Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1165

Search results for: scores

1165 Determining the Number of Words Required to Fulfil the Writing Task in an English Proficiency Exam with the Raters’ Scores

Authors: Defne Akinci Midas

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to determine the minimum, and maximum number of words that would be sufficient to fulfill the writing task in the local English Proficiency Exam (EPE) produced and administered at the Middle East Technical University, Ankara, Turkey. The relationship between the number of words and the scores of the written products that had been awarded by two raters in three online EPEs administered in 2020 was examined. The means, standard deviations, percentages, range, minimum and maximum scores as well as correlations of the scores awarded to written products with the words that amount to 0-50, 51-100, 101-150, 151-200, 201-250, 251-300, and so on were computed. The results showed that the raters did not award a full score to texts that had fewer than 100 words. Moreover, the texts that had around 200 words were awarded the highest scores. The highest number of words that earned the highest scores was about 225, and from then onwards, the scores were either stable or lower. A positive low to moderate correlation was found between the number of words and scores awarded to the texts. We understand that the idea of ‘the longer, the better’ did not apply here. The results also showed that words between 101 to about 225 were sufficient to fulfill the writing task to fully display writing skills and language ability in the specific case of this exam.

Keywords: English proficiency exam, number of words, scoring, writing task

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1164 Core Stability Index for Healthy Young Sri Lankan Population

Authors: V. M. B. K. T. Malwanage, S. Samita

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Core stability is one of the major determinants that contribute to preventing injuries, enhance performance, and improve quality of life of the human. Endurance of the four major muscle groups of the central ‘core’ of the human body is identified as the most reliable determinant of core stability amongst the other numerous causes which contribute to readily make one’s core stability. This study aimed to develop a ‘Core Stability Index’ to confer a single value for an individual’s core stability based on the four endurance test scores. Since it is possible that at least some of the test scores are not independent, possibility of constructing a single index using the multivariate method exploratory factor analysis was investigated in the study. The study sample was consisted of 400 healthy young individuals with the mean age of 23.74 ± 1.51 years and mean BMI (Body Mass Index) of 21.1 ± 4.18. The correlation analysis revealed highly significant (P < 0.0001) correlations between test scores and thus construction an index using these highly inter related test scores using the technique factor analysis was justified. The mean values of all test scores were significantly different between males and females (P < 0.0001), and therefore two separate core stability indices were constructed for the two gender groups. Moreover, having eigen values 3.103 and 2.305 for males and females respectively, indicated one factor exists for all four test scores and thus a single factor based index was constructed. The 95% reference intervals constructed using the index scores were -1.64 to 2.00 and -1.56 to 2.29 for males and females respectively. These intervals can effectively be used to diagnose those who need improvement in core stability. The practitioners should find that with a single value measure, they could be more consistent among themselves.

Keywords: construction of indices, endurance test scores, muscle endurance, quality of life

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1163 Apollo Clinical Excellence Scorecard ([email protected]): An Initiative to Drive Quality Improvement in Hospitals

Authors: Anupam Sibal

Abstract:

Whatever is measured tends to improve. With a view to objectively measuring and improving clinical quality across the Apollo Group Hospitals, the initiative of ACE @ 25 (Apollo Clinical [email protected]) was launched on Jan 09. ACE @ 25 is a clinically balanced scorecard incorporating 25 clinical quality parameters involving complication rates, mortality rates, one-year survival rates and average length of stay after major procedures like liver and renal transplant, CABG, TKR, THR, TURP, PTCA, endoscopy, large bowel resection and MRM covering all major specialties. Also included are hospital acquired infection rates, pain satisfaction and medication errors. Benchmarks have been chosen from the world’s best hospitals. There are weighted scores for outcomes color coded green, orange and red. The cumulative score is 100. Data is reported monthly by 43 Group Hospitals online on the Lighthouse platform. Action taken reports for parameters falling in red are submitted quarterly and reviewed by the board. An audit team audits the data at all locations every six months. Scores are linked to appraisal of the medical head and there is an “ACE @ 25” Champion Award for the highest scorer. Scores for different parameters were variable from green to red at the start of the initiative. Most hospitals showed an improvement in scores over the last four years for parameters where they had showed scores in red or orange at the start of the initiative. The overall scores for the group have shown an increase from 72 in 2010 to 81 in 2015.

Keywords: benchmarks, clinical quality, lighthouse, platform, scores

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1162 The Perception on 21st Century Skills of Nursing Instructors and Nursing Students at Boromarajonani College of Nursing, Chonburi

Authors: Kamolrat Turner, Somporn Rakkwamsuk, Ladda Leungratanamart

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The aim of this descriptive study was to determine the perception of 21st century skills among nursing professors and nursing students at Boromarajonani College of Nursing, Chonburi. A total of 38 nursing professors and 75 second year nursing students took part in the study. Data were collected by 21st century skills questionnaires comprised of 63 items. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the findings. The results have shown that the overall mean scores of the perception of nursing professors on 21st century skills were at a high level. The highest mean scores were recorded for computing and ICT literacy, and career and leaning skills. The lowest mean scores were recorded for reading and writing and mathematics. The overall mean scores on perception of nursing students on 21st century skills were at a high level. The highest mean scores were recorded for computer and ICT literacy, for which the highest item mean scores were recorded for competency on computer programs. The lowest mean scores were recorded for the reading, writing, and mathematics components, in which the highest item mean score was reading Thai correctly, and the lowest item mean score was English reading and translate to other correctly. The findings from this study have shown that the perceptions of nursing professors were consistent with those of nursing students. Moreover, any activities aiming to raise capacity on English reading and translate information to others should be taken into the consideration.

