Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 3371

Search results for: dose measurement

3371 Investigation of Factors Affecting the Total Ionizing Dose Threshold of Electrically Erasable Read Only Memories for Use in Dose Rate Measurement

Authors: Liqian Li, Yu Liu, Karen Colins


The dose rate present in a seriously contaminated area can be indirectly determined by monitoring radiation damage to inexpensive commercial electronics, instead of deploying expensive radiation hardened sensors. EEPROMs (Electrically Erasable Read Only Memories) are a good candidate for this purpose because they are inexpensive and are sensitive to radiation exposure. When the total ionizing dose threshold is reached, an EEPROM chip will show signs of damage that can be monitored and transmitted by less susceptible electronics. The dose rate can then be determined from the known threshold dose and the exposure time, assuming the radiation field remains constant with time. Therefore, the threshold dose needs to be well understood before this method can be used. There are many factors affecting the threshold dose, such as the gamma ray energy spectrum, the operating voltage, etc. The purpose of this study was to experimentally determine how the threshold dose depends on dose rate, temperature, voltage, and duty factor. It was found that the duty factor has the strongest effect on the total ionizing dose threshold, while the effect of the other three factors that were investigated is less significant. The effect of temperature was found to be opposite to that expected to result from annealing and is yet to be understood.

Keywords: EEPROM, ionizing radiation, radiation effects on electronics, total ionizing dose, wireless sensor networks

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3370 Relative Depth Dose Profile and Peak Scatter Factors Measurement for Co-60 Teletherapy Machine Using Chemical Dosimetry

Authors: O. Moussous, T. Medjadj


The suitability of a Fricke dosimeter for the measurement of a relative depth dose profile and the peak scatter factors was studied. The measurements were carried out in the secondary standard dosimetry laboratory at CRNA Algiers using a collimated 60Co gamma source teletherapy machine. The measurements were performed for different field sizes at the phantom front face, at a fixed source-to-phantom distance of 80 cm. The dose measurements were performed by first placing the dosimeters free-in-air at the distance-source-detector (DSD) of 80.5 cm from the source. Additional measurements were made with the phantom in place. The water phantom type Med-Tec 40x40x40 cm for vertical beam was used in this work as scattering martial. The phantom was placed on the irradiation bench of the cobalt unit at the SSD of 80 cm from the beam focus and the centre of the field coincided with the geometric centre of the dosimeters placed at the depth in water of 5 mm Relative depth dose profile and Peak scatter factors measurements were carried out using our Fricke system. This was intercompared with similar measurements by ionization chamber under identical conditions. There is a good agreement between the relative percentage depth–dose profiles and the PSF values measured by both systems using a water phantom.

Keywords: Fricke dosimeter, depth–dose profiles, peak scatter factors, DSD

Procedia PDF Downloads 188
3369 Comparison of Breast Surface Doses for Full-Field Digital Mammography and Digital Breast Tomosynthesis Using Breast Phantoms

Authors: Chia-Hui Chen, Chien-Kuo Wang


Background: Full field digital mammography (FFDM) is widely used in diagnosis of breast cancer. Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) has recently been introduced into the clinic and is being used for screening for breast cancer in the general population. Hence, the radiation dose delivered to the patients involved in an imaging protocol is of utmost concern. Aim: To compare the surface radiation dose (ESD) of digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) and full-field digital mammography (FFDM) by using breast phantoms. Method: We analyzed the average entrance surface dose (ESD) of FFDM and DBT by using breast phantoms. Optically Stimulated luminescent Dosimeters (OSLD) were placed in a tissue-equivalent Breast phantom at difference sites of interest. Absorbed dose measurements were obtained after digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) and full-field digital mammography (FFDM) exposures. Results: An automatic exposure control (AEC) is proposed for surface dose measurement during DBT and FFDM. The mean ESD values for DBT and FFDM were 6.37 mGy and 3.51mGy, respectively. Using of OSLD measured for surface dose during DBT and FFDM. There were 19.87 mGy and 11.36 mGy, respectively. The surface exposure dose of DBT could possibly be increased by two times with FFDM. Conclusion: The radiation dose from DBT was higher than that of FFDM and the difference in dose between AEC and OSLD measurements at phantom surface.

Keywords: full-field digital mammography, digital breast tomosynthesis, optically stimulated luminescent dosimeters, surface dose

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3368 The Use of the Matlab Software as the Best Way to Recognize Penumbra Region in Radiotherapy

Authors: Alireza Shayegan, Morteza Amirabadi


The y tool was developed to quantitatively compare dose distributions, either measured or calculated. Before computing ɣ, the dose and distance scales of the two distributions, referred to as evaluated and reference, are re-normalized by dose and distance criteria, respectively. The re-normalization allows the dose distribution comparison to be conducted simultaneously along dose and distance axes. Several two-dimensional images were acquired using a Scanning Liquid Ionization Chamber EPID and Extended Dose Range (EDR2) films for regular and irregular radiation fields. The raw images were then converted into two-dimensional dose maps. Transitional and rotational manipulations were performed for images using Matlab software. As evaluated dose distribution maps, they were then compared with the corresponding original dose maps as the reference dose maps.

Keywords: energetic electron, gamma function, penumbra, Matlab software

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3367 A Comparison of TLD Measurements to MIRD Estimates of the Dose to the Ovaries and Uterus from Tc-99m in Liver

Authors: Karim Adinehvand, Bakhtiar Azadbakht, Amin Sahebnasagh


Relation to high absorption fraction of Tc SESTAMIBI by internal organs in heart scan, and these organs are near to generation organs (Ovaries and uterus). In this study, Liver is specified as source organ. Method: we have set amount of absorbed fraction radiopharmaceutical in position of Liver in RANDO-phantom in form of elliptical surfaces, then absorbed dose to ovaries and uterus measured by TLD-100 that had set at position of these organs in RANDO-phantom. Calculation had done by MIRD method. Results from direct measurement and MIRD method are too similar. The absorbed dose to uterus and ovaries for Rest are 26.05µGyMBq-1, 17.23µGyMBq-1 and for Stress are 2.04µGyMBq-1, 1.35µGyMBq-1 respectively.

