intake fuel and air. Detailed experimental investigations are carried out to study these fluid dynamic effects on the emission characteristics of newly developed burner in industrial steam boiler system. Experimental parameters are distance of Venturi tube from burner, Coanda nozzle gap distance, and air sleeve length at various fuel/air ratio and thermal heat load conditions. The results showed that NOₓ concentration decreases as the distance of Venturi tube from burner increases. The CO concentration values at all operating conditions were negligible. In addition, the increase of the Coanda nozzle gap distance decreased the NOₓ concentration. It is experimentally found out that both fuel injection recirculation and air injection recirculation technique was very effective in reducing NOₓ formation.

Keywords: Coanda effect, combustion, burner, low NOₓ

Procedia PDF Downloads 111
46 Improvement of Energy Consumption toward Sustainable Ceramic Industry in Indonesia

Authors: Sawarni Hasibuan, Rudi Effendi Listyanto


The industrial sector is the largest consumer of energy consumption in Indonesia. The ceramics industry includes one of seven industries categorized as an energy-intensive industry. Energy costs on the ceramic floor production process reached 40 percent of the total production cost. The kiln is one of the machines in the ceramic industry that consumes the most gas energy reach 51 percent of gas consumption in ceramic production. The purpose of this research is to make improvement of energy consumption in kiln machine part with the innovation of burner tube to support the sustainability of Indonesian ceramics industry. The tube burner is technically designed to be able to raise the temperature and stabilize the air pressure in the burner so as to facilitate the combustion process in the kiln machine which implies the efficiency of gas consumption required. The innovation of the burner tube also has an impact on the decrease of the combustion chamber pressure in the kiln and managed to keep the pressure of the combustion chamber according to the operational standard of the kiln; consequently, the smoke fan motor power can be lowered and the kiln electric energy consumption is also more efficient. The innovation of burner tube succeeded in saving consume of gas and electricity respectively by 0.0654 GJ and 1,693 x 10-3 GJ for every ton of ceramics produced. Improvement of this energy consumption not only implies the cost savings of production but also supports the sustainability of the Indonesian ceramics industry.

Keywords: sustainable ceramic industry, burner tube, kiln, energy efficiency

Procedia PDF Downloads 244
45 The Influence of Swirl Burner Geometry on the Sugar-Cane Bagasse Injection and Burning

Authors: Juan Harold Sosa-Arnao, Daniel José de Oliveira Ferreira, Caice Guarato Santos, Justo Emílio Alvarez, Leonardo Paes Rangel, Song Won Park


A comprehensive CFD model is developed to represent heterogeneous combustion and two burner designs of supply sugar-cane bagasse into a furnace. The objective of this work is to compare the insertion and burning of a Brazilian south-eastern sugar-cane bagasse using a new swirl burner design against an actual geometry under operation. The new design allows control the particles penetration and scattering inside furnace by adjustment of axial/tangential contributions of air feed without change their mass flow. The model considers turbulence using RNG k-, combustion using EDM, radiation heat transfer using DTM with 16 ray directions and bagasse particle tracking represented by Schiller-Naumann model. The obtained results are favorable to use of new design swirl burner because its axial/tangential control promotes more penetration or more scattering than actual design and allows reproduce the actual design operation without change the overall mass flow supply.

Keywords: comprehensive CFD model, sugar-cane bagasse combustion, swirl burner, contributions

Procedia PDF Downloads 338
44 Instability of H2-O2-CO2 Premixed Flames on Flat Burner

Authors: Kaewpradap Amornrat, Endo Takahiro, Kadowaki Satoshi


The combustion of hydrogen-oxygen (H2-O2) mixtures was investigated to consider the reduction of carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) as the greenhouse emission. Normally, the flame speed of combustion H2-O2 mixtures are very fast thus it is necessary to control the limit of mixtures with CO2 addition as H2-O2-CO2 combustion. The limit of hydrogen was set and replaced by CO2 with O2:CO2 ratio as 1:3.76, 1:4 and 1:5 for this study. In this study, the combustion of H2-O2 -CO2 on flat burner at equivalence ratio =0.5 was investigated for 10, 15 and 20 L/min of flow rate mixtures. When the ratio of CO2 increases, the power spectral density is lower, the size of attractor and cellular flame become larger because the decrease of hydrogen replaced by CO2 affects the diffusive-thermal instability. Moreover, the flow rate mixtures increases, the power spectral density increases, the size of reconstructed attractor and cell size become smaller due to decreasing of instability. The results show that the variation of CO2 and mixture flow rate affects the instability of cellular premixed flames on flat burner.

