Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3385

Search results for: edge detection

3385 Multiscale Edge Detection Based on Nonsubsampled Contourlet Transform

Authors: Enqing Chen, Jianbo Wang


It is well known that the wavelet transform provides a very effective framework for multiscale edges analysis. However, wavelets are not very effective in representing images containing distributed discontinuities such as edges. In this paper, we propose a novel multiscale edge detection method in nonsubsampled contourlet transform (NSCT) domain, which is based on the dominant multiscale, multidirection edge expression and outstanding edge location of NSCT. Through real images experiments, simulation results demonstrate that the proposed method is better than other edge detection methods based on Canny operator, wavelet and contourlet. Additionally, the proposed method also works well for noisy images.

Keywords: edge detection, NSCT, shift invariant, modulus maxima

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3384 Subjective Evaluation of Mathematical Morphology Edge Detection on Computed Tomography (CT) Images

Authors: Emhimed Saffor


In this paper, the problem of edge detection in digital images is considered. Three methods of edge detection based on mathematical morphology algorithm were applied on two sets (Brain and Chest) CT images. 3x3 filter for first method, 5x5 filter for second method and 7x7 filter for third method under MATLAB programming environment. The results of the above-mentioned methods are subjectively evaluated. The results show these methods are more efficient and satiable for medical images, and they can be used for different other applications.

Keywords: CT images, Matlab, medical images, edge detection

Procedia PDF Downloads 260
3383 Comparative Analysis of Edge Detection Techniques for Extracting Characters

Authors: Rana Gill, Chandandeep Kaur


Segmentation of images can be implemented using different fundamental algorithms like edge detection (discontinuity based segmentation), region growing (similarity based segmentation), iterative thresholding method. A comprehensive literature review relevant to the study gives description of different techniques for vehicle number plate detection and edge detection techniques widely used on different types of images. This research work is based on edge detection techniques and calculating threshold on the basis of five edge operators. Five operators used are Prewitt, Roberts, Sobel, LoG and Canny. Segmentation of characters present in different type of images like vehicle number plate, name plate of house and characters on different sign boards are selected as a case study in this work. The proposed methodology has seven stages. The proposed system has been implemented using MATLAB R2010a. Comparison of all the five operators has been done on the basis of their performance. From the results it is found that Canny operators produce best results among the used operators and performance of different edge operators in decreasing order is: Canny>Log>Sobel>Prewitt>Roberts.

Keywords: segmentation, edge detection, text, extracting characters

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3382 Detecting the Edge of Multiple Images in Parallel

Authors: Prakash K. Aithal, U. Dinesh Acharya, Rajesh Gopakumar


Edge is variation of brightness in an image. Edge detection is useful in many application areas such as finding forests, rivers from a satellite image, detecting broken bone in a medical image etc. The paper discusses about finding edge of multiple aerial images in parallel .The proposed work tested on 38 images 37 colored and one monochrome image. The time taken to process N images in parallel is equivalent to time taken to process 1 image in sequential. The proposed method achieves pixel level parallelism as well as image level parallelism.

Keywords: edge detection, multicore, gpu, opencl, mpi

Procedia PDF Downloads 259
3381 Optimized Road Lane Detection Through a Combined Canny Edge Detection, Hough Transform, and Scaleable Region Masking Toward Autonomous Driving

Authors: Samane Sharifi Monfared, Lavdie Rada


Nowadays, autonomous vehicles are developing rapidly toward facilitating human car driving. One of the main issues is road lane detection for a suitable guidance direction and car accident prevention. This paper aims to improve and optimize road line detection based on a combination of camera calibration, the Hough transform, and Canny edge detection. The video processing is implemented using the Open CV library with the novelty of having a scale able region masking. The aim of the study is to introduce automatic road lane detection techniques with the user’s minimum manual intervention.

