Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4664

Search results for: general surgery

4664 The Breast Surgery Movement: A 50 Year Development of the Surgical Specialty

Authors: Lauren Zammerilla Westcott, Ronald C. Jones, James W. Fleshman


The surgical treatment of breast cancer has rapidly evolved over the past 50 years, progressing from Halsted’s radical mastectomy to a public campaign of surgical options, aesthetic reconstruction, and patient empowerment. This article examines the happenings that led to the transition of breast surgery as a subset of general surgery to its own specialized field. Sparked by the research of Dr. Bernard Fisher and the first National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project trial in 1971, the field of breast surgery underwent significant growth over the next several decades, enabling general surgeons to limit their practices to the breast. High surgical volumes eventually led to the development of the first formal breast surgical oncology fellowship in a large community-based hospital at Baylor University Medical Center in 1982. The establishment of the American Society of Breast Surgeons, as well several landmark clinical trials and public campaign efforts, further contributed to the advancement of breast surgery, making it the specialized field of the current era.

Keywords: breast cancer, breast fellowship, breast surgery, surgical history

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4663 Surgical Applied Anatomy: Alive and Kicking

Authors: Jake Hindmarch, Edward Farley, Norman Eizenberg, Mark Midwinter


There is a need to bring the anatomical knowledge of medical students up to the standards required by surgical specialties. Contention exists amongst anatomists, clinicians, and surgeons about the standard of anatomical knowledge medical students need. The aim of this study was to explore the standards which the Royal Australasian College of Surgeons are applying knowledge of anatomy. Furthermore, to align medical school teaching to what the surgical profession requires from graduates.: The 2018 volume of the ANZ Journal of Surgery was narrowed down to 254 articles by applying the search term “Anatomy”. The main topic was then extracted from each paper. The content of the paper was assessed for ‘novel description’ or ‘application’ of anatomical knowledge’ and classified accordingly. The majority of papers with an anatomical focus was from the general surgery specialty, which focused on surgical techniques, outcomes and management. Vascular surgery had the highest percentage of papers with a novel description and application of anatomy. Cardiothoracic and paediatric surgery had no papers with a novel description of anatomy. Finally, a novel application of anatomy was the main focus of each speciality. Firstly, a high proportion of novel applications and descriptions of anatomy are in general surgery. Secondly, vascular surgery had the largest proportion of novel application and description of anatomy, namely due to the rise of therapeutic imaging and endovascular techniques. Finally, all disciplines demonstrated a trend towards having a higher proportion of novel application of anatomical knowledge

Keywords: anatomical knowledge, anatomy, surgery, novel anatomy

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4662 Antiplatelets and Anticoagulants in Rural Emergency General Surgery

Authors: Jeong-Moh John Yahng, Angelika Na


Introduction: Increasing numbers of general surgical patients are being prescribed antiplatelet and anticoagulant medications (APAC) for various cardiovascular and cerebrovascular conditions. Surgical patients who are on APAC present a management challenge as bleeding risk needs to be balanced with thromboembolic risk. Although guidelines exist in regards to APAC management in elective surgery, there is a lack of guidelines in the emergency surgery setting. In this study we aim to characterise APAC usage in emergency general surgical patients admitted to a rural hospital. We also assess the impact of APAC usage on clinical management of these patients. Methods: Prospective study of emergency general surgical admissions at Northeast Health Wangaratta (Victoria) from 2 July to 25 Oct 2014. Questionnaire collected demographics data, admission diagnosis, APAC usage, anaesthesia techniques, operation types, transfusion requirement and morbidity / mortality data. Results: During the 4 month study, 118 patients were classified into two groups: non-APAC (n=96, 81%) and APAC (n=22, 19%). Patients in the APAC group were older compared to the non-APAC patients (mean age 72 vs 42 years old). Amongst patients younger than 60 years old, only 1% of them were on APAC. In contrast, 49% of patients older than 60 years old were on APAC (p<0.001). Patients who were admitted with a bleeding problem were more likely to be on APAC (p<0.05). 19% of emergency general surgery patients were on APAC. The majority (91%) of them were on antiplatelet medication, with two patients being on dual antiplatelet agents (aspirin + clopidogrel or ticagrelor). 15% of emergency general surgical patients requiring operations were on APAC. 11% of all laparotomies and 33% of gastroscopy for haematemesis/melaena patients were on APAC. Both of the patients operated for bleeding following surgery at another hospital were in the APAC group. In regards to impact on clinical management, 59% of APAC patients had their medications interrupted or ceased, on average by 3.5 days (range 1-13 days). 2 out of 75 operations were delayed due to APAC usage. There was no difference in the use of central venous or arterial line for increased monitoring (p=0.14) or in the use of warming blanket (Bair Hugger™) (p=0.94). Overall, transfusion rate was higher amongst APAC patients (14% vs 3%) (p 0.04). The recorded morbidity (n=2) and mortality (n=1) in this study were all in the APAC group. Discussion: Nineteen percent of emergency general surgical admissions and fifteen percent of operated patients were on APAC. The prevalence of APAC usage was higher in those aged sixty and above. General surgical patients who were admitted with a bleeding problem were more likely to be on APAC. Two patients who were operated for bleeding following surgery at another hospital were in the APAC group. Note that there was no patient in the non-APAC group who was admitted for post-operative bleeding. We observed two cases in which operation was delayed due to APAC usage. Transfusion, morbidity and mortality rate were higher in the APAC group. Conclusion: In this study, nineteen percent of emergency general surgical admissions were on APAC. The use of APAC is more prevalent in the older age group, particularly those aged sixty and above. Higher proportion of APAC compared to non-APAC patients were admitted and operated for bleeding problems. There is an urgent need for clinical guidelines regarding APAC management in emergency general surgical patients.