Keywords: instability, H2-O2-CO2 combustion, flat burner, diffusive-thermal instability

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43 Investigation of Stabilized Turbulent Diffusion Flames Using Synthesis Fuel with Different Burner Configurations

Authors: Moataz Medhat, Essam Khalil, Hatem Haridy


The present study investigates the flame structure of turbulent diffusion flame of synthesis fuel in a 300 KW swirl-stabilized burner. The three-dimensional model adopts a realizable k-ε turbulent scheme interacting with two-dimensional PDF combustion scheme by applying flamelet concept. The study reveals more characteristics on turbulent diffusion flame of synthesis fuel when changing the inlet air swirl number and the burner quarl angle. Moreover, it concerns with studying the effect of flue gas recirculation and staging with taking radiation effect into consideration. The comparison with natural gas was investigated. The study showed two zones of recirculation, the primary one is at the center of the furnace, and the location of the secondary one varies by changing the quarl angle of the burner. The results revealed an increase in temperature in the external recirculation zone as a result of increasing the swirl number of the inlet air stream. Also, it was found that recirculating part of the combustion products decreases pollutants formation especially nitrogen monoxide. The predicted results showed a great agreement when compared with the experiments.

Keywords: gas turbine, syngas, analysis, recirculation

Procedia PDF Downloads 195
42 A Transfer Function Representation of Thermo-Acoustic Dynamics for Combustors

Authors: Myunggon Yoon, Jung-Ho Moon


In this paper, we present a transfer function representation of a general one-dimensional combustor. The input of the transfer function is a heat rate perturbation of a burner and the output is a flow velocity perturbation at the burner. This paper considers a general combustor model composed of multiple cans with different cross sectional areas, along with a non-zero flow rate.

Keywords: combustor, dynamics, thermoacoustics, transfer function

Procedia PDF Downloads 263
41 Low NOx Combustion Technology for Minimizing NOx

Authors: Sewon Kim, Changyeop Lee


A noble low NOx combustion technology, based on partial oxidation combustion concept in a fuel rich combustion zone, is successfully applied in this research. The burner is designed such that a portion of fuel is heated and pre-vaporized in the furnace then injected into a fuel rich combustion zone so that a partial oxidation reaction occurs. The effects of equivalence ratio, thermal load, and fuel distribution ratio on the emissions of NOx and CO are experimentally investigated. This newly developed combustion technology is successfully applied to industrial furnace, and showed extremely low NOx emission levels.

Keywords: low NOx, combustion, burner, fuel rich

Procedia PDF Downloads 327
40 Temperature Field Measurement of Premixed Landfill Gas Laminar Flame in a Cylindrical Slot Burner Using Mach-Zehnder Interferometry

Authors: Bahareh Najafian Ashrafi, Hossein Zeidabadinejad, Mehdi Ashjaee


The temperature field is a key factor of flame heat transfer rate and therefore should be measured accurately. In this study, the Mach-Zehnder Interferometry method is applied to measure the temperature field of premixed air/landfill gas (LFG60:60% CH4+40% CO2) laminar flame. The three-dimensional flame of cylindrical slot burner can assume to be two-dimensional due to the high aspect ratio (L/W=10) of the rectangular slot. So, the method converts two-dimensional flame to closed isothermal curves called fringes and the outer fringes temperature is measured by thermocouples. The experiments are carried out for Reynolds numbers and equivalence ratios ranging from 100 to 400 and 1.0 to 1.4, respectively. Results show that by increasing the equivalence ratio or Reynolds number, the flame height increases. The maximum flame temperature decreases by increasing the equivalence ratio but does not change considerably by changing the Reynolds number.

Keywords: landfill gas, Mach-Zehender interferometry, premix flame, slot burner, temperature filed

Procedia PDF Downloads 73
39 Modeling of Conjugate Heat Transfer including Radiation in a Kerosene/Air Certification Burner

Authors: Lancelot Boulet, Pierre Benard, Ghislain Lartigue, Vincent Moureau, Nicolas Chauvet, Sheddia Didorally


International aeronautic standards demand a fire certification for engines that demonstrate their resistance. This demonstration relies on tests performed with prototype engines in the late stages of the development. Hardest tests require to place a kerosene standardized flame in front of the engine casing during a given time with imposed temperature and heat flux. The purpose of this work is to provide a better characterization of a kerosene/air certification burner in order to minimize the risks of test failure. A first Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) study of the certification burner permitted to model and simulate this burner, including both adiabatic and Conjugate Heat Transfer (CHT) computations. Carried out on unstructured grids with 40 million tetrahedral cells, using the finite-volume YALES2 code, spray combustion, forced convection on walls and conduction in the solid parts of the burner were coupled to achieve a detailed description of heat transfer. It highlighted the fact that conduction inside the solid has a real impact on the flame topology and the combustion regime. However, in the absence of radiative heat transfer, unrealistic temperature of the equipment was obtained. The aim of the present study is to include the radiative heat transfer in order to reach the same temperature given by experimental measurements. First, various test-cases are conducted to validate the coupling between the different heat solvers. Then, adiabatic case, CHT case, as well as CHT including radiative transfer are studied and compared. The LES model is finally applied to investigate the heat transfer in a flame impaction configuration. The aim is to progress on fire test modeling so as to reach a good confidence level as far as success of the certification test is concerned.

