Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 21

Search results for: endoscopy

21 Use of Oral Midazolam in Endoscopy

Authors: Alireza Javadzadeh

Abstract:

Background: The purpose of this prospective, randomized study was to compare the safety and efficacy of oral versus i.v. midazolam in providing sedation for pediatric upper gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy. Methods: Sixty-one children (age < 16 years) scheduled for upper GI endoscopy were studied. Patients were randomly assigned to receive oral or i.v. midazolam. Measurements were made and compared for vital signs, level of sedation, pre- and post-procedure comfort, anxiety during endoscopy, ease of separation from parents, ease and duration of procedure, and recovery time. Results: Patients were aged 1–16 years (mean 7.5 ± 3.42 years); 30 patients received oral medication, and 31 received i.v. medication. There were no statistically significant differences in age or gender between groups. There were no significant differences in level of sedation, ease of separation from parents, ease of ability to monitor the patient during the procedure, heart rate, systolic arterial pressure, or respiratory rate. Oxygen saturation was significantly lower in the i.v. group than the oral group 10 and 30 min after removal of the endoscope, and recovery time was longer in the oral than the i.v. group. Conclusions: Oral administration of midazolam is a safe and effective method of sedation that significantly reduces anxiety and improves overall tolerance for children undergoing esophagogastroduodenoscopy.

Keywords: children, endoscopy, midazolam, oral, sedation

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20 Wireless Capsule Endoscope - Antenna and Channel Characterization

Authors: Mona Elhelbawy, Mac Gray

Abstract:

Traditional wired endoscopy is an intrusive process that requires a long flexible tube to be inserted through the patient’s mouth while intravenously sedated. Only images of the upper 4 feet of stomach, colon, and rectum can be captured, leaving the remaining 20 feet of small intestines. Wireless capsule endoscopy offers a painless, non-intrusive, efficient and effective alternative to traditional endoscopy. In wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE), ingestible vitamin-pill-shaped capsules with imaging capabilities, sensors, batteries, and antennas are designed to send images of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract in real time. In this paper, we investigate the radiation performance and specific absorption rate (SAR) of a miniature conformal capsule antenna operating at the Medical Implant Communication Service (MICS) frequency band in the human body. We perform numerical simulations using the finite element method based commercial software, high-frequency structure simulator (HFSS) and the ANSYS human body model (HBM). We also investigate the in-body channel characteristics between the implantable capsule and an external antenna placed on the surface of the human body.

Keywords: IEEE 802.15.6, MICS, SAR, WCE

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19 Feature Extraction Based on Contourlet Transform and Log Gabor Filter for Detection of Ulcers in Wireless Capsule Endoscopy

Authors: Nimisha Elsa Koshy, Varun P. Gopi, V. I. Thajudin Ahamed

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The entire visualization of GastroIntestinal (GI) tract is not possible with conventional endoscopic exams. Wireless Capsule Endoscopy (WCE) is a low risk, painless, noninvasive procedure for diagnosing diseases such as bleeding, polyps, ulcers, and Crohns disease within the human digestive tract, especially the small intestine that was unreachable using the traditional endoscopic methods. However, analysis of massive images of WCE detection is tedious and time consuming to physicians. Hence, researchers have developed software methods to detect these diseases automatically. Thus, the effectiveness of WCE can be improved. In this paper, a novel textural feature extraction method is proposed based on Contourlet transform and Log Gabor filter to distinguish ulcer regions from normal regions. The results show that the proposed method performs well with a high accuracy rate of 94.16% using Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier in HSV colour space.

Keywords: contourlet transform, log gabor filter, ulcer, wireless capsule endoscopy

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18 Detecting Potential Biomarkers for Ulcerative Colitis Using Hybrid Feature Selection

Authors: Mustafa Alshawaqfeh, Bilal Wajidy, Echin Serpedin, Jan Suchodolski

Abstract:

Inflammatory Bowel disease (IBD) is a disease of the colon with characteristic inflammation. Clinically IBD is detected using laboratory tests (blood and stool), radiology tests (imaging using CT, MRI), capsule endoscopy and endoscopy. There are two variants of IBD referred to as Ulcerative Colitis (UC) and Crohn’s disease. This study employs a hybrid feature selection method that combines a correlation-based variable ranking approach with exhaustive search wrapper methods in order to find potential biomarkers for UC. The proposed biomarkers presented accurate discriminatory power thereby identifying themselves to be possible ingredients to UC therapeutics.