Keywords: absorbed dose, TLD, MIRD, RANDO-phantom, Tc-99m

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3366 Characterization of the MOSkin Dosimeter for Accumulated Dose Assessment in Computed Tomography

Authors: Lenon M. Pereira, Helen J. Khoury, Marcos E. A. Andrade, Dean L. Cutajar, Vinicius S. M. Barros, Anatoly B. Rozenfeld


With the increase of beam widths and the advent of multiple-slice and helical scanners, concerns related to the current dose measurement protocols and instrumentation in computed tomography (CT) have arisen. The current methodology of dose evaluation, which is based on the measurement of the integral of a single slice dose profile using a 100 mm long cylinder ionization chamber (Ca,100 and CPPMA, 100), has been shown to be inadequate for wide beams as it does not collect enough of the scatter-tails to make an accurate measurement. In addition, a long ionization chamber does not offer a good representation of the dose profile when tube current modulation is used. An alternative approach has been suggested by translating smaller detectors through the beam plane and assessing the accumulated dose trough the integral of the dose profile, which can be done for any arbitrary length in phantoms or in the air. For this purpose, a MOSFET dosimeter of small dosimetric volume was used. One of its recently designed versions is known as the MOSkin, which is developed by the Centre for Medical Radiation Physics at the University of Wollongong, and measures the radiation dose at a water equivalent depth of 0.07 mm, allowing the evaluation of skin dose when placed at the surface, or internal point doses when placed within a phantom. Thus, the aim of this research was to characterize the response of the MOSkin dosimeter for X-ray CT beams and to evaluate its application for the accumulated dose assessment. Initially, tests using an industrial x-ray unit were carried out at the Laboratory of Ionization Radiation Metrology (LMRI) of Federal University of Pernambuco, in order to investigate the sensitivity, energy dependence, angular dependence, and reproducibility of the dose response for the device for the standard radiation qualities RQT 8, RQT 9 and RQT 10. Finally, the MOSkin was used for the accumulated dose evaluation of scans using a Philips Brilliance 6 CT unit, with comparisons made between the CPPMA,100 value assessed with a pencil ionization chamber (PTW Freiburg TW 30009). Both dosimeters were placed in the center of a PMMA head phantom (diameter of 16 cm) and exposed in the axial mode with collimation of 9 mm, 250 mAs and 120 kV. The results have shown that the MOSkin response was linear with doses in the CT range and reproducible (98.52%). The sensitivity for a single MOSkin in mV/cGy was as follows: 9.208, 7.691 and 6.723 for the RQT 8, RQT 9 and RQT 10 beams qualities respectively. The energy dependence varied up to a factor of ±1.19 among those energies and angular dependence was not greater than 7.78% within the angle range from 0 to 90 degrees. The accumulated dose and the CPMMA, 100 value were 3,97 and 3,79 cGy respectively, which were statistically equivalent within the 95% confidence level. The MOSkin was shown to be a good alternative for CT dose profile measurements and more than adequate to provide accumulated dose assessments for CT procedures.

Keywords: computed tomography dosimetry, MOSFET, MOSkin, semiconductor dosimetry

Procedia PDF Downloads 233
3365 Human Absorbed Dose Estimation of a New In-111 Imaging Agent Based on Rat Data

Authors: H. Yousefnia, S. Zolghadri


The measurement of organ radiation exposure dose is one of the most important steps to be taken initially, for developing a new radiopharmaceutical. In this study, the dosimetric studies of a novel agent for SPECT-imaging of the bone metastasis, 111In-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10 tetraethylene phosphonic acid (111In-DOTMP) complex, have been carried out to estimate the dose in human organs based on the data derived from rats. The radiolabeled complex was prepared with high radiochemical purity in the optimal conditions. Biodistribution studies of the complex was investigated in the male Syrian rats at selected times after injection (2, 4, 24 and 48 h). The human absorbed dose estimation of the complex was made based on data derived from the rats by the radiation absorbed dose assessment resource (RADAR) method. 111In-DOTMP complex was prepared with high radiochemical purity of >99% (ITLC). Total body effective absorbed dose for 111In-DOTMP was 0.061 mSv/MBq. This value is comparable to the other 111In clinically used complexes. The results show that the dose with respect to the critical organs is satisfactory within the acceptable range for diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures. Generally, 111In-DOTMP has interesting characteristics and can be considered as a viable agent for SPECT-imaging of the bone metastasis in the near future.

Keywords: In-111, DOTMP, Internal Dosimetry, RADAR

Procedia PDF Downloads 337
3364 Evaluation of Dynamic Log Files for Different Dose Rates in IMRT Plans

Authors: Saad Bin Saeed, Fayzan Ahmed, Shahbaz Ahmed, Amjad Hussain


The aim of this study is to evaluate dynamic log files (Dynalogs) at different dose rates by dose-volume histograms (DVH) and used as a (QA) procedure of IMRT. Seven patients of phase one head and neck cancer with similar OAR`s are selected randomly. Reference plans of dose rate 300 and 600 MU/Min with prescribed dose of 50Gy in 25 fractions for each patient is made. Dynalogs produced by delivery of reference plans processed by in-house MATLAB program which produces new field files contain actual positions of multi-leaf collimators (MLC`s) instead of planned positions in reference plans. Copies of reference plans are used to import new field files generated by MATLAB program and renamed as Dyn.plan. After dose calculations of Dyn.plans for different dose rates, DVH, and multiple linear regression tools are used to evaluate reference and Dyn.plans. The results indicate good agreement of correlation between different dose rate plans. The maximum dose difference among PTV and OAR`s are found to be less than 5% and 9% respectively. The study indicates the potential of dynalogs to be used as patient-specific QA of IMRT at different dose rate.