Keywords: hough transform, canny edge detection, optimisation, scaleable masking, camera calibration, improving the quality of image, image processing, video processing

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3380 Implementation of Edge Detection Based on Autofluorescence Endoscopic Image of Field Programmable Gate Array

Authors: Hao Cheng, Zhiwu Wang, Guozheng Yan, Pingping Jiang, Shijia Qin, Shuai Kuang


Autofluorescence Imaging (AFI) is a technology for detecting early carcinogenesis of the gastrointestinal tract in recent years. Compared with traditional white light endoscopy (WLE), this technology greatly improves the detection accuracy of early carcinogenesis, because the colors of normal tissues are different from cancerous tissues. Thus, edge detection can distinguish them in grayscale images. In this paper, based on the traditional Sobel edge detection method, optimization has been performed on this method which considers the environment of the gastrointestinal, including adaptive threshold and morphological processing. All of the processes are implemented on our self-designed system based on the image sensor OV6930 and Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA), The system can capture the gastrointestinal image taken by the lens in real time and detect edges. The final experiments verified the feasibility of our system and the effectiveness and accuracy of the edge detection algorithm.

Keywords: AFI, edge detection, adaptive threshold, morphological processing, OV6930, FPGA

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3379 High Level Synthesis of Canny Edge Detection Algorithm on Zynq Platform

Authors: Hanaa M. Abdelgawad, Mona Safar, Ayman M. Wahba


Real-time image and video processing is a demand in many computer vision applications, e.g. video surveillance, traffic management and medical imaging. The processing of those video applications requires high computational power. Therefore, the optimal solution is the collaboration of CPU and hardware accelerators. In this paper, a Canny edge detection hardware accelerator is proposed. Canny edge detection is one of the common blocks in the pre-processing phase of image and video processing pipeline. Our presented approach targets offloading the Canny edge detection algorithm from processing system (PS) to programmable logic (PL) taking the advantage of High Level Synthesis (HLS) tool flow to accelerate the implementation on Zynq platform. The resulting implementation enables up to a 100x performance improvement through hardware acceleration. The CPU utilization drops down and the frame rate jumps to 60 fps of 1080p full HD input video stream.

Keywords: high level synthesis, canny edge detection, hardware accelerators, computer vision

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3378 Refined Edge Detection Network

Authors: Omar Elharrouss, Youssef Hmamouche, Assia Kamal Idrissi, Btissam El Khamlichi, Amal El Fallah-Seghrouchni


Edge detection is represented as one of the most challenging tasks in computer vision, due to the complexity of detecting the edges or boundaries in real-world images that contains objects of different types and scales like trees, building as well as various backgrounds. Edge detection is represented also as a key task for many computer vision applications. Using a set of backbones as well as attention modules, deep-learning-based methods improved the detection of edges compared with the traditional methods like Sobel and Canny. However, images of complex scenes still represent a challenge for these methods. Also, the detected edges using the existing approaches suffer from non-refined results while the image output contains many erroneous edges. To overcome this, n this paper, by using the mechanism of residual learning, a refined edge detection network is proposed (RED-Net). By maintaining the high resolution of edges during the training process, and conserving the resolution of the edge image during the network stage, we make the pooling outputs at each stage connected with the output of the previous layer. Also, after each layer, we use an affined batch normalization layer as an erosion operation for the homogeneous region in the image. The proposed methods are evaluated using the most challenging datasets including BSDS500, NYUD, and Multicue. The obtained results outperform the designed edge detection networks in terms of performance metrics and quality of output images.

Keywords: edge detection, convolutional neural networks, deep learning, scale-representation, backbone

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3377 Concentric Circle Detection based on Edge Pre-Classification and Extended RANSAC

Authors: Zhongjie Yu, Hancheng Yu


In this paper, we propose an effective method to detect concentric circles with imperfect edges. First, the gradient of edge pixel is coded and a 2-D lookup table is built to speed up normal generation. Then we take an accumulator to estimate the rough center and collect plausible edges of concentric circles through gradient and distance. Later, we take the contour-based method, which takes the contour and edge intersection, to pre-classify the edges. Finally, we use the extended RANSAC method to find all the candidate circles. The center of concentric circles is determined by the two circles with the highest concentricity. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method has both good performance and accuracy for the detection of concentric circles.