Keywords: 21st century skills, perception, nursing instructor, nursing student

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1161 Health-Related QOL of Motorists with Spinal Cord Injury in Japan

Authors: Hiroaki Hirose, Hiroshi Ikeda, Isao Takeda

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The Japanese version of the SF-36 has been employed to assess individuals’ health-related QOL (HRQOL). This study aimed to clarify the HRQOL of motorists with a spinal cord injury, in order to compare these individuals' SF-36 scores and national standard values. A total of 100 motorists with a spinal cord injury participated in this study. Participants’ HRQOL was evaluated using the Japanese version of the SF-36 (second edition). The score for each subscale was standardized based on data on the Japanese population. The average scores for NPF, NRP, NBP, NGH, NVT, NSF, NRE, and NMH were 10.9, 41.8, 45.9, 47.1, 46.1, 46.7, 46.0, and 47.4 points, respectively. Subjects showed significantly lower scores for NPF and NRP compared with national standard values, which were both ≤ 45.0 points, but relatively normal scores for the other items: NBP, NGH, NVT, NSF, NRE and NMH (> 45.0 points). The average scores for PCS, MCS and RCS were 21.9, 56.0, and 50.0 points, respectively. Subjects showed a significantly lower PCS score (≤ 20.0 points); however, the MCS score was higher (> 55.0 points) along with a relatively normal RCS score in these individuals (= 50.0 points).

Keywords: health-related QOL, HRQOL, SF-36, motorist, spinal cord injury, Japan

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1160 Association of Preoperative Pain Catastrophizing with Postoperative Pain after Lower Limb Trauma Surgery

Authors: Asish Subedi, Krishna Pokharel, Birendra Prasad Sah, Pashupati Chaudhary

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Objectives: To evaluate an association between preoperative Nepali pain catastrophizing scale (N-PCS) scores and postoperative pain intensity and total opioid consumption. Methods: In this prospective cohort study we enrolled 135 patients with an American Society of Anaesthesiologists physical status I or II, aged between 18 and 65 years, and scheduled for surgery for lower-extremity fracture under spinal anaesthesia. Maximum postoperative pain reported during the 24 h was classified into two groups, no-mild pain group (Numeric rating scale [NRS] scores 1 to 3) and a moderate-severe pain group (NRS 4-10). The Spearman correlation coefficient was used to compare the association between the baseline N-PCS scores and outcome variables, i.e., the maximum NRS pain score and the total tramadol consumption within the first 24 h after surgery. Logistic regression models were used to identify the predictors for the intensity of postoperative pain. Results: As four patients violated the protocol, the data of 131 patients were analysed. Mean N-PCS scores reported by the moderate-severe pain group was 27.39 ±9.50 compared to 18.64 ±10 mean N-PCS scores by the no-mild pain group (p<0.001). Preoperative PCS scores correlated positively with postoperative pain intensity (r =0.39, [95% CI 0.23-0.52], p<0.001) and total tramadol consumption (r =0.32, [95% CI 0.16-0.47], p<0.001). An increase in catastrophizing scores was associated with postoperative moderate-severe pain (odds ratio, 1.08 [95% confidence interval, 1.02-1.15], p=0.006) after adjusting for gender, ethnicity and preoperative anxiety. Conclusion: Patients who reported higher pain catastrophizing preoperatively were at increased risk of experiencing moderate-severe postoperative pain.

Keywords: nepali, pain catastrophizing, postoperative pain, trauma

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1159 Prediction and Analysis of Human Transmembrane Transporter Proteins Based on SCM

Authors: Hui-Ling Huang, Tamara Vasylenko, Phasit Charoenkwan, Shih-Hsiang Chiu, Shinn-Ying Ho

Abstract:

The knowledge of the human transporters is still limited due to technically demanding procedure of crystallization for the structural characterization of transporters by spectroscopic methods. It is desirable to develop bioinformatics tools for effective analysis of available sequences in order to identify human transmembrane transporter proteins (HMTPs). This study proposes a scoring card method (SCM) based method for predicting HMTPs. We estimated a set of propensity scores of dipeptides to be HMTPs using SCM from the training dataset (HTS732) consisting of 366 HMTPs and 366 non-HMTPs. SCM using the estimated propensity scores of 20 amino acids and 400 dipeptides -as HMTPs, has a training accuracy of 87.63% and a test accuracy of 66.46%. The five top-ranked dipeptides include LD, NV, LI, KY, and MN with scores 996, 992, 989, 987, and 985, respectively. Five amino acids with the highest propensity scores are Ile, Phe, Met, Gly, and Leu, that hydrophobic residues are mostly highly-scored. Furthermore, obtained propensity scores were used to analyze physicochemical properties of human transporters.

Keywords: dipeptide composition, physicochemical property, human transmembrane transporter proteins, human transmembrane transporters binding propensity, scoring card method

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1158 Effects of Knowledge on Fruit Diets by Integrating Posters and Actual-Sized Fruit Models in Health Education for Elderly Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Authors: Suchada Wongsawat

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The objectives of this quasi-experiment were: 1) to compare pretest and posttest scores of the experimental group who were given health education on the “Fruit Diets for Elderly Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus”; and 2) to compare the posttest scores between experimental group and controlled group. The samples of this study were elderly patients with type 2 Diabetes Mellitus at Tambon Kanai Health Promoting Hospital, Thailand. The samples were randomly assigned to experimental and controlled groups, with 30 patients in each group. Statistics used in the data analysis included frequency, percentage, average, standard deviation, paired t-test and independent t-test. The study revealed that the patients in the experimental group had significantly higher posttest scores than the pretest scores in the health education at the .05 statistical level. The posttest scores of the experimental group in the health education were significantly higher than the controlled group at the .05 statistical level.

