Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 14

Search results for: S. Shelley

14 Creator and Creation: Mary Shelley’s Monstrous ‘Last Men’ in 'Frankenstein' and 'The Last Man'

Authors: Courtney Laurey Davids

Abstract:

Mary Shelley’s two 19th century novels, the seminal Frankenstein (1818) and the less popular The Last Man (1826) draw on Gothic elements that invite a futuristic questioning and critique of man’s fallibility and propensity to be the author of his own demise be it by transgressing natural law through a scientific endeavour or ‘birthing’ a plague. Recent scholarship about ‘prophetic’ voices in fiction considers The Last Man an influential but overlooked novel deserving of renewed scholarly interest. Through close textual analysis and comparative reading, this paper seeks to explore the continuities (and discontinuities) in thematic concern of creator and creation in Frankenstein and The Last Man, emblematic in the oppositional characters of Victor Frankenstein and the Creature and Adrian, Earl of Windsor and Lionel Verney, his ‘creation’ in The Last Man. It argues that the creator/creation dynamic between Frankenstein and the Creature is to an extent revisited and inverted in Adrian and Verney but presented as no less problematic in The Last Man’s critique of man’s inevitable folly despite nurturing and acceptance of the marginalised figure. Drawing on Romanticism ideals of nature, its foregrounding of a scourging pandemic as punishment for man’s self-dislocation and with nature is a mirroring of Frankenstein and the Creature’s own plague-like deterioration and alienation from self and nature. In a sense, both Verney and the Creature as solitary figures at the novels' denouement are ‘last men’, having learned much about man and society and upon whom the moral injunction rests. In Verney, however, the moral warning coupled with the hope that man can yet be saved offers a different reading perhaps from Frankenstein regarding the creator/creation dichotomy.

Keywords: creator/creation, Frankenstein, Mary Shelley, The Gothic, The Last Man

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13 Hope in the Ruins of 'Ozymandias': Reimagining Temporal Horizons in Felicia Hemans 'the Image in Lava'

Authors: Lauren Schuldt Wilson

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Felicia Hemans’ memorializing of the unwritten lives of women and the consequent allowance for marginalized voices to remember and be remembered has been considered by many critics in terms of ekphrasis and elegy, terms which privilege the question of whether Hemans’ poeticizing can represent lost voices of history or only her poetic expression. Amy Gates, Brian Elliott, and others point out Hemans’ acknowledgement of the self-projection necessary for imaginatively filling the absences of unrecorded histories. Yet, few have examined the complex temporal positioning Hemans inscribes in these moments of self-projection and imaginative historicizing. In poems like ‘The Image in Lava,’ Hemans maps not only a lost past, but also a lost potential future onto the image of a dead infant in its mother’s arms, the discovery and consideration of which moves the imagined viewer to recover and incorporate the ‘hope’ encapsulated in the figure of the infant into a reevaluation of national time embodied by the ‘relics / Left by the pomps of old.’ By examining Hemans’ acknowledgement and response to Percy Bysshe Shelley’s ‘Ozymandias,’ this essay explores how Hemans’ depictions of imaginative historicizing open new horizons of possibility and reevaluate temporal value structures by imagining previously undiscovered or unexplored potentialities of the past. Where Shelley’s poem mocks the futility of national power and time, this essay outlines Hemans’ suggestion of alternative threads of identity and temporal meaning-making which, regardless of historical veracity, exist outside of and against the structures Shelley challenges. Counter to previous readings of Hemans’ poem as celebration of either recovered or poetically constructed maternal love, this essay argues that Hemans offers a meditation on sites of reproduction—both of personal reproductive futurity and of national reproduction of power. This meditation culminates in Hemans’ gesturing towards a method of historicism by which the imagined viewer reinvigorates the sterile, ‘shattered visage’ of national time by forming temporal identity through the imagining of trans-historical hope inscribed on the infant body of the universal, individual subject rather than the broken monument of the king.