Keywords: ulcerative colitis, biomarker detection, feature selection, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)

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17 Contourlet Transform and Local Binary Pattern Based Feature Extraction for Bleeding Detection in Endoscopic Images

Authors: Mekha Mathew, Varun P Gopi

Abstract:

Wireless Capsule Endoscopy (WCE) has become a great device in Gastrointestinal (GI) tract diagnosis, which can examine the entire GI tract, especially the small intestine without invasiveness and sedation. Bleeding in the digestive tract is a symptom of a disease rather than a disease itself. Hence the detection of bleeding is important in diagnosing many diseases. In this paper we proposes a novel method for distinguishing bleeding regions from normal regions based on Contourlet transform and Local Binary Pattern (LBP). Experiments show that this method provides a high accuracy rate of 96.38% in CIE XYZ colour space for k-Nearest Neighbour (k-NN) classifier.

Keywords: Wireless Capsule Endoscopy, local binary pattern, k-NN classifier, contourlet transform

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16 Bionaut™: A Breakthrough Robotic Microdevice to Treat Non-Communicating Hydrocephalus in Both Adult and Pediatric Patients

Authors: Suehyun Cho, Darrell Harrington, Florent Cros, Olin Palmer, John Caputo, Michael Kardosh, Eran Oren, William Loudon, Alex Kiselyov, Michael Shpigelmacher

Abstract:

Bionaut Labs, LLC is developing a minimally invasive robotic microdevice designed to treat non-communicating hydrocephalus in both adult and pediatric patients. The device utilizes biocompatible microsurgical particles (Bionaut™) that are specifically designed to safely and reliably perform accurate fenestration(s) in the 3rd ventricle, aqueduct of Sylvius, and/or trapped intraventricular cysts of the brain in order to re-establish normal cerebrospinal fluid flow dynamics and thereby balance and/or normalize intra/intercompartmental pressure. The Bionaut™ is navigated to the target via CSF or brain tissue in a minimally invasive fashion with precise control using real-time imaging. Upon reaching the pre-defined anatomical target, the external driver allows for directing the specific microsurgical action defined to achieve the surgical goal. Notable features of the proposed protocol are i) Bionaut™ access to the intraventricular target follows a clinically validated endoscopy trajectory which may not be feasible via ‘traditional’ rigid endoscopy: ii) the treatment is microsurgical, there are no foreign materials left behind post-procedure; iii) Bionaut™ is an untethered device that is navigated through the subarachnoid and intraventricular compartments of the brain, following pre-designated non-linear trajectories as determined by the safest anatomical and physiological path; iv) Overall protocol involves minimally invasive delivery and post-operational retrieval of the surgical Bionaut™. The approach is expected to be suitable to treat pediatric patients 0-12 months old as well as adult patients with obstructive hydrocephalus who fail traditional shunts or are eligible for endoscopy. Current progress, including platform optimization, Bionaut™ control, and real-time imaging and in vivo safety studies of the Bionauts™ in large animals, specifically the spine and the brain of ovine models, will be discussed.

Keywords: Bionaut™, cerebrospinal fluid, CSF, fenestration, hydrocephalus, micro-robot, microsurgery

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15 Gastric Foreign Bodies in Dogs

Authors: Naglaa A. Abd Elkader, Haithem A. Farghali

Abstract:

The present study carried out on fifteen clinical cases of different species of dogs which admitted to surgical clinic of veterinary medicine with different symptoms (Acute vomiting, hematemesis and anorexia). There was diagnostic march which including plain radiograph and endoscopic examination. Treatment was including surgical interference and endoscopic retrieval followed by medicinal treatment. This study was aimed the detection of different foreign bodies by the most suitable method according to the type of the foreign bodies.

Keywords: stomach, endoscopy, foreign bodies, dogs

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14 Role of von Willebrand Factor Antigen as Non-Invasive Biomarker for the Prediction of Portal Hypertensive Gastropathy in Patients with Liver Cirrhosis

Authors: Mohamed El horri, Amine Mouden, Reda Messaoudi, Mohamed Chekkal, Driss Benlaldj, Malika Baghdadi, Lahcene Benmahdi, Fatima Seghier

Abstract:

Background/aim: Recently, the Von Willebrand factor antigen (vWF-Ag)has been identified as a new marker of portal hypertension (PH) and its complications. Few studies talked about its role in the prediction of esophageal varices. VWF-Ag is considered a non-invasive approach, In order to avoid the endoscopic burden, cost, drawbacks, unpleasant and repeated examinations to the patients. In our study, we aimed to evaluate the ability of this marker in the prediction of another complication of portal hypertension, which is portal hypertensive gastropathy (PHG), the one that is diagnosed also by endoscopic tools. Patients and methods: It is about a prospective study, which include 124 cirrhotic patients with no history of bleeding who underwent screening endoscopy for PH-related complications like esophageal varices (EVs) and PHG. Routine biological tests were performed as well as the VWF-Ag testing by both ELFA and Immunoturbidimetric techniques. The diagnostic performance of our marker was assessed using sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, accuracy, and receiver operating characteristic curves. Results: 124 patients were enrolled in this study, with a mean age of 58 years [CI: 55 – 60 years] and a sex ratio of 1.17. Viral etiologies were found in 50% of patients. Screening endoscopy revealed the presence of PHG in 20.2% of cases, while for EVsthey were found in 83.1% of cases. VWF-Ag levels, were significantly increased in patients with PHG compared to those who have not: 441% [CI: 375 – 506], versus 279% [CI: 253 – 304], respectively (p <0.0001). Using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), vWF-Ag was a good predictor for the presence of PHG. With a value higher than 320% and an AUC of 0.824, VWF-Ag had an 84% sensitivity, 74% specificity, 44.7% positive predictive value, 94.8% negative predictive value, and 75.8% diagnostic accuracy. Conclusion: VWF-Ag is a good non-invasive low coast marker for excluding the presence of PHG in patients with liver cirrhosis. Using this marker as part of a selective screening strategy might reduce the need for endoscopic screening and the coast of the management of these kinds of patients.

Keywords: von willebrand factor, portal hypertensive gastropathy, prediction, liver cirrhosis

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13 In-House Fatty Meal Cholescintigraphy as a Screening Tool in Patients Presenting with Dyspepsia

Authors: Avani Jain, S. Shelley, M. Indirani, Shilpa Kalal, Jaykanth Amalachandran

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Aim: To evaluate the prevalence of gall bladder dysfunction in patients with dyspepsia using In-House fatty meal cholescintigraphy. Materials & Methods: This study is a prospective cohort study. 59 healthy volunteers with no dyspeptic complaints and negative ultrasound and endoscopy were recruited in study. 61 patients having complaint of dyspepsia for duration of more than 6 months were included. All of them underwent 99mTc-Mebrofenin fatty meal cholescintigraphy following a standard protocol. Dynamic acquisitions were acquired for 120 minutes with an In-House fatty meal being given at 45th minute. Gall bladder emptying kinetics was determined with gall bladder ejection fractions (GBEF) calculated at 30minutes, 45minutes and at 60 minutes (30min, 45min & 60 min). Standardization of fatty meal was done for volunteers. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used assess the diagnostic accuracy of 3 time points (30min, 45min & 60 min) used for measuring gall bladder emptying. On the basis of cut off derived from volunteers, the patients were assessed for gall bladder dysfunction. Results: In volunteers, the GBEF at 30 min was 74.42±8.26 % (mean ±SD), at 45 min was 82.61 ± 6.5 % and at 60 min was 89.37±4.48%, compared to patients where at 30min it was 33.73±22.87%, at 45 min it was 43.03±26.97% and at 60 min it was 51.85±29.60%. The lower limit of GBEF in volunteers at 30 min was 60%, 45 min was 69% and at 60 min was 81%. ROC analysis showed that area under curve was largest for 30 min GBEF (0.952; 95% CI = 0.914-0.989) and that all the 3 measures were statistically significant (p < 0.005). Majority of the volunteers had 74% of gall bladder emptying by 30 minutes; hence it was taken as an optimum cutoff time to assess gall bladder contraction. > 60% GBEF at 30 min post fatty meal was considered as normal and < 60% GBEF as indicative of gall bladder dysfunction. In patients, various causes for dyspepsia were identified: GB dysfunction (63.93%), Peptic ulcer (8.19 %), Gastroesophageal reflux disease (8.19%), Gastritis (4.91%). In 18.03% of cases GB dysfunction coexisted with other gastrointestinal conditions. The diagnosis of functional dyspepsia was made in 14.75% of cases. Conclusions: Gall bladder dysfunction contributes significantly to the causation of dyspepsia. It could coexist with various other gastrointestinal diseases. Fatty meal was well tolerated and devoid of any side effects. Many patients who are labeled as functional dyspeptics could actually have gall bladder dysfunction. Hence as an adjunct to ultrasound and endoscopy, fatty meal cholescintigraphy can also be used as a screening modality in characterization of dyspepsia.

Keywords: in-house fatty meal, choescintigraphy, dyspepsia, gall bladder ejection fraction, functional dyspepsia

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12 Implementation of Edge Detection Based on Autofluorescence Endoscopic Image of Field Programmable Gate Array

Authors: Hao Cheng, Zhiwu Wang, Guozheng Yan, Pingping Jiang, Shijia Qin, Shuai Kuang

Abstract:

Autofluorescence Imaging (AFI) is a technology for detecting early carcinogenesis of the gastrointestinal tract in recent years. Compared with traditional white light endoscopy (WLE), this technology greatly improves the detection accuracy of early carcinogenesis, because the colors of normal tissues are different from cancerous tissues. Thus, edge detection can distinguish them in grayscale images. In this paper, based on the traditional Sobel edge detection method, optimization has been performed on this method which considers the environment of the gastrointestinal, including adaptive threshold and morphological processing. All of the processes are implemented on our self-designed system based on the image sensor OV6930 and Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA), The system can capture the gastrointestinal image taken by the lens in real time and detect edges. The final experiments verified the feasibility of our system and the effectiveness and accuracy of the edge detection algorithm.