Keywords: fruit, health education, elderly, diabetes

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1157 Improving Detection of Illegitimate Scores and Assessment in Most Advantageous Tenders

Authors: Hao-Hsi Tseng, Hsin-Yun Lee

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The Most Advantageous Tender (MAT) has been criticized for its susceptibility to dictatorial situations and for its processing of same score, same rank issues. This study applies the four criteria from Arrow's Impossibility Theorem to construct a mechanism for revealing illegitimate scores in scoring methods. While commonly be used to improve on problems resulting from extreme scores, ranking methods hide significant defects, adversely affecting selection fairness. To address these shortcomings, this study relies mainly on the overall evaluated score method, using standardized scores plus normal cumulative distribution function conversion to calculate the evaluation of vender preference. This allows for free score evaluations, which reduces the influence of dictatorial behavior and avoiding same score, same rank issues. Large-scale simulations confirm that this method outperforms currently used methods using the Impossibility Theorem.

Keywords: Arrow’s impossibility theorem, cumulative normal distribution function, most advantageous tender, scoring method

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1156 Comparison of College Students and Full-Time Employees on Emerging Adulthood Dimensions and Identity Statuses in Turkey

Authors: Ebru Ergi̇n, Funda Kutlu

Abstract:

Emerging adulthood is a developmental period and the formation of identity is crucial task of emerging adults in this period. In this frame, the main aim of the study was to compare college students and full-time workers on emerging adulthood dimensions and identity statuses in relation to some demographic variables in Turkey. The participants of the study were university students studying in Ankara and the employees working full-time in Ankara and Bursa. The mean age of the sample was 20.84 (sd=1.84), ranging from 18 to 25. The measurement instruments of the study were Inventory of Dimensions of Emerging Adulthood and Extended Objective Measure of Ego Identity Status (EOMEIS-II). The participants’ data (N=313) were analyzed to test the research questions and hypotheses of the study. A series of MANOVA were performed to test the group differences for some demographic characteristics (such as: employee/student, male/female, living with family/living apart from family) on scores of emerging adulthood dimensions and identity status. The results of the MANOVAs indicated that students, females and participants who live apart from their families had higher scores on emerging adulthood dimensions. The results of the identity status scores differences depending on the demographic characteristic pointed out that there were a significant group differences for identity foreclosure identity scores between employees and students. Employees’ foreclosure identity scores were higher than students. Furthermore, the identity scores were differed significantly according to gender of the participants. Male participants had higher scores in moratorium and foreclosure identity and female participants have higher achievement identity scores than males. Also, the participants who live with their family scored higher in foreclosure identity and the participants who live apart from their family scored higher in identity achievement status.

Keywords: college students, emerging adulthood, full-time employees, identity statuses

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1155 Engaging Students in Multimedia Constructivist Learning: Analysis of Students' Science Achievement

Authors: Maria Georgiou

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This study examined whether there was a statistically significant difference between pretest and posttest achievement scores for students who received multimedia-based instructions in science. The paired samples t-test was used to address the research question and to establish whether there was a significant difference between pretest and posttest scores that may have occurred based on the students’ learning experience with multimedia technology. Findings indicated that there was a significant difference in students’ achievement scores before and after a multimedia-based instruction. Students’ achievement scores were increased by approximately two points, after students received multimedia-based instruction. On a paired samples t-test, a high level of significance was found, p = 0.000. Opportunities to learn with multimedia are more likely to result in sustained improvements in student achievement and a deeper understanding of science content. Multimedia can make learning more active and student-centered and activate student motivation.

Keywords: constructivist learning, hyperstudio, multimedia, multimedia-based instruction

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1154 Dental Students’ Self-Assessment of Their Performance in a Preclinical Endodontic Practice

Authors: Minseock Seo

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Dental education consists of both theoretical and practical learning for students. When dental students encounter practical courses as a new educational experience, they must also learn to evaluate themselves. The aim of this study was to investigate the self-assessment scores of third-year dental students and compare with the scores graded by the faculty in preclinical endodontic practice in a dental school in Korea. Faculty- and student-assigned scores were calculated from preclinical endodontic practice performed on phantom patients. The students were formally instructed on grading procedures for endodontic treatment. After each step, each item was assessed by the student. The students’ self-assessment score was then compared to the score by the faculty. The students were divided into 4 groups by analyzing the scores of self-assessment and faculty-assessment and statistically analyzed by summing the theoretical and practical examination scores. In the theoretical exam score, the group who over-estimated their performance (H group) was lower than the group with lower evaluation (L group). When comparing the first and last score determined by the faculty, H groups didn’t show any improvement, while the other group did. In H group, the less improvement of the self-assessment, the higher the theoretical exam score. In L group, the higher improvement of the self-assessment, the better the theoretical exam score. The results point to the need to develop students’ self-insight with more exercises and practical training.

Keywords: dental students, endodontic, preclinical practice, self-assessment

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1153 Biimodal Biometrics System Using Fusion of Iris and Fingerprint

Authors: Attallah Bilal, Hendel Fatiha

Abstract:

This paper proposes the bimodal biometrics system for identity verification iris and fingerprint, at matching score level architecture using weighted sum of score technique. The features are extracted from the pre processed images of iris and fingerprint. These features of a query image are compared with those of a database image to obtain matching scores. The individual scores generated after matching are passed to the fusion module. This module consists of three major steps i.e., normalization, generation of similarity score and fusion of weighted scores. The final score is then used to declare the person as genuine or an impostor. The system is tested on CASIA database and gives an overall accuracy of 91.04% with FAR of 2.58% and FRR of 8.34%.