Keywords: antiplatelet, anticoagulants, emergency general surgery, rural general surgery, morbidity, mortality

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4661 Improving the Weekend Handover in General Surgery: A Quality Improvement Project

Authors: Michael Ward, Eliana Kalakouti, Andrew Alabi


Aim: The handover process is recognized as a vulnerable step in the patient care pathway where errors are likely to occur. As such, it is a major preventable cause of patient harm due to human factors of poor communication and systematic error. The aim of this study was to audit the general surgery department’s weekend handover process compared to the recommended criteria for safe handover as set out by the Royal College of Surgeons (RCS). Method: A retrospective audit of the General Surgery department’s Friday patient lists and patient medical notes used for weekend handover in a London-based District General Hospital (DGH). Medical notes were analyzed against RCS's suggested criteria for handover. A standardized paper weekend handover proforma was then developed in accordance with guidelines and circulated in the department. A post-intervention audit was then conducted using the same methods for cycle 1. For cycle 2, we introduced an electronic weekend handover tool along with Electronic Patient Records (EPR). After a one-month period, a second post-intervention audit was conducted. Results: Following cycle 1, the paper weekend handover proforma was only used in 23% of patient notes. However, when it was used, 100% of them had a plan for the weekend, diagnosis and location but only 40% documented potential discharge status and 40% ceiling of care status. Qualitative feedback was that it was time-consuming to fill out. Better results were achieved following cycle 2, with 100% of patient notes having the electronic proforma. Results improved with every patient having documented ceiling of care, discharge status and location. Only 55% of patients had a past surgical history; however, this was still an increase when compared to paper proforma (45%). When comparing electronic versus paper proforma, there was an increase in documentation in every domain of the handover outlined by RCS with an average relative increase of 1.72 times (p<0.05). Qualitative feedback was that the autofill function made it easy to use and simple to view. Conclusion: These results demonstrate that the implementation of an electronic autofill handover proforma significantly improved handover compliance with RCS guidelines, thereby improving the transmission of information from week-day to weekend teams.

Keywords: surgery, handover, proforma, electronic handover, weekend, general surgery

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4660 Local and Systemic Complications after Resection of Rectal Cancer in the Department of General and Abdominal Surgery University Clinical Center Maribor between 2004 and 2014

Authors: Nuhi Arslani, Stojan Potrc, Timotej Mikuljan


Background: In Department of Abdominal and General Surgery of University Medical Centre Maribor, we treated 578 patients for rectal cancer between 2004 and 2014. During and after treatment we especially concentrated on monitoring local and systemic complications. Methods: For analysis, we used data gathered from preoperative diagnostic tests, reports gathered during operation, reports from the pathohistologic review, and reports on complications after surgery and follow up. Results: In the case of 573 (out of 578) patients (99.1%) we performed resection. R0 was achieved in 551 patients (96,1%). R1 was achieved in 8 patients (1,4%). R2 was achieved in 14 patients (2,4%). Local complications were reported in 78 (13.5%) patients and systemic complications were reported in 68 (11.7%). We would like to point out the low number of local and systemic complications. Conclusions: With advances in surgical techniques, with a multimodal-multidisciplinary approach and with the use of total mesorectal excision we experienced a significant improvement in reducing the number of local and systemic complications in patients with rectal cancer. However, there still remains the question for truly optimal care for each patient with rectal cancer and his quality of life after surgical treatment.

Keywords: local complications, rectal cancer, resection, systemic complications

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4659 Arginase Activity and Nitric Oxide Levels in Patients Undergoing Open Heart Surgery with Cardiopulmonary Bypass

Authors: Mehmet Ali Kisaçam, P. Sema Temizer Ozan, Ayşe Doğan, Gonca Ozan, F. Sarper Türker


Cardiovascular disease which is one of the most common health problems worldwide has crucial importance because of its’ morbidity and mortality rates. Nitric oxide synthase and arginase use L-arginine as a substrate and produce nitric oxide (NO), citrulline and urea, ornithine respectively. Endothelial dysfunction is characterized by reduced bioavailability of vasodilator and anti-inflammatory molecule NO. The purpose of the study to assess endothelial function via arginase activity and NO levels in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery. The study was conducted on 26 patients (14 male, 12 female) undergoing CABG surgery. Blood samples were collected from the subjects before surgery, after the termination and after 24 hours of the surgery. Arginase activity and NO levels measured in collected samples spectrophotometrically. Arginase activity decreased significantly in subjects after the termination of the surgery compared to before surgery data. 24 hours after the surgery there wasn’t any significance in arginase activity as it compared to before surgery and after the termination of the surgery. On the other hand, NO levels increased significantly in the subject after the termination of the surgery. However there was no significant increase in NO levels after 24 hours of the surgery, but there was an insignificant increase compared to before surgery data. The results indicate that after the termination of the surgery vascular and endothelial function improved and after 24 hours of the surgery arginase activity and NO levels returned to normal.