Keywords: futurity, national temporalities, reproduction, revisionary histories

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12 The Different Essence of Death in the Elegies of Shelley's Adonais and Lord Tennyson's In Memoriam

Authors: Sulistyaningtyas

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The topic about death and dying is interesting to discuss since it is strongly related to every individual life. As represented in its title, Adonais: An Elegy on the Death of John Keats is a mournful poem written in 1821 by Percy Bysshe Shelley to mourn the loss of young poet John Keats. To compare, In Memoriam A.H.H. is an elegy written in 1850 about the death of Lord Tennyson’s dearest friend, Arthur Henry Hallam. Although both elegies were written to grieve the authors’ loved ones, their grief affects differently to the psychological being of the narrators. Thus, this research aims to examine the essence of death in affecting the narrators psychologically. By using psychoanalytic criticism, this research reveals the different essence of death in the two elegies as the result of the analysis. Moreover, these two elegies also portray the concept of the afterlife, immortality, and the figure of God. In Adonais, the grief of the narrator to Keats leads him to question the very purpose of life. The loss of his favorite poet which makes him feel sorrowful and mad along his 55 stanzas brings him to a higher psychological level to understand himself. He even sees himself as a Christ-like figure, which shows the idea that God is imaginable. Different from Adonais, the narrator of In Memoriam finds something more spiritual by doing his passionate mourning to Hallam. Through some contemplation in his 133 cantos, in the end, he is convinced that the dear one now dwells with a great Spirit who controls the world. He believes that all of the creation in the universe has to follow one law which is set by God. Hence, it can be concluded that death might bring different consequence to the psyche of every living creature.

Keywords: elegy, comparative study, psychoanalytic criticism, the essence of death

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11 The Educational Needs of Professional Hospice Staff: An Ethnographic Inquiry

Authors: Andrea Mason, Shelley Raffin Bouchal, Lorraine Venturato

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Hospice care delivered by an interdisciplinary team of caregivers includes those individuals with a life-limiting illness with a prognosis of days to a few months and serves a variety of individuals with a combination of multiple illnesses and co-morbidities. A skilled health workforce is needed to deliver hospice palliative care services. Inconsistent hospice staff knowledge and educational needs have been identified locally in Alberta and across Canada. Hospice nurses have identified knowledge deficits in pain and symptom management, psychological and spiritual care, and lastly, communication with dying patients. This research, engaging a focused ethnographic method of inquiry, occurred at a local 26-bed hospice. The researcher immersed herself in the hospice culture to understand ways that the culture of hospice care can shape the educational needs of professional staff. Data consisted of semi-structured interviews, observations with interdisciplinary hospice professionals, and the writing of field notes over a 3-month period. The study findings suggest that at the core of this hospice educational needs lies three major themes: communication as an essential foundation of quality care; interdisciplinary collaboration is vital for team cohesiveness and lastly, the central care philosophy utilized by the hospice interdisciplinary team is person/resident and family-centered care. These findings offer suggestions for hospice education and further research. Relational care is foundational for this philosophy, with trusting relationships at the forefront of care.

Keywords: hospice, hospice professionals, palliative care, educational needs

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10 Experimental Validation of Computational Fluid Dynamics Used for Pharyngeal Flow Patterns during Obstructive Sleep Apnea

Authors: Pragathi Gurumurthy, Christina Hagen, Patricia Ulloa, Martin A. Koch, Thorsten M. Buzug

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Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a sleep disorder where the patient suffers a disturbed airflow during sleep due to partial or complete occlusion of the pharyngeal airway. Recently, numerical simulations have been used to better understand the mechanism of pharyngeal collapse. However, to gain confidence in the solutions so obtained, an experimental validation is required. Therefore, in this study an experimental validation of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) used for the study of human pharyngeal flow patterns during OSA is performed. A stationary incompressible Navier-Stokes equation solved using the finite element method was used to numerically study the flow patterns in a computed tomography-based human pharynx model. The inlet flow rate was set to 250 ml/s and such that a flat profile was maintained at the inlet. The outlet pressure was set to 0 Pa. The experimental technique used for the validation of CFD of fluid flow patterns is phase contrast-MRI (PC-MRI). Using the same computed tomography data of the human pharynx as in the simulations, a phantom for the experiment was 3 D printed. Glycerol (55.27% weight) in water was used as a test fluid at 25°C. Inflow conditions similar to the CFD study were simulated using an MRI compatible flow pump (CardioFlow-5000MR, Shelley Medical Imaging Technologies). The entire experiment was done on a 3 T MR system (Ingenia, Philips) with 108 channel body coil using an RF-spoiled, gradient echo sequence. A comparison of the axial velocity obtained in the pharynx from the numerical simulations and PC-MRI shows good agreement. The region of jet impingement and recirculation also coincide, therefore validating the numerical simulations. Hence, the experimental validation proves the reliability and correctness of the numerical simulations.