Keywords: iris, fingerprint, sum rule, fusion

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1152 Anxiety and Self-Perceived L2 Proficiency: A Comparison of Which Can Better Predict L2 Pronunciation Performance

Authors: Jiexuan Lin, Huiyi Chen

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The development of L2 pronunciation competence remains understudied in the literature and it is not clear what may influence learners’ development of L2 pronunciation. The present study was an attempt to find out which of the two common factors in L2 acquisition, i.e., foreign language anxiety or self-perceived L2 proficiency, can better predict Chinese EFL learners’ pronunciation performance. 78 first-year English majors, who had received a three-month pronunciation training course, were asked to 1) fill out a questionnaire on foreign language classroom anxiety, 2) self-report their L2 proficiency in general, in speaking and in pronunciation, and 3) complete an oral and a written test on their L2 pronunciation (the score of the oral part indicates participants’ pronunciation proficiency in oral production, and the score of the written part indexes participants’ ability in applying pronunciation knowledge in comprehension.) Results showed that the pronunciation scores were negatively correlated with the anxiety scores, and were positively correlated with the self-perceived pronunciation proficiency. But only the written scores in the L2 pronunciation test, not the oral scores, were positively correlated with the L2 self-perceived general proficiency. Neither the oral nor the written scores in the L2 pronunciation test had a significant correlation with the self-perceived speaking proficiency. Given the fairly strong correlations, the anxiety scores and the self-perceived pronunciation proficiency were put in regression models to predict L2 pronunciation performance. The anxiety factor alone accounted for 13.9% of the variance and the self-perceived pronunciation proficiency alone explained 12.1% of the variance. But when both anxiety scores and self-perceived pronunciation proficiency were put in a stepwise regression model, only the anxiety scores had a significant and unique contribution to the L2 pronunciation performance (4.8%). Taken together, the results suggested that the learners’ anxiety level could better predict their L2 pronunciation performance, compared with the self-perceived proficiency levels. The obtained data have the following pedagogical implications. 1) Given the fairly strong correlation between anxiety and L2 pronunciation performance, the instructors who are interested in predicting learners’ L2 pronunciation proficiency may measure their anxiety level, instead of their proficiency, as the predicting variable. 2) The correlation of oral scores (in the pronunciation test) with pronunciation proficiency, rather than with speaking proficiency, indicates that a) learners after receiving some amounts of training are to some extent able to evaluate their own pronunciation ability, implying the feasibility of incorporating self-evaluation and peer comments in course instruction; b) the ‘proficiency’ measure used to predict pronunciation performance should be used with caution. The proficiency of specific skills seemingly highly related to pronunciation (i.e., speaking in this case) may not be taken for granted as an effective predictor for pronunciation performance. 3) The correlation between the written scores with general L2 proficiency is interesting.

Keywords: anxiety, Chinese EFL learners, L2 pronunciation, self-perceived L2 proficiency

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1151 Functional Outcome and Quality of Life of Conservative versus Surgical Management of Adult Potts Disease: A Prospective Cohort Study

Authors: Mark Angelo Maranon, David Endriga

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Objective: The aim of the study is to determine the differences in functional outcome and quality of life of adult patients with Potts disease who have undergone surgical versus non-surgical management. Methods: In this prospective cohort study, 45 patients were followed up for 1 year after undergoing pharmacologic treatment alone versus a combination of anti-Kochs and surgery for Potts disease. Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and Short Form-36 (SF-36) were obtained on initiation of treatment, after three months, six months and one year. Results: ASIA scores from the onset of treatment and after 1 year significantly improved (p<0.001) for both non-surgical and surgical patients. ODI scores significantly improved after 6 months of treatment for both surgical and non-surgical patients. Both surgical and non-surgical patients showed significant improvement in their SF-36 scores, but scores were noted to be higher in patients who underwent surgery. Conclusions: Significant improvement with regards to functional outcome and quality of life was noted from both surgical and non-surgical patients after 1 year of treatment, with earlier improvements and better final scores in SF 36 and ODI in patients who underwent surgery.

Keywords: tuberculosis, spinal, potts disease, functional outcome

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1150 Effect of Science Learning Module in Filipino on Content Mastery and Conceptual Understanding of Grade 9 Students

Authors: Roly B. Bayo-Ang

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This research investigated the effect of science intervention modules in Filipino and in English on mastery of content (MOC) and conceptual understanding of Grade 9 students in Chemistry. Analysis of content mastery scores revealed a significant difference in the mean scores of the control and experimental group, t (46) = -2.14, p < 0.05. The experimental group achieved an MPS of > 75% in three of the five lessons while none in the control group. Analysis of the pretest and posttest scores of the control group in the test for conceptual understanding (TCU) showed no significant difference, t (18), =1.44, p > 0.05, while pretest and posttest scores of experimental group revealed significant difference, t (29) = -5.08, p < 0.05. Comparison of posttest scores of control and experimental group revealed no significant difference t (42) =1.67, p > 0.05. Performance in TCU and MOC of the control group are not significantly correlated, r (17) =.307, p > 0.05; but significantly correlated, r (27) =.571, p < 0.05, for the experimental group. The intervention module in Filipino promotes conceptual understanding and mastery of content than the module in English.