Keywords: concentric circle detection, gradient, contour, edge pre-classification, RANSAC

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3376 Edge Detection Using Multi-Agent System: Evaluation on Synthetic and Medical MR Images

Authors: A. Nachour, L. Ouzizi, Y. Aoura


Recent developments on multi-agent system have brought a new research field on image processing. Several algorithms are used simultaneously and improved in deferent applications while new methods are investigated. This paper presents a new automatic method for edge detection using several agents and many different actions. The proposed multi-agent system is based on parallel agents that locally perceive their environment, that is to say, pixels and additional environmental information. This environment is built using Vector Field Convolution that attract free agent to the edges. Problems of partial, hidden or edges linking are solved with the cooperation between agents. The presented method was implemented and evaluated using several examples on different synthetic and medical images. The obtained experimental results suggest that this approach confirm the efficiency and accuracy of detected edge.

Keywords: edge detection, medical MRImages, multi-agent systems, vector field convolution

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3375 The Need for Multi-Edge Strategies and Solutions

Authors: Hugh Taylor


Industry analysts project that edge computing will be generating tens of billions in revenue in coming years. It’s not clear, however, if this will actually happen, and who, if anyone, will make it happen. Edge computing is seen as a critical success factor in industries ranging from telecom, enterprise IT and co-location. However, will any of these industries actually step up to make edge computing into a viable technology business? This paper looks at why the edge seems to be in a chasm, on the edge of realization, so to speak, but failing to coalesce into a coherent technology category like the cloud—and how the segment’s divergent industry players can come together to build a viable business at the edge.

Keywords: edge computing, multi-edge strategies, edge data centers, edge cloud

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3374 Defect Detection for Nanofibrous Images with Deep Learning-Based Approaches

Authors: Gaokai Liu


Automatic defect detection for nanomaterial images is widely required in industrial scenarios. Deep learning approaches are considered as the most effective solutions for the great majority of image-based tasks. In this paper, an edge guidance network for defect segmentation is proposed. First, the encoder path with multiple convolution and downsampling operations is applied to the acquisition of shared features. Then two decoder paths both are connected to the last convolution layer of the encoder and supervised by the edge and segmentation labels, respectively, to guide the whole training process. Meanwhile, the edge and encoder outputs from the same stage are concatenated to the segmentation corresponding part to further tune the segmentation result. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed method is verified via the experiments on open nanofibrous datasets.

Keywords: deep learning, defect detection, image segmentation, nanomaterials

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3373 Lane Detection Using Labeling Based RANSAC Algorithm

Authors: Yeongyu Choi, Ju H. Park, Ho-Youl Jung


In this paper, we propose labeling based RANSAC algorithm for lane detection. Advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) have been widely researched to avoid unexpected accidents. Lane detection is a necessary system to assist keeping lane and lane departure prevention. The proposed vision based lane detection method applies Canny edge detection, inverse perspective mapping (IPM), K-means algorithm, mathematical morphology operations and 8 connected-component labeling. Next, random samples are selected from each labeling region for RANSAC. The sampling method selects the points of lane with a high probability. Finally, lane parameters of straight line or curve equations are estimated. Through the simulations tested on video recorded at daytime and nighttime, we show that the proposed method has better performance than the existing RANSAC algorithm in various environments.

Keywords: Canny edge detection, k-means algorithm, RANSAC, inverse perspective mapping

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3372 Edge Detection and Morphological Image for Estimating Gestational Age Based on Fetus Length Automatically

Authors: Retno Supriyanti, Ahmad Chuzaeri, Yogi Ramadhani, A. Haris Budi Widodo


The use of ultrasonography in the medical world has been very popular including the diagnosis of pregnancy. In determining pregnancy, ultrasonography has many roles, such as to check the position of the fetus, abnormal pregnancy, fetal age and others. Unfortunately, all these things still need to analyze the role of the obstetrician in the sense of image raised by ultrasonography. One of the most striking is the determination of gestational age. Usually, it is done by measuring the length of the fetus manually by obstetricians. In this study, we developed a computer-aided diagnosis for the determination of gestational age by measuring the length of the fetus automatically using edge detection method and image morphology. Results showed that the system is sufficiently accurate in determining the gestational age based image processing.