Keywords: conjugate heat transfer, fire resistance test, large-eddy simulation, radiative transfer, turbulent combustion

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38 A Three-Dimensional Investigation of Stabilized Turbulent Diffusion Flames Using Different Type of Fuel

Authors: Moataz Medhat, Essam E. Khalil, Hatem Haridy


In the present study, a numerical simulation study is used to 3-D model the steady-state combustion of a staged natural gas flame in a 300 kW swirl-stabilized burner, using ANSYS solver to find the highest combustion efficiency by changing the inlet air swirl number and burner quarl angle in a furnace and showing the effect of flue gas recirculation, type of fuel and staging. The combustion chamber of the gas turbine is a cylinder of diameter 1006.8 mm, and a height of 1651mm ending with a hood until the exhaust cylinder has been reached, where the exit of combustion products which have a diameter of 300 mm, with a height of 751mm. The model was studied by 15 degree of the circumference due to axisymmetric of the geometry and divided into a mesh of about 1.1 million cells. The numerical simulations were performed by solving the governing equations in a three-dimensional model using realizable K-epsilon equations to express the turbulence and non-premixed flamelet combustion model taking into consideration radiation effect. The validation of the results was done by comparing it with other experimental data to ensure the agreement of the results. The study showed two zones of recirculation. The primary one is at the center of the furnace, and the location of the secondary one varies by changing the quarl angle of the burner. It is found that the increase in temperature in the external recirculation zone is a result of increasing the swirl number of the inlet air stream. Also it was found that recirculating part of the combustion products back to the combustion zone decreases pollutants formation especially nitrogen monoxide.

Keywords: burner selection, natural gas, analysis, recirculation

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37 Simulation of Turboexpander Potential in a City Gate Station under Variations of Feed Characteristic

Authors: Tarannom Parhizkar, Halle Bakhteeyar


This paper presents a feasibility assessment of an expansion system applied to the natural gas transportation process in Iran. Power can be generated from the pressure energy of natural gas along its supply chain at various pressure reduction points by using turboexpanders. This technology is being applied in different countries around the world. The system consists of a turboexpander reducing the natural gas pressure and providing mechanical energy to drive electric generator. Moreover, gas pre-heating, required to prevent hydrate formation, is performed upstream of expansion stage using burner. The city gate station (CGS) has a nominal flow rate in range of 45000 to 270000 cubic meters per hour and a pressure reduction from maximum 62 bar at the upstream to 6 bar. Due to variable feed pressure and temperature in this station sensitivity analysis of generated electricity and required heat is performed. Results show that plant gain is more sensible to pressure variation than temperature changes. Furthermore, using turboexpander to reduce the pressure result in an electrical generation of 2757 to 17574 kW with the value of approximately 4 million US$ per year. Moreover, the required heat range to prevent a hydrate formation is almost 2189 to 14157 kW. To provide this heat, a burner is used with a maximum annual cost of 268,640 $ burner fuel. Therefore, the actual annual benefit of proposed plant modification is approximately over 6,5 million US$.

Keywords: feasibility study, simulation, turboexpander, feed characteristic

Procedia PDF Downloads 396
36 Effect of Composition Fuel on Safety of Combustion Process

Authors: Lourdes I. Meriño, Viatcheslav Kafarov, Maria Gómez


Fuel gas used in the burner receives as contributors other gases from different processes and this result in variability in the composition, which may cause an incomplete combustion. The burners are designed to operate in a certain curve, the calorific power dependent on the pressure and gas burners. When deviation of propane and C5+ is huge, there is a large release of energy, which causes it to work out the curves of the burners, because less pressure is required to force curve into operation. That increases the risk of explosion in an oven, besides of a higher environmental impact. There should be flame detection systems, and instrumentation equipment, such as local pressure gauges located at the entrance of the gas burners, to permit verification by the operator. Additionally, distributed control systems must be configured with different combustion instruments associated with respective alarms, as well as its operational windows, and windows control guidelines of integrity, leaving the design information of this equipment. Therefore, it is desirable to analyze when a plant is taken out of service and make good operational analysis to determine the impact of changes in fuel gas streams contributors, by varying the calorific power. Hence, poor combustion is one of the cause instability in the flame of the burner and having a great impact on process safety, the integrity of individuals and teams and environment.

