Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9

Search results for: Darrell Harrington

9 Bionaut™: A Microrobotic Drug-Device Platform for the Local Treatment of Brainstem Gliomas

Authors: Alex Kiselyov, Suehyun Cho, Darrell Harrington; Florent Cros, Olin Palmer, John Caputo, Michael Kardosh, Eran Oren, William Loudon, Michael Shpigelmacher

Abstract:

Despite the most aggressive surgical and adjuvant therapeutic strategies, treatment of both pediatric and adult brainstem tumors remains problematic. Novel strategies, including targeted biologics, immunotherapy, and specialized delivery systems such as convection-enhanced delivery (CED), have been proposed. While some of these novel treatments are entering phase I trials, the field is still in need of treatment(s) that exhibits dramatically enhanced potency with optimal therapeutic ratio. Bionaut Labs has developed a modular microrobotic platform for performing localized delivery of diverse therapeutics in vivo. Our biocompatible particles (Bionauts™) are externally propelled and visualized in real-time. Bionauts™ are specifically designed to enhance the effect of radiation therapy via anatomically precise delivery of a radiosensitizing agent, as exemplified by temozolomide (TMZ) and Avastin™ to the brainstem gliomas of diverse origin. The treatment protocol is designed to furnish a better therapeutic outcome due to the localized (vs systemic) delivery of the drug to the neoplastic lesion(s) for use as a synergistic combination of radiation and radiosensitizing agent. In addition, the procedure is minimally invasive and is expected to be appropriate for both adult and pediatric patients. Current progress, including platform optimization, selection of the lead radiosensitizer as well as in vivo safety studies of the Bionauts™ in large animals, specifically the spine and the brain of porcine and ovine models, will be discussed.

Keywords: Bionaut, brainstem, glioma, local delivery, micro-robot, radiosensitizer

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8 Bionaut™: A Breakthrough Robotic Microdevice to Treat Non-Communicating Hydrocephalus in Both Adult and Pediatric Patients

Authors: Suehyun Cho, Darrell Harrington, Florent Cros, Olin Palmer, John Caputo, Michael Kardosh, Eran Oren, William Loudon, Alex Kiselyov, Michael Shpigelmacher

Abstract:

Bionaut Labs, LLC is developing a minimally invasive robotic microdevice designed to treat non-communicating hydrocephalus in both adult and pediatric patients. The device utilizes biocompatible microsurgical particles (Bionaut™) that are specifically designed to safely and reliably perform accurate fenestration(s) in the 3rd ventricle, aqueduct of Sylvius, and/or trapped intraventricular cysts of the brain in order to re-establish normal cerebrospinal fluid flow dynamics and thereby balance and/or normalize intra/intercompartmental pressure. The Bionaut™ is navigated to the target via CSF or brain tissue in a minimally invasive fashion with precise control using real-time imaging. Upon reaching the pre-defined anatomical target, the external driver allows for directing the specific microsurgical action defined to achieve the surgical goal. Notable features of the proposed protocol are i) Bionaut™ access to the intraventricular target follows a clinically validated endoscopy trajectory which may not be feasible via ‘traditional’ rigid endoscopy: ii) the treatment is microsurgical, there are no foreign materials left behind post-procedure; iii) Bionaut™ is an untethered device that is navigated through the subarachnoid and intraventricular compartments of the brain, following pre-designated non-linear trajectories as determined by the safest anatomical and physiological path; iv) Overall protocol involves minimally invasive delivery and post-operational retrieval of the surgical Bionaut™. The approach is expected to be suitable to treat pediatric patients 0-12 months old as well as adult patients with obstructive hydrocephalus who fail traditional shunts or are eligible for endoscopy. Current progress, including platform optimization, Bionaut™ control, and real-time imaging and in vivo safety studies of the Bionauts™ in large animals, specifically the spine and the brain of ovine models, will be discussed.

