Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 26

Search results for: Miroslav Gutten

26 Failure Analysis of the Gasoline Engines Injection System

Authors: Jozef Jurcik, Miroslav Gutten, Milan Sebok, Daniel Korenciak, Jerzy Roj


The paper presents the research results of electronic fuel injection system, which can be used for diagnostics of automotive systems. In the paper is described the construction and operation of a typical fuel injection system and analyzed its electronic part. It has also been proposed method for the detection of the injector malfunction, based on the analysis of differential current or voltage characteristics. In order to detect the fault state, it is needed to use self-learning process, by the use of an appropriate self-learning algorithm.

Keywords: electronic fuel injector, diagnostics, measurement, testing device

Procedia PDF Downloads 382
25 Analysis of Transformer by Gas and Moisture Sensor during Laboratory Time Monitoring

Authors: Miroslav Gutten, Daniel Korenciak, Milan Simko, Milan Chupac


Ensure the reliable and correct function of transformers is the main essence of on-line non-destructive diagnostic tool, which allows the accurately track of the status parameters. Devices for on-line diagnostics are very costly. However, there are devices, whose price is relatively low and when used correctly, they can be executed a complex diagnostics. One of these devices is sensor HYDRAN M2, which is used to detect the moisture and gas content in the insulation oil. Using the sensor HYDRAN M2 in combination with temperature, load measurement, and physicochemical analysis can be made the economically inexpensive diagnostic system, which use is not restricted to distribution transformers. This system was tested in educational laboratory environment at measured oil transformer 22/0.4 kV. From the conclusions referred in article is possible to determine, which kind of fault was occurred in the transformer and how was an impact on the temperature, evolution of gases and water content.

Keywords: transformer, diagnostics, gas and moisture sensor, monitoring

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24 Analysis of Automotive Sensor for Engine Knock System

Authors: Miroslav Gutten, Jozef Jurcik, Daniel Korenciak, Milan Sebok, Matej Kuceraa


This paper deals with the phenomenon of the undesirable detonation combustion in internal combustion engines. A control unit of the engine monitors these detonations using piezoelectric knock sensors. With the control of these sensors the detonations can be objectively measured just outside the car. If this component provides small amplitude of the output voltage it could happen that there would have been in the areas of the engine ignition combustion. The paper deals with the design of a simple device for the detection of this disorder. A construction of the testing device for the knock sensor suitable for diagnostics of knock combustion in internal combustion engines will be presented. The output signal of presented sensor will be described by Bessel functions. Using the first voltage extremes on the characteristics it is possible to create a reference for the evaluation of the polynomial residue. It should be taken into account that the velocity of sound in air is 330 m/s. This sound impinges on the walls of the combustion chamber and is detected by the sensor. The resonant frequency of the clicking of the motor is usually in the range from 5 kHz to 15 kHz. The sensor worked in the field to 37 kHz, which shall be taken into account on an own sensor resonance.

Keywords: diagnostics, knock sensor, measurement, testing device

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23 Tool for Fast Detection of Java Code Snippets

Authors: Tomáš Bublík, Miroslav Virius


This paper presents general results on the Java source code snippet detection problem. We propose the tool which uses graph and sub graph isomorphism detection. A number of solutions for all of these tasks have been proposed in the literature. However, although that all these solutions are really fast, they compare just the constant static trees. Our solution offers to enter an input sample dynamically with the Scripthon language while preserving an acceptable speed. We used several optimizations to achieve very low number of comparisons during the matching algorithm.

Keywords: AST, Java, tree matching, scripthon source code recognition

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22 Implementation of the Recursive Formula for Evaluation of the Strength of Daniels' Bundle

Authors: Vaclav Sadilek, Miroslav Vorechovsky


The paper deals with the classical fiber bundle model of equal load sharing, sometimes referred to as the Daniels' bundle or the democratic bundle. Daniels formulated a multidimensional integral and also a recursive formula for evaluation of the strength cumulative distribution function. This paper describes three algorithms for evaluation of the recursive formula and also their implementations with source codes in high-level programming language Python. A comparison of the algorithms are provided with respect to execution time. Analysis of orders of magnitudes of addends in the recursion is also provided.

Keywords: equal load sharing, mpmath, python, strength of Daniels' bundle

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21 Software Improvements of the Accuracy in the Air-Electronic Measurement Systems for Geometrical Dimensions

Authors: Miroslav H. Hristov, Velizar A. Vassilev, Georgi K. Dukendjiev


Due to the constant development of measurement systems and the aim for computerization, unavoidable improvements are made for the main disadvantages of air gauges. With the appearance of the air-electronic measuring devices, some of their disadvantages are solved. The output electrical signal allows them to be included in the modern systems for measuring information processing and process management. Producer efforts are aimed at reducing the influence of supply pressure and measurement system setup errors. Increased accuracy requirements and preventive error measures are due to the main uses of air electronic systems - measurement of geometric dimensions in the automotive industry where they are applied as modules in measuring systems to measure geometric parameters, form, orientation and location of the elements.