Keywords: action research, conceptual understanding, mastery of content, Filipino module

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1149 Analyzing Safety Incidents using the Fatigue Risk Index Calculator as an Indicator of Fatigue within a UK Rail Franchise

Authors: Michael Scott Evans, Andrew Smith

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The feeling of fatigue at work could potentially have devastating consequences. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the well-established objective indicator of fatigue – the Fatigue Risk Index (FRI) calculator used by the rail industry is an effective indicator to the number of safety incidents, in which fatigue could have been a contributing factor. The study received ethics approval from Cardiff University’s Ethics Committee (EC.16.06.14.4547). A total of 901 safety incidents were recorded from a single British rail franchise between 1st June 2010 – 31st December 2016, into the Safety Management Information System (SMIS). The safety incident types identified that fatigue could have been a contributing factor were: Signal Passed at Danger (SPAD), Train Protection & Warning System (TPWS) activation, Automatic Warning System (AWS) slow to cancel, failed to call, and station overrun. From the 901 recorded safety incidents, the scheduling system CrewPlan was used to extract the Fatigue Index (FI) score and Risk Index (RI) score of all train drivers on the day of the safety incident. Only the working rosters of 64.2% (N = 578) (550 men and 28 female) ranging in age from 24 – 65 years old (M = 47.13, SD = 7.30) were accessible for analyses. Analysis from all 578 train drivers who were involved in safety incidents revealed that 99.8% (N = 577) of Fatigue Index (FI) scores fell within or below the identified guideline threshold of 45 as well as 97.9% (N = 566) of Risk Index (RI) scores falling below the 1.6 threshold range. Their scores represent good practice within the rail industry. These findings seem to indicate that the current objective indicator, i.e. the FRI calculator used in this study by the British rail franchise was not an effective predictor of train driver’s FI scores and RI scores, as safety incidents in which fatigue could have been a contributing factor represented only 0.2% of FI scores and 2.1% of RI scores. Further research is needed to determine whether there are other contributing factors that could provide a better indication as to why there is such a significantly large proportion of train drivers who are involved in safety incidents, in which fatigue could have been a contributing factor have such low FI and RI scores.

Keywords: fatigue risk index calculator, objective indicator of fatigue, rail industry, safety incident

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1148 Influence of Rational Emotive Therapy on Substance Abuse Among Secondary School Students in Benue State

Authors: Justina I. Reamen

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The study examined the influence of rational emotive therapy on the treatment of substance abuse among Senior Secondary School Students in Makurdi metropolis Benue State Nigeria. This research adopted youth self report scale which was distributed to 1,690 SSS Students drawn from Government day Secondary School Makurdi and Government Model College Makurdi. Afterwards, 200 who were identified to indulge in substance abuse were selected for the study, 100 each from the two schools. 100 were taken as the control group and 100 as the experimental group, (50 of each group from each school). The Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) intervention program was presented to the experimental group for seven (7) weeks. The students were taught how to apply REBT’s cognitive, Emotive and Behavioral techniques on their problems. After which post test was conducted to find out the impact of REBT on the treatment of adolescent students with substance abuse problem. GLM repeated measures of ANOVA were used to analyze the data from the study. The study reveals that REBT has positive impact on the treatment of adolescent students that abuse substances in the study area. Between pretest to post-test scores, a significant difference was observed (F=26.939; P=000) in substance abuse where a decrease of 1.12 (pre-10.91, post-9.79) scores was noticed irrespective of the groups. However, when the decrease in substance abuse were analyzed group wise, (experimental control) again significant F value (F=38.782; P=000) was obtained. From the mean scores it is evident that experimental group decreased it means by 2.56 (Pre-10.04 - Post-8.83) scores compared to control group, which changed its scores by only 0.32 scores (pre 11.04 - Post 11.36). Recommendations were made based on the findings of the research.

Keywords: abuse, influence, substance, therapy, treatment

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1147 Critical Thinking and Creativity of Undergraduate Nursing Students: Descriptive and Disposition in Academic Levels

Authors: Kamolrat Turner, Chularat Howharn

Abstract:

Critical thinking and creativity are desirable competency for contemporary nurses although there are growing concerns supporting a disturbing paucity in its achievement. Nursing colleges in Thailand have developed teaching strategies and curricula that nurture critical thinking and creativity dispositions according academic levels. Objectives: This descriptive study identified critical thinking and creativity dispositions of Thai nursing students according academic levels. Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted among 515 nursing students for four academic levels. All are studying at Boromarajonani College of Nursing Chon Buri, Thailand. Descriptive and univariate general linear model analysis were applied. Results: The scores on critical thinking disposition gradually increased as academic level is rising from the junior year throughout the senior year, but its scores are neutral. Scores on creativity skill is neutral and constant thorough the four academic years. The fourth grade students had slightly higher scores on creativity when compared to others. A significant relationship between critical thinking and creativity was also found. Conclusions: The scores on critical thinking disposition gradually improved which greatly increased in the senior year. However, creativity has neutrally progressed. The findings suggest the importance of targeting the development of curriculum and teaching strategies for all grades of nursing students to increase their critical thinking and creativity skills.

Keywords: critical thinking, creativity, undergraduate nursing students, competency

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1146 The Effects of Functionality Level on Gait in Subjects with Low Back Pain

Authors: Vedat Kurt, Tansel Koyunoglu, Gamze Kurt, Ozgen Aras

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Low back pain is one of the most common health problem in public. Common symptoms that can be associated with low back pain include; pain, functional disability, gait disturbances. The aim of the study was to investigate the differences between disability scores and gait parameters in subjects with low back pain. Sixty participants are included in our study, (35 men, 25 women, mean age: 37.65±10.02 years). Demographic characteristics of participants were recorded. Pain (visual analog scale) and disability level (Oswestry Disability Index(ODI)) were evaluated. Gait parameters were measured with Zebris-FDM-2 platform. Independent samples t-test was used to analyse the differences between subjects with under 40 points (n=31, mean age:35.8±11.3) and above 40 points (n=29, mean age:39.6±8.1) of ODI scores. Significant level in statistical analysis was accepted as 0.05. There was no significant difference between the ODI scores and groups’ ages. Statistically significant differences were found in step width between subjects with under 40 points of ODI and above 40 points of ODI score(p < 0.05). But there were non-significant differences with other gait parameters (p > 0.05). The differences between gait parameters and pain scores were not statistically significant (p > 0.05). Researchers generally agree that individuals with LBP walk slower and take shorter steps and have asymmetric step lengths when compared with than their age-matched pain-free counterparts. Also perceived general disability may have moderate correlation with walking performance. In the current study, the patients classified as minimal/moderate and severe disability level by using ODI scores. As a result, a patient with LBP who have higher disability level tends to increase support surface. On the other hand, we did not find any relation between pain intensity and gait parameters. It may be caused by the classification system of pain scores. Additional research is needed to investigate the effects of functionality level and pain intensity on gait in subjects with low back pain under different classification types.