Keywords: arginase, bypass, cordiopulmonary, nitric oxide

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4658 Regional Anesthesia in Carotid Surgery: A Single Center Experience

Authors: Daniel Thompson, Muhammad Peerbux, Sophie Cerutti, Hansraj Riteesh Bookun


Patients with carotid stenosis, which may be asymptomatic or symptomatic in the form of transient ischaemic attack (TIA), amaurosis fugax, or stroke, often require an endarterectomy to reduce stroke risk. Risks of this procedure include stroke, death, myocardial infarction, and cranial nerve damage. Carotid endarterectomy is most commonly performed under general anaesthetic, however, it can also be undertaken with a regional anaesthetic approach. Our tertiary centre generally performs carotid endarterectomy under regional anaesthetic. Our major tertiary hospital mostly utilises regional anaesthesia for carotid endarterectomy. We completed a cross-sectional analysis of all cases of carotid endarterectomy performed under regional anaesthesia across a 10-year period between January 2010 to March 2020 at our institution. 350 patients were included in this descriptive analysis, and demographic details for patients, indications for surgery, procedural details, length of surgery, and complications were collected. Data was cross tabulated and presented in frequency tables to describe these categorical variables. 263 of the 350 patients in the analysis were male, with a mean age of 71 ± 9. 172 patients had a history of ischaemic heart disease, 104 had diabetes mellitus, 318 had hypertension, and 17 patients had chronic kidney disease greater than Stage 3. 13.1% (46 patients) were current smokers, and the majority (63%) were ex-smokers. Most commonly, carotid endarterectomy was performed conventionally with patch arterioplasty 96% of the time (337 patients). The most common indication was TIA and stroke in 64% of patients, 18.9% were classified as asymptomatic, and 13.7% had amaurosis fugax. There were few general complications, with 9 wound complications/infections, 7 postoperative haematomas requiring return to theatre, 3 myocardial infarctions, 3 arrhythmias, 1 exacerbation of congestive heart failure, 1 chest infection, and 1 urinary tract infection. Specific complications to carotid endarterectomy included 3 strokes, 1 postoperative TIA, and 1 cerebral bleed. There were no deaths in our cohort. This analysis of a large cohort of patients from a major tertiary centre who underwent carotid endarterectomy under regional anaesthesia indicates the safety of such an approach for these patients. Regional anaesthesia holds the promise of less general respiratory and cardiac events compared to general anaesthesia, and in this vulnerable patient group, calls for comparative research between local and general anaesthesia in carotid surgery.

Keywords: anaesthesia, carotid endarterectomy, stroke, carotid stenosis

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4657 Case Report: Opioid Sparing Anaesthesia with Dexmedetomidine in General Surgery

Authors: Shang Yee Chong


Perioperative pain is a complex mechanism activated by various nociceptive, neuropathic, and inflammatory pathways. Opioids have long been a mainstay for analgesia in this period, even as we are continuously moving towards a multimodal model to improve pain control while minimising side effects. Dexmedetomidine, a potent alpha-2 agonist, is a useful sedative and hypnotic agent. Its use in the intensive care unit has been well described, and it is increasingly an adjunct intraoperatively for its opioid sparing effects and to decrease pain scores. We describe a case of a general surgical patient in whom minimal opioids was required with dexmedetomidine use. The patient was a 61-year-old Indian gentleman with a history of hyperlipidaemia and type 2 diabetes mellitus, presenting with rectal adenocarcinoma detected on colonoscopy. He was scheduled for a robotic ultra-low anterior resection. The patient was induced with intravenous fentanyl 75mcg, propofol 160mg and atracurium 40mg. He was intubated conventionally and mechanically ventilated. Anaesthesia was maintained with inhalational desflurane and anaesthetic depth was measured with the Masimo EEG Sedline brain function monitor. An initial intravenous dexmedetomidine dose (bolus) of 1ug/kg for 10 minutes was given prior to anaesthetic induction and thereafter, an infusion of 0.2-0.4ug/kg/hr to the end of surgery. In addition, a bolus dose of intravenous lignocaine 1.5mg/kg followed by an infusion at 1mg/kg/hr throughout the surgery was administered. A total of 10mmol of magnesium sulphate and intravenous paracetamol 1000mg were also given for analgesia. There were no significant episodes of bradycardia or hypotension. A total of intravenous phenylephrine 650mcg was given throughout to maintain the patient’s mean arterial pressure within 10-15mmHg of baseline. The surgical time lasted for 5 hours and 40minutes. Postoperatively the patient was reversed and extubated successfully. He was alert and comfortable and pain scores were minimal in the immediate post op period in the postoperative recovery unit. Time to first analgesia was 4 hours postoperatively – with paracetamol 1g administered. This was given at 6 hourly intervals strictly for 5 days post surgery, along with celecoxib 200mg BD as prescribed by the surgeon regardless of pain scores. Oral oxycodone was prescribed as a rescue analgesic for pain scores > 3/10, but the patient did not require any dose. Neither was there nausea or vomiting. The patient was discharged on postoperative day 5. This case has reinforced the use of dexmedetomidine as an adjunct in general surgery cases, highlighting its excellent opioid-sparing effects. In the entire patient’s hospital stay, the only dose of opioid he received was 75mcg of fentanyl at the time of anaesthetic induction. The patient suffered no opioid adverse effects such as nausea, vomiting or postoperative ileus, and pain scores varied from 0-2/10. However, intravenous lignocaine infusion was also used in this instance, which would have helped improve pain scores. Paracetamol, lignocaine, and dexmedetomidine is thus an effective, opioid-sparing combination of multi-modal analgesia for major abdominal surgery cases.