Keywords: computational fluid dynamics, experimental validation, phase contrast-MRI, obstructive sleep apnea

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9 A Mixed Methods Study: Evaluation of Experiential Learning Techniques throughout a Nursing Curriculum to Promote Empathy

Authors: Joan Esper Kuhnly, Jess Holden, Lynn Shelley, Nicole Kuhnly

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Empathy serves as a foundational nursing principle inherent in the nurse’s ability to form those relationships from which to care for patients. Evidence supports, including empathy in nursing and healthcare education, but there is limited data on what methods are effective to do so. Building evidence supports experiential and interactive learning methods to be effective for students to gain insight and perspective from a personalized experience. The purpose of this project is to evaluate learning activities designed to promote the attainment of empathic behaviors across 5 levels of the nursing curriculum. Quantitative analysis will be conducted on data from pre and post-learning activities using the Toronto Empathy Questionnaire. The main hypothesis, that simulation learning activities will increase empathy, will be examined using a repeated measures Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) on Pre and Post Toronto Empathy Questionnaire scores for three simulation activities (Stroke, Poverty, Dementia). Pearson product-moment correlations will be conducted to examine the relationships between continuous demographic variables, such as age, credits earned, and years practicing, with the dependent variable of interest, Post Test Toronto Empathy Scores. Krippendorff’s method of content analysis will be conducted to identify the quantitative incidence of empathic responses. The researchers will use Colaizzi’s descriptive phenomenological method to describe the students’ simulation experience and understand its impact on caring and empathy behaviors employing bracketing to maintain objectivity. The results will be presented, answering multiple research questions. The discussion will be relevant to results and educational pedagogy in the nursing curriculum as they relate to the attainment of empathic behaviors.

Keywords: curriculum, empathy, nursing, simulation

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8 Dynamic Capabilities and Disorganization: A Conceptual Exploration

Authors: Dinuka Herath, Shelley Harrington

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This paper prompts debate about whether disorganization can be positioned as a mechanism that facilitates the creation and enactment of important dynamic capabilities within an organization. This particular article is a conceptual exploration of the link between dynamic capabilities and disorganization and presents the case for agent-based modelling as a viable methodological tool which can be used to explore this link. Dynamic capabilities are those capabilities that an organization needs to sustain competitive advantage in complex environments. Disorganization is the process of breaking down restrictive organizational structures and routines that commonly reside in organizations in order to increase organizational performance. In the 20th century, disorganization was largely viewed as an undesirable phenomenon within an organization. However, the concept of disorganization has been revitalized and garnered research interest in the recent years due to studies which demonstrate some of the advantages of disorganization to an organization. Furthermore, recent Agent-based simulation studies have shown the capability of disorganization to be managed and argue for disorganization to be viewed as an enabler of organizational productivity. Given the natural state of disorganization and resulting fear this can create, this paper argues that instead of trying to ‘correct’ disorganization, it should be actively encouraged to have functional purpose. The study of dynamic capabilities emerged as a result of heightened dynamism and consequentially the very nature of dynamism denotes a level of fluidity and flexibility, something which this paper argues many organizations do not truly foster due to a constrained commitment to organization and order. We argue in this paper that the very state of disorganization is a state that should be encouraged to develop dynamic capabilities needed to not only deal with the complexities of the modern business environment but also to sustain competitive success. The significance of this paper stems from the fact that both dynamic capabilities and disorganization are two concepts that are gaining prominence in their respective academic genres. Despite the attention each concept has received individually, no conceptual link has been established to depict how they actually interact with each other. We argue that the link between these two concepts present a novel way of looking at organizational performance. By doing so, we explore the potential of these two concepts working in tandem in order to increase organizational productivity which has significant implications for both academics and practitioners alike.