Keywords: AFI, edge detection, adaptive threshold, morphological processing, OV6930, FPGA

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11 Endoscopic Depiction and Treatment Evaluation of Spirocerca lupi in Dogs

Authors: ELdessouky Sheta, Sayed Elzomor, Haithem Farghali, Kawkab A. Ahmed, Naglaa A. Abd Elkader

Abstract:

The present investigation has been dealt with Spirocerca (S.) lupi infested mongrel dogs. This parasitic disease is highly infective to human beings and carnivores. The diagnosis march has been comprised the lateral contrast thoracic radiographs, fecal examination, blood profile, endoscopic examination and histopathological sections of deep seated pinch biopsies. These infested dogs have been put under an adopted treatment with Ivermectin injection combined with oral prednisolone. The obtained results reveal an absence of the pessimistic recognitions particularly after 3 weeks from the onset of treatment. Endoscopically the presented esophageal nodules are marked out in the distal third of infested dogs' esophagus as masses assigned into the esophageal lumen and fundus of stomach. The endoscopic outlook of Spirocerca lupi lesions has been considered an integral procedure of the diagnostic march and for evaluation of treatment follow up. The diagnostic procedures and the recommended treatment are the vet's guidance to care for Spirocerca lupi in dogs, hoping in future to prevent this disease from being spread among human beings and other carnivores.

Keywords: endoscopy, esophagus, stomach spirocercosis, dogs

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10 Efficacy and Safety of Uventa Metallic Stent for Malignant and Benign Ureteral Obstruction

Authors: Deok Hyun Han

Abstract:

Objective: To explore outcomes of UventaTM metallic ureteral stent between malignant and benign ureteral obstruction. Methods: We reviewed the medical records of 90 consecutive patients who underwent Uventa stent placement for benign or malignant ureteral obstruction from December 2009 to June 2013. We evaluated the clinical outcomes, complications, and reasons and results for unexpected stent removals. Results: The median follow-up was 10.7 (0.9 – 41) months. From a total of 125 ureter units, there were 24 units with benign obstructions and 101 units with malignant obstructions. Initial technical successes were achieved in all patients. The overall success rate was 70.8% with benign obstructions and 84.2% with malignant obstructions. The major reasons for treatment failure were stent migration (12.5%) in benign and tumor progression (11.9%) in malignant obstructions. The overall complication rate was similar between benign and malignant obstructions (58.3% and 42.6%), but severe complications, which are Clavien grade 3 or more, occurred in 41.7% of benign and 6.9% of malignant obstructions. The most common complications were stent migration (25.0%) in benign obstructions and persistent pain (14.9%) in malignant obstructions. The stent removal was done in 16 units; nine units that were removed by endoscopy and seven units were by open surgery. Conclusions: In malignant ureteral obstructions, the Uventa stent showed favorable outcomes with high success rate and acceptable complication rate. However, in benign ureteral obstructions, overall success rate and complication rate were less favorable. Malignant ureteral obstruction seems to be appropriate indication of Uventa stent placement. However, in chronic diffuse benign ureteral obstructions the decision of placement of Uventa stent has to be careful.

Keywords: cause, complication, ureteral obstruction, metal stent

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9 Apollo Clinical Excellence Scorecard ([email protected]): An Initiative to Drive Quality Improvement in Hospitals

Authors: Anupam Sibal

Abstract:

Whatever is measured tends to improve. With a view to objectively measuring and improving clinical quality across the Apollo Group Hospitals, the initiative of ACE @ 25 (Apollo Clinical [email protected]) was launched on Jan 09. ACE @ 25 is a clinically balanced scorecard incorporating 25 clinical quality parameters involving complication rates, mortality rates, one-year survival rates and average length of stay after major procedures like liver and renal transplant, CABG, TKR, THR, TURP, PTCA, endoscopy, large bowel resection and MRM covering all major specialties. Also included are hospital acquired infection rates, pain satisfaction and medication errors. Benchmarks have been chosen from the world’s best hospitals. There are weighted scores for outcomes color coded green, orange and red. The cumulative score is 100. Data is reported monthly by 43 Group Hospitals online on the Lighthouse platform. Action taken reports for parameters falling in red are submitted quarterly and reviewed by the board. An audit team audits the data at all locations every six months. Scores are linked to appraisal of the medical head and there is an “ACE @ 25” Champion Award for the highest scorer. Scores for different parameters were variable from green to red at the start of the initiative. Most hospitals showed an improvement in scores over the last four years for parameters where they had showed scores in red or orange at the start of the initiative. The overall scores for the group have shown an increase from 72 in 2010 to 81 in 2015.