Keywords: IMRT, dynalogs, dose rate, DVH

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3363 Measurement and Analysis of Radiation Doses to Radiosensitive Organs from CT Examination of the Cervical Spine Using Radiochromic Films and Monte Carlo Simulation Based Software

Authors: Khaled Soliman, Abdullah Alrushoud, Abdulrahman Alkhalifah, Raed Albathi, Salman Altymiat


Radiation dose received by patients undergoing Computed Tomography (CT) examination of the cervical spine was evaluated using Gafchromic XR-QA2 films and CT-EXPO software (ver. 2.3), in order to document our clinical dose values and to compare our results with other benchmarks reported in the current literature. Radiochromic films were recently used as practical dosimetry tool that provides dose profile information not available using the standard ionisation chamber routinely used in CT dosimetry. We have developed an in-house program to use the films in order to calculate the Entrance Dose Length Product (EDLP) in ( and to relate the EDLP to various organ doses calculated using the CT-EXPO software. We also calculated conversion factor in (mSv/ relating the EDLP to the effective dose (ED) from the examination using CT-EXPO software. Variability among different types of CT scanners and dose modulation methods are reported from at least three major CT brands available at our medical institution. Our work describes the dosimetry method and results are reported. The method can be used as in-vivo dosimetry method. But this work only reports results obtained from adult female anthropomorphic Phantom studies.

Keywords: CT dosimetry, gafchromic films, XR-QA2, CT-Expo software

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3362 Measurement of IMRT Dose Distribution in Rando Head and Neck Phantom using EBT3 Film

Authors: Pegah Safavi, Mehdi Zehtabian, Mohammad Amin Mosleh-Shirazi


Cancer is one of the leading causes of death in the world. Radiation therapy is one of the main choices for cancer treatment. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy is a new type of radiation therapy technique available for vital structures such as the parathyroid glands. It is very important to check the accuracy of the delivered IMRT treatment because any mistake may lead to more complications for the patient. This paper describes an experiment to determine the accuracy of a dose measured by EBT3 film. To test this method, the EBT3 film on the head and neck of the Rando phantom was irradiated by an IMRT device and the irradiation was repeated twice. Finally, the dose designed by the irradiation system was compared with the dose measured by the EBT3 film. Using this criterion, the accuracy of the EBT3 film was evaluated. When using this criterion, a 95% agreement was reached between the planned treatment and the measured values.

Keywords: EBT3, phantom, accuracy, cancer, IMRT

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3361 Estimated Human Absorbed Dose of 111 In-BPAMD as a New Bone-Seeking Spect-Imaging Agent

Authors: H. Yousefnia, S. Zolghadri


An early diagnosis of bone metastases is very important for providing a profound decision on a subsequent therapy. A prerequisite for the clinical application of new diagnostic radiopharmaceutical is the measurement of organ radiation exposure dose from biodistribution data in animals. In this study, the dosimetric studies of a novel agent for SPECT-imaging of bone methastases, 111In-(4-{[(bis(phosphonomethyl))carbamoyl]methyl}-7,10-bis(carboxymethyl)-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododec-1-yl) acetic acid (111In-BPAMD) complex, have been estimated in human organs based on mice data. The radiolabeled complex was prepared with high radiochemical purity at the optimal conditions. Biodistribution studies of the complex were investigated in male Syrian mice at selected times after injection (2, 4, 24 and 48 h). The human absorbed dose estimation of the complex was performed based on mice data by the radiation absorbed dose assessment resource (RADAR) method. 111In-BPAMD complex was prepared with high radiochemical purity >95% (ITLC) and specific activities of 2.85 TBq/mmol. Total body effective absorbed dose for 111In-BPAMD was 0.205 mSv/MBq. This value is comparable to the other 111In clinically used complexes. The results show that the dose to critical organs the complex is well within the acceptable considered range for diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures. Generally, 111In-BPAMD has interesting characteristics and can be considered as a viable agent for SPECT-imaging of the bone metastases in the near future.

Keywords: In-111, BPAMD, absorbed dose, RADAR

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3360 Dosimetric Comparison among Different Head and Neck Radiotherapy Techniques Using PRESAGE™ Dosimeter

Authors: Jalil ur Rehman, Ramesh C. Tailor, Muhammad Isa Khan, Jahnzeeb Ashraf, Muhammad Afzal, Geofferry S. Ibbott


Purpose: The purpose of this analysis was to investigate dose distribution of different techniques (3D-CRT, IMRT and VMAT) of head and neck cancer using 3-dimensional dosimeter called PRESAGETM Dosimeter. Materials and Methods: Computer tomography (CT) scans of radiological physics center (RPC) head and neck anthropomorphic phantom with both RPC standard insert and PRESAGETM insert were acquired separated with Philipp’s CT scanner and both CT scans were exported via DICOM to the Pinnacle version 9.4 treatment planning system (TPS). Each plan was delivered twice to the RPC phantom first containing the RPC standard insert having TLD and film dosimeters and then again containing the Presage insert having 3-D dosimeter (PRESAGETM) by using a Varian True Beam linear accelerator. After irradiation, the standard insert including point dose measurements (TLD) and planar Gafchromic® EBT film measurement were read using RPC standard procedure. The 3D dose distribution from PRESAGETM was read out with the Duke Midsized optical scanner dedicated to RPC (DMOS-RPC). Dose volume histogram (DVH), mean and maximal doses for organs at risk were calculated and compared among each head and neck technique. The prescription dose was same for all head and neck radiotherapy techniques which was 6.60 Gy/friction. Beam profile comparison and gamma analysis were used to quantify agreements among film measurement, PRESAGETM measurement and calculated dose distribution. Quality assurances of all plans were performed by using ArcCHECK method. Results: VMAT delivered the lowest mean and maximum doses to organ at risk (spinal cord, parotid) than IMRT and 3DCRT. Such dose distribution was verified by absolute dose distribution using thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) system. The central axial, sagittal and coronal planes were evaluated using 2D gamma map criteria(± 5%/3 mm) and results were 99.82% (axial), 99.78% (sagital), 98.38% (coronal) for VMAT plan and found the agreement between PRESAGE and pinnacle was better than IMRT and 3D-CRT plan excludes a 7 mm rim at the edge of the dosimeter. Profile showed good agreement for all plans between film, PRESAGE and pinnacle and 3D gamma was performed for PTV and OARs, VMAT and 3DCRT endow with better agreement than IMRT. Conclusion: VMAT delivered lowered mean and maximal doses to organs at risk and better PTV coverage during head and neck radiotherapy. TLD, EBT film and PRESAGETM dosimeters suggest that VMAT was better for the treatment of head and neck cancer than IMRT and 3D-CRT.