Keywords: Bionaut™, cerebrospinal fluid, CSF, fenestration, hydrocephalus, micro-robot, microsurgery

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7 Bionaut™: A Minimally Invasive Microsurgical Platform to Treat Non-Communicating Hydrocephalus in Dandy-Walker Malformation

Authors: Suehyun Cho, Darrell Harrington, Florent Cros, Olin Palmer, John Caputo, Michael Kardosh, Eran Oren, William Loudon, Alex Kiselyov, Michael Shpigelmacher

Abstract:

The Dandy-Walker malformation (DWM) represents a clinical syndrome manifesting as a combination of posterior fossa cyst, hypoplasia of the cerebellar vermis, and obstructive hydrocephalus. Anatomic hallmarks include hypoplasia of the cerebellar vermis, enlargement of the posterior fossa, and cystic dilatation of the fourth ventricle. Current treatments of DWM, including shunting of the cerebral spinal fluid ventricular system and endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV), are frequently clinically insufficient, require additional surgical interventions, and carry risks of infections and neurological deficits. Bionaut Labs develops an alternative way to treat Dandy-Walker Malformation (DWM) associated with non-communicating hydrocephalus. We utilize our discreet microsurgical Bionaut™ particles that are controlled externally and remotely to perform safe, accurate, effective fenestration of the Dandy-Walker cyst, specifically in the posterior fossa of the brain, to directly normalize intracranial pressure. Bionaut™ allows for complex non-linear trajectories not feasible by any conventional surgical techniques. The microsurgical particle safely reaches targets in the lower occipital section of the brain. Bionaut™ offers a minimally invasive surgical alternative to highly involved posterior craniotomy or shunts via direct fenestration of the fourth ventricular cyst at the locus defined by the individual anatomy. Our approach offers significant advantages over the current standards of care in patients exhibiting anatomical challenge(s) as a manifestation of DWM, and therefore, is intended to replace conventional therapeutic strategies. Current progress, including platform optimization, Bionaut™ control, and real-time imaging and in vivo safety studies of the Bionauts™ in large animals, specifically the spine and the brain of ovine models, will be discussed.

Keywords: Bionaut™, cerebral spinal fluid, CSF, cyst, Dandy-Walker, fenestration, hydrocephalus, micro-robot

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6 A Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process Approach for the Decision of Maintenance Priorities of Building Entities: A Case Study in a Facilities Management Company

Authors: Wai Ho Darrell Kwok

Abstract:

Building entities are valuable assets of a society, however, all of them are suffered from the ravages of weather and time. Facilitating onerous maintenance activities is the only way to either maintain or enhance the value and contemporary standard of the premises. By the way, maintenance budget is always bounded by the corresponding threshold limit. In order to optimize the limited resources allocation in carrying out maintenance, there is a substantial need to prioritize maintenance work. This paper reveals the application of Fuzzy AHP in a Facilities Management Company determining the maintenance priorities on the basis of predetermined criteria, viz., Building Status (BS), Effects on Fabrics (EF), Effects on Sustainability (ES), Effects on Users (EU), Importance of Usage (IU) and Physical Condition (PC) in dealing with categorized 8 predominant building components maintenance aspects for building premises. From the case study, it is found that ‘building exterior repainting or re-tiling’, ‘spalling concrete repair works among exterior area’ and ‘lobby renovation’ are the top three maintenance priorities from facilities manager and maintenance expertise personnel. Through the application of the Fuzzy AHP for maintenance priorities decision algorithm, a more systemic and easier comparing scalar linearity factors being explored even in considering other multiple criteria decision scenarios of building maintenance issue.

Keywords: building maintenance, fuzzy AHP, maintenance priority, multi-criteria decision making

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5 A Sociolinguistic Approach to the Translation of Children’s Literature: Exploring Identity Issues in the American English Translation of Manolito Gafotas

Authors: Owen Harrington-Fernandez, Pilar Alderete-Diez

Abstract:

Up until recently, translation studies treated children’s literature as something of a marginal preoccupation, but the recent attention that this text type has attracted suggests that it may be fertile ground for research. This paper contributes to this new research avenue by applying a sociolinguistic theoretical framework to explore issues around the intersubjective co-construction of identity in the American English translation of the Spanish children’s story, Manolito Gafotas. The application of Bucholtz and Hall’s framework achieves two objectives: (1) it identifies shifts in the translation of the main character’s behaviour as culturally and morally motivated manipulations, and (2) it demonstrates how the context of translation becomes the very censorship machine that delegitimises the identity of the main character, and, concomitantly, the identity of the implied reader(s). If we take identity to be an intersubjective phenomenon, then it logicall follows that expurgating the identity of the main character necessarily shifts the identity of the implied reader(s) also. It is a double censorship of identity carried out under the auspices of an intellectual colonisation of a Spanish text. After reporting on the results of the analysis, the paper ends by raising the question of censorship in translation, and, more specifically, in children’s literature, in order to promote debate around this topic.