Keywords: combustion process, fuel composition, safety, fuel gas

Procedia PDF Downloads 421
35 Field Synergy Analysis of Combustion Characteristics in the Afterburner of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell System

Authors: Shing-Cheng Chang, Cheng-Hao Yang, Wen-Sheng Chang, Chih-Chia Lin, Chun-Han Li


The solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is a promising green technology which can achieve a high electrical efficiency. Due to the high operating temperature of SOFC stack, the off-gases at high temperature from anode and cathode outlets are introduced into an afterburner to convert the chemical energy into thermal energy by combustion. The heat is recovered to preheat the fresh air and fuel gases before they pass through the stack during the SOFC power generation system operation. For an afterburner of the SOFC system, the temperature control with a good thermal uniformity is important. A burner with a well-designed geometry usually can achieve a satisfactory performance. To design an afterburner for an SOFC system, the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation is adoptable. In this paper, the hydrogen combustion characteristics in an afterburner with simple geometry are studied by using CFD. The burner is constructed by a cylinder chamber with the configuration of a fuel gas inlet, an air inlet, and an exhaust outlet. The flow field and temperature distributions inside the afterburner under different fuel and air flow rates are analyzed. To improve the temperature uniformity of the afterburner during the SOFC system operation, the flow paths of anode/cathode off-gases are varied by changing the positions of fuels and air inlet channel to improve the heat and flow field synergy in the burner furnace. Because the air flow rate is much larger than the fuel gas, the flow structure and heat transfer in the afterburner is dominated by the air flow path. The present work studied the effects of fluid flow structures on the combustion characteristics of an SOFC afterburner by three simulation models with a cylindrical combustion chamber and a tapered outlet. All walls in the afterburner are assumed to be no-slip and adiabatic. In each case, two set of parameters are simulated to study the transport phenomena of hydrogen combustion. The equivalence ratios are in the range of 0.08 to 0.1. Finally, the pattern factor for the simulation cases is calculated to investigate the effect of gas inlet locations on the temperature uniformity of the SOFC afterburner. The results show that the temperature uniformity of the exhaust gas can be improved by simply adjusting the position of the gas inlet. The field synergy analysis indicates the design of the fluid flow paths should be in the way that can significantly contribute to the heat transfer, i.e. the field synergy angle should be as small as possible. In the study cases, the averaged synergy angle of the burner is about 85̊, 84̊, and 81̊ respectively.

Keywords: afterburner, combustion, field synergy, solid oxide fuel cell

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34 The Influence of Hydrogen Addition to Natural Gas Networks on Gas Appliances

Authors: Yitong Xie, Chaokui Qin, Zhiguang Chen, Shuangqian Guo


Injecting hydrogen, a competitive carbon-free energy carrier, into existing natural gas networks has become a promising step toward alleviating global warming. Considering the differences in properties of hydrogen and natural gas, there is very little evidence showing how many degrees of hydrogen admixture can be accepted and how to adjust appliances to adapt to gas constituents' variation. The lack of this type of analysis provides more uncertainty in injecting hydrogen into networks because of the short the basis of burner design and adjustment. First, the properties of methane and hydrogen were compared for a comprehensive analysis of the impact of hydrogen addition to methane. As the main determinant of flame stability, the burning velocity was adopted for hydrogen addition analysis. Burning velocities for hydrogen-enriched natural gas with different hydrogen percentages and equivalence ratios were calculated by the software CHEMKIN. Interchangeability methods, including single index methods, multi indices methods, and diagram methods, were adopted to determine the limit of hydrogen percentage. Cooktops and water heaters were experimentally tested in the laboratory. Flame structures of different hydrogen percentages and equivalence ratios were observed and photographed. Besides, the change in heat efficiency, burner temperature, emission by hydrogen percentage, and equivalence ratio was studied. The experiment methodologies and results in this paper provide an important basis for the introduction of hydrogen into gas pipelines and the adjustment of gas appliances.