Keywords: air-electronic, geometrical parameters, improvement, measurement systems

Procedia PDF Downloads 115
20 Determination of the Botanical Origin of Honey by the Artificial Neural Network Processing of PARAFAC Scores of Fluorescence Data

Authors: Lea Lenhardt, Ivana Zeković, Tatjana Dramićanin, Miroslav D. Dramićanin


Fluorescence spectroscopy coupled with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) and artificial neural networks (ANN) were used for characterization and classification of honey. Excitation emission spectra were obtained for 95 honey samples of different botanical origin (acacia, sunflower, linden, meadow, and fake honey) by recording emission from 270 to 640 nm with excitation in the range of 240-500 nm. Fluorescence spectra were described with a six-component PARAFAC model, and PARAFAC scores were further processed with two types of ANN’s (feed-forward network and self-organizing maps) to obtain algorithms for classification of honey on the basis of their botanical origin. Both ANN’s detected fake honey samples with 100% sensitivity and specificity.

Keywords: honey, fluorescence, PARAFAC, artificial neural networks

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19 Lego Mindstorms as a Simulation of Robotic Systems

Authors: Miroslav Popelka, Jakub Nožička


In this paper we deal with using Lego Mindstorms in simulation of robotic systems with respect to cost reduction. Lego Mindstorms kit contains broad variety of hardware components which are required to simulate, program and test the robotics systems in practice. Algorithm programming went in development environment supplied together with Lego kit as in programming language C# as well. Algorithm following the line, which we dealt with in this paper, uses theoretical findings from area of controlling circuits. PID controller has been chosen as controlling circuit whose individual components were experimentally adjusted for optimal motion of robot tracking the line. Data which are determined to process by algorithm are collected by sensors which scan the interface between black and white surfaces followed by robot. Based on discovered facts Lego Mindstorms can be considered for low-cost and capable kit to simulate real robotics systems.

Keywords: LEGO Mindstorms, PID controller, low-cost robotics systems, line follower, sensors, programming language C#, EV3 Home Edition Software

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18 Characterization of Biodegradable Polycaprolactone Containing Titanium Dioxide Micro and Nanoparticles

Authors: Emi Govorčin Bajsića, Vesna Ocelić Bulatović, Miroslav Slouf, Ana Šitum


Composites based on a biodegradable polycaprolactone (PCL) containing 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 wt % of titanium dioxide (TiO2) micro and nanoparticles were prepared by melt mixing and the effect of filler type and contents on the thermal properties, dynamic-mechanical behaviour and morphology were investigated. Measurements of storage modulus and loss modulus by dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) showed better results for microfilled PCL/TiO2 composites than nanofilled composites, with the same filler content. DSC analysis showed that the Tg and Tc of micro and nanocomposites were slightly lower than those of neat PCL. The crystallinity of the PCL increased with the addition of TiO2 micro and nanoparticles; however, the c for the PCL was unchanged with micro TiO2 content. The thermal stability of PCL/TiO2 composites were characterized using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The initial weight loss (5 wt %) occurs at slightly higher temperature with micro and nano TiO2 addition and with increasing TiO2 content.

Keywords: polycaprolactone, titanium dioxide, thermal properties, morphology

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17 The Technological Problem of Simulation of the Logistics Center

Authors: Juraj Camaj, Anna Dolinayova, Jana Lalinska, Miroslav Bariak


Planning of infrastructure and processes in logistic center within the frame of various kinds of logistic hubs and technological activities in them represent quite complex problem. The main goal is to design appropriate layout, which enables to realize expected operation on the desired levels. The simulation software represents progressive contemporary experimental technique, which can support complex processes of infrastructure planning and all of activities on it. It means that simulation experiments, reflecting various planned infrastructure variants, investigate and verify their eligibilities in relation with corresponding expected operation. The inducted approach enables to make qualified decisions about infrastructure investments or measures, which derive benefit from simulation-based verifications. The paper represents simulation software for simulation infrastructural layout and technological activities in marshalling yard, intermodal terminal, warehouse and combination between them as the parts of logistic center.

Keywords: marshalling yard, intermodal terminal, warehouse, transport technology, simulation

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16 2D-Modeling with Lego Mindstorms

Authors: Miroslav Popelka, Jakub Nozicka


The whole work is based on possibility to use Lego Mindstorms robotics systems to reduce costs. Lego Mindstorms consists of a wide variety of hardware components necessary to simulate, programme and test of robotics systems in practice. To programme algorithm, which simulates space using the ultrasonic sensor, was used development environment supplied with kit. Software Matlab was used to render values afterwards they were measured by ultrasonic sensor. The algorithm created for this paper uses theoretical knowledge from area of signal processing. Data being processed by algorithm are collected by ultrasonic sensor that scans 2D space in front of it. Ultrasonic sensor is placed on moving arm of robot which provides horizontal moving of sensor. Vertical movement of sensor is provided by wheel drive. The robot follows map in order to get correct positioning of measured data. Based on discovered facts it is possible to consider Lego Mindstorm for low-cost and capable kit for real-time modelling.