Keywords: agent-based modelling, disorganization, dynamic capabilities, performance

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7 In-House Fatty Meal Cholescintigraphy as a Screening Tool in Patients Presenting with Dyspepsia

Authors: Avani Jain, S. Shelley, M. Indirani, Shilpa Kalal, Jaykanth Amalachandran

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Aim: To evaluate the prevalence of gall bladder dysfunction in patients with dyspepsia using In-House fatty meal cholescintigraphy. Materials & Methods: This study is a prospective cohort study. 59 healthy volunteers with no dyspeptic complaints and negative ultrasound and endoscopy were recruited in study. 61 patients having complaint of dyspepsia for duration of more than 6 months were included. All of them underwent 99mTc-Mebrofenin fatty meal cholescintigraphy following a standard protocol. Dynamic acquisitions were acquired for 120 minutes with an In-House fatty meal being given at 45th minute. Gall bladder emptying kinetics was determined with gall bladder ejection fractions (GBEF) calculated at 30minutes, 45minutes and at 60 minutes (30min, 45min & 60 min). Standardization of fatty meal was done for volunteers. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used assess the diagnostic accuracy of 3 time points (30min, 45min & 60 min) used for measuring gall bladder emptying. On the basis of cut off derived from volunteers, the patients were assessed for gall bladder dysfunction. Results: In volunteers, the GBEF at 30 min was 74.42±8.26 % (mean ±SD), at 45 min was 82.61 ± 6.5 % and at 60 min was 89.37±4.48%, compared to patients where at 30min it was 33.73±22.87%, at 45 min it was 43.03±26.97% and at 60 min it was 51.85±29.60%. The lower limit of GBEF in volunteers at 30 min was 60%, 45 min was 69% and at 60 min was 81%. ROC analysis showed that area under curve was largest for 30 min GBEF (0.952; 95% CI = 0.914-0.989) and that all the 3 measures were statistically significant (p < 0.005). Majority of the volunteers had 74% of gall bladder emptying by 30 minutes; hence it was taken as an optimum cutoff time to assess gall bladder contraction. > 60% GBEF at 30 min post fatty meal was considered as normal and < 60% GBEF as indicative of gall bladder dysfunction. In patients, various causes for dyspepsia were identified: GB dysfunction (63.93%), Peptic ulcer (8.19 %), Gastroesophageal reflux disease (8.19%), Gastritis (4.91%). In 18.03% of cases GB dysfunction coexisted with other gastrointestinal conditions. The diagnosis of functional dyspepsia was made in 14.75% of cases. Conclusions: Gall bladder dysfunction contributes significantly to the causation of dyspepsia. It could coexist with various other gastrointestinal diseases. Fatty meal was well tolerated and devoid of any side effects. Many patients who are labeled as functional dyspeptics could actually have gall bladder dysfunction. Hence as an adjunct to ultrasound and endoscopy, fatty meal cholescintigraphy can also be used as a screening modality in characterization of dyspepsia.

Keywords: in-house fatty meal, choescintigraphy, dyspepsia, gall bladder ejection fraction, functional dyspepsia

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6 Assessment of the Effect of Orally Administered Itopride on Gall Bladder Ejection Fraction by a Fatty Meal Cholescintigraphy in Patients with Diabetes

Authors: Avani Jain, Hasmukh Jain, S. Shelley, M. Indirani, Shilpa Kalal, Jayakanth Amalachandran

Abstract:

Aim of the Study: To assess the effect of orally administered Itopride on gall bladder ejection fraction by fatty meal cholescintigraphy in patients with diabetes. Materials and Methods: Thirty patients (20 males, 10 females, mean age 46+10 yrs) with history of diabetes mellitus (mean duration 4.8+4.1 yrs, fasting blood glucose level 130+35 mg/dl and 2-hours post-prandial blood glucose level 196+76 mg/dl) and found to have gall bladder dysfunction on fatty-meal stimulated cholescintigraphy were selected for this study. These patients underwent a repeat cholescintigraphy similar to baseline study, with 50 mg of Itopride orally along with fatty meal. Pre- and post-Itopride GBEF were then compared to assess the effect of Itopride on gall bladder contraction. Results: Out of these 30 patients, 2 had dyskinetic, 4 had akinetic, 22 had moderately hypokinetic and the remaining 2 had hypokinetic gall bladder function in the baseline study with > 60% GBEF being taken as the normal value. Mean percentage of GBEF in the baseline study was 32%+13% and the mean percentage of GBEF in the post-Itopride study was 57%+17% with change in mean percentage of GBEF being 24%+21%. GBEF of the “baseline study” was significantly lower as compared to GBEF in the “post-Itopride study” (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Diabetic patients with biliary-type pain often tend to have impaired gallbladder function. Cholescintigraphy with fatty meal-stimulation is a simple, cheap and useful investigation for assessment of gallbladder dysfunction in these patients, before any structural changes occur within the lumen or wall of the gall bladder. Improvement in gallbladder ejection fraction after oral administration of a single dose of Itopride, a newer prokinetic drug with fewer side effects, as assessed by cholescintigraphy, provides enough evidence of future therapeutic response. Administration of Itopride, in therapeutic dosage, therefore may be expected to cause significant improvement in gallbladder ejection fraction and hence prolong stone formation within the gall bladder and also prevent the associated long term complications. Hence, based on scintigraphic evidence, Itopride may be recommended, by clinicians, for management of symptomatic diabetic patients having gallbladder dysfunction.