Keywords: hydrogen, methane, combustion, appliances, interchangeability

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33 Combustion Characteristic of Propane/Acetylene Fuel Blends Pool Fire

Authors: Yubo Bi, Xiao Chen, Shouxiang Lu


A kind of gas-fueled burner, named Burning Rate Emulator, was proposed for the purpose of the emulation of condensed fuel recently. The gaseous fuel can be pure combustible fuel gas or blends of gaseous fuel or inert gas. However, this concept was recently proposed without detailed study on the combustion characteristic of fuel blends. In this study, two kinds of common gaseous fuels were selected, propane and acetylene, to provide the combustion heat as well as a large amount of smoke, which widely exists in liquid and solid fuel burning process. A set of experiments were carried out using a gas-fueled burner with a diameter of 8 cm. The total volume flow rate of propane and acetylene was kept at 3 liters per minute. The volume fraction of propane varied from 0% to 100% at interval of 10%. It is found that the flame height increases with propane volume fraction, which may be caused by the increase of heat release rate, as the energy density of propane is larger than that of acetylene. The dimensionless flame height is correlated against dimensionless heat release rate, which shows a power function relationship. The radiation fraction of the flame does not show a monotonic relationship with propane volume fraction. With the increase of propane volume fraction from 0% to 100%, the value of radiation fraction increases first and reach a maximum value around 0.46 at a propane volume fraction of 10%, and then decreases continuously to a value of 0.25 at the propane volume fraction of 100%. The flame radiation is related to the soot in the flame. The trend of the radiation fraction reflects that there may be a synergistic effect of soot formation between propane and acetylene which can be guessed from the significantly high radiation fraction at a propane volume fraction of 10%. This work provides data for combustion of gaseous fuel blends pool fire and also give reference on the design of Burning Rate Emulator.

Keywords: Burning Rate Emulator, fuel blends pool fire, flame height, radiation fraction

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32 Numerical Analysis of NOₓ Emission in Staged Combustion for the Optimization of Once-Through-Steam-Generators

Authors: Adrien Chatel, Ehsan Askari Mahvelati, Laurent Fitschy


Once-Through-Steam-Generators are commonly used in the oil-sand industry in the heavy fuel oil extraction process. They are composed of three main parts: the burner, the radiant and convective sections. Natural gas is burned through staged diffusive flames stabilized by the burner. The heat generated by the combustion is transferred to the water flowing through the piping system in the radiant and convective sections. The steam produced within the pipes is then directed to the ground to reduce the oil viscosity and allow its pumping. With the rapid development of the oil-sand industry, the number of OTSG in operation has increased as well as the associated emissions of environmental pollutants, especially the Nitrous Oxides (NOₓ). To limit the environmental degradation, various international environmental agencies have established regulations on the pollutant discharge and pushed to reduce the NOₓ release. To meet these constraints, OTSG constructors have to rely on more and more advanced tools to study and predict the NOₓ emission. With the increase of the computational resources, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) has emerged as a flexible tool to analyze the combustion and pollutant formation process. Moreover, to optimize the burner operating condition regarding the NOx emission, field characterization and measurements are usually accomplished. However, these kinds of experimental campaigns are particularly time-consuming and sometimes even impossible for industrial plants with strict operation schedule constraints. Therefore, the application of CFD seems to be more adequate in order to provide guidelines on the NOₓ emission and reduction problem. In the present work, two different software are employed to simulate the combustion process in an OTSG, namely the commercial software ANSYS Fluent and the open source software OpenFOAM. RANS (Reynolds-Averaged Navier–Stokes) equations combined with the Eddy Dissipation Concept to model the combustion and closed by the k-epsilon model are solved. A mesh sensitivity analysis is performed to assess the independence of the solution on the mesh. In the first part, the results given by the two software are compared and confronted with experimental data as a mean to assess the numerical modelling. Flame temperatures and chemical composition are used as reference fields to perform this validation. Results show a fair agreement between experimental and numerical data. In the last part, OpenFOAM is employed to simulate several operating conditions, and an Emission Characteristic Map of the combustion system is generated. The sources of high NOₓ production inside the OTSG are pointed and correlated to the physics of the flow. CFD is, therefore, a useful tool for providing an insight into the NOₓ emission phenomena in OTSG. Sources of high NOₓ production can be identified, and operating conditions can be adjusted accordingly. With the help of RANS simulations, an Emission Characteristics Map can be produced and then be used as a guide for a field tune-up.