Keywords: LEGO Mindstorms, ultrasonic sensor, real-time modeling, 2D object, low-cost robotics systems, sensors, Matlab, EV3 Home Edition Software

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15 Analisys of Cereal Flours by Fluorescence Spectroscopy and PARAFAC

Authors: Lea Lenhardt, Ivana Zeković, Tatjana Dramićanin, Miroslav D. Dramićanin


Rapid and sensitive analytical technologies for food analysis are needed to respond to the growing public interest in food quality and safety. In this context, fluorescence spectroscopy offers several inherent advantages for the characterization of food products: high sensitivity, low price, objective, relatively fast and non-destructive. The objective of this work was to investigate the potential of fluorescence spectroscopy coupled with multi-way technique for characterization of cereal flours. Fluorescence landscape also known as excitation-emission matrix (EEM) spectroscopy utilizes multiple-color illumination, with the full fluorescence spectrum recorded for each excitation wavelength. EEM was measured on various types of cereal flours (wheat, oat, barley, rye, corn, buckwheat and rice). Obtained spectra were analyzed using PARAllel FACtor analysis (PARAFAC) in order to decompose the spectra and identify underlying fluorescent components. Results of the analysis indicated the presence of four fluorophores in cereal flours. It has been observed that relative concentration of fluorophores varies between different groups of flours. Based on these findings we can conclude that application of PARAFAC analysis on fluorescence data is a good foundation for further qualitative analysis of cereal flours.

Keywords: cereals, fluors, fluorescence, PARAFAC

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14 Financial Assessment of the Hard Coal Mining in the Chosen Region in the Czech Republic: Real Options Methodology Application

Authors: Miroslav Čulík, Petr Gurný


This paper is aimed at the financial assessment of the hard coal mining in a given region by real option methodology application. Hard coal mining in this mine makes net loss for the owner during the last years due to the long-term unfavourable mining conditions and significant drop in the coal prices during the last years. Management is going to shut down the operation and abandon the project to reduce the loss of the company. The goal is to assess whether the shutting down the operation is the only and correct solution of the problem. Due to the uncertainty in the future hard coal price evolution, the production might be again restarted if the price raises enough to cover the cost of the production. For the assessment, real option methodology is applied, which captures two important aspect of the financial decision-making: risk and flexibility. The paper is structured as follows: first, current state is described and problem is analysed. Next, methodology of real options is described. At last, project is evaluated by applying real option methodology. The results are commented and recommendations are provided.

Keywords: real option, investment, option to abandon, option to shut down and restart, risk, flexibility

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13 Antibiotic Resistance of Enterococci Isolated from Raw Cow Milk

Authors: Margita Čanigová, Jana Račková, Miroslav Kročko, Viera Ducková, Vladimíra Kňazovická


The aim of the study was to test the milk samples in terms of enterococci presence and their counts. Tested samples were as follows: raw cow milk, raw cow milk stored at 10°C for 16 hours and milk pasteurised at 72°C for 15 seconds. The typical colonies were isolated randomly and identified by classical biochemical test - EN-COCCUS test (Lachema, CR) and by PCR. Isolated strains were tested in terms of antibiotic resistance by well diffusion method. Examined antibiotics were: vancomycin (30 μg/disc), gentamicin (120 μg/disc), erythromycin (15 μg/disc), teicoplanine (30 μg/disc), ampicillin (10 μg/disc) and tetracycline (30 μg/disc). Average value of enterococci counts in raw milk cistern samples (n=30) was 8.25 ± 1.37 ×103 CFU/cm3. Storage tank milk samples (n=30) showed an increase (P > 0.05) and average value was 9.16 ± 1.49 × 103 CFU/cm3. Occurrence of enterococci in pasteurized milk (n=30) was sporadic and their counts were mostly below 10 CFU/cm3. Overall, 96 enterococci strains were isolated. In samples of raw cow milk and stored raw cow milk, Enterococcus faecalis was a dominant species (58.1% and 71.7%, respectively), followed by E. faecium (16.3% and 0%, respectively). Enterococcus mundtii, E. casseliflavus, E. durans and E. gallinarum were isolated, too. Resistances to ampicillin, erythromycin, gentamicin, tetracycline and vancomycin were found in 7.29%, 3.13%, 4.00%, 13.54% and 10.42% of isolated enterococci strains, respectively. Resistance to teicoplanine was not found in any isolated strain. All Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci (VRE) belonged to E. faecalis. Obtained results confirmed that raw milk is a potential risk of enterococci resistant to antibiotics transmission into the food chain.