Keywords: benchmarks, clinical quality, lighthouse, platform, scores

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8 The Clinical Use of Ahmed Valve Implant as an Aqueous Shunt for Control of Uveitic Glaucoma in Dogs

Authors: Khaled M. Ali, M. A. Abdel-Hamid, Ayman A. Mostafa

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Objective: Safety and efficacy of Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation for the management of uveitis induced glaucoma evaluated on the five dogs with uncontrollable glaucoma. Materials and Methods: Ahmed Glaucoma Valve (AGV®; New World Medical, Rancho Cucamonga, CA, USA) is a flow restrictive, non-obstructive self-regulating valve system. Preoperative ocular evaluation included direct ophthalmoscopy and measurement of the intraocular pressure (IOP). The implant was examined and primed prior to implantation. The selected site of the valve implantation was the superior quadrant between the superior and lateral rectus muscles. A fornix-based incision was made through the conjunectiva and Tenon’s capsule. A pocket is formed by blunt dissection of Tenon’s capsule from the episclera. The body of the implant was inserted into the pocket with the leading edge of the device around 8-10 mm from the limbus. Results: No post operative complications were detected in the operated eyes except a persistent corneal edema occupied the upper half of the cornea in one case. Hyphaema was very mild and seen only in two cases which resolved quickly two days after surgery. Endoscopical evaluation for the operated eyes revealed a normal ocular fundus with clearly visible optic papilla, tapetum and retinal blood vessels. No evidence of hemorrhage, infection, adhesions or retinal abnormalities was detected. Conclusion: Ahmed glaucoma valve is safe and effective implant for treatment of uveitic glaucoma in dogs.

Keywords: Ahmed valve, endoscopy, glaucoma, ocular fundus

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7 Food Bolus Obstruction: A Rural Hospital’s Experience

Authors: Davina Von Hagt, Genevieve Gibbons, Matt Henderson, Tom Bowles

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Purpose: Food bolus obstructions are common emergency surgical presentations, but there is no established management guideline in a rural setting. Intervention usually involves endoscopic removal after initial medical management has failed. Within a rural setting, this falls upon the general surgeon. There are varied endoscopic techniques that may be used. Methodology: A review of the past fifty cases of food bolus obstruction managed at Albany Health Campus was retrospectively reviewed to assess endoscopic findings and techniques. Operation notes, histopathology, imaging, and patient notes were reviewed. Results: 50 patients underwent gastroscopy for food bolus obstruction from August 2017 to March 2021. Ages ranged from 11 months to 95 years, with the majority of patients aged between 30-70 years. 88% of patients were male. Meat was the most common bolus (20% unspecified, 20% steak, 10% chicken, 6% lamb, 4% sausage, 2% pork). At endoscopy, 12% were found not to have a food bolus obstruction. Two patients were found to have oesophageal cancer, and four patients had a stricture and required dilatation. A variety of methods were used to relieve oesophageal obstruction ranging from pushing through to stomach (24 patients), using an overtube (10 patients), raptor (13 patients), and less common instruments such as Roth net, basket, guidewire, and pronged grasper. One patient had an unsuccessful endoscopic retrieval and required theatre for laparoscopic assisted removal with rendezvous endoscopic piecemeal removal via oesophagus and gastrostomy. Conclusion: Food bolus obstruction is a common emergency presentation. Within the rural setting, management requires innovation and teamwork within the safety of the local experience.

Keywords: food bolus obstruction, regional hospital, surgical management, innovative surgical treatment

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6 Osteoarticular Manifestations and Abnormalities of Bone Metabolism in Celiac Disease