Keywords: analgesia, dexmedetomidine, general surgery, opioid sparing

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4656 Common Causes of Eye Removal Surgery in Turkish Patients: A Review of 226 Cases

Authors: Titap Yazicioglu


Purpose: To determine the etiological factors responsible for the eye removal surgery and to evaluate our surgical results. Material and Methods: Medical records of 226 patients, who underwent eye removal surgery, were analyzed retrospectively. Demographic information, clinical history, surgical procedure, and histopathological data were all collected. Evisceration surgery was performed under general anesthesia in all patients except tumor cases and one patient with rhino-orbital mucormycosis. The patients were followed for an average of 16.46±10.78 months and checked for the possible complications, cosmesis, and functional results.Results: 144 men, and 82 women,with a mean age of 41.78±22.6 years, were underwent enucleation (n=15) or evisceration (n=211) due to traumatic (n=169) and non-traumatic (n=57) causes. In the traumatic group, 79.8% of 169 patients were injured by penetrating and 14.2% by blunt trauma.3.6% of the patients were injured in a traffic accident, and 2.4% of them were injured by explosives. In the non-traumatic group, 40% of 25 patients had post-traumatic endophthalmitis, 32% had endophthalmitis due to corneal ulceration and melting, and 24% had endophthalmitis after cataract surgery. One patient had panophthalmitis due to rhino-orbital mucormycosis. Another cause in the non-traumatic group was glaucoma, of which 92.3% had neovascular glaucoma, and 8.7% had congenital glaucoma. Of the 14 patients who were enucleated for tumor, 35.7% had retinoblastoma, 14.3% had medulloepithelioma, 42.9% had uveal melanoma, and 7.1% had metastatic tumor from paranasal sinuses.The most common complaint in the follow-up period was discharging, seen in all prosthesis-wearing patients. 13.3% of the patients had itching due to ocular prosthesis. 4.4% of the patients were complaining about deep superior sulcus. 4.4% had pyogenic granuloma, and 17.8% had implant exposure. Conclusion: Etiological factors should be carefully evaluated, and precautions should be taken in order to reduce the devastating effect of the physical loss of the eye.

Keywords: enucleation, evisceration, ocular injury, etiology, frequency

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4655 Prediction of Survival Rate after Gastrointestinal Surgery Based on The New Japanese Association for Acute Medicine (JAAM Score) With Neural Network Classification Method

Authors: Ayu Nabila Kusuma Pradana, Aprinaldi Jasa Mantau, Tomohiko Akahoshi


The incidence of Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) following gastrointestinal surgery has a poor prognosis. Therefore, it is important to determine the factors that can predict the prognosis of DIC. This study will investigate the factors that may influence the outcome of DIC in patients after gastrointestinal surgery. Eighty-one patients were admitted to the intensive care unit after gastrointestinal surgery in Kyushu University Hospital from 2003 to 2021. Acute DIC scores were estimated using the new Japanese Association for Acute Medicine (JAAM) score from before and after surgery from day 1, day 3, and day 7. Acute DIC scores will be compared with The Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score, platelet count, lactate level, and a variety of biochemical parameters. This study applied machine learning algorithms to predict the prognosis of DIC after gastrointestinal surgery. The results of this study are expected to be used as an indicator for evaluating patient prognosis so that it can increase life expectancy and reduce mortality from cases of DIC patients after gastrointestinal surgery.

Keywords: the survival rate, gastrointestinal surgery, JAAM score, neural network, machine learning, disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC)

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4654 Patient Reported Experience of in-Patient Orthognathic Care in an NHS Hospital, in Comparison to a Private Hospital

Authors: R. Litt, A. Kana, K. House


The primary aim of this patient-related experience questionnaire was to gain a better understanding of our patients' experience as inpatients when they undergo orthognathic surgery. The secondary aim of this study was to identify ways in which we can improve the orthognathic inpatient experience and to share this with other units. All patients who received orthognathic surgery at an NHS hospital - Bristol Royal Infirmary, England, over the course of 6 months were asked to complete a questionnaire regarding their care. This data was then analysed and compared to the same questionnaire given to patients treated in a private hospital where orthognathic surgery was completed. All treatment was completed by the same surgeon. The design of the questions took into account NICE (National Institute for Health and Care Excellence) guidance on improving the experience of patient care. Particularly taking into account patients' essential requirements of care, for example, assessing and managing pain, ensuring adequate and appropriate nutrition, and ensuring the patients' personal needs are regularly reviewed and addressed. Overall the patient-related experience after orthognathic surgery was comparable in both the NHS and private hospitals. However, the questionnaire highlighted aspects of inpatient care after orthognathic surgery that can easily be improved in order to provide our patients with the best possible care.