Keywords: antibiotic resistance, enterococci, milk, biosystems engineering

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12 Effect of 8 Weeks of Intervention on Physical Fitness, Hepatokines, and Insulin Resistance in Obese Subjects

Authors: Adela Penesova, Zofia Radikova, Boris Bajer, Andrea Havranova, Miroslav Vlcek


Background: The aim of our study was to compare the effect of intensified lifestyle intervention on insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 21 after 8 weeks of lifestyle intervention. Methods: A group of 43 obese patients (13M/30F; 43.0±12.4 years; BMI (body mass index) 31.2±6.3 kg/m2 participated in a weight loss interventional program (NCT02325804) following an 8-week hypocaloric diet (-30% energy expenditure) and physical activity 150 minutes/week. Insulin sensitivity was evaluated according to the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and insulin sensitivity indices according to Matsuda and Cederholm were calculated (ISImat and ISIced). Plasma ALT, AST, Fetuin-A, FGF 21, and physical fitness were measured. Results: The average reduction of body weight was 6.8±4.9 kg (0-15 kg; p=0.0006), accompanied with a significant reduction of body fat amount of fat mass (p=0.03), and waist circumference (p=0.02). Insulin sensitivity has been improved (IR HOMA 2.71±3.90 vs 1.24±0.83; p=0.01; ISIMat 6.64±4.38 vs 8.93±5.36 p ≤ 0.001). Total, LDL cholesterol, and triglycerides decreased (p=0.05, p=0.04, p=0.04, respectively). Physical fitness significantly improved after intervention (as measure VO2 max (maximal oxygen uptake) (p ≤ 0.001). ALT decreased significantly (0.44±0.26 vs post 0.33±0.18 ukat/l, p=0.004); however, AST not (pre 0.40±0.15 vs 0.35±0.09 ukat/l, p=0.07). Hepatokine Fetuin-A significantly decreased after intervention (43.1±10.8 vs 32.6±8.6 ng/ml, p < 0.001); however, FGF 21 levels tended to decrease (146±152 vs 132±164 pg/ml, p=0.07). Conclusion: 8-weeks of diet and physical activity intervention program in obese otherwise healthy subjects led to an improvement of insulin resistance parameters and liver marker profiles, as well as increased physical fitness. This study was supported by grants APVV 15-0228; VEGA 2/0161/16.

Keywords: obesity, diet, exercice, insulin sensitivity

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11 The Influence of Different Technologies on the Infiltration Properties and Soil Surface Crusting Processing in the North Bohemia Region

Authors: Miroslav Dumbrovsky, Lucie Larisova


The infiltration characteristic of the soil surface is one of the major factors that determines the potential soil degradation risk. The physical, chemical and biological characteristic of soil is changed by the processing of soil. The infiltration soil ability has an important role in soil and water conservation. The subject of the contribution is the evaluation of the influence of the conventional tillage and reduced tillage technology on soil surface crusting processing and infiltration properties of the soil in the North Bohemia region. Field experimental work at the area was carried out in the years 2013-2016 on Cambisol district medium-heavy clayey soil. The research was conducted on sloping erosion-endangered blocks of compacted arable land. The areas were chosen each year in the way that one of the experimental areas was handled by conventional tillage technologies and the other by reduced tillage technologies. Intact soil samples were taken into Kopecký´s cylinders in the three landscape positions, at a depth of 10 cm (representing topsoil) and 30 cm (representing subsoil). The cumulative infiltration was measured using a mini-disc infiltrometer near the consumption points. The Zhang method (1997), which provides an estimate of the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity K(h), was used for the evaluation of the infiltration tests of the mini-disc infiltrometer. The soil profile processed by conventional tillage showed a higher degree of compaction and soil crusting processing. The bulk density was between 1.10–1.67⁻³, compared to the land processed by the reduced tillage technology, where the values were between 0.80–1.29⁻³. Unsaturated hydraulic conductivity values were about one-third higher within the reduced tillage technology soil processing.

Keywords: soil crusting processing, unsaturated hydraulic conductivity, cumulative infiltration, bulk density, porosity

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10 Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Rabies Incidence in Herbivores of Economic Interest in Brazil

Authors: Francisco Miroslav Ulloa-Stanojlovic, Gina Polo, Ricardo Augusto Dias


In Brazil, there is a high incidence of rabies in herbivores of economic interest (HEI) transmitted by the common vampire bat Desmodus rotundus, the presence of human rabies cases and the huge economic losses in the world's largest cattle industry, it is important to assist the National Program for Control of Rabies in herbivores in Brazil, that aims to reduce the incidence of rabies in HEI populations, mainly through epidemiological surveillance, vaccination of herbivores and control of vampire-bat roosts. Material and Methods: A spatiotemporal retrospective Kulldorff's spatial scan statistic based on a Poisson model and Monte Carlo simulation and an Anselin's Local Moran's I statistic were used to uncover spatial clustering of HEI rabies from 2000 – 2014. Results: Were identify three important clusters with significant year-to-year variation (Figure 1). In 2000, was identified one area of clustering in the North region, specifically in the State of Tocantins. Between the year 2000 and 2004, a cluster centered in the Midwest and Southeast region including the States of Goiás, Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro, Espirito Santo and São Paulo was prominent. And finally between 2000 and 2005 was found an important cluster in the North, Midwest and South region. Conclusions: The HEI rabies is endemic in the country, in addition, appears to be significant differences among the States according to their surveillance services, that may be difficulting the control of the disease, also other factors could be influencing in the maintenance of this problem like the lack of information of vampire-bat roosts identification, and limited human resources for realization of field monitoring. A review of the program control by the authorities it’s necessary.