Keywords: computer aided diagnosis, gestational age, and diameter of uterus, length of fetus, edge detection method, morphology image

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3371 Investigating the Viability of Ultra-Low Parameter Count Networks for Real-Time Football Detection

Authors: Tim Farrelly


In recent years, AI-powered object detection systems have opened the doors for innovative new applications and products, especially those operating in the real world or ‘on edge’ – namely, in sport. This paper investigates the viability of an ultra-low parameter convolutional neural network specially designed for the detection of footballs on ‘on the edge’ devices. The main contribution of this paper is the exploration of integrating new design features (depth-wise separable convolutional blocks and squeezed and excitation modules) into an ultra-low parameter network and demonstrating subsequent improvements in performance. The results show that tracking the ball from Full HD images with negligibly high accu-racy is possible in real-time.

Keywords: deep learning, object detection, machine vision applications, sport, network design

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3370 New Efficient Method for Coding Color Images

Authors: Walaa M.Abd-Elhafiez, Wajeb Gharibi


In this paper a novel color image compression technique for efficient storage and delivery of data is proposed. The proposed compression technique started by RGB to YCbCr color transformation process. Secondly, the canny edge detection method is used to classify the blocks into edge and non-edge blocks. Each color component Y, Cb, and Cr compressed by discrete cosine transform (DCT) process, quantizing and coding step by step using adaptive arithmetic coding. Our technique is concerned with the compression ratio, bits per pixel and peak signal to noise ratio, and produce better results than JPEG and more recent published schemes (like, CBDCT-CABS and MHC). The provided experimental results illustrate the proposed technique which is efficient and feasible in terms of compression ratio, bits per pixel and peak signal to noise ratio.

Keywords: image compression, color image, q-coder, quantization, edge-detection

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3369 Image Processing Approach for Detection of Three-Dimensional Tree-Rings from X-Ray Computed Tomography

Authors: Jorge Martinez-Garcia, Ingrid Stelzner, Joerg Stelzner, Damian Gwerder, Philipp Schuetz


Tree-ring analysis is an important part of the quality assessment and the dating of (archaeological) wood samples. It provides quantitative data about the whole anatomical ring structure, which can be used, for example, to measure the impact of the fluctuating environment on the tree growth, for the dendrochronological analysis of archaeological wooden artefacts and to estimate the wood mechanical properties. Despite advances in computer vision and edge recognition algorithms, detection and counting of annual rings are still limited to 2D datasets and performed in most cases manually, which is a time consuming, tedious task and depends strongly on the operator’s experience. This work presents an image processing approach to detect the whole 3D tree-ring structure directly from X-ray computed tomography imaging data. The approach relies on a modified Canny edge detection algorithm, which captures fully connected tree-ring edges throughout the measured image stack and is validated on X-ray computed tomography data taken from six wood species.

Keywords: ring recognition, edge detection, X-ray computed tomography, dendrochronology

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3368 A Gradient Orientation Based Efficient Linear Interpolation Method

Authors: S. Khan, A. Khan, Abdul R. Soomrani, Raja F. Zafar, A. Waqas, G. Akbar


This paper proposes a low-complexity image interpolation method. Image interpolation is used to convert a low dimension video/image to high dimension video/image. The objective of a good interpolation method is to upscale an image in such a way that it provides better edge preservation at the cost of very low complexity so that real-time processing of video frames can be made possible. However, low complexity methods tend to provide real-time interpolation at the cost of blurring, jagging and other artifacts due to errors in slope calculation. Non-linear methods, on the other hand, provide better edge preservation, but at the cost of high complexity and hence they can be considered very far from having real-time interpolation. The proposed method is a linear method that uses gradient orientation for slope calculation, unlike conventional linear methods that uses the contrast of nearby pixels. Prewitt edge detection is applied to separate uniform regions and edges. Simple line averaging is applied to unknown uniform regions, whereas unknown edge pixels are interpolated after calculation of slopes using gradient orientations of neighboring known edge pixels. As a post-processing step, bilateral filter is applied to interpolated edge regions in order to enhance the interpolated edges.

Keywords: edge detection, gradient orientation, image upscaling, linear interpolation, slope tracing

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3367 Review on Quaternion Gradient Operator with Marginal and Vector Approaches for Colour Edge Detection

Authors: Nadia Ben Youssef, Aicha Bouzid


Gradient estimation is one of the most fundamental tasks in the field of image processing in general, and more particularly for color images since that the research in color image gradient remains limited. The widely used gradient method is Di Zenzo’s gradient operator, which is based on the measure of squared local contrast of color images. The proposed gradient mechanism, presented in this paper, is based on the principle of the Di Zenzo’s approach using quaternion representation. This edge detector is compared to a marginal approach based on multiscale product of wavelet transform and another vector approach based on quaternion convolution and vector gradient approach. The experimental results indicate that the proposed color gradient operator outperforms marginal approach, however, it is less efficient then the second vector approach.