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3359 Comparative Study between the Absorbed Dose of 67ga-Ecc and 68ga-Ecc

Authors: H. Yousefnia, S. Zolghadri, S. Shanesazzadeh, A.Lahooti, A. R. Jalilian


In this study, 68Ga-ECC and 67Ga-ECC were both prepared with the radiochemical purity of higher than 97% in less than 30 min. The biodistribution data for 68Ga-ECC showed the extraction of the most of the activity from the urinary tract. The absorbed dose was estimated based on biodistribution data in mice by the medical internal radiation dose (MIRD) method. Comparison between human absorbed dose estimation for these two agents indicated the values of approximately ten-fold higher after injection of 67Ga-ECC than 68Ga-ECC in the most organs. The results showed that 68Ga-ECC can be considered as a more potential agent for renal imaging compared to 67Ga-ECC.

Keywords: effective absorbed dose, ethylenecysteamine cysteine, Ga-67, Ga-68

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3358 Measurement of 238U, 232Th and 40K in Soil Samples Collected from Coal City Dhanbad, India

Authors: Zubair Ahmad


Specific activities of the natural radionuclides 238U, 232Th and 40K were measured by using γ - ray spectrometric technique in soil samples collected from the city of Dhanbad, which is located near coal mines. Mean activity values for 238U, 232Th and 40K were found to be 60.29 Bq/kg, 64.50 Bq/kg and 481.0 Bq/kg, respectively. Mean radium equivalent activity, absorbed dose rate, outdoor dose, external hazard index, internal hazard index, for the area under study were determined as 189.53 Bq/kg, 87.21 nGy/h, 0.37 mSv/y, 0.52 and 0.64, respectively. The annual effective dose to the general public was found 0.44 mSv/y. This value lies well below the limit of 1 mSv/y as recommended by International Commission on Radiological Protection. Measured values were found safe for environment and public health.

Keywords: coal city Dhanbad, gamma-ray spectroscopy, natural radioactivity, soil samples

Procedia PDF Downloads 200
3357 A Varicella Outbreak in a Highly Vaccinated School Population in Voluntary 2-Dose Era in Beijing, China

Authors: Chengbin Wang, Li Lu, Luodan Suo, Qinghai Wang, Fan Yang, Xu Wang, Mona Marin


Background: Two-dose varicella vaccination has been recommended in Beijing since November 2012. We investigated a varicella outbreak in a highly vaccinated elementary school population to examine transmission patterns and risk factors for vaccine failure. Methods: A varicella case was defined as an acute generalized maculopapulovesicular rash without other apparent cause in a student attending the school from March 28 to May 17, 2015. Breakthrough varicella was defined as varicella >42 days after last vaccine dose. Vaccination information was collected from immunization records. Information on prior disease and clinical presentation was collected via survey of students’ parents. Results: Of the 1056 school students, 1028 (97.3%) reported no varicella history, of whom 364 (35.4%) had received 1-dose and 650 (63.2%) had received 2-dose varicella vaccine, for 98.6% school-wide vaccination coverage with ≥ 1 dose before the outbreak. A total of 20 cases were identified for an overall attack rate of 1.9%. The index case was in a 2-dose vaccinated student who was not isolated. The majority of cases were breakthrough (19/20, 95%) with attack rates of 7.1% (1/14), 1.6% (6/364) and 2.0% (13/650) among unvaccinated, 1-dose, and 2-dose students, respectively. Most cases had < 50 lesions (18/20, 90%). No difference was found between 1-dose and 2-dose breakthrough cases in disease severity or sociodemographic factors. Conclusion: Moderate 2-dose varicella vaccine coverage was insufficient to prevent a varicella outbreak. Two-dose breakthrough varicella is still contagious. High 2-dose varicella vaccine coverage and timely isolation of ill persons might be needed for varicella outbreak control in the 2-dose era.

Keywords: varicella, outbreak, breakthrough varicella, vaccination

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3356 Difference between 'HDR Ir-192 and Co-60 Sources' for High Dose Rate Brachytherapy Machine

Authors: Md Serajul Islam


High Dose Rate (HDR) Brachytherapy is used for cancer patients. In our country’s prospect, we are using only cervices and breast cancer treatment by using HDR. The air kerma rate in air at a reference distance of less than a meter from the source is the recommended quantity for the specification of gamma ray source Ir-192 in brachytherapy. The absorbed dose for the patients is directly proportional to the air kerma rate. Therefore the air kerma rate should be determined before the first use of the source on patients by qualified medical physicist who is independent from the source manufacturer. The air kerma rate will then be applied in the calculation of the dose delivered to patients in their planning systems. In practice, high dose rate (HDR) Ir-192 afterloader machines are mostly used in brachytherapy treatment. Currently, HDR-Co-60 increasingly comes into operation too. The essential advantage of the use of Co-60 sources is its longer half-life compared to Ir-192. The use of HDRCo-60 afterloading machines is also quite interesting for developing countries. This work describes the dosimetry at HDR afterloading machines according to the protocols IAEA-TECDOC-1274 (2002) with the nuclides Ir-192 and Co-60. We have used 3 different measurement methods (with a ring chamber, with a solid phantom and in free air and with a well chamber) in dependence of each of the protocols. We have shown that the standard deviations of the measured air kerma rate for the Co-60 source are generally larger than those of the Ir-192 source. The measurements with the well chamber had the lowest deviation from the certificate value. In all protocols and methods, the deviations stood for both nuclides by a maximum of about 1% for Ir-192 and 2.5% for Co-60-Sources respectively.