Keywords: Brazil, Desmodus rotundus, herbivores, rabies

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9 Influence of Glenohumeral Joint Approximation Technique on the Cardiovascular System in the Acute Phase after Stroke

Authors: Iva Hereitova, Miroslav Svatek, Vit Novacek


Background and Aim: Autonomic imbalance is one of the complications for immobilized patients in the acute stage after a stroke. The predominance of sympathetic activity significantly increases cardiac activity. The technique of glenohumeral joint approximation may contribute in a non-pharmacological way to the regulation of blood pressure and heart rate in patients in this risk group. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of glenohumeral joint approximation on the change in heart rate and blood pressure in immobilized patients in the acute phase after a stroke. Methods: The experimental study bilaterally evaluated heart rate, systolic and diastolic pressure values before and after glenohumeral joint approximation in 40 immobilized participants (72.6 ± 10.2 years) in the acute phase after stroke. The experimental group was compared with 40 healthy participants in the control group (68.6 ± 14.2 years). An SpO2 vital signs monitor and a validated Microlife WatchBP Office blood pressure monitor were used for evaluation. Statistical processing and evaluation were performed in MATLAB R2019 (The Math Works®, Inc., Natick, MA, USA). Results: Approximation of the glenohumeral joint resulted in a statistically significant decrease in systolic and diastolic pressure. An average decrease in systolic pressure for individual groups ranged from 8.2 to 11.3 mmHg (p <0.001). For diastolic pressure, the average decrease ranged from 5.0 - 14.2 mmHg (p <0.001). There was a statistically significant reduction in heart rate (p <0.01) only in patients after ischemic stroke in the inferior cerebral artery. There was the average decrease in heart rate of 3.9 beats per minute (median 4 beats per minute). Conclusion: Approximation of the glenohumeral joint leads to a statistically significant decrease in systolic and diastolic pressure in immobilized patients in the acute phase after stroke.

Keywords: Aproximation technique, Cardiovaskular system, Glenohumeral joint, Stroke

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8 The Role of Land Consolidation to Reduce Soil Degradation in the Czech Republic

Authors: Miroslav Dumbrovsky


The paper deals with positive impacts of land consolidation on decreasing soil degradation with the main emphasis on soil and water conservation in the landscape. The importance of land degradation is very high because of its impact on crop productivity and many other adverse effects. Soil degradation through soil erosion is causing losses in crop productivity and quality of the environment, through decreasing quality of soil and water (especially water resources). Negative effects of conventional farming practices are increased water erosion, as well as crusting and compaction of the topsoil and subsoil. Soil erosion caused by water destructs the soil’s structure, reduces crop productivity due to deterioration in soil physical and chemical properties such as infiltration rate, water holding capacity, loss of nutrients needed for crop production, and loss of soil carbon. Recently, a new process of complex land consolidation in the Czech Republic has provided a unique opportunity for improving the quality of the environment and sustainability of the crop production by means a better soil and water conservation. The present process of the complex land consolidation is not only a reallocation of plots, but this system consists of a new layout of plots within a certain territory, aimed at establishing the integrated land-use economic units, based on the needs of individual landowners and land users. On the other hand, the interests of the general public and the environmental protection have to be solved, too. From the general point of view, a large part of the Czech landscape shall be reconstructed in the course of complex land consolidation projects. These projects will be based on new integrated soil-economic units, spatially arranged in a designed multifunctional system of soil and water conservation measures, such as path network and a territorial system of ecological stability, according to structural changes in agriculture. This new approach will be the basis of a rational economic utilization of the region which will comply with the present ecological and aesthetic demands at present.

Keywords: soil degradation, land consolidation, soil erosion, soil conservation

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7 Improvement of Cardiometabolic after 8 Weeks of Weight Loss Intervention

Authors: Boris Bajer, Andrea Havranova, Miroslav Vlcek, Richard Imrich, Adela Penesova


Lifestyle interventions can prevent the deterioration of impaired glucose tolerance to manifest type 2 diabetes, and also prevent cardiovascular diseases, as it showed many studies (the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study, Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP), . the China Da Qing Diabetes Prevention Study, etc.) Therefore the aim of our study was to compare the effect of intensified lifestyle intervention on cardiometabolic parameters. Methods: It is an ongoing randomized interventional clinical study (NCT02325804) focused on the reduction of body weight/fat. Intervention: hypocaloric diet (30% restriction of calories) and physical activity 150 minutes/week. Before and after 8 weeks of intervention all patients underwent complete medical examination (measurement of physical fitness, resting metabolic rate (RMR), body composition analysis, oral glucose tolerance test, parameters of lipid metabolism, and other cardiometabolic risk factors. Results: So far 39 patients finished the intervention. The average reduction of body weight was 6,8 + 4,9 kg (0-15 kg; p=0,0006), accompanied with significant reduction of body fat percentage (p ≤ 0,0001), amount of fat mass (p=0,03), waist circumference (p=0.02). Amount of lean mass and RMR remained unchanged. Heart rate (p=0,02), systolic and diastolic blood pressure was reduced (p=0,01 p=0,02 resp.) as well as insulin sensitivity was improved. Lipid parameters also changed - cholesterol, LDL decreased (p=0,05, p=0,04 resp.), while triglycerides showed tendency to decrease (p=0,055). Liver function improved, alanine aminotrasnferase (ALT) were reduced (p=0,01). Physical fitness significantly improved (as measure VO2 max (p=0,02). Conclusion: Results of our study are in line with previous results about the beneficial effect of intensive lifestyle changes on the reduction of cardiometabolic risk factors and improvement of liver function. Supported by grants APVV 15-0228; VEGA 2/0161/16