Keywords: gradient, edge detection, color image, quaternion

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3366 Improvement of Brain Tumors Detection Using Markers and Boundaries Transform

Authors: Yousif Mohamed Y. Abdallah, Mommen A. Alkhir, Amel S. Algaddal


This was experimental study conducted to study segmentation of brain in MRI images using edge detection and morphology filters. For brain MRI images each film scanned using digitizer scanner then treated by using image processing program (MatLab), where the segmentation was studied. The scanned image was saved in a TIFF file format to preserve the quality of the image. Brain tissue can be easily detected in MRI image if the object has sufficient contrast from the background. We use edge detection and basic morphology tools to detect a brain. The segmentation of MRI images steps using detection and morphology filters were image reading, detection entire brain, dilation of the image, filling interior gaps inside the image, removal connected objects on borders and smoothen the object (brain). The results of this study were that it showed an alternate method for displaying the segmented object would be to place an outline around the segmented brain. Those filters approaches can help in removal of unwanted background information and increase diagnostic information of Brain MRI.

Keywords: improvement, brain, matlab, markers, boundaries

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3365 Comparison of Central Light Reflex Width-to-Retinal Vessel Diameter Ratio between Glaucoma and Normal Eyes by Using Edge Detection Technique

Authors: P. Siriarchawatana, K. Leungchavaphongse, N. Covavisaruch, K. Rojananuangnit, P. Boondaeng, N. Panyayingyong


Glaucoma is a disease that causes visual loss in adults. Glaucoma causes damage to the optic nerve and its overall pathophysiology is still not fully understood. Vasculopathy may be one of the possible causes of nerve damage. Photographic imaging of retinal vessels by fundus camera during eye examination may complement clinical management. This paper presents an innovation for measuring central light reflex width-to-retinal vessel diameter ratio (CRR) from digital retinal photographs. Using our edge detection technique, CRRs from glaucoma and normal eyes were compared to examine differences and associations. CRRs were evaluated on fundus photographs of participants from Mettapracharak (Wat Raikhing) Hospital in Nakhon Pathom, Thailand. Fifty-five photographs from normal eyes and twenty-one photographs from glaucoma eyes were included. Participants with hypertension were excluded. In each photograph, CRRs from four retinal vessels, including arteries and veins in the inferotemporal and superotemporal regions, were quantified using edge detection technique. From our finding, mean CRRs of all four retinal arteries and veins were significantly higher in persons with glaucoma than in those without glaucoma (0.34 vs. 0.32, p < 0.05 for inferotemporal vein, 0.33 vs. 0.30, p < 0.01 for inferotemporal artery, 0.34 vs. 0.31, p < 0.01 for superotemporal vein, and 0.33 vs. 0.30, p < 0.05 for superotemporal artery). From these results, an increase in CRRs of retinal vessels, as quantitatively measured from fundus photographs, could be associated with glaucoma.

Keywords: glaucoma, retinal vessel, central light reflex, image processing, fundus photograph, edge detection

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3364 Edge Detection in Low Contrast Images

Authors: Koushlendra Kumar Singh, Manish Kumar Bajpai, Rajesh K. Pandey


The edges of low contrast images are not clearly distinguishable to the human eye. It is difficult to find the edges and boundaries in it. The present work encompasses a new approach for low contrast images. The Chebyshev polynomial based fractional order filter has been used for filtering operation on an image. The preprocessing has been performed by this filter on the input image. Laplacian of Gaussian method has been applied on preprocessed image for edge detection. The algorithm has been tested on two test images.