Keywords: Ir-192 source, cancer, patients, cheap treatment cost

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3355 Ethanol Chlorobenzene Dosimetr Usage for Measuring Dose of the Intraoperative Linear Electron Accelerator System

Authors: Mojtaba Barzegar, Alireza Shirazi, Saied Rabi Mahdavi


Intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT) is an innovative treatment modality that the delivery of a large single dose of radiation to the tumor bed during the surgery. The radiotherapy success depends on the absorbed dose delivered to the tumor. The achievement better accuracy in patient treatment depends upon the measured dose by standard dosimeter such as ionization chamber, but because of the high density of electric charge/pulse produced by the accelerator in the ionization chamber volume, the standard correction factor for ion recombination Ksat calculated with the classic two-voltage method is overestimated so the use of dose/pulse independent dosimeters such as chemical Fricke and ethanol chlorobenzene (ECB) dosimeters have been suggested. Dose measurement is usually calculated and calibrated in the Zmax. Ksat calculated by comparison of ion chamber response and ECB dosimeter at each applicator degree, size, and dose. The relative output factors for IORT applicators have been calculated and compared with experimentally determined values and the results simulated by Monte Carlo software. The absorbed doses have been calculated and measured with statistical uncertainties less than 0.7% and 2.5% consecutively. The relative differences between calculated and measured OF’s were up to 2.5%, for major OF’s the agreement was better. In these conditions, together with the relative absorbed dose calculations, the OF’s could be considered as an indication that the IORT electron beams have been well simulated. These investigations demonstrate the utility of the full Monte Carlo simulation of accelerator head with ECB dosimeter allow us to obtain detailed information of clinical IORT beams.

Keywords: intra operative radiotherapy, ethanol chlorobenzene, ksat, output factor, monte carlo simulation

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3354 Radiation Protection Assessment of the Emission of a d-t Neutron Generator: Simulations with MCNP Code and Experimental Measurements in Different Operating Conditions

Authors: G. M. Contessa, L. Lepore, G. Gandolfo, C. Poggi, N. Cherubini, R. Remetti, S. Sandri


Practical guidelines are provided in this work for the safe use of a portable d-t Thermo Scientific MP-320 neutron generator producing pulsed 14.1 MeV neutron beams. The neutron generator’s emission was tested experimentally and reproduced by MCNPX Monte Carlo code. Simulations were particularly accurate, even generator’s internal components were reproduced on the basis of ad-hoc collected X-ray radiographic images. Measurement campaigns were conducted under different standard experimental conditions using an LB 6411 neutron detector properly calibrated at three different energies, and comparing simulated and experimental data. In order to estimate the dose to the operator vs. the operating conditions and the energy spectrum, the most appropriate value of the conversion factor between neutron fluence and ambient dose equivalent has been identified, taking into account both direct and scattered components. The results of the simulations show that, in real situations, when there is no information about the neutron spectrum at the point where the dose has to be evaluated, it is possible - and in any case conservative - to convert the measured value of the count rate by means of the conversion factor corresponding to 14 MeV energy. This outcome has a general value when using this type of generator, enabling a more accurate design of experimental activities in different setups. The increasingly widespread use of this type of device for industrial and medical applications makes the results of this work of interest in different situations, especially as a support for the definition of appropriate radiation protection procedures and, in general, for risk analysis.

Keywords: instrumentation and monitoring, management of radiological safety, measurement of individual dose, radiation protection of workers

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3353 Assessment of Dose: Area Product of Common Radiographic Examinations in Selected Southern Nigerian Hospitals

Authors: Lateef Bamidele


Over the years, radiographic examinations are the most used diagnostic tools in the Nigerian health care system, but most diagnostic examinations carried out do not have records of patient doses. Lack of adequate information on patient doses has been a major hindrance in quantifying the radiological risk associated with radiographic examinations. This study aimed at estimating dose–area product (DAP) of patient examined in X-Ray units in selected hospitals in Southern Nigeria. The standard projections selected are chest posterior-anterior (PA), abdomen anterior-posterior (AP), pelvis AP, pelvis lateral (LAT), skull AP/PA, skull LAT, lumbar spine AP, lumbar spine, LAT. Measurement of entrance surface dose (ESD) was carried out using thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD). Measured ESDs were converted into DAP using the beam area of patients. The results show that the mean DAP ranged from 0.17 to 18.35 Gycm². The results obtained in this study when compared with those of NRPB-HPE were found to be higher. These are an indication of non optimization of operational conditions.

Keywords: dose–area product, radiographic examinations, patient doses, optimization

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3352 Analysis of Radiation-Induced Liver Disease (RILD) and Evaluation of Relationship between Therapeutic Activity and Liver Clearance Rate with Tc-99m-Mebrofenin in Yttrium-90 Microspheres Treatment