Keywords: obesity, weight loss, diet lipids, blood pressure, liver enzymes

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6 The Climate Change and Soil Degradation in the Czech Republic

Authors: Miroslav Dumbrovsky


The paper deals with impacts of climate change with the main emphasis on land degradation, agriculture and forestry management in the landscape. Land degradation, due to adverse effect of farmers activities, as a result of inappropriate conventional technologies, was a major issue in the Czech Republic during the 20th century and will remain for solving in the 21st century. The importance of land degradation is very high because of its impact on crop productivity and many other adverse effects. Land degradation through soil degradation is causing losses on crop productivity and quality of the environment, through decreasing quality of soil and water (especially water resources). Negative effects of conventional farming practices are increased water erosion, as well as crusting and compaction of the topsoil and subsoil. Soil erosion caused by water destructs the soil’s structure, reduces crop productivity due to deterioration in soil physical and chemical properties such as infiltration rate, water-holding capacity, loss of nutrients needed for crop production, and loss of soil carbon. Water erosion occurs on fields with row crops (maize, sunflower), especially during the rainfall period from April to October. Recently there is a serious problem of greatly expanded production of biofuels and bioenergy from field crops. The result is accelerated soil degradation. The damages (on and off- site) are greater than the benefits. An effective soil conservation requires an appropriate complex system of measures in the landscape. They are also important to continue to develop new sophisticated methods and technologies for decreasing land degradation. The system of soil conservation solving land degradation depend on the ability and the willingness of land users to apply them. When we talk about land degradation, it is not just a technical issue but also an economic and political issue. From a technical point of view, we have already made many positive steps, but for successful solving the problem of land degradation is necessary to develop suitable economic and political tools to increase the willingness and ability of land users to adopt conservation measures.

Keywords: land degradation, soil erosion, soil conservation, climate change

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5 Real-Time Radiological Monitoring of the Atmosphere Using an Autonomous Aerosol Sampler

Authors: Miroslav Hyza, Petr Rulik, Vojtech Bednar, Jan Sury


An early and reliable detection of an increased radioactivity level in the atmosphere is one of the key aspects of atmospheric radiological monitoring. Although the standard laboratory procedures provide detection limits as low as few µBq/m³, their major drawback is the delayed result reporting: typically a few days. This issue is the main objective of the HAMRAD project, which gave rise to a prototype of an autonomous monitoring device. It is based on the idea of sequential aerosol sampling using a carrousel sample changer combined with a gamma-ray spectrometer. In our hardware configuration, the air is drawn through a filter positioned on the carrousel so that it could be rotated into the measuring position after a preset sampling interval. Filter analysis is performed via a 50% HPGe detector inside an 8.5cm lead shielding. The spectrometer output signal is then analyzed using DSP electronics and Gamwin software with preset nuclide libraries and other analysis parameters. After the counting, the filter is placed into a storage bin with a capacity of 250 filters so that the device can run autonomously for several months depending on the preset sampling frequency. The device is connected to a central server via GPRS/GSM where the user can view monitoring data including raw spectra and technological data describing the state of the device. All operating parameters can be remotely adjusted through a simple GUI. The flow rate is continuously adjustable up to 10 m³/h. The main challenge in spectrum analysis is the natural background subtraction. As detection limits are heavily influenced by the deposited activity of radon decay products and the measurement time is fixed, there must exist an optimal sample decay time (delayed spectrum acquisition). To solve this problem, we adopted a simple procedure based on sequential spectrum acquisition and optimal partial spectral sum with respect to the detection limits for a particular radionuclide. The prototyped device proved to be able to detect atmospheric contamination at the level of mBq/m³ per an 8h sampling.

Keywords: aerosols, atmosphere, atmospheric radioactivity monitoring, autonomous sampler

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4 Examining Kokugaku as a Pattern of Defining Identity in Global Comparison