Keywords: combustion, computational fluid dynamics, nitrous oxides emission, once-through-steam-generators

Procedia PDF Downloads 43
31 Plasma Arc Burner for Pulverized Coal Combustion

Authors: Gela Gelashvili, David Gelenidze, Sulkhan Nanobashvili, Irakli Nanobashvili, George Tavkhelidze, Tsiuri Sitchinava


Development of new highly efficient plasma arc combustion system of pulverized coal is presented. As it is well-known, coal is one of the main energy carriers by means of which electric and heat energy is produced in thermal power stations. The quality of the extracted coal decreases very rapidly. Therefore, the difficulties associated with its firing and complete combustion arise and thermo-chemical preparation of pulverized coal becomes necessary. Usually, other organic fuels (mazut-fuel oil or natural gas) are added to low-quality coal for this purpose. The fraction of additional organic fuels varies within 35-40% range. This decreases dramatically the economic efficiency of such systems. At the same time, emission of noxious substances in the environment increases. Because of all these, intense development of plasma combustion systems of pulverized coal takes place in whole world. These systems are equipped with Non-Transferred Plasma Arc Torches. They allow practically complete combustion of pulverized coal (without organic additives) in boilers, increase of energetic and financial efficiency. At the same time, emission of noxious substances in the environment decreases dramatically. But, the non-transferred plasma torches have numerous drawbacks, e.g. complicated construction, low service life (especially in the case of high power), instability of plasma arc and most important – up to 30% of energy loss due to anode cooling. Due to these reasons, intense development of new plasma technologies that are free from these shortcomings takes place. In our proposed system, pulverized coal-air mixture passes through plasma arc area that burns between to carbon electrodes directly in pulverized coal muffler burner. Consumption of the carbon electrodes is low and does not need a cooling system, but the main advantage of this method is that radiation of plasma arc directly impacts on coal-air mixture that accelerates the process of thermo-chemical preparation of coal to burn. To ensure the stability of the plasma arc in such difficult conditions, we have developed a power source that provides fixed current during fluctuations in the arc resistance automatically compensated by the voltage change as well as regulation of plasma arc length over a wide range. Our combustion system where plasma arc acts directly on pulverized coal-air mixture is simple. This should allow a significant improvement of pulverized coal combustion (especially low-quality coal) and its economic efficiency. Preliminary experiments demonstrated the successful functioning of the system.

Keywords: coal combustion, plasma arc, plasma torches, pulverized coal

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30 Experimental Measurements of Fire Retardants on Plywood at Fire Test

Authors: Gisele C. A. Martins, Leonardo A. Marcolin, Laurenn B. de Macedo, Francisco A. Rocco Lahr, Carlito Calil Jr


The use and development of wood composite materials increased in the past few years. However, in Brazil there are some restrictions on these products regarding their use since it could be considered a potential risk in a fire situation. Thus, becomes evident the need for research aiming to fit these in safety standards. This study aims to evaluate the efficiency of two new fire retardant products produced by a Brazilian industry. Tests were performed on plywood panels of Pinus spp previously immersed, varying the products concentrations and compared with untreated samples. The test used to evaluate the flame spread in a panel was the modified Schlyter test. The product in question was proved efficient, before and after shutting off the burner. Comparing panels with the panels without treatment, there was a decrease of 400% of the height of the flame spread on the treated ones.

Keywords: fire retardant, flame spread, plywood, wood-based material

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29 A Study on Pre-Service English Language Teacher's Language Self-Efficacy and Goal Orientation

Authors: Ertekin Kotbas


Teaching English as a Foreign Language (EFL) is on the front burner of many countries in the world, in particular for English Language Teaching departments that train EFL teachers. Under the head of motivational theories in foreign language education, there are numerous researches in literature. However; researches comprising English Language Self-Efficacy and Teachers’ Learning Goal Orientation which has a positive impact on learning teachings skills are scarce. Examination of these English Language self-efficacy beliefs and Learning Goal Orientations of Pre-Service EFL Teachers may broaden the horizons, in consideration the importance of self-efficacy and goal orientation on learning and teaching activities. At this juncture, the present study aims to investigate the relationship between English Language Self-Efficacy and Teachers’ Learning Goal Orientation from Turkish context.

Keywords: English language, learning goal orientation, self-efficacy, pre-service teachers

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28 A Study on Pre-Service English Teachers' Language Self Efficacy and Learning Goal Orientation

Authors: Erteki̇n Kotbaş


Teaching English as a Foreign Language (EFL) is on the front burner of many countries in the world, in particular for English language teaching departments that train EFL teachers. Under the head of motivational theories in foreign language education, there are numerous researches in literature. However; researches comprising English language self-efficacy and teachers’ learning goal orientation which has a positive impact on learning teachings skills are scarce. Examination of these English language self-efficacy beliefs and learning goal orientations of pre-service EFL teachers may broaden the horizons, considering the importance of self-efficacy and goal orientation on learning and teaching activities. At this juncture, present study aims to investigate the strong relationship between English language self efficacy and teachers’ learning goal orientation from Turkish context in addition to teacher students’ grade factor.