Keywords: functionality, low back pain, gait, pain

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1145 The Metacognition Levels of Students: A Research School of Physical Education and Sports at Anadolu University

Authors: Dilek Yalız Solmaz

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Meta-cognition is an important factor for educating conscious individuals who are aware of their cognitive processes. With this respect, the purposes of this article is to find out the perceived metacognition level of Physical Education and Sports School students at Anadolu University and to identify whether metacognition levels display significant differences in terms of various variables. 416 Anadolu University Physical Education and Sports School students were formed the research universe. "The Meta-Cognitions Questionnaire (MCQ-30)" developed by Cartwright-Hatton and Wells and later developed the 30-item short form (MCQ-30) was used. The MCQ-30 which was adapted into Turkish by Tosun and Irak is a four-point agreement scale. In the data analysis, arithmethic mean, standard deviation, t-test and ANOVA were used. There is no statistical difference between mean scores of uncontrollableness and danger, cognitive awareness, cognitive confidence and the positive beliefs of girls and boys students. There is a statistical difference between mean scores of the need to control thinking. There is no statistical difference according to departments of students between mean scores of uncontrollableness and danger, cognitive awareness, cognitive confidence, need to control thinking and the positive beliefs. There is no statistical difference according to grade level of students between mean scores of the positive beliefs, cognitive confidence and need to control thinking. There is a statistical difference between mean scores of uncontrollableness and danger and cognitive awareness.

Keywords: meta cognition, physical education, sports school students, thinking

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1144 A Study on the Personality Traits of Students Who Have Chosen Medicine as Their Career

Authors: Khairani Omar, Shalinawati Ramli, Nurul Azmawati Mohamed, Zarini Ismail, Nur Syahrina Rahim, Nurul Hayati Chamhuri

Abstract:

Choosing a career which matches a student’s personality traits is one of the key factors for future work satisfaction. This is because career satisfaction is at the highest when it is in line with one’s personality strength, values and attitudes. Personality traits play a major role in determining the success of a student in the medical course. In the pre-clinical years, medical theories are being emphasized, thus, conscientious students would perform better than those with lower level of this trait. As the emphasis changes in the clinical years during which patient interaction is important, personality traits which involved interpersonal values become more essential for success. The aim of this study was to determine the personality traits of students who had chosen medicine as their career. It was a cross-sectional study conducted at the Islamic Science University of Malaysia. The respondents consisted of 81 students whose age ranged between 20-21 years old. A set of personality assessment inventory index which has been validated for the local context was used to determine the students’ personality traits. The instrument assessed 15 personality traits namely: aggressive, analytical, autonomy, creativity, extrovert, intellectual, motivation, diversity, resiliency, self-criticism, control, helpful, support, structured and achievement. The scores ranged between 1-100%, and they were categorized into low (1-30%), moderate (40-60%) and high scores (70-100%). The respondents were Year 3 pre-clinical medical students and there were more female students (69%) compared to male students (31%). Majority of them were from middle-income families. Approximately 70% of both parents of the respondents had tertiary education. Majority of the students had high scores in autonomy, creativity, diversity, helpful, structured and achievement. In other words, more than 50% of them scored high (70-100%) in these traits. Scoring high in these traits was beneficial for the medical course. For aggressive trait, 54% of them had moderate scores which is compatible for medicine as this indicated an inclination to being assertive. In the analytical and intellectual components, only 40% and 25% had high scores respectively. These results contradicted the usual expectation of medical students whereby they are expected to be highly analytical and intellectual. It would be an added value if the students had high scores in being extrovert as this reflects on good interpersonal values, however, the students had approximately similar scores in all categories of this trait. Being resilient in the medical school is important as the course is difficult and demanding. The students had good scores in this component in which 46% had high scores while 39% had moderate scores. In conclusion, by understanding their personality traits, strengths and weaknesses, the students will have an opportunity to improve themselves in the areas they lack. This will help them to become better doctors in future.

Keywords: career, medical students, medicine, personality traits

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1143 The Effects of Kicking Leg Preference on the Bilateral Balance Ability Asymmetries in Collegian Football Players

Authors: Mehmet Yildiz, Mehmet Kale

Abstract:

The primary aim of the present study was to identify the bilateral balance asymmetries when comparing the dominant (DL) vs. the non-dominant leg (NDL) in the collegian soccer players. The secondary aim was to compare the inter-limb asymmetry index (ASI) when differentiating by kicking preference (right-dominant vs. left-dominant). 34 right-dominant leg (RightDL) (age:21.12±1.85, height:174.50±5.18, weight:69.42±6.86) and 23 left-dominant leg (LeftDL), (age:21.70±2.03, height:176.2±6.27, weight:68.73±5.96) collegian football players were tested for bilateral static and dynamic balance. Balance ability was assessed by measuring centre of pressure deviation on a single leg. Single leg static and dynamic balance scores and inter-limb asymmetry index (ASI) were determined. Student t tests were used for the comparison of dominant and nondominant leg balance scores and RightDL and LeftDL football players’ inter-limb asymmetry index of the balance scores. The results showed that there were significant differences in the dynamic balance scores in favour of the nondominant leg, (DL:738±211 vs. NDL:606±226, p < 0.01). Also, it has been seen that LeftDL players have significantly higher inter-limb asymmetry index when compared with rightDL players for both static (rightDL:-7.07±94.91 vs. leftDL:-183.19±354.05, p < 0.01) and dynamic (rightDL: 1.73±49.65 vs. leftDL:27.08±23.34, p < 0.05) balance scores. In conclusion, bilateral dynamic balance asymmetries may be affected using single leg predominantly in the mobilization workouts. Because of having higher inter-limb asymmetry index, left-dominant leg players may be screened and trained to minimize balance asymmetry.