Authors: Soumaya Mrabet, Imen Akkari, Amira Atig, Elhem Ben Jazia

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Introduction: Celiac disease (CD) is a chronic autoimmune inflammatory enteropathy caused by gluten. The clinical presentation is very variable. Malabsorption in the MC is responsible for an alteration of the bone metabolism. Our purpose is to study the osteoarticular manifestations related to this condition. Material and methods: It is a retrospective study of 41 cases of CD diagnosed on clinical, immunological, endoscopic and histological arguments, in the Internal Medicine and Gastroenterology Department of Farhat Hached Hospital between September 2005 and January 2016. Results: Osteoarticular manifestations were found in 9 patients (22%) among 41 patients presenting CD. These were 7 women and 2 men with an average age of 35.7 years (25 to 67 years). These manifestations were revelatory of CD in 3 cases. Abdominal pain and diarrhea were present in 6 cases. Inflammatory polyarthralgia of wrists and knees has been reported in 7 patients. Mechanical mono arthralgia was noted in 2 patients. Biological tests revealed microcytic anemia by iron deficiency in 7 cases, hypocalcemia in 5 cases, Hypophosphatemia in 3 cases and elevated alkaline phosphatases in 3 cases. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy with duodenal biopsy found villous atrophy in all cases. In immunology, Anti-transglutaminase antibodies were positive in all patients, Anti-endomysium in 7 cases. Measurement of bone mineral density (BMD) by biphotonic X-ray absorptiometer with evaluation of the T-score and the Z-score was performed in Twenty patients (48.8%). It was normal in 7 cases (33%) and showed osteopenia in 5 patients (25%) and osteoporosis in 2 patients (10%). All patients were treated with a Gluten-free diet associated with vitamin D and calcium substitution in 5 cases. The evolution was favorable in all cases with reduction of bone pain and normalization of the phosphocalcic balance. Conclusion: The bone impact of CD is frequent but often asymptomatic. Patients with CD should be evaluated by the measurement of bone mineral density and monitored for calcium and vitamin D deficiencies.

Keywords: bone mineral density, celiac disease, osteoarticular manifestations, vitamin D and calcium

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5 MR Enterography Findings in Pediatric and Adult Patients with Crohn's Disease

Authors: Karolina Siejka, Monika Piekarska, Monika Zbroja, Weronika Cyranka, Maryla Kuczynska, Magdalena Grzegorczyk, Malgorzata Nowakowska, Agnieszka Brodzisz, Magdalena Maria Wozniak

Abstract:

Crohn’s disease is one of chronic inflammatory bowel diseases. It is increasing in prevalence worldwide, especially with young people. The disease usually occurs in the second to the fourth decade of life. Traditionally is diagnosed by clinical indicates, endoscopic, and histological findings. Magnetic Resonance Enterography (MRE) can demonstrate mural and extramural inflammatory signs and complications, which make it a valuable diagnostic modality. The study included 76 adults and 36 children diagnosed with Crohn’s disease. Each patient underwent MRE with intravenous administration of a contrast agent. All the studies were performed using Siemens Aera 1.5T scanner according to a local study protocol. Whenever applicable, MR Enterography findings were verified with endoscopy. Forty adults and all 36 children had an active phase of Crohn’s disease; five adults had a chronic phase of the disease; one adult had both chronic and active inflammatory features. Thirty adults have no sings of pathology. In both adult and pediatric groups the most commonly observed manifestation of active disease was thickened edematous ileum wall (26 adults and 36 children). Adults had Bauhin’s valve edema in 58% cases (n=23) and mesenteric changes in 34% cases (n=9). To compare, 32 children had Bauhin’s valve edema (89%) and, in 23 cases, was found inflammatory infiltration of the peri-intestinal fat (64%). The involvement of the large intestine was more common among children (100%). Complications of Crohn’s disease were found commonly in adults (40% of adults, 22% of children). There were observed 18 fistulas (14 adults, four children) and six abscesses (2 adults, four children). MRE is a reliable method in the evaluation of Crohn’s disease activity, especially of its complications. The lack of radiations makes MRE well-tolerated modality, which can be often repeated, particularly in young patients. The disease had different medical sings depending on age – children often had a more active inflammatory process, but there were more complications in the adult group.

Keywords: Crohn's disease, diagnostics, inflammatory bowel disease, magnetic resonance enterography, MRE

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4 Association Type 1 Diabetes and Celiac Disease in Adult Patients

Authors: Soumaya Mrabet, Taieb Ach, Imen Akkari, Amira Atig, Neirouz Ghannouchi, Koussay Ach, Elhem Ben Jazia

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Introduction: Celiac disease (CD) and type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) are complex disorders with shared genetic components. The association between CD and T1D has been reported in many pediatric series. The aim of our study is to describe the epidemiological, clinical and evolutive characteristics of adult patients presenting this association. Material and Methods: This is a retrospective study including patients diagnosed with CD and T1D, explored in Internal Medicine, Gastroenterology and Endocrinology and Diabetology Departments of the Farhat Hached University Hospital, between January 2005 and June 2016. Results: Among 57 patients with CD, 15 patients had also T1D (26.3%). There are 11 women and 4 men with a median age of 27 years (16-48). All patients developed T1D prior to the diagnosis of CD with an average duration of 47 months between the two diagnosis (6 months-5 years). CD was revealed by recurrent abdominal pain in 11 cases, diarrhea in 10 cases, bloating in 8 cases, constipation in 6 cases and vomiting in 2 cases. Three patients presented cycle disorders with secondary amenorrhea in 2 patients. Anti-Endomysium, anti-transglutaminase and Anti-gliadin antibodies were positive respectively in 57, 54 and 11 cases. The biological tests revealed anemia in 10 cases, secondary to iron deficiency in 6 cases and folate and vitamin B12 deficiency in 4 cases, hypoalbuminaemia in 4 cases, hypocalcemia in 3 cases and hypocholesterolemia in 1 patient. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy showed an effacement of the folds of the duodenal mucosa in 6 cases and a congestive duodenal mucosa in 3 cases. The macroscopic appearance was normal in the others cases. Microscopic examination showed an aspect of villous atrophy in 57 cases, which was partial in 10 cases and total in 47 cases. After an average follow-up of 3 years 2 months, the evolution was favorable in all patients under gluten-free diet with the necessity of less important doses of insulin in 10 patients. Conclusion: In our study, the prevalence of T1D in adult patients with CD was 26.3%. This association can be attributed to overlapping genetic HLA risk loci. In recent studies, the role of gluten as an important player in the pathogenesis of CD and T1D has been also suggested.