Keywords: itopride, gall bladder ejection fraction, fatty meal, cholescintigraphy, diabetes

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5 New Knowledge Co-Creation in Mobile Learning: A Classroom Action Research with Multiple Case Studies Using Mobile Instant Messaging

Authors: Genevieve Lim, Arthur Shelley, Dongcheol Heo

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Abstract—Mobile technologies can enhance the learning process as it enables social engagement around concepts beyond the classroom and the curriculum. Early results in this ongoing research is showing that when learning interventions are designed specifically to generate new insights, mobile devices support regulated learning and encourage learners to collaborate, socialize and co-create new knowledge. As students navigate across the space and time boundaries, the fundamental social nature of learning transforms into mobile computer supported collaborative learning (mCSCL). The metacognitive interaction in mCSCL via mobile applications reflects the regulation of learning among the students. These metacognitive experiences whether self-, co- or shared-regulated are significant to the learning outcomes. Despite some insightful empirical studies, there has not yet been significant research that investigates the actual practice and processes of the new knowledge co-creation. This leads to question as to whether mobile learning provides a new channel to leverage learning? Alternatively, does mobile interaction create new types of learning experiences and how do these experiences co-create new knowledge. The purpose of this research is to explore these questions and seek evidence to support one or the other. This paper addresses these questions from the students’ perspective to understand how students interact when constructing knowledge in mCSCL and how students’ self-regulated learning (SRL) strategies support the co-creation of new knowledge in mCSCL. A pilot study has been conducted among international undergraduates to understand students’ perspective of mobile learning and concurrently develops a definition in an appropriate context. Using classroom action research (CAR) with multiple case studies, this study is being carried out in a private university in Thailand to narrow the research gaps in mCSCL and SRL. The findings will allow teachers to see the importance of social interaction for meaningful student engagement and envisage learning outcomes from a knowledge management perspective and what role mobile devices can play in these. The findings will signify important indicators for academics to rethink what is to be learned and how it should be learned. Ultimately, the study will bring new light into the co-creation of new knowledge in a social interactive learning environment and challenges teachers to embrace the 21st century of learning with mobile technologies to deepen and extend learning opportunities.

Keywords: mobile computer supported collaborative learning, mobile instant messaging, mobile learning, new knowledge co-creation, self-regulated learning

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4 A Study of Sexual Violence on Women and Children in Hong Kong

Authors: Wing Hang Shelley Leung

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With the rise of the recent social movement, namely #MeToo, it shows that a lot of women and children in fact suffered from sexual abuse and some even suffered from child abuse, including in Hong Kong. In view of the ongoing social movements, this paper argues that we have to look beyond their impacts and understand the roots of the problem: what if the underlying cause of the recent social movements was the inherited values that were rooted in us since we were young, or the public’s lack of confidence in the legal system when it comes to this type of personal matters? What if the movements reveal the problematic issue of the lack of protection plans, either in the private or public sphere? If the legal system is presumed to not be able to preemptively protect everyone or effectively punish all perpetrators, can other pillars provide supports to fill in the loopholes of the legal system? This paper takes a theoretical approach to look into current sexuality education, the legal system in Hong Kong and the adoption of Asian values in society to argue that difficulties that are being placed onto victims in disclosing sexual violence they had experienced. Reviews of the current system and recent sexual assaults court cases for case studies allow the research to address the issues of victims’ experience including (a) their reactions to incidents; (b) issues they have in trials; (c) psychological impacts of the incidents; and (d) their understandings of gender equality before and after incidents. The study is significant because it criticises the current legal system in Hong Kong and provides insights to the public by explaining the dynamics between the problem, the legal system and the society. Also, it contributes to the ongoing research about the psychological impacts to victims in Hong Kong, especially how they are placed in a disadvantaged position in the legal system and society and even for their recovery. It contributes to the findings of how family structures, parental responsibilities and gender studies influence a child’s perception of gender equality in Hong Kong and hence their immediate reactions to incidents. To fully address the needs of victims, especially our younger generation, as well as to prevent future harm and to raise awareness, an inclusive framework which recognizes the needs of protecting and safeguarding women and children in the private sphere and a proper education for gender equality are needed.