Keywords: orthognathic surgery, patient feedback, jaw surgery, inpatient experience

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4653 Concept of Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion Cage Insertion Device

Authors: Sangram A. Sathe, Neha A. Madgulkar, Shruti S. Raut, S. P. Wadkar


Transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) surgeries have nowadays became popular for treatment of degenerated spinal disorders. The interbody fusion technique like TLIF maintains load bearing capacity of the spine and a suitable disc height. Currently many techniques have been introduced to cure Spondylolisthesis. This surgery provides greater rehabilitation of degenerative spines. While performing this TLIF surgery existing methods use guideway, which is a troublesome surgery technique as the use of two separate instruments is required to perform this surgery. This paper presents a concept which eliminates the use of guideway. This concept also eliminates problems that occur like reverting the cage. The concept discussed in this paper also gives high accuracy while performing surgery.

Keywords: TLIF, spondylolisthesis, spine, instruments

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4652 A Possible Connection Between Taste Change and Zinc Deficiency after Bariatric Surgery: A Literature Review

Authors: Boshra Mozaffar, Iskandar Idris


Taste change is a common complication after Bariatric surgery (BS). However, the cause of this is still not clear. Since zinc is important fortaste perception, zinc deficiency, which is common after BS, may play an important role for taste change after BS. In this review, we aimto collate evidence relating to taste change and zinc deficiencyin relation to BS; effects of zinc replacement on taste perception in general and thereafter discuss the possible role of zinc deficiency to induce taste change after BS. A literature search was conducted, using four electronic bibliographical databases—EMBASE, PubMed, AMED and MEDLINE. We identified all available and relevant articles published before 30th February 2021.In total, 33 studies were included. The total number of participants analysed was N= 3264. We showed that taste change is a frequent complication after BS, especially after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass RYGBP comparing to other types of procedures. Patients' taste sensitivity differs among studies, but the most important decline in taste preference was observed for sweet food. Twelve studies investigating zinc deficiency following BS showed a significant decrease in zinc levels at six months after surgery. Supplementation with 45–50 mg of zinc sulphate was effective in improving taste, except in cancer patients, who showed no improvement in taste following zinc supplementation. Zinc deficiency appears to be associated with taste change after BS. Supplementation with much higher levels of zinc, at 45–50 mg, was effective in taste change treatment for many cases of taste disorder. The currently recommended levels of zinc replacements currently prescribed to patients following BS were not effective for avoiding zinc deficiency after BS—and thus not effective for averting taste change. It is therefore suggested that taste change following BS is closely related to zinc deficiency induced by the surgery.

Keywords: taste change, taste disorder, bariatric surgery, zinc, zinc sulphate or Zn, deficiency, supplementation, and micro-nutrient deficiencies

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4651 Predictors of Behavior Modification Prior to Bariatric Surgery

Authors: Rosemarie Basile, Maria Loizos, John Pallarino, Karen Gibbs


Given that complications can be significant following bariatric surgery and with rates of long-term success measured in excess weight loss varying as low as 33% after five years, an understanding of the psychological factors that may mitigate findings and increase success and result in better screening and supports prior to surgery are critical. An internally oriented locus of control (LOC) has been identified as a predictor for success in obesity therapy, but has not been investigated within the context of bariatric surgery. It is hypothesized that making behavioral changes prior to surgery which mirror those that are required post-surgery may ultimately predict long-term success. 122 subjects participated in a clinical interview and completed self-report measures including the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scale, Overeating Questionnaire (OQ), and Lifestyle Questionnaire (LQ). Pearson correlations were computed between locus of control orientation and likelihood to make behavior changes prior to surgery. Pearson correlations revealed a positive correlation between locus of control and likelihood to make behavior changes r = 0.23, p < .05. As hypothesized, there was a significant correlation between internal locus of control and likelihood to make behavior changes. Participants with a higher LOC believe that they are able to make decisions about their own health. Future research will focus on whether this positive correlation is a predictor for future bariatric surgery success.

Keywords: bariatric surgery, behavior modification, health locus of control, overeating questionnaire

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4650 Management of Acute Biliary Pathology at Gozo General Hospital

Authors: Kristian Bugeja, Upeshala A. Jayawardena, Clarissa Fenech, Mark Zammit Vincenti


Introduction: Biliary colic, acute cholecystitis, and gallstone pancreatitis are some of the most common surgical presentations at Gozo General Hospital (GGH). National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guidelines advise that suitable patients with acute biliary problems should be offered a laparoscopic cholecystectomy within one week of diagnosis. There has traditionally been difficulty in achieving this mainly due to the reluctance of some surgeons to operate in the acute setting, limited, timely access to MRCP and ERCP, and organizational issues. Methodology: A retrospective study was performed involving all biliary pathology-related admissions to GGH during the two-year period of 2019 and 2020. Patients’ files and electronic case summary (ECS) were used for data collection, which included demographic data, primary diagnosis, co-morbidities, management, waiting time to surgery, length of stay, readmissions, and reason for readmissions. NICE clinical guidance 188 – Gallstone disease were used as the standard. Results: 51 patients were included in the study. The mean age was 58 years, and 35 (68.6%) were female. The main diagnoses on admission were biliary colic in 31 (60.8%), acute cholecystitis in 10 (19.6%). Others included gallstone pancreatitis in 3 (5.89%), chronic cholecystitis in 2 (3.92%), gall bladder malignancy in 4 (7.84%), and ascending cholangitis in 1 (1.97%). Management included laparoscopic cholecystectomy in 34 (66.7%); conservative in 8 (15.7%) and ERCP in 6 (11.7%). The mean waiting time for laparoscopic cholecystectomy for patients with acute cholecystitis was 74 days – range being between 3 and 146 days since the date of diagnosis. Only one patient who was diagnosed with acute cholecystitis and managed with laparoscopic cholecystectomy was done so within the 7-day time frame. Hospital re-admissions were reported in 5 patients (9.8%) due to vomiting (1), ascending cholangitis (1), and gallstone pancreatitis (3). Discussion: Guidelines were not met for patients presenting to Gozo General Hospital with acute biliary pathology. This resulted in 5 patients being re-admitted to hospital while waiting for definitive surgery. The local issues resulting in the delay to surgery need to be identified and steps are taken to facilitate the provision of urgent cholecystectomy for suitable patients.