Authors: Mária Ildikó Farkas


Kokugaku of the Edo period can be seen as a key factor of defining cultural (and national) identity in the 18th and early 19th century based on Japanese cultural heritage. Kokugaku focused on Japanese classics, on exploring, studying and reviving (or even inventing) ancient Japanese language, literature, myths, history and also political ideology. ‘Japanese culture’ as such was distinguished from Chinese (and all other) cultures, ‘Japanese identity’ was thus defined. Meiji scholars used kokugaku conceptions of Japan to construct a modern national identity based on the premodern and culturalist conceptions of community. The Japanese cultural movement of the 18-19th centuries (kokugaku) of defining cultural and national identity before modernization can be compared not to the development of Western Europe (where national identity strongly attached to modern nation states) or other parts of Asia (where these emerged after the Western colonization), but rather with the ‘national awakening’ movements of the peoples of East Central Europe, a comparison which have not been dealt with in the secondary literature yet. The role of a common language, culture, history and myths in the process of defining cultural identity – following mainly Miroslav Hroch’s comparative and interdisciplinary theory of national development – can be examined compared to the movements of defining identity of the peoples of East Central Europe (18th-19th c). In the shadow of a cultural and/or political ‘monolith’ (China for Japan and Germany for Central Europe), before modernity, ethnic groups or communities started to evolve their own identities with cultural movements focusing on their own language and culture, thus creating their cultural identity, and in the end, a new sense of community, the nation. Comparing actual texts (‘narratives’) of the kokugaku scholars and Central European writers of the nation building period (18th and early 19th centuries) can reveal the similarities of the discourses of deliberate searches for identity. Similar motives of argument can be identified in these narratives: ‘language’ as the primary bearer of collective identity, the role of language in culture, ‘culture’ as the main common attribute of the community; and similar aspirations to explore, search and develop native language, ‘genuine’ culture, ‘original’ traditions. This comparative research offering ‘development patterns’ for interpretation can help us understand processes that may be ambiguously considered ‘backward’ or even ‘deleterious’ (e.g. cultural nationalism) or just ‘unique’. ‘Cultural identity’ played a very important role in the formation of national identity during modernization especially in the case of non-Western communities, who had to face the danger of losing their identities in the course of ‘Westernization’ accompanying modernization.

Keywords: cultural identity, Japanese modernization, kokugaku, national awakening

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3 Carbonyl Iron Particles Modified with Pyrrole-Based Polymer and Electric and Magnetic Performance of Their Composites

Authors: Miroslav Mrlik, Marketa Ilcikova, Martin Cvek, Josef Osicka, Michal Sedlacik, Vladimir Pavlinek, Jaroslav Mosnacek


Magnetorheological elastomers (MREs) are a unique type of materials consisting of two components, magnetic filler, and elastomeric matrix. Their properties can be tailored upon application of an external magnetic field strength. In this case, the change of the viscoelastic properties (viscoelastic moduli, complex viscosity) are influenced by two crucial factors. The first one is magnetic performance of the particles and the second one is off-state stiffness of the elastomeric matrix. The former factor strongly depends on the intended applications; however general rule is that higher magnetic performance of the particles provides higher MR performance of the MRE. Since magnetic particles possess low stability properties against temperature and acidic environment, several methods how to improve these drawbacks have been developed. In the most cases, the preparation of the core-shell structures was employed as a suitable method for preservation of the magnetic particles against thermal and chemical oxidations. However, if the shell material is not single-layer substance, but polymer material, the magnetic performance is significantly suppressed, due to the in situ polymerization technique, when it is very difficult to control the polymerization rate and the polymer shell is too thick. The second factor is the off-state stiffness of the elastomeric matrix. Since the MR effectivity is calculated as the relative value of the elastic modulus upon magnetic field application divided by elastic modulus in the absence of the external field, also the tuneability of the cross-linking reaction is highly desired. Therefore, this study is focused on the controllable modification of magnetic particles using a novel monomeric system based on 2-(1H-pyrrol-1-yl)ethyl methacrylate. In this case, the short polymer chains of different chain lengths and low polydispersity index will be prepared, and thus tailorable stability properties can be achieved. Since the relatively thin polymer chains will be grafted on the surface of magnetic particles, their magnetic performance will be affected only slightly. Furthermore, also the cross-linking density will be affected, due to the presence of the short polymer chains. From the application point of view, such MREs can be utilized for, magneto-resistors, piezoresistors or pressure sensors especially, when the conducting shell on the magnetic particles will be created. Therefore, the selection of the pyrrole-based monomer is very crucial and controllably thin layer of conducting polymer can be prepared. Finally, such composite particle consisting of magnetic core and conducting shell dispersed in elastomeric matrix can find also the utilization in shielding application of electromagnetic waves.

Keywords: atom transfer radical polymerization, core-shell, particle modification, electromagnetic waves shielding

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2 The Role of Time-Dependent Treatment of Exogenous Salicylic Acid on Endogenous Phytohormone Levels under Salinity Stress

Authors: Hülya Torun, Ondřej Novák, Jaromír Mikulík, Miroslav Strnad, Faik A. Ayaz