Keywords: child abuse, children's rights, domestic violence, gender equality, Hong Kong, Me too, sexual violence, women's rights

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3 Personality Composition in Senior Management Teams: The Importance of Homogeneity in Dynamic Managerial Capabilities

Authors: Shelley Harrington

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As a result of increasingly dynamic business environments, the creation and fostering of dynamic capabilities, [those capabilities that enable sustained competitive success despite of dynamism through the awareness and reconfiguration of internal and external competencies], supported by organisational learning [a dynamic capability] has gained increased and prevalent momentum in the research arena. Presenting findings funded by the Economic Social Research Council, this paper investigates the extent to which Senior Management Team (SMT) personality (at the trait and facet level) is associated with the creation of dynamic managerial capabilities at the team level, and effective organisational learning/knowledge sharing within the firm. In doing so, this research highlights the importance of micro-foundations in organisational psychology and specifically dynamic capabilities, a field which to date has largely ignored the importance of psychology in understanding these important and necessary capabilities. Using a direct measure of personality (NEO PI-3) at the trait and facet level across 32 high technology and finance firms in the UK, their CEOs (N=32) and their complete SMTs [N=212], a new measure of dynamic managerial capabilities at the team level was created and statistically validated for use within the work. A quantitative methodology was employed with regression and gap analysis being used to show the empirical foundations of personality being positioned as a micro-foundation of dynamic capabilities. The results of this study found that personality homogeneity within the SMT was required to strengthen the dynamic managerial capabilities of sensing, seizing and transforming, something which was required to reflect strong organisational learning at middle management level [N=533]. In particular, it was found that the greater the difference [t-score gaps] between the personality profiles of a Chief Executive Officer (CEO) and their complete, collective SMT, the lower the resulting self-reported nature of dynamic managerial capabilities. For example; the larger the difference between a CEOs level of dutifulness, a facet contributing to the definition of conscientiousness, and their SMT’s level of dutifulness, the lower the reported level of transforming, a capability fundamental to strategic change in a dynamic business environment. This in turn directly questions recent trends, particularly in upper echelons research highlighting the need for heterogeneity within teams. In doing so, it successfully positions personality as a micro-foundation of dynamic capabilities, thus contributing to recent discussions from within the strategic management field calling for the need to empirically explore dynamic capabilities at such a level.

Keywords: dynamic managerial capabilities, senior management teams, personality, dynamism

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2 Longitudinal impact on Empowerment for Ugandan Women with Post-Primary Education