Keywords: biliary colic, acute cholecystits, laparoscopic cholecystectomy, conservative management

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4649 Role of Bariatric Surgery in Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome &Infertility

Authors: Ahuja Ashish, Nain Prabhdeep Singh


Introduction: Polycystic ovarian syndrome(PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder among women of reproductive age.Pcos encompasses a broad spectrum of signs&symptoms of ovary dysfunction,obesity,blood pressure,insulin resistance & infertility. Bariatric Surgery can be an effective means of weight loss in Pcos & curing infertility. Materials and Methods: 15 female patients were enrolled in the study from 2012-2014.66%(n=10) were in age group of 20-25 years,33%(n=5) were in age group of 25-33 years who underwent. Bariatric surgery in form of Laproscopic sleeve Gastrectomy(LSG)& Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. LSG 73%(n=11), RYGB26% (n=4). Results: There was a significant improvement in obesity (60% excess weight loss)over 1 year after bariatric surgery, in 12 patients there was gross improvement in restoration of menstrual cycle who had irregular menstrual cycle. In 80% patients the serum insulin level showed normal value. Over two years 8 patients become pregnant. Conclusions: 1)Obese women with Pcos maybe able to conceive after Bariatric Surgery. 2) Women with Pcos should only consider bariatric surgery if they were already considering it for other reasons to treat obesity, blood pressure & other co-morbid conditions.

Keywords: obesity, bariatric surgery, polycystic ovarian syndrome, infertility

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4648 Nutritional Status of Morbidly Obese Patients Prior to Bariatric Surgery

Authors: Azadeh Mottaghi, Reyhaneh Yousefi, Saeed Safari


Background: Bariatric surgery is widely proposed as the most effective approach to mitigate the growing pace of morbid obesity. As bariatric surgery candidates suffer from pre-existing nutritional deficiencies, it is of great importance to assess nutritional status of candidates before surgery in order to establish appropriate nutritional interventions. Objectives: The present study assessed and represented baseline data according to the nutritional status among candidates for bariatric surgery. Methods: A cross-sectional analysis of pre-surgery data was collected on 170 morbidly obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery between October 2017 and February 2018. Dietary intake data (evaluated through 147-item food frequency questionnaire), anthropometric measures and biochemical parameters were assessed. Results: Participants included 145 females (25 males) with average age of 37.3 ± 10.2 years, BMI of 45.7 ± 6.4 kg/m² and reported to have a total of 72.3 ± 22.2 kg excess body weight. The most common nutritional deficiencies referred to iron, ferritin, transferrin, albumin, vitamin B12, and vitamin D, the prevalence of which in the study population were as followed; 6.5, 6.5, 3, 2, 17.6 and 66%, respectively. Mean energy, protein, fat, and carbohydrate intake were 3887.3 ± 1748.32 kcal/day, 121.6 ± 57.1, 144.1 ± 83.05, and 552.4 ± 240.5 gr/day, respectively. The study population consumed lower levels of iron, calcium, folic acid, and vitamin B12 compared to the Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) recommendations (2, 26, 2.5, and 13%, respectively). Conclusion: According to the poor dietary quality of bariatric surgery candidates, leading to nutritional deficiencies pre-operatively, close monitoring and tailored supplementation pre- and post-bariatric surgery are required.

Keywords: bariatric surgery, food frequency questionnaire, obesity, nutritional status

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4647 Effect of Smartphone Applications on Patients' Knowledge of Surgery-Related Adverse Events during Hospitalization

Authors: Eunjoo Lee


Background: As the number of surgeries increases, the incidence of adverse events is likely to become more prevalent. Patients who are somewhat knowledgeable about surgery-related adverse events are more likely to engage in safety initiatives to prevent them. Objectives: To evaluate the impact of a smartphone application developed during the study to enhance patients’ knowledge of surgery-related adverse events during hospitalization. Design: Non-randomized, one group, measured pre- and post-intervention. Participants: Thirty-six hospitalized patients admitted to the orthopedics unit of a general hospital in South Korea. Methods. First, a smartphone application to enhance patients’ knowledge of surgery-related adverse events was developed through an iterative process, which included a literature review, expert consultation, and pilot testing. The application was installed on participants’ smartphones, and research assistants taught the participants to use it. Twenty-five true/false questions were used to assess patients’ knowledge of preoperative precautions (eight items), surgical site infection (five items), Foley catheter management (four items), drainage management (four items), and anesthesia-related complications (four items). Results: Overall, the percentage of correct answers increased significantly, from 57.02% to 73.82%, although answers related to a few specific topics did not increase that much. Although the patients’ understanding of drainage management and the Foley catheter did increase substantially after they used the smartphone application, it was still relatively low. Conclusions: The smartphone application developed during this study enhanced the patients’ knowledge of surgery-related adverse events during hospitalization. However, nurses must make an additional effort to help patients to understand certain topics, including drainage and Foley catheter management. Relevance to clinical practice: Insufficient patient knowledge increases the risk of adverse events during hospitalization. Nurses should take active steps to enhance patients’ knowledge of a range of safety issues during hospitalization, in order to decrease the number of surgery-related adverse events.