Keywords: bilateral balance, asymmetries, dominant leg, leg preference

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1142 Association between Healthy Eating Index-2015 Scores and the Probability of Sarcopenia in Community-Dwelling Iranian Elderly

Authors: Zahra Esmaeily, Zahra Tajari, Shahrzad Daei, Mahshid Rezaei, Atefeh Eyvazkhani, Marjan Mansouri Dara, Ahmad Reza Dorosty Motlagh, Andriko Palmowski

Abstract:

Objective: Sarcopenia (SPA) is associated with frailty and disability in the elderly. Adherence to current dietary guidelines in addition to physical activity could play a role in the prevention of muscle wasting and weakness. The Healthy Eating Index-2015 (HEI) is a tool to assess diet quality as recommended in the U.S. Dietary Guidelines for Americans. This study aimed to investigate whether there is a relationship between HEI scores and the probability of SPA (PS) among the Tehran elderly. Method: A previously validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire was used to assess HEI and the dietary intake of randomly selected elderly people living in Tehran, Iran. Handgrip strength (HGS) was measured to evaluate the PS. Statistical evaluation included descriptive analysis and standard test procedures. Result: 201 subjects were included. Those probably suffering from SPA (as determined by HGS) had significantly lower HEI scores (p = 0.02). After adjusting for confounders, HEI scores and HGS were still significantly associated (adjusted R2 = 0.56, slope β = 0.03, P = 0.09). Elderly people with a low probability of SPA consumed more monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids (P = 0.06) and ingested less added sugars and saturated fats (P = 0.01 and P = 0.02, respectively). Conclusion: In this cross-sectional study, HEI scores are associated with the probability of SPA. Adhering to current dietary guidelines might contribute to ameliorating muscle strength and mass in aging individuals.

Keywords: aging, HEI-2015, Iranian, sarcopenic

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1141 An Analysis of Gender Competencies of Project Managers in National Capital Region, Philippines using the Mann-Whitney U Test

Authors: Ryan Vincent Teodoro, Adrian Paul Virador, Jan Christopher Cardenas

Abstract:

In the field of construction, managerial positions are completely dominated by males. The researchers conducted this study to see if there is a significant difference between the competencies of male and female project managers in the construction field. To see if there is a significant difference, they subdivided the competency of project managers into three components; decision making, organizing skills, and resiliency. The researchers conducted a five-point Likert scale survey of 28 project managers in the construction field, 18 of them are males and 10 are females. The researchers used Cronbach’s alpha to translate the raw scores of the respondents into competency scores. Then, the competency scores are analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U Test to see if there is a significant difference between the male’s and female’s competency scores. A p-value of 0.808 was calculated, which is greater than 0.05, which means that the null hypothesis is accepted. Therefore, the researchers concluded that there is no significant difference between the competencies of male and female project managers in terms of decision making, organizing skills, and resiliency in the construction field in the National Capital Region, Philippines.

Keywords: competency, resiliency, project managers, Mann-Whitney U test

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1140 Interprofessional School-Based Mental Health Services for Rural Adolescents in South Australia

Authors: Garreth Kestell, Lukah Dykes, Danielle Zerk, Kyla Trewartha, Rhianon Marshall, Elena Rudnik

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Adolescent mental health is an international priority and the impact of innovative service models must be evaluated. Secondary school-based mental health services (SBMHS) involving private general practitioners and psychologists are a model of care being trialed in South Australia. Measures of depression, anxiety, and stress are routinely collected throughout psychotherapy sessions. This research set out to quantify the impact of psychotherapy for rural adolescents in a school setting and explore the importance of session frequency. Methods: Demographics, session date and DASS21 scores from students (n=65) seen in 2016 by three psychologists working at the SBMHS were recorded. Students were aged 13-18 years (M=15.43, SD= 1.24), mostly female (F=51, M=14), attended between 1 and 23 sessions with a median of 6 sessions (MAD 5.93) in one-year. The treating psychologist collected self-administered DASS21 scores. A mixed model analysis was used with age, sex, treating psychologist, months from first session, and session number as fixed effects, with response variables of DASS depression, anxiety, and stress scores. Results: 71.5% were classified as having extreme or severe anxiety and half had extreme or severe depression and/or stress scores. On average males had a greater increase in DASS scores over time but males attending more sessions benefited most from therapy. Discussion: Psychologists are treating rural adolescents in schools for severe anxiety, depression, and stress. This pilot study indicates that a predictive model combining demographics, session frequency, and DASS scores may help identify who is most likely to benefit from individual psychotherapy. Variations in DAS scores of individuals over time indicate the need for the collection of information such as living situation and exposure to alcohol. A larger sample size and additional data are currently being collected to allow for a more robust analysis.

Keywords: adolescent health, psychotherapy, school based mental health services, DAS21

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1139 Effects of Exposure to Domestic Physical Violence on Children's Behavior: A Chinese Community-Based Sample

Authors: Cao Yuping, Li Longfei, Zhao Xingfu, Zhang Yalin

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Purpose: This study examined the effects of exposure to domestic physical violence (DPV) on children’s behavior in a community sample. Method: Ninety-three 12-16 year-old adolescents exposed to DPV were matched with 54 adolescents with no exposure to DPV based on age, gender, family composition and parental age and education level. Participation included assessment with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ-SF) and Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) by the adolescents and their parents respectively. Results: CBCL total score and anxiety/depression, social interaction problems, attention problems, delinquency, aggression and externalizing scores were significantly higher in adolescents exposed to DPV than those in controls (all ps<0.05).The CBCL total score and scores of anxiety/depression, social interaction problems, attention problems, delinquency, aggression and externalizing behaviors of boys were significantly higher in the research group than in the controls (all ps<0.05). Delinquency scores in abused adolescents were significantly higher than in DPV witnessed (p<0.05), but no other scores of CBCL were significant different. Different subtypes of behavioral problems were associated with different types of abuse. Conclusions: DPV exposure is associated with adverse behaviors in children, especially among boys. Children witness DPV alone have similar behavioral scores as the abused children. We recommend that both abused and DPV witness adolescents in Chinese communities need treatment to mitigate the effects on maladjusted behaviors.

Keywords: domestic violence, child, behavior, community, China

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1138 Effect of Rehabilitation on Outcomes for Persons with Traumatic Brain Injury: Results from a Single Center

Authors: Savaş Karpuz, Sami Küçükşen

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The aim of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of neurological rehabilitation in patients with traumatic brain injury. Participants were 45 consecutive adults with traumatic brain injury who were received the neurologic rehabilitation. Sociodemographic characteristics of the patients, the cause of the injury, the duration of the coma and posttraumatic amnesia, the length of stay in the other inpatient clinics before rehabilitation, the time between injury and admission to the rehabilitation clinic, and the length of stay in the rehabilitation clinic were recorded. The differences in functional status between admission and discharge were determined with Disability Rating Scale (DRS), Functional Independence Measure (FIM), and Functional Ambulation Scale (FAS) and levels of cognitive functioning determined with Ranchos Los Amigos Scale (RLAS). According to admission time, there was a significant improvement identified in functional status of patients who had been given the intensive in-hospital cognitive rehabilitation program. At discharge time, the statistically significant differences were obtained in DRS, FIM, FAS and RLAS scores according to admission time. Better improvement in functional status was detected in patients with lower scores in DRS, and higher scores FIM and RLAS scores at the entry time. The neurologic rehabilitation significantly affects the recovery of functional status after traumatic brain injury.

Keywords: traumatic brain injury, rehabilitation, functional status, neurological

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1137 Quality of Life in People with Hearing Loss: A Study of Patients Referred to an Audiological Service

Authors: Peder O. Laugen Heggdal, Oyvind Nordvik, Jonas Brannstrom, Flemming Vassbotn, Anne Kari Aarstad, Hans Jorgen Aarstad

Abstract:

Background: Hearing loss (HL) affect people of all ages and stages in life. To author's best knowledge, if patients with an HL have reduced Generic Quality of life (QoL), has yet not been answered. Aim: The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between HL and generic and disease-specific Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) in adult patients (aged 18–78 years) with an HL, seeking Hearing Aid (HA). Material and Methods: 158 adult (aged 18-78 years) patients with HL, referred for HA fitting at Haukeland University Hospital in western Norway, participated in the study. Both first-time users, as well as patients referred for HA renewals, were included. First-time users had been pre-examined by an Ear Nose and Throat specialist. The questionnaires were answered before the actual HA fitting procedure. The pure-tone average (PTA; frequencies 0.5, 1, 2 and 4 kHz) was determined for each ear. The generic European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Quality of Life Questionnaire general part and a shortened version of the Abbreviated Profile of Hearing Aid Benefit (APHAB) were answered. In addition, EORTC HRQoL answers from a general population and patients with former head and neck cancer served as comparison. Results: In general, no lowered HRQoL scores were determined among HL patients compared to the general population. Patients with unilateral HL to some extent showed lower HRQoL than those with bilateral HL (social function and fatigue). The APHAB scores correlated significantly with the EORTC HRQoL scores. By stepwise linear regression analysis, the APHAB scores were scored secondary to PTA (best ear), cognitive and physical function. Conclusion: HRQoL scores in HL patients, in general, seems to be at the population level, but the unilateral HL patients scored to some extent lower than the bilateral HI patients. APHAB and generic QoL scores levels are associated. Both HRQoL and APHAB scores are generated more complexly than anticipated.

Keywords: quality of life, hearing loss, hearing impairment, distress, depression, anxiety, hearing aid

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1136 Improving Depression Symptoms and Antidepressant Medication Adherence Using Encrypted Short Message Service Text Message Reminders

Authors: Ogbonna Olelewe

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This quality improvement project seeks to address the background and significance of promoting antidepressant (AD) medication adherence to reduce depression symptoms in patients diagnosed with major depression. This project aims to substantiate using daily encrypted short message service (SMS) text reminders to take prescribed antidepressant medications with the goal of increasing medication adherence to reduce depression scores in patients diagnosed with major depression, thereby preventing relapses and increasing remission rates. Depression symptoms were measured using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) scale. The PHQ-9 provides a total score of depression symptoms from mild to severe, ranging from 0 to 27. A -pretest/post-test design was used, with a convenience sample size of 35 adult patients aged 18 years old to 45 years old, diagnosed with MDD, and prescribed at least one antidepressant for one year or more. Pre- and post-test PHQ-9 scores were conducted to compare depression scores before and after the four-week intervention period. The results indicated improved post-intervention PHQ-9 scores, improved AD medication adherence, and a significant reduction in depression symptoms.

Keywords: major depressive disorder, antidepressants, short message services, text reminders, Medication adherence/non-adherence, Patient Health Questionnaire 9

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