Keywords: censorship, identity, sociolinguistics, translation

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4 Analysis of the Scattered Fields by Dielectric Sphere Inside Different Dielectric Mediums: The Case of the Source and Observation Point Is Reciprocal

Authors: Emi̇ne Avşar Aydin, Nezahat Günenç Tuncel, A. Hami̇t Serbest

Abstract:

The electromagnetic scattering from a canonical structure is an important issue in electromagnetic theory. In this study, the electromagnetic scattering from a dielectric sphere with oblique incidence is investigated. The incident field is considered as a plane wave with H polarized. The scattered and transmitted field expressions with unknown coefficients are written. The unknown coefficients are obtained by using exact boundary conditions. Then, the sphere is considered as having frequency dependent dielectric permittivity. The frequency dependence is shown by Cole-Cole model. The far scattered field expressions are found respect to different incidence angles in the 1-8 GHz frequency range. The observation point is the angular distance of pi from an incident wave. While an incident wave comes with a certain angle, observation point turns from 0 to 360 degrees. According to this, scattered field amplitude is maximum at the location of the incident wave, scattered field amplitude is minimum at the across incident wave. Also, the scattered fields are plotted versus frequency to show frequency-dependence explicitly. Graphics are shown for some incident angles compared with the Harrington's solution. Thus, the results are obtained faster and more reliable with reciprocal rotation. It is expected that when there is another sphere with different properties in the outer sphere, the presence and location of the sphere will be detected faster. In addition, this study leads to use for biomedical applications in the future.

Keywords: scattering, dielectric sphere, oblique incidence, reciprocal rotation

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3 Dynamic Capabilities and Disorganization: A Conceptual Exploration

Authors: Dinuka Herath, Shelley Harrington

Abstract:

This paper prompts debate about whether disorganization can be positioned as a mechanism that facilitates the creation and enactment of important dynamic capabilities within an organization. This particular article is a conceptual exploration of the link between dynamic capabilities and disorganization and presents the case for agent-based modelling as a viable methodological tool which can be used to explore this link. Dynamic capabilities are those capabilities that an organization needs to sustain competitive advantage in complex environments. Disorganization is the process of breaking down restrictive organizational structures and routines that commonly reside in organizations in order to increase organizational performance. In the 20th century, disorganization was largely viewed as an undesirable phenomenon within an organization. However, the concept of disorganization has been revitalized and garnered research interest in the recent years due to studies which demonstrate some of the advantages of disorganization to an organization. Furthermore, recent Agent-based simulation studies have shown the capability of disorganization to be managed and argue for disorganization to be viewed as an enabler of organizational productivity. Given the natural state of disorganization and resulting fear this can create, this paper argues that instead of trying to ‘correct’ disorganization, it should be actively encouraged to have functional purpose. The study of dynamic capabilities emerged as a result of heightened dynamism and consequentially the very nature of dynamism denotes a level of fluidity and flexibility, something which this paper argues many organizations do not truly foster due to a constrained commitment to organization and order. We argue in this paper that the very state of disorganization is a state that should be encouraged to develop dynamic capabilities needed to not only deal with the complexities of the modern business environment but also to sustain competitive success. The significance of this paper stems from the fact that both dynamic capabilities and disorganization are two concepts that are gaining prominence in their respective academic genres. Despite the attention each concept has received individually, no conceptual link has been established to depict how they actually interact with each other. We argue that the link between these two concepts present a novel way of looking at organizational performance. By doing so, we explore the potential of these two concepts working in tandem in order to increase organizational productivity which has significant implications for both academics and practitioners alike.

Keywords: agent-based modelling, disorganization, dynamic capabilities, performance

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2 Personality Composition in Senior Management Teams: The Importance of Homogeneity in Dynamic Managerial Capabilities

Authors: Shelley Harrington

Abstract:

As a result of increasingly dynamic business environments, the creation and fostering of dynamic capabilities, [those capabilities that enable sustained competitive success despite of dynamism through the awareness and reconfiguration of internal and external competencies], supported by organisational learning [a dynamic capability] has gained increased and prevalent momentum in the research arena. Presenting findings funded by the Economic Social Research Council, this paper investigates the extent to which Senior Management Team (SMT) personality (at the trait and facet level) is associated with the creation of dynamic managerial capabilities at the team level, and effective organisational learning/knowledge sharing within the firm. In doing so, this research highlights the importance of micro-foundations in organisational psychology and specifically dynamic capabilities, a field which to date has largely ignored the importance of psychology in understanding these important and necessary capabilities. Using a direct measure of personality (NEO PI-3) at the trait and facet level across 32 high technology and finance firms in the UK, their CEOs (N=32) and their complete SMTs [N=212], a new measure of dynamic managerial capabilities at the team level was created and statistically validated for use within the work. A quantitative methodology was employed with regression and gap analysis being used to show the empirical foundations of personality being positioned as a micro-foundation of dynamic capabilities. The results of this study found that personality homogeneity within the SMT was required to strengthen the dynamic managerial capabilities of sensing, seizing and transforming, something which was required to reflect strong organisational learning at middle management level [N=533]. In particular, it was found that the greater the difference [t-score gaps] between the personality profiles of a Chief Executive Officer (CEO) and their complete, collective SMT, the lower the resulting self-reported nature of dynamic managerial capabilities. For example; the larger the difference between a CEOs level of dutifulness, a facet contributing to the definition of conscientiousness, and their SMT’s level of dutifulness, the lower the reported level of transforming, a capability fundamental to strategic change in a dynamic business environment. This in turn directly questions recent trends, particularly in upper echelons research highlighting the need for heterogeneity within teams. In doing so, it successfully positions personality as a micro-foundation of dynamic capabilities, thus contributing to recent discussions from within the strategic management field calling for the need to empirically explore dynamic capabilities at such a level.

Keywords: dynamic managerial capabilities, senior management teams, personality, dynamism

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1 Carbon-Foam Supported Electrocatalysts for Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells

Authors: Albert Mufundirwa, Satoru Yoshioka, K. Ogi, Takeharu Sugiyama, George F. Harrington, Bretislav Smid, Benjamin Cunning, Kazunari Sasaki, Akari Hayashi, Stephen M. Lyth

Abstract:

Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) are electrochemical energy conversion devices used for portable, residential and vehicular applications due to their low emissions, high efficiency, and quick start-up characteristics. However, PEMFCs generally use expensive, Pt-based electrocatalysts as electrode catalysts. Due to the high cost and limited availability of platinum, research and development to either drastically reduce platinum loading, or replace platinum with alternative catalysts is of paramount importance. A combination of high surface area supports and nano-structured active sites is essential for effective operation of catalysts. We synthesize carbon foam supports by thermal decomposition of sodium ethoxide, using a template-free, gram scale, cheap, and scalable pyrolysis method. This carbon foam has a high surface area, highly porous, three-dimensional framework which is ideal for electrochemical applications. These carbon foams can have surface area larger than 2500 m²/g, and electron microscopy reveals that they have micron-scale cells, separated by few-layer graphene-like carbon walls. We applied this carbon foam as a platinum catalyst support, resulting in the improved electrochemical surface area and mass activity for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), compared to carbon black. Similarly, silver-decorated carbon foams showed higher activity and efficiency for electrochemical carbon dioxide conversion than silver-decorated carbon black. A promising alternative to Pt-catalysts for the ORR is iron-impregnated nitrogen-doped carbon catalysts (Fe-N-C). Doping carbon with nitrogen alters the chemical structure and modulates the electronic properties, allowing a degree of control over the catalytic properties. We have adapted our synthesis method to produce nitrogen-doped carbon foams with large surface area, using triethanolamine as a nitrogen feedstock, in a novel bottom-up protocol. These foams are then infiltrated with iron acetate (FeAc) and pyrolysed to form Fe-N-C foams. The resulting Fe-N-C foam catalysts have high initial activity (half-wave potential of 0.68 VRHE), comparable to that of commercially available Pt-free catalysts (e.g., NPC-2000, Pajarito Powder) in acid solution. In alkaline solution, the Fe-N-C carbon foam catalysts have a half-wave potential of 0.89 VRHE, which is higher than that of NPC-2000 by almost 10 mVRHE, and far out-performing platinum. However, the durability is still a problem at present. The lessons learned from X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and electrochemical measurements will be used to carefully design Fe-N-C catalysts for higher performance PEMFCs.

Keywords: carbon-foam, polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells, platinum, Pt-free, Fe-N-C, ORR

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