Keywords: patient education, patient participation, patient safety, smartphone application, surgical errors

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4646 Telemedicine Versus Face-to-Face Follow up in General Surgery: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Authors: Teagan Fink, Lynn Chong, Michael Hii, Brett Knowles


Background: Telemedicine is a rapidly advancing field providing healthcare to patients at a distance from their treating clinician. There is a paucity of high-quality evidence detailing the safety and acceptability of telemedicine for postoperative outpatient follow-up. This randomized controlled trial – conducted prior to the COVID 19 pandemic – aimed to assess patient satisfaction and safety (as determined by readmission, reoperation and complication rates) of telephone compared to face-to-face clinic follow-up after uncomplicated general surgical procedures. Methods: Patients following uncomplicated laparoscopic appendicectomy or cholecystectomy and laparoscopic or open umbilical or inguinal hernia repairs were randomized to a telephone or face-to-face outpatient clinic follow-up. Data points including patient demographics, perioperative details and postoperative outcomes (eg. wound healing complications, pain scores, unplanned readmission to hospital and return to daily activities) were compared between groups. Patients also completed a Likert patient satisfaction survey following their consultation. Results: 103 patients were recruited over a 12-month period (21 laparoscopic appendicectomies, 65 laparoscopic cholecystectomies, nine open umbilical hernia repairs, six laparoscopic inguinal hernia repairs and two laparoscopic umbilical hernia repairs). Baseline patient demographics and operative interventions were the same in both groups. Patient or clinician-reported concerns on postoperative pain, use of analgesia, wound healing complications and return to daily activities at clinic follow-up were not significantly different between the two groups. Of the 58 patients randomized to the telemedicine arm, 40% reported high and 60% reported very high patient satisfaction. Telemedicine clinic mean consultation times were significantly shorter than face-to-face consultation times (telemedicine 10.3 +/- 7.2 minutes, face-to-face 19.2 +/- 23.8 minutes, p-value = 0.014). Rates of failing to attend clinic were not significantly different (telemedicine 3%, control 6%). There was no increased rate of postoperative complications in patients followed up by telemedicine compared to in-person. There were no unplanned readmissions, return to theatre, or mortalities in this study. Conclusion: Telemedicine follow-up of patients undergoing uncomplicated general surgery is safe and does not result in any missed diagnosis or higher rates of complications. Telemedicine provides high patient satisfaction and steps to implement this modality in inpatient care should be undertaken.

Keywords: general surgery, telemedicine, patient satisfaction, patient safety

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4645 Total Knee Arthroplasty in a Haemophilia: A Patient with High Titre of Inhibitor Using Recombinant Factor VIIa

Authors: Mohammad J. Mortazavi, Arvin Najafi, Pejman Mansouri


Hemophilia A is simply described as deficiency of factor VIII(FVIII) and patients with this disorder have bleeding complications in different organs. By using the recombinant factor VIII in these patients, elective orthopedic surgeries have been done approximately in 40 last years. About 10-30 % of these patients have bleeding complications in their surgeries even by using recombinant factor VIII because of their inhibitor against FVIII molecule. Preoperative haemostatic management in these patients is challenging. We treated a 28-year-old male patient with hemophilia A with FVIII inhibitor which had been detected when he was14 years old (with the titer 54 Bethesda unit(BU)) scheduled for total knee arthroplasty (TKA). We use 90 µg/kg rFVIIa just before the surgery and every 2 hours during surgery. The patient did not have any significant hemorrhage during the surgery and after that. For the 2 days after surgery, the rFVIIa repeated every 2 hours as the same as preoperative dosage(90 µg/kg) and for another 2 days of postoperative admission it continued every 4 hours. After 4th day, the rFVIIa continued every 6 hours with the same dosage until the sixth day from the surgery, and finally the patient were discharged about two weeks after surgery. Seven days after the discharge, he came back for the follow up visit. On the follow up examination, the site of the surgery had neither infection hemarthroses signs.

Keywords: hemophilia, factor VIII inhibitor, total knee replacement, rFVIIa

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4644 Aesthetic Modification with Combined Orthognathic Surgery and Closed Rhinoplasty

Authors: Alessandro Marano


Aim: The author describes the aesthetic modification using orthognathic surgery and closed rhinoplasty. Methods: Series of case study. After orthognathic surgery we can observe a dramatical change of aesthetic especially in the mid-face and nose projection. The advancement of maxillary bone through Le Fort I osteotomy will change the nasal tip projection and lips roundness; combining orthognathic surgery with closed approach rhinoplasty will manage both function and aesthetic of all mid face district. Results: Combining Le Fort I osteotomy with closed approach rhinoplasty resulted in good objective results with high patient satisfaction. Le Fort I osteotomy will increase projection of mid face and the closed approach rhinoplasty will modify the nasal shape to be more harmonic with the new maxillary district. The scars are not visible because hidden inside the mouth and nose. Conclusions: The orthognathic surgery combined with closed approach rhinoplasty are very effective for changing the aesthetic of the mid face. The results illustrate the difference between the use of orthognathic surgery only and to use it in association of closed approach rhinoplasty. Using both will allow to obtain a long lasting and pleasing results.