Keywords: English language, learning goal orientation, self efficacy, pre-service teachers

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27 An Experimental Study on the Measurement of Fuel to Air Ratio Using Flame Chemiluminescence

Authors: Sewon Kim, Chang Yeop Lee, Minjun Kwon


This study is aiming at establishing the relationship between the optical signal of flame and an equivalent ratio of flame. In this experiment, flame optical signal in a furnace is measured using photodiode. The combustion system which is composed of metal fiber burner and vertical furnace and flame chemiluminescence is measured at various experimental conditions. In this study, the flame chemiluminescence of laminar premixed flame is measured by using commercially available photodiode. It is experimentally investigated the relationship between equivalent ratio and photodiode signal. In addition, The strategy of combustion control method is proposed by using the optical signal and fuel pressure. The results showed that certain relationship between optical data of photodiode and equivalence ratio exists and this leads to the successful application of this system for instantaneous measurement of equivalence ration of the combustion system.

Keywords: flame chemiluminescence, photo diode, equivalence ratio, combustion control

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26 Effect of Fuel Lean Reburning Process on NOx Reduction and CO Emission

Authors: Changyeop Lee, Sewon Kim


Reburning is a useful technology in reducing nitric oxide through injection of a secondary hydrocarbon fuel. In this paper, an experimental study has been conducted to evaluate the effect of fuel lean reburning on NOx/CO reduction in LNG flame. Experiments were performed in flames stabilized by a co-flow swirl burner, which was mounted at the bottom of the furnace. Tests were conducted using LNG gas as the reburn fuel as well as the main fuel. The effects of reburn fuel fraction and injection manner of the reburn fuel were studied when the fuel lean reburning system was applied. The paper reports data on flue gas emissions and temperature distribution in the furnace for a wide range of experimental conditions. At steady state, temperature distribution and emission formation in the furnace have been measured and compared. This paper makes clear that in order to decrease both NOx and CO concentrations in the exhaust when the pulsated fuel lean reburning system was adapted, it is important that the control of some factors such as frequency and duty ratio. Also it shows the fuel lean reburning is also effective method to reduce NOx as much as reburning.

Keywords: fuel lean reburn, NOx, CO, LNG flame

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25 Effects of Flame Retardant Nano Bio-Filler on the Fire Behaviour of Thin Film Intumescent Coatings

Authors: Ming Chian Yew, Ming Kun Yew, Lip Huat Saw, Tan Ching Ng, Rajkumar Durairaj, Jing Han Beh


This paper analyzes the fire protection performance, char formation and heat release characteristics of the thin film intumescent coatings that incorporate waste eggshell (ES) as a nano bio-filler. In this study, the Bunsen burner and the fire propagation (BS 476: Part 6) tests of coatings were measured. Experiments on the samples were also tested to evaluate their fire behavior using a cone calorimeter according to ISO 5660-1 specifications. On exposure, the samples B, C and D had been certified to be Class 0 due to the fire propagation indexes of the samples were less than 12. Samples B and D showed a significant reduction in total heat rate (B=11.6 MJ/m² and D=12.0 MJ/m²) and uniform char structures with the addition of 3.30 wt.% and 2.75 wt.% ES nano bio-filler, respectively. As a result, ES nano bio-filler composition good to slow down the fire expanding and demonstrate better fire protection due to its positive synergistic effect with flame retardant ingredients on physical and chemical reactions in fire protection.

Keywords: cone calorimeter, eggshell, fire protection, heat release rate, intumescent coating

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24 Utilization of Kitchen Waste inside Green House Chamber: A Community Level Biogas Programme

Authors: Ravi P. Agrahari


The present study was undertaken with the objective of evaluating kitchen waste as an alternative organic material for biogas production in community level biogas plant. The field study was carried out for one month (January 19, 2012– February 17, 2012) at Centre for Energy Studies, IIT Delhi, New Delhi, India. This study involves the uses of greenhouse canopy to increase the temperature for the production of biogas in winter period. In continuation, a semi-continuous study was conducted for one month with the retention time of 30 days under batch system. The gas generated from the biogas plant was utilized for cooking (burner) and lighting (lamp) purposes. Gas productions in the winter season registered lower than other months. It can be concluded that the solar greenhouse assisted biogas plant can be efficiently adopted in colder region or in winter season because temperature plays a major role in biogas production. 