Keywords: celiac disease, gluten, prevalence, type 1 diabetes

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3 Development of a Novel Clinical Screening Tool, Using the BSGE Pain Questionnaire, Clinical Examination and Ultrasound to Predict the Severity of Endometriosis Prior to Laparoscopic Surgery

Authors: Marlin Mubarak

Abstract:

Background: Endometriosis is a complex disabling disease affecting young females in the reproductive period mainly. The aim of this project is to generate a diagnostic model to predict severity and stage of endometriosis prior to Laparoscopic surgery. This will help to improve the pre-operative diagnostic accuracy of stage 3 & 4 endometriosis and as a result, refer relevant women to a specialist centre for complex Laparoscopic surgery. The model is based on the British Society of Gynaecological Endoscopy (BSGE) pain questionnaire, clinical examination and ultrasound scan. Design: This is a prospective, observational, study, in which women completed the BSGE pain questionnaire, a BSGE requirement. Also, as part of the routine preoperative assessment patient had a routine ultrasound scan and when recto-vaginal and deep infiltrating endometriosis was suspected an MRI was performed. Setting: Luton & Dunstable University Hospital. Patients: Symptomatic women (n = 56) scheduled for laparoscopy due to pelvic pain. The age ranged between 17 – 52 years of age (mean 33.8 years, SD 8.7 years). Interventions: None outside the recognised and established endometriosis centre protocol set up by BSGE. Main Outcome Measure(s): Sensitivity and specificity of endometriosis diagnosis predicted by symptoms based on BSGE pain questionnaire, clinical examinations and imaging. Findings: The prevalence of diagnosed endometriosis was calculated to be 76.8% and the prevalence of advanced stage was 55.4%. Deep infiltrating endometriosis in various locations was diagnosed in 32/56 women (57.1%) and some had DIE involving several locations. Logistic regression analysis was performed on 36 clinical variables to create a simple clinical prediction model. After creating the scoring system using variables with P < 0.05, the model was applied to the whole dataset. The sensitivity was 83.87% and specificity 96%. The positive likelihood ratio was 20.97 and the negative likelihood ratio was 0.17, indicating that the model has a good predictive value and could be useful in predicting advanced stage endometriosis. Conclusions: This is a hypothesis-generating project with one operator, but future proposed research would provide validation of the model and establish its usefulness in the general setting. Predictive tools based on such model could help organise the appropriate investigation in clinical practice, reduce risks associated with surgery and improve outcome. It could be of value for future research to standardise the assessment of women presenting with pelvic pain. The model needs further testing in a general setting to assess if the initial results are reproducible.

Keywords: deep endometriosis, endometriosis, minimally invasive, MRI, ultrasound.

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2 Clinical Validation of C-PDR Methodology for Accurate Non-Invasive Detection of Helicobacter pylori Infection

Authors: Suman Som, Abhijit Maity, Sunil B. Daschakraborty, Sujit Chaudhuri, Manik Pradhan

Abstract:

Background: Helicobacter pylori is a common and important human pathogen and the primary cause of peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer. Currently H. pylori infection is detected by both invasive and non-invasive way but the diagnostic accuracy is not up to the mark. Aim: To set up an optimal diagnostic cut-off value of 13C-Urea Breath Test to detect H. pylori infection and evaluate a novel c-PDR methodology to overcome of inconclusive grey zone. Materials and Methods: All 83 subjects first underwent upper-gastrointestinal endoscopy followed by rapid urease test and histopathology and depending on these results; we classified 49 subjects as H. pylori positive and 34 negative. After an overnight, fast patients are taken 4 gm of citric acid in 200 ml water solution and 10 minute after ingestion of the test meal, a baseline exhaled breath sample was collected. Thereafter an oral dose of 75 mg 13C-Urea dissolved in 50 ml water was given and breath samples were collected upto 90 minute for 15 minute intervals and analysed by laser based high precisional cavity enhanced spectroscopy. Results: We studied the excretion kinetics of 13C isotope enrichment (expressed as δDOB13C ‰) of exhaled breath samples and found maximum enrichment around 30 minute of H. pylori positive patients, it is due to the acid mediated stimulated urease enzyme activity and maximum acidification happened within 30 minute but no such significant isotopic enrichment observed for H. pylori negative individuals. Using Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve an optimal diagnostic cut-off value, δDOB13C ‰ = 3.14 was determined at 30 minute exhibiting 89.16% accuracy. Now to overcome grey zone problem we explore percentage dose of 13C recovered per hour, i.e. 13C-PDR (%/hr) and cumulative percentage dose of 13C recovered, i.e. c-PDR (%) in exhaled breath samples for the present 13C-UBT. We further explored the diagnostic accuracy of 13C-UBT by constructing ROC curve using c-PDR (%) values and an optimal cut-off value was estimated to be c-PDR = 1.47 (%) at 60 minute, exhibiting 100 % diagnostic sensitivity , 100 % specificity and 100 % accuracy of 13C-UBT for detection of H. pylori infection. We also elucidate the gastric emptying process of present 13C-UBT for H. pylori positive patients. The maximal emptying rate found at 36 minute and half empting time of present 13C-UBT was found at 45 minute. Conclusions: The present study exhibiting the importance of c-PDR methodology to overcome of grey zone problem in 13C-UBT for accurate determination of infection without any risk of diagnostic errors and making it sufficiently robust and novel method for an accurate and fast non-invasive diagnosis of H. pylori infection for large scale screening purposes.

Keywords: 13C-Urea breath test, c-PDR methodology, grey zone, Helicobacter pylori

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1 Fabrication of Zeolite Modified Cu Doped ZnO Films and Their Response towards Nitrogen Monoxide

Authors: Irmak Karaduman, Tugba Corlu, Sezin Galioglu, Burcu Akata, M. Ali Yildirim, Aytunç Ateş, Selim Acar

Abstract:

Breath analysis represents a promising non-invasive, fast and cost-effective alternative to well-established diagnostic and monitoring techniques such as blood analysis, endoscopy, ultrasonic and tomographic monitoring. Portable, non-invasive, and low-cost breath analysis devices are becoming increasingly desirable for monitoring different diseases, especially asthma. Beacuse of this, NO gas sensing at low concentrations has attracted progressive attention for clinical analysis in asthma. Recently, nanomaterials based sensors are considered to be a promising clinical and laboratory diagnostic tool, because its large surface–to–volume ratio, controllable structure, easily tailored chemical and physical properties, which bring high sensitivity, fast dynamic processand even the increasing specificity. Among various nanomaterials, semiconducting metal oxides are extensively studied gas-sensing materials and are potential sensing elements for breathanalyzer due to their high sensitivity, simple design, low cost and good stability.The sensitivities of metal oxide semiconductor gas sensors can be enhanced by adding noble metals. Doping contents, distribution, and size of metallic or metal oxide catalysts are key parameters for enhancing gas selectivity as well as sensitivity. By manufacturing doping MOS structures, it is possible to develop more efficient sensor sensing layers. Zeolites are perhaps the most widely employed group of silicon-based nanoporous solids. Their well-defined pores of sub nanometric size have earned them the name of molecular sieves, meaning that operation in the size exclusion regime is possible by selecting, among over 170 structures available, the zeolite whose pores allow the pass of the desired molecule, while keeping larger molecules outside.In fact it is selective adsorption, rather than molecular sieving, the mechanism that explains most of the successful gas separations achieved with zeolite membranes. In view of their molecular sieving and selective adsorption properties, it is not surprising that zeolites have found use in a number of works dealing with gas sensing devices. In this study, the Cu doped ZnO nanostructure film was produced by SILAR method and investigated the NO gas sensing properties. To obtain the selectivity of the sample, the gases including CO,NH3,H2 and CH4 were detected to compare with NO. The maximum response is obtained at 85 C for 20 ppb NO gas. The sensor shows high response to NO gas. However, acceptable responses are calculated for CO and NH3 gases. Therefore, there are no responses obtain for H2 and CH4 gases. Enhanced to selectivity, Cu doped ZnO nanostructure film was coated with zeolite A thin film. It is found that the sample possess an acceptable response towards NO hardly respond to CO, NH3, H2 and CH4 at room temperature. This difference in the response can be expressed in terms of differences in the molecular structure, the dipole moment, strength of the electrostatic interaction and the dielectric constant. The as-synthesized thin film is considered to be one of the extremely promising candidate materials in electronic nose applications. This work is supported by The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBİTAK) under Project No, 115M658 and Gazi University Scientific Research Fund under project no 05/2016-21.

Keywords: Cu doped ZnO, electrical characterization, gas sensing, zeolite

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