Keywords: orthognathic, rhinoplasty, aesthetic, face

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4643 An Audit on the Quality of Pre-Operative Intra-Oral Digital Radiographs Taken for Dental Extractions in a General Practice Setting

Authors: Gabrielle O'Donoghue


Background: Pre-operative radiographs facilitate assessment and treatment planning in minor oral surgery. Quality assurance for dental radiography advocates the As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) principle in collecting accurate diagnostic information. Aims: To audit the quality of digital intraoral periapicals (IOPAs) taken prior to dental extractions in a metropolitan general dental practice setting. Standards: The National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) guidance outlines three grades of radiograph quality: excellent (Grade 1 > 70% of total exposures), diagnostically acceptable (Grade 2 <20%), and unacceptable (Grade 3 <10%). Methodology: A study of pre-operative radiographs taken prior to dental extractions across 12 private general dental practices in a large metropolitan area by 44 practitioners. A total of 725 extractions were assessed, allowing 258 IOPAs to be reviewed in one audit cycle. Results: First cycle: Of 258 IOPAs: 223(86.4%) scored Grade 1, 27(10.5%) Grade 2, and 8(3.1%) Grade 3. The standard was met. 35 dental extractions were performed without an available pre-operative radiograph. Action Plan & Recommendations: Results were distributed to all staff and a continuous professional development evening organized to outline recommendations to improve image quality. A second audit cycle is proposed at a six-month interval to review the recommendations and appraise results. Conclusion: The overall standard of radiographs met the published guidelines. A significant improvement in the number of procedures undertaken without pre-operative imaging is expected at a six-month interval period. An investigation into undiagnostic imaging and associated adverse patient outcomes is being considered. Maintenance of the standards achieved is predicted in the second audit cycle to ensure consistent high quality imaging.

Keywords: audit, oral radiology, oral surgery, periapical radiographs, quality assurance

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4642 Adequacy of Second-Generation Laryngeal Mask Airway during Prolonged Abdominal Surgery

Authors: Sukhee Park, Gaab Soo Kim


Purpose: We aimed to evaluate the adequacy of second-generation laryngeal mask airway use during prolonged abdominal surgery in respect of ventilation, oxygenation, postoperative pulmonary complications (PPC), and postoperative non-pulmonary complications on living donor kidney transplant (LDKT) surgery. Methods: In total, 257 recipients who underwent LDKT using either laryngeal mask airway-ProSeal (LMA-P) or endotracheal tube (ETT) were retrospectively analyzed. Arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2 and ratio of arterial partial pressure of oxygen to fractional inspired oxygen (PFR) during surgery were compared between two groups. In addition, PPC including pulmonary aspiration and postoperative non-pulmonary complications including nausea, vomiting, hoarseness, vocal cord palsy, delirium, and atrial fibrillation were also compared. Results: PaCO2 and PFR during surgery were not significantly different between the two groups. PPC was also not significantly different between the two groups. Interestingly, the incidence of delirium was significantly lower in the LMA-P group than the ETT group (3.0% vs. 10.3%, P = 0.029). Conclusions: During prolonged abdominal surgery such as LDKT, second-generation laryngeal mask airway offers adequate ventilation and oxygenation and can be considered a suitable alternative to ETT.

Keywords: laryngeal mask airway, prolonged abdominal surgery, kidney transplantation, postoperative pulmonary complication

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4641 An Ergonomic Handle Design for Instruments in Laparoscopic Surgery

Authors: Ramon Sancibrian, Carlos Redondo-Figuero, Maria C. Gutierrez-Diez, Esther G. Sarabia, Maria A. Benito-Gonzalez, Jose C. Manuel-Palazuelos


In this paper, the design and evaluation of a handle for laparoscopic surgery is presented. The design of the handle is based on ergonomic principles and tries to avoid awkward postures for surgeons. The handle combines the so-called power-grip and accurate-grip in order to provide strength and accuracy in the performance of surgery. The handle is tested using both objective and subjective approaches. The objective approach uses motion capture techniques to obtain the angles of forearm, arm, wrist and hand. The muscular effort is obtained with electromyography electrodes. On the other hand, a subjective survey has been carried out using questionnaires. Results confirm that the handle is preferred by the majority of the surgeons.

Keywords: laparoscopic surgery, ergonomics, mechanical design, biomechanics

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4640 Review of the Safety of Discharge on the First Postoperative Day Following Carotid Surgery: A Retrospective Analysis

Authors: John Yahng, Hansraj Riteesh Bookun


Objective: This was a retrospective cross-sectional study evaluating the safety of discharge on the first postoperative day following carotid surgery - principally carotid endarterectomy. Methods: Between January 2010 to October 2017, 252 patients with mean age of 72 years, underwent carotid surgery by seven surgeons. Their medical records were consulted and their operative as well as complication timelines were databased. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse pooled responses and our indicator variables. The statistical package used was STATA 13. Results: There were 183 males (73%) and the comorbid burden was as follows: ischaemic heart disease (54%), diabetes (38%), hypertension (92%), stage 4 kidney