World climate is changing. Millions of people in the world still face chronic undernourishment for conducting a healthy life and the world’s population is growing steadily. To meet this growing demand, agriculture and food systems must adapt to the adverse effects of climate change and become more resilient, productive and sustainable. From this perspective, to determine tolerant cultivars for undesirable environmental conditions will be necessary food production for sustainable development. Among abiotic stresses, soil salinity is one of the most detrimental global fact restricting plant sources. Development of salt-tolerant lines is required in order to increase the crop productivity and quality in salt-treated lands. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the morphological and physiological responses of barley cultivars accessions to salinity stress by NaCl. For this purpose, it was aimed to determine the crosstalk between some endogenous phytohormones and exogenous salicylic acid (SA) in two different vegetative parts (leaves and roots) of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.; Poaceae; 2n=14; Ince-04) which is detected salt-tolerant. The effects of SA on growth parameters, leaf relative water content (RWC), endogenous phytohormones; including indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), cytokinins (CKs), abscisic acid (ABA), jasmonic acid (JA) and ethylene were investigated in barley cultivars under salinity stress. SA was applied to 17-day-old seedlings of barley in two different ways including before (pre-treated for 24 h) and simultaneously with NaCl stress treatment. NaCl (0, 150, 300 mM) exposure in the hydrophonic system was associated with a rapid decrease in growth parameters and RWC, which is an indicator of plant water status, resulted in a strong up-regulation of ABA as a stress indicator. Roots were more dramatically affected than leaves. Water conservation in 150 mM NaCl treated-barley plants did not change, but decreased in 300 mM NaCl treated plants. Pre- and simultaneously treatment of SA did not significantly alter growth parameters and RWC. ABA, JA and ethylene are known to be related with stress. In the present work, ethylene also increased, similarly to ABA, but not with the same intensity. While ABA and ethylene increased by the increment of salt concentrations, JA levels rapidly decreased especially in roots. Both pre- and simultaneously SA applications alleviated salt-induced decreases in 300 mM NaCl resulted in the increment of ABA levels. CKs and IAA are related to cell growth and development. At high salinity (300 mM NaCl), CKs (cZ+cZR) contents increased in both vegetative organs while IAA levels stayed at the same level with control groups. However, IAA increased and cZ+cZR rapidly decreased in leaves of barley plants with SA treatments before salt applications (in pre- SA treated groups). Simultaneously application of SA decreased CKs levels in both leaves and roots of the cultivar. Due to increasing concentrations of NaCl in association with decreasing ABA, JA and ethylene content and increments in CKs and IAA were recorded with SA treatments. As results of the study, in view of all the phytohormones that we tested, exogenous SA induced greater tolerance to salinity particularly when applied before salinity stress.

Keywords: Barley, Hordeum vulgare, phytohormones, salicylic acid, salinity

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1 Synthesis of Carbonyl Iron Particles Modified with Poly (Trimethylsilyloxyethyl Methacrylate) Nano-Grafts

Authors: Martin Cvek, Miroslav Mrlik, Michal Sedlacik, Tomas Plachy


Magnetorheological elastomers (MREs) are multi-phase composite materials containing micron-sized ferromagnetic particles dispersed in an elastomeric matrix. Their properties such as modulus, damping, magneto-striction, and electrical conductivity can be controlled by an external magnetic field and/or pressure. These features of the MREs are used in the development of damping devices, shock attenuators, artificial muscles, sensors or active elements of electric circuits. However, imperfections on the particle/matrix interfaces result in the lower performance of the MREs when compared with theoretical values. Moreover, magnetic particles are susceptible to corrosion agents such as acid rains or sea humidity. Therefore, the modification of particles is an effective tool for the improvement of MRE performance due to enhanced compatibility between particles and matrix as well as improvements of their thermo-oxidation and chemical stability. In this study, the carbonyl iron (CI) particles were controllably modified with poly(trimethylsilyloxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMATMS) nano-grafts to develop magnetic core–shell structures exhibiting proper wetting with various elastomeric matrices resulting in improved performance within a frame of rheological, magneto-piezoresistance, pressure-piezoresistance, or radio-absorbing properties. The desired molecular weight of PHEMATMS nano-grafts was precisely tailored using surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). The CI particles were firstly functionalized using a 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane agent, followed by esterification reaction with α-bromoisobutyryl bromide. The ATRP was performed in the anisole medium using ethyl α-bromoisobutyrate as a macroinitiator, N, N´, N´´, N´´-pentamethyldiethylenetriamine as a ligand, and copper bromide as an initiator. To explore the effect PHEMATMS molecular weights on final properties, two variants of core-shell structures with different nano-graft lengths were synthesized, while the reaction kinetics were designed through proper reactant feed ratios and polymerization times. The PHEMATMS nano-grafts were characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance and gel permeation chromatography proving information to their monomer conversions, molecular chain lengths, and low polydispersity indexes (1.28 and 1.35) as the results of the executed ATRP. The successful modifications were confirmed via Fourier transform infrared- and energy-dispersive spectroscopies while expected wavenumber outputs and element presences, respectively, of constituted PHEMATMS nano-grafts, were occurring in the spectra. The surface morphology of bare CI and their PHEMATMS-grafted analogues was further studied by scanning electron microscopy, and the thicknesses of grafted polymeric layers were directly observed by transmission electron microscopy. The contact angles as a measure of particle/matrix compatibility were investigated employing the static sessile drop method. The PHEMATMS nano-grafts enhanced compatibility of hydrophilic CI with low-surface-energy hydrophobic polymer matrix in terms of their wettability and dispersibility in an elastomeric matrix. Thus, the presence of possible defects at the particle/matrix interface is reduced, and higher performance of modified MREs is expected.

Keywords: atom transfer radical polymerization, core-shell, particle modification, wettability

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