Authors: H. Tanyildizi, M. Abuqebitah, I. Cavdar, M. Demir, L. Kabasakal


Aim: Whole liver radiation has the modest benefit in the treatment of unresectable hepatic metastases but the radiation doses must keep in control. Otherwise, RILD complications may arise. In this study, we aimed to calculate amount of maximum permissible activity (MPA) and critical organ absorbed doses with MIRD methodology, to evaluate tumour doses for treatment response and whole liver doses for RILD and to find optimal liver function test additionally. Materials and Methods: This study includes 29 patients who attended our nuclear medicine department suffering from Y-90 microspheres treatment. 10 mCi Tc-99m MAA was applied to the patients for dosimetry via IV. After the injection, whole body SPECT/CT images were taken in one hour. The minimum therapeutic tumour dose is on the point of being 120 Gy1, the amount of activities were calculated with MIRD methodology considering volumetric tumour/liver rate. A sub-working group was created with 11 patients randomly and liver clearance rate with Tc-99m-Mebrofenin was calculated according to Ekman formalism. Results: The volumetric tumour/liver rates were found between 33-66% (Maksimum Tolarable Dose (MTD) 48-52Gy3) for 4 patients, were found less than 33% (MTD 72Gy3) for 25 patients. According to these results the average amount of activity, mean liver dose and mean tumour dose were found 1793.9±1.46 MBq, 32.86±0.19 Gy, and 138.26±0.40 Gy. RILD was not observed in any patient. In sub-working group, the relationship between Bilirubin, Albumin, INR (which show presence of liver disease and its degree), liver clearance with Tc-99m-Mebrofenin and calculated activity amounts were found r=0.49, r=0.27, r=0.43, r=0.57, respectively. Discussions: The minimum tumour dose was found 120 Gy for positive dose-response relation. If volumetric tumour/liver rate was > 66%, dose 30 Gy; if volumetric tumour/liver rate 33-66%, dose escalation 48 Gy; if volumetric tumour/liver rate < 33%, dose 72 Gy. These dose limitations did not create RILD. Clearance measurement with Mebrofenin was concluded that the best method to determine the liver function. Therefore, liver clearance rate with Tc-99m-Mebrofenin should be considered in calculation of yttrium-90 microspheres dosimetry.

Keywords: clearance, dosimetry, liver, RILD

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3351 Human Absorbed Dose Assessment of 68Ga-Dotatoc Based on Biodistribution Data in Syrian Rats

Authors: S. Zolghadri, M. Naderi, H. Yousefnia, A. Ramazani, A. R. Jalilian


The aim of this work was to evaluate the values of absorbed dose of 68Ga-DOTATOC in numerous human organs. 68Ga-DOTATOC was prepared with the radiochemical purity of higher than 98% and by specific activity of 39.6 MBq/nmol. The complex demonstrated great stability at room temperature and in human serum at 37° C at least 2 h after preparation. Significant uptake was observed in somatostatin receptor-positive tissues such as pancreas and adrenal. The absorbed dose received by human organs was evaluated based on biodistribution studies in Syrian rats by the radiation absorbed dose assessment resource (RADAR) method. Maximum absorbed dose was obtained in the pancreas, kidneys, and adrenal with 0.105, 0.074, and 0.010 mGy/MBq, respectively. The effective absorbed dose was 0.026 mSv/MBq for 68Ga-DOTATOC. The results showed that 68Ga-DOTATOC can be considered as a safe and effective agent for clinically PET imaging applications.

Keywords: effective absorbed dose, Ga-68, octreotide, MIRD

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3350 Comparison of the Response of TLD-100 and TLD-100H Dosimeters in Diagnostic Radiology

Authors: S. Sina, B. Zeinali, M. Karimipourfard, F. Lotfalizadeh, M. Sadeghi, E. Zamani, M. Zehtabian, R. Faghihi


Proper dosimetery is very essential in diagnostic radiology. The goal of this study is to verify the application of LiF:Mg, Cu, P (TLD100H) in obtaining the entrance skin dose (ESD) of patients undergoing diagnostic radiology. The results of dosimetry performed by TLD-100H were compared with those obtained by TLD100, which is a common dosimeter in diagnostic radiology. The results show a close agreement between the dose measured by the two dosimeters. According to the results of this study, the TLD-100H dosimeters have higher sensitivities (i.e. signal(nc)/dose) than TLD-100. Therefore, it is suggested that the TLD-100H are effective dosimeters for dosimetry in low dose fields.

Keywords: entrance skin dose, TLD, diagnostic radiology, dosimeter

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3349 Reduction of Patient’s Dose of I-131 Therapy by Used Local Diuretic Juice

Authors: Mosab kh. A. A. Bashir, E. Mohamed-Ahmed


The aim of the study is to compare the results of the external exposure and the range of the dose spread by the patients, hospitalized in two different groups of 3-5 d receiving radioiodine therapy because of thyroid cancer, and one of group were giving the local diuretic plant (barley) as local juice. The control group was 28 patients they were isolated as international precautions after taken I-131 capsule 100 mCi, and their external exposure was recorded day by day after first 24 hrs. and the distance for external measurement was 1 m at the abdominal level. The mean of external exposure values of patients at fourth day were 30.24±12.92 µSv h−1. The second group after taking I-131 capsule 100 mCi we were given barley juice (250 mL) after every meal three times on day and their external exposure was recorded day by day after first 24 hrs. The mean of external exposure values of patients of this group at third day was 26.92±9.89 (14-55) µSv h−1. It was observed that the external exposure from the second group clearly decreased to low levels which contributed to the decrease in patient dose and also to the decrease in the exposure from the patient to his/her family.

Keywords: local diuretic juice, therapy, radiation medicine, diuretic plant

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3348 Dosimetric Application of α-Al2O3:C for Food Irradiation Using TA-OSL

Authors: A. Soni, D. R. Mishra, D. K. Koul


α-Al2O3:C has been reported to have deeper traps at 600°C and 900°C respectively. These traps have been reported to accessed at relatively earlier temperatures (122 and 322 °C respectively) using thermally assisted OSL (TA-OSL). In this work, the dose response α-Al2O3:C was studied in the dose range of 10Gy to 10kGy for its application in food irradiation in low ( upto 1kGy) and medium(1 to 10kGy) dose range. The TOL (Thermo-optically stimulated luminescence) measurements were carried out on RisØ TL/OSL, TL-DA-15 system having a blue light-emitting diodes (λ=470 ±30nm) stimulation source with power level set at the 90% of the maximum stimulation intensity for the blue LEDs (40 mW/cm2). The observations were carried on commercial α-Al2O3:C phosphor. The TOL experiments were carried out with number of active channel (300) and inactive channel (1). Using these settings, the sample is subjected to linear thermal heating and constant optical stimulation. The detection filter used in all observations was a Hoya U-340 (Ip ~ 340 nm, FWHM ~ 80 nm). Irradiation of the samples was carried out using a 90Sr/90Y β-source housed in the system. A heating rate of 2 °C/s was preferred in TL measurements so as to reduce the temperature lag between the heater plate and the samples. To study the dose response of deep traps of α-Al2O3:C, samples were irradiated with various dose ranging from 10 Gy to 10 kGy. For each set of dose, three samples were irradiated. In order to record the TA-OSL, initially TL was recorded up to a temperature of 400°C, to deplete the signal due to 185°C main dosimetry TL peak in α-Al2O3:C, which is also associated with the basic OSL traps. After taking TL readout, the sample was subsequently subjected to TOL measurement. As a result, two well-defined TA-OSL peaks at 121°C and at 232°C occur in time as well as temperature domain which are different from the main dosimetric TL peak which occurs at ~ 185°C. The linearity of the integrated TOL signal has been measured as a function of absorbed dose and found to be linear upto 10kGy. Thus, it can be used for low and intermediate dose range of for its application in food irradiation. The deep energy level defects of α-Al2O3:C phosphor can be accessed using TOL section of RisØ reader system.