Keywords: low contrast image, fractional order differentiator, Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) method, chebyshev polynomial

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3363 An investigation of Leading Edge and Trailing Edge Corrugation for Low Reynolds Number Application

Authors: Syed Hassan Raza Shah, Mohammad Mohammad Ali


The flow over a smoothly profiled airfoil at a low Reynolds number is highly susceptible to separate even at a very low angle of attack. An investigation was made to study the effect of leading-edge and trailing-edge corrugation with the spanwise change in the ridges resulted due to the change in the chord length for an infinite wing. The wind tunnel results using NACA0018 wings revealed that leading and trailing edge corrugation did not have any benefit in terms of aerodynamic efficiency or delayed stall. The leading edge and trailing edge corrugation didn't change the lift curve slope, with the leading edge corrugation wing stalling first in the range of Reynolds number of 50,000 to 125,000.

Keywords: leading and trailing edge corrugations, low reynolds number, wind tunnel testing, NACA0018

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3362 Measurement of VIP Edge Conduction Using Vacuum Guarded Hot Plate

Authors: Bongsu Choi, Tae-Ho Song


Vacuum insulation panel (VIP) is a promising thermal insulator for buildings, refrigerator, LNG carrier and so on. In general, it has the thermal conductivity of 2~4 mW/m•K. However, this thermal conductivity is that measured at the center of VIP. The total effective thermal conductivity of VIP is larger than this value due to the edge conduction through the envelope. In this paper, the edge conduction of VIP is examined theoretically, numerically and experimentally. To confirm the existence of the edge conduction, numerical analysis is performed for simple two-dimensional VIP model and a theoretical model is proposed to calculate the edge conductivity. Also, the edge conductivity is measured using the vacuum guarded hot plate and the experiment is validated against numerical analysis. The results show that the edge conductivity is dependent on the width of panel and thickness of Al-foil. To reduce the edge conduction, it is recommended that the VIP should be made as big as possible or made of thin Al film envelope.

Keywords: envelope, edge conduction, thermal conductivity, vacuum insulation panel

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3361 mKDNAD: A Network Flow Anomaly Detection Method Based On Multi-teacher Knowledge Distillation

Authors: Yang Yang, Dan Liu


Anomaly detection models for network flow based on machine learning have poor detection performance under extremely unbalanced training data conditions and also have slow detection speed and large resource consumption when deploying on network edge devices. Embedding multi-teacher knowledge distillation (mKD) in anomaly detection can transfer knowledge from multiple teacher models to a single model. Inspired by this, we proposed a state-of-the-art model, mKDNAD, to improve detection performance. mKDNAD mine and integrate the knowledge of one-dimensional sequence and two-dimensional image implicit in network flow to improve the detection accuracy of small sample classes. The multi-teacher knowledge distillation method guides the train of the student model, thus speeding up the model's detection speed and reducing the number of model parameters. Experiments in the CICIDS2017 dataset verify the improvements of our method in the detection speed and the detection accuracy in dealing with the small sample classes.

Keywords: network flow anomaly detection (NAD), multi-teacher knowledge distillation, machine learning, deep learning

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3360 Intelligent Crowd Management Systems in Trains

Authors: Sai S. Hari, Shriram Ramanujam, Unnati Trivedi


The advent of mass transit systems like rail, metro, maglev, and various other rail based transport has pacified the requirement of public transport for the masses to a great extent. However, the abatement of the demand does not necessarily mean it is managed efficiently, eloquently or in an encapsulating manner. The primary problem identified that the one this paper seeks to solve is the dipsomaniac like manner in which the compartments are occupied. This problem is solved by using a comparison of an empty train and an occupied one. The pixel data of an occupied train is compared to the pixel data of an empty train. This is done using canny edge detection technique. After the comparison it intimates the passengers at the consecutive stops which compartments are not occupied or have low occupancy. Thus, redirecting them and preventing overcrowding.

Keywords: canny edge detection, comparison, encapsulation, redirection

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3359 Effect of Machining Induced Microstructure Changes on the Edge Formability of Titanium Alloys at Room Temperature

Authors: James S. Kwame, E. Yakushina, P. Blackwell


The challenges in forming titanium alloys at room temperature are well researched and are linked both to the limitations imposed by the basic crystal structure and their ability to form texture during plastic deformation. One major issue of concern for the sheet forming of titanium alloys is their high sensitivity to surface inhomogeneity. Various machining processes are utilised in preparing sheet hole edges for edge flanging applications. However, the response of edge forming tendencies of titanium to different edge surface finishes is not well investigated. The hole expansion test is used in this project to elucidate the impact of abrasive water jet (AWJ) and electro-discharge machining (EDM) cutting techniques on the edge formability of CP-Ti (Grade 2) and Ti-3Al-2.5V alloys at room temperature. The results show that the quality of the edge surface finish has a major effect on the edge formability of the materials. The work also found that the variations in the edge forming performance are mainly the result of the influence of machining induced edge surface defects.