Keywords: biogas, green house chamber, organic material, solar intensity, batch system

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23 Numerical and Experimental Investigation of Pulse Combustion for Fabric Drying

Authors: Dan Zhao, Y. W. Sheng


The present work considers a convection-driven T-shaped pulse combustion system. Both experimental and numerical investigations are conducted to study the mechanism of pulse combustion and its potential application in fabric drying. To gain insight on flame-acoustic dynamic interaction and pulsating flow characteristics, 3D numerical simulation of the pulse combustion process of a premixed turbulent flame in a Rijke-type combustor is performed. Two parameters are examined: (1) fuel-air ratio, (2) inlet flow velocity. Their effects on triggering pulsating flow and Nusselt number are studied. As each of the parameters is varied, Nusselt number characterizing the heat transfer rate and the heat-driven pulsating flow signature is found to change. The main nonlinearity is identified in the heat fluxes. To validate our numerical findings, a cylindrical T-shaped Rijke-type combustor made of quartz-glass with a Bunsen burner is designed and tested.

Keywords: pulse combustion, fabric drying, heat transfer, combustion oscillations, pressure oscillations

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22 Design and Development of Ceramics Kiln by Application Burners Use from High Pressure of Household Gas Stove

Authors: Somboon Sarasit


This research aims to develop a model small ceramic kiln using burner from a high-pressure household gas stove. The efficiency of the kiln and community technology transfer. The study of history shows that this area used to be a source of pottery on the old capital of Ayutthaya. There is evidence from pottery kilns unearthed many types of wood kiln since 2535 and was assumed that the production will end when the war with Burma in the Ayutthaya period. The result of the research design and performance testing of ceramic kiln using burners by gas cooker and outside from 200-liter steel drums inside with ceramic fiber. It was found that the Graze Firing of the products to be at a temperature of 1230°C. The duration of the burn approximately 5-6 hours and uses only 3-4 kg of LPG products, a coffee can burn up to 40-50 pieces. It is an energy-efficient Kiln. Use safe and appropriate opportunities for entrepreneurs, small ceramic and entrepreneurs with new investments or those who want to produce ceramic products as a hobby. The community interest in the pottery to create a new one to continue the product development and manufacturing in the harshest existence forever.

Keywords: ceramics kiln design and development, ceramic gas kiln, burners application, high-pressure of household gas stove

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21 Experimental Study of LPG Diffusion Flame at Elevated Preheated Air Temperatures

Authors: Ahmed A. El-Kafy Amer, H. M. Gad, A. I. Ibrahim, S. I. Abdel-Mageed, T. M. Farag


This paper represents an experimental study of LPG diffusion flame at elevated air preheated temperatures. The flame is stabilized in a vertical water-cooled combustor by using air swirler. An experimental test rig was designed to investigate the different operating conditions. The burner head is designed so that the LPG fuel issued centrally and surrounded by the swirling air issues from an air swirler. There are three air swirlers having the same dimensions but having different blade angles to give different swirl numbers of 0.5, 0.87 and 1.5. The combustion air was heated electrically before entering the combustor up to a temperature about 500 K. Three air to fuel mass ratios of 30, 40 and 50 were also studied. The effect of air preheated temperature, swirl number and air to fuel mass ratios on the temperature maps, visible flame length, high temperature region (size) and exhaust species concentrations are studied. Some results show that as the air preheated temperature increases, the volume of high temperature region also increased but the flame length decreased. Increasing the air preheated temperature, EINOx, EICO2 and EIO2 increased, while EICO decreased. Increasing the air preheated temperature from 300 to 500 K, for all air swirl numbers used, the highest increase in EINOx, EICO2 and EIO2 are 141, 4 and 65%, respectively.

Keywords: air preheated temperature, air swirler, flame length, emission index

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20 Design and Experimental Studies of a Centrifugal SWIRL Atomizer

Authors: Hemabushan K., Manikandan


In a swirl atomizer, fluid undergoes a swirling motion as a result of centrifugal force created by opposed tangential inlets in the swirl chamber. The angular momentum of fluid continually increases as it reaches the exit orifice and forms a hollow sheet. Which disintegrates to form ligaments and droplets respectively as it flows downstream. This type of atomizers used in rocket injectors and oil burner furnaces. In this present investigation a swirl atomizer with two opposed tangential inlets has been designed. Water as working fluid, experiments had been conducted for the fluid injection pressures in regime of 0.033 bar to 0.519 bar. The fluid has been pressured by a 0.5hp pump and regulated by a pressure regulator valve. Injection pressure of fluid has been measured by a U-tube mercury manometer. The spray pattern and the droplets has been captured with a high resolution camera in black background with a high intensity flash highlighting the fluid. The unprocessed images were processed in ImageJ processing software for measuring the droplet diameters and its shape characteristics along the downstream. The parameters such as mean droplet diameter and distribution, wave pattern, rupture distance and spray angle were studied for this atomizer. The above results were compared with theoretical results and also analysed for deviation with design parameters.

Keywords: swirl atomizer, injector, spray, SWIRL

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