Keywords: α-Al2O3:C, deep traps, food irradiation, TA-OSL

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3347 Optical Properties of N-(Hydroxymethyl) Acrylamide Polymer Gel Dosimeters for Radiation Therapy

Authors: Khalid A. Rabaeh, Belal Moftah, Ahmed A. Basfar, Akram A. Almousa


Polymer gel dosimeters are tissue equivalent martial that fabricated from radiation sensitive chemicals which, upon irradiation, polymerize as a function of absorbed radiation dose. Polymer gel dosimeters can uniquely record the radiation dose distribution in three-dimensions (3D). A novel composition of normoxic polymer gel dosimeters based on radiation-induced polymerization of N-(Hydroxymethyl)acrylamide (NHMA) is introduced in this study for radiotherapy treatment planning. The dosimeters were irradiated by 10 MV photon beam of a medical linear accelerator at a constant dose rate of 600 cGy/min with doses up to 30 Gy. The polymerization degree is directly proportional to absorbed dose received by the polymer gel. UV/Vis spectrophotometer was used to investigate the degree of white color of irradiated NHMA gel which is associated to the degree of polymerization of polymer gel dosimeters. The absorbance increases with absorbed dose for all gel dosimeters in the dose range between 0 and 30 Gy. Dose rate , energy of radiation and the stability of the polymerization after irradiation were investigated. No appreciable effects of these parameters on the performance of the novel gel dosimeters were observed.

Keywords: dosimeter, gel, spectrophotometer, N-(Hydroxymethyl)acrylamide

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3346 An Infrared Inorganic Scintillating Detector Applied in Radiation Therapy

Authors: Sree Bash Chandra Debnath, Didier Tonneau, Carole Fauquet, Agnes Tallet, Julien Darreon


Purpose: Inorganic scintillating dosimetry is the most recent promising technique to solve several dosimetric issues and provide quality assurance in radiation therapy. Despite several advantages, the major issue of using scintillating detectors is the Cerenkov effect, typically induced in the visible emission range. In this context, the purpose of this research work is to evaluate the performance of a novel infrared inorganic scintillator detector (IR-ISD) in the radiation therapy treatment to ensure Cerenkov free signal and the best matches between the delivered and prescribed doses during treatment. Methods: A simple and small-scale infrared inorganic scintillating detector of 100 µm diameter with a sensitive scintillating volume of 2x10-6 mm3 was developed. A prototype of the dose verification system has been introduced based on PTIR1470/F (provided by Phosphor Technology®) material used in the proposed novel IR-ISD. The detector was tested on an Elekta LINAC system tuned at 6 MV/15MV and a brachytherapy source (Ir-192) used in the patient treatment protocol. The associated dose rate was measured in count rate (photons/s) using a highly sensitive photon counter (sensitivity ~20ph/s). Overall measurements were performed in IBATM water tank phantoms by following international Technical Reports series recommendations (TRS 381) for radiotherapy and TG43U1 recommendations for brachytherapy. The performance of the detector was tested through several dosimetric parameters such as PDD, beam profiling, Cerenkov measurement, dose linearity, dose rate linearity repeatability, and scintillator stability. Finally, a comparative study is also shown using a reference microdiamond dosimeter, Monte-Carlo (MC) simulation, and data from recent literature. Results: This study is highlighting the complete removal of the Cerenkov effect especially for small field radiation beam characterization. The detector provides an entire linear response with the dose in the 4cGy to 800 cGy range, independently of the field size selected from 5 x 5 cm² down to 0.5 x 0.5 cm². A perfect repeatability (0.2 % variation from average) with day-to-day reproducibility (0.3% variation) was observed. Measurements demonstrated that ISD has superlinear behavior with dose rate (R2=1) varying from 50 cGy/s to 1000 cGy/s. PDD profiles obtained in water present identical behavior with a build-up maximum depth dose at 15 mm for different small fields irradiation. A low dimension of 0.5 x 0.5 cm² field profiles have been characterized, and the field cross profile presents a Gaussian-like shape. The standard deviation (1σ) of the scintillating signal remains within 0.02% while having a very low convolution effect, thanks to lower sensitive volume. Finally, during brachytherapy, a comparison with MC simulations shows that considering energy dependency, measurement agrees within 0.8% till 0.2 cm source to detector distance. Conclusion: The proposed scintillating detector in this study shows no- Cerenkov radiation and efficient performance for several radiation therapy measurement parameters. Therefore, it is anticipated that the IR-ISD system can be promoted to validate with direct clinical investigations, such as appropriate dose verification and quality control in the Treatment Planning System (TPS).

Keywords: IR-Scintillating detector, dose measurement, micro-scintillators, Cerenkov effect

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3345 Application of Nonlinear Model to Optimize the Coagulant Dose in Drinking Water Treatment

Authors: M. Derraz, M.Farhaoui


In the water treatment processes, the determination of the optimal dose of the coagulant is an issue of particular concern. Coagulant dosing is correlated to raw water quality which depends on some parameters (turbidity, ph, temperature, conductivity…). The objective of this study is to provide water treatment operators with a tool that enables to predict and replace, sometimes, the manual method (jar testing) used in this plant to predict the optimum coagulant dose. The model is constructed using actual process data for a water treatment plant located in the middle of Morocco (Meknes).