Keywords: titanium alloys, hole expansion test, edge formability, non-conventional machining

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3358 Iris Cancer Detection System Using Image Processing and Neural Classifier

Authors: Abdulkader Helwan


Iris cancer, so called intraocular melanoma is a cancer that starts in the iris; the colored part of the eye that surrounds the pupil. There is a need for an accurate and cost-effective iris cancer detection system since the available techniques used currently are still not efficient. The combination of the image processing and artificial neural networks has a great efficiency for the diagnosis and detection of the iris cancer. Image processing techniques improve the diagnosis of the cancer by enhancing the quality of the images, so the physicians diagnose properly. However, neural networks can help in making decision; whether the eye is cancerous or not. This paper aims to develop an intelligent system that stimulates a human visual detection of the intraocular melanoma, so called iris cancer. The suggested system combines both image processing techniques and neural networks. The images are first converted to grayscale, filtered, and then segmented using prewitt edge detection algorithm to detect the iris, sclera circles and the cancer. The principal component analysis is used to reduce the image size and for extracting features. Those features are considered then as inputs for a neural network which is capable of deciding if the eye is cancerous or not, throughout its experience adopted by many training iterations of different normal and abnormal eye images during the training phase. Normal images are obtained from a public database available on the internet, “Mile Research”, while the abnormal ones are obtained from another database which is the “eyecancer”. The experimental results for the proposed system show high accuracy 100% for detecting cancer and making the right decision.

Keywords: iris cancer, intraocular melanoma, cancerous, prewitt edge detection algorithm, sclera

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3357 Energy Detection Based Sensing and Primary User Traffic Classification for Cognitive Radio

Authors: Urvee B. Trivedi, U. D. Dalal


As wireless communication services grow quickly; the seriousness of spectrum utilization has been on the rise gradually. An emerging technology, cognitive radio has come out to solve today’s spectrum scarcity problem. To support the spectrum reuse functionality, secondary users are required to sense the radio frequency environment, and once the primary users are found to be active, the secondary users are required to vacate the channel within a certain amount of time. Therefore, spectrum sensing is of significant importance. Once sensing is done, different prediction rules apply to classify the traffic pattern of primary user. Primary user follows two types of traffic patterns: periodic and stochastic ON-OFF patterns. A cognitive radio can learn the patterns in different channels over time. Two types of classification methods are discussed in this paper, by considering edge detection and by using autocorrelation function. Edge detection method has a high accuracy but it cannot tolerate sensing errors. Autocorrelation-based classification is applicable in the real environment as it can tolerate some amount of sensing errors.

Keywords: cognitive radio (CR), probability of detection (PD), probability of false alarm (PF), primary user (PU), secondary user (SU), fast Fourier transform (FFT), signal to noise ratio (SNR)

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3356 An Algorithm to Find Fractional Edge Domination Number and Upper Fractional Edge Domination Number of an Intuitionistic Fuzzy Graph

Authors: Karunambigai Mevani Govindasamy, Sathishkumar Ayyappan


In this paper, we formulate the algorithm to find out the dominating function parameters of Intuitionistic Fuzzy Graphs(IFG). The methodology we adopted here is converting any physical problem into an IFG, and that has been transformed into Intuitionistic Fuzzy Matrix. Using Linear Program Solver software (LiPS), we found the defined parameters for the given IFG. We obtained these parameters for a path and cycle IFG. This study can be extended to other varieties of IFG. In particular, we obtain the definition of edge dominating function, minimal edge dominating function, fractional edge domination number (γ_if^') and upper fractional edge domination number (Γ_if^') of an intuitionistic fuzzy graph. Also, we formulated an algorithm which is appropriate to work on LiPS to find fractional edge domination number and upper fractional edge domination number of an IFG.

Keywords: fractional edge domination number, intuitionistic fuzzy cycle, intuitionistic fuzzy graph, intuitionistic fuzzy path

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