Authors: Shelley Jones

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Assumptions abound that education for girls will, as a matter of course, lead to their economic empowerment as women; yet. little is known about the ways in which schooling for girls, who traditionally/historically would not have had opportunities for post-primary, or perhaps even primary education – such as the participants in this study based in rural Uganda - in reality, impacts their economic situations. There is a need forlongitudinal studies in which women share experiences, understandings, and reflections of their lives that can inform our knowledge of this. In response, this paper reports on stage four of a longitudinal case study (2004-2018) focused on education and empowerment for girls and women in rural Uganda, in which 13 of the 15 participants from the original study participated. This paper understands empowerment as not simply increased opportunities (e.g., employment) but also real gains in power, freedoms that enable agentive action, and authentic and viable choices/alternatives that offer ‘exit options’ from unsatisfactory situations. As with the other stages, this study used a critical, postmodernist, global feminist ethnographic methodology, multimodal and qualitative data collection. Participants participated in interviews, focus group discussions, and a two-day workshop, which explored their understandings of how/if they understood post-primary education to have contributed to their economic empowerment. A constructivist grounded theory approach was used for data analysis to capture major themes. Findings indicate that although all participants believe that post-primary education provided them with economic opportunities they would not have had otherwise, the parameters of their economic empowerment were severely constrained by historic and extant sociocultural, economic, political, and institutional structures that continue to disempower girls and women, as well as additional financial responsibilities that they assumed to support others. Even though the participants had post-primary education, and they were able to obtain employment or operate their own businesses that they would not likely have been able to do without post-primary education, the majority of the participants’ incomes were not sufficient to elevate them financially above the extreme poverty level, especially as many were single mothers and the sole income earners in their households. Furthermore, most deemed their working conditions unsatisfactory and their positions precarious; they also experienced sexual harassment and abuse in the labour force. Additionally, employment for the participants resulted in a double work burden: long days at work, surrounded by many hours of domestic work at home (which, even if they had spousal partners, still fell almost exclusively to women). In conclusion, although the participants seem to have experienced some increase in economic empowerment, largely due to skills, knowledge, and qualifications gained at the post-primary level, numerous barriers prevented them from maximizing their capabilities and making significant gains in empowerment. There is need, in addition to providing education (primary, secondary, and tertiary) to girls, to address systemic gender inequalities that mitigate against women’s empowerment, as well as opportunities and freedom for women to come together and demand fair pay, reasonable working conditions, and benefits, freedom from gender-based harassment and assault in the workplace, as well as advocate for equal distribution of domestic work as a cultural change.

Keywords: girls' post-primary education, women's empowerment, uganda, employment

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1 Developing Telehealth-Focused Advanced Practice Nurse Educational Partnerships

Authors: Shelley Y. Hawkins

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Introduction/Background: As technology has grown exponentially in healthcare, nurse educators must prepare Advanced Practice Registered Nurse (APRN) graduates with the knowledge and skills in information systems/technology to support and improve patient care and health care systems. APRN’s are expected to lead in caring for populations who lack accessibility and availability through the use of technology, specifically telehealth. The capacity to effectively and efficiently use technology in patient care delivery is clearly delineated in the American Association of Colleges of Nursing (AACN) Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP) and Master of Science in Nursing (MSN) Essentials. However, APRN’s have minimal, or no, exposure to formalized telehealth education and lack necessary technical skills needed to incorporate telehealth into their patient care. APRN’s must successfully master the technology using telehealth/telemedicine, electronic health records, health information technology, and clinical decision support systems to advance health. Furthermore, APRN’s must be prepared to lead the coordination and collaboration with other healthcare providers in their use and application. Aim/Goal/Purpose: The purpose of this presentation is to establish and operationalize telehealth-focused educational partnerships between one University School of Nursing and two health care systems in order to enhance the preparation of APRN NP students for practice, teaching, and/or scholarly endeavors. Methods: The proposed project was initially presented by the project director to selected multidisciplinary stakeholders including leadership, home telehealth personnel, primary care providers, and decision support systems within two major health care systems to garner their support for acceptance and implementation. Concurrently, backing was obtained from key university-affiliated colleagues including the Director of Simulation and Innovative Learning Lab and Coordinator of the Health Care Informatics Program. Technology experts skilled in design and production in web applications and electronic modules were secured from two local based technology companies. Results: Two telehealth-focused APRN Program academic/practice partnerships have been established. Students have opportunities to engage in clinically based telehealth experiences focused on: (1) providing patient care while incorporating various technology with a specific emphasis on telehealth; (2) conducting research and/or evidence-based practice projects in order to further develop the scientific foundation regarding incorporation of telehealth with patient care; and (3) participating in the production of patient-level educational materials related to specific topical areas. Conclusions: Evidence-based APRN student telehealth clinical experiences will assist in preparing graduates who can effectively incorporate telehealth into their clinical practice. Greater access for diverse populations will be available as a result of the telehealth service model as well as better care and better outcomes at lower costs. Furthermore, APRN’s will provide the necessary leadership and coordination through interprofessional practice by transforming health care through new innovative care models using information systems and technology.

Keywords: academic/practice partnerships, advanced practice nursing, nursing education, telehealth

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