Keywords: coagulation process, aluminum sulfate, model, coagulant dose

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3344 Estimation of Effective Radiation Dose Following Computed Tomography Urography at Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano Nigeria

Authors: Idris Garba, Aisha Rabiu Abdullahi, Mansur Yahuza, Akintade Dare


Background: CT urography (CTU) is efficient radiological examination for the evaluation of the urinary system disorders. However, patients are exposed to a significant radiation dose which is in a way associated with increased cancer risks. Objectives: To determine Computed Tomography Dose Index following CTU, and to evaluate organs equivalent doses. Materials and Methods: A prospective cohort study was carried at a tertiary institution located in Kano northwestern. Ethical clearance was sought and obtained from the research ethics board of the institution. Demographic, scan parameters and CT radiation dose data were obtained from patients that had CTU procedure. Effective dose, organ equivalent doses, and cancer risks were estimated using SPSS statistical software version 16 and CT dose calculator software. Result: A total of 56 patients were included in the study, consisting of 29 males and 27 females. The common indication for CTU examination was found to be renal cyst seen commonly among young adults (15-44yrs). CT radiation dose values in DLP, CTDI and effective dose for CTU were 2320 mGy cm, CTDIw 9.67 mGy and 35.04 mSv respectively. The probability of cancer risks was estimated to be 600 per a million CTU examinations. Conclusion: In this study, the radiation dose for CTU is considered significantly high, with increase in cancer risks probability. Wide radiation dose variations between patient doses suggest that optimization is not fulfilled yet. Patient radiation dose estimate should be taken into consideration when imaging protocols are established for CT urography.

Keywords: CT urography, cancer risks, effective dose, radiation exposure

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3343 Calculation of Organ Dose for Adult and Pediatric Patients Undergoing Computed Tomography Examinations: A Software Comparison

Authors: Aya Al Masri, Naima Oubenali, Safoin Aktaou, Thibault Julien, Malorie Martin, Fouad Maaloul


Introduction: The increased number of performed 'Computed Tomography (CT)' examinations raise public concerns regarding associated stochastic risk to patients. In its Publication 102, the ‘International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP)’ emphasized the importance of managing patient dose, particularly from repeated or multiple examinations. We developed a Dose Archiving and Communication System that gives multiple dose indexes (organ dose, effective dose, and skin-dose mapping) for patients undergoing radiological imaging exams. The aim of this study is to compare the organ dose values given by our software for patients undergoing CT exams with those of another software named "VirtualDose". Materials and methods: Our software uses Monte Carlo simulations to calculate organ doses for patients undergoing computed tomography examinations. The general calculation principle consists to simulate: (1) the scanner machine with all its technical specifications and associated irradiation cases (kVp, field collimation, mAs, pitch ...) (2) detailed geometric and compositional information of dozens of well identified organs of computational hybrid phantoms that contain the necessary anatomical data. The mass as well as the elemental composition of the tissues and organs that constitute our phantoms correspond to the recommendations of the international organizations (namely the ICRP and the ICRU). Their body dimensions correspond to reference data developed in the United States. Simulated data was verified by clinical measurement. To perform the comparison, 270 adult patients and 150 pediatric patients were used, whose data corresponds to exams carried out in France hospital centers. The comparison dataset of adult patients includes adult males and females for three different scanner machines and three different acquisition protocols (Head, Chest, and Chest-Abdomen-Pelvis). The comparison sample of pediatric patients includes the exams of thirty patients for each of the following age groups: new born, 1-2 years, 3-7 years, 8-12 years, and 13-16 years. The comparison for pediatric patients were performed on the “Head” protocol. The percentage of the dose difference were calculated for organs receiving a significant dose according to the acquisition protocol (80% of the maximal dose). Results: Adult patients: for organs that are completely covered by the scan range, the maximum percentage of dose difference between the two software is 27 %. However, there are three organs situated at the edges of the scan range that show a slightly higher dose difference. Pediatric patients: the percentage of dose difference between the two software does not exceed 30%. These dose differences may be due to the use of two different generations of hybrid phantoms by the two software. Conclusion: This study shows that our software provides a reliable dosimetric information for patients undergoing Computed Tomography exams.

Keywords: adult and pediatric patients, computed tomography, organ dose calculation, software comparison

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3342 Comparative Study of Dose Calculation Accuracy in Bone Marrow Using Monte Carlo Method

Authors: Marzieh Jafarzadeh, Fatemeh Rezaee


Introduction: The effect of ionizing radiation on human health can be effective for genomic integrity and cell viability. It also increases the risk of cancer and malignancy. Therefore, X-ray behavior and absorption dose calculation are considered. One of the applicable tools for calculating and evaluating the absorption dose in human tissues is Monte Carlo simulation. Monte Carlo offers a straightforward way to simulate and integrate, and because it is simple and straightforward, Monte Carlo is easy to use. The Monte Carlo BEAMnrc code is one of the most common diagnostic X-ray simulation codes used in this study. Method: In one of the understudy hospitals, a certain number of CT scan images of patients who had previously been imaged were extracted from the hospital database. BEAMnrc software was used for simulation. The simulation of the head of the device with the energy of 0.09 MeV with 500 million particles was performed, and the output data obtained from the simulation was applied for phantom construction using CT CREATE software. The percentage of depth dose (PDD) was calculated using STATE DOSE was then compared with international standard values. Results and Discussion: The ratio of surface dose to depth dose (D/Ds) in the measured energy was estimated to be about 4% to 8% for bone and 3% to 7% for bone marrow. Conclusion: MC simulation is an efficient and accurate method for simulating bone marrow and calculating the absorbed dose.

Keywords: Monte Carlo, absorption dose, BEAMnrc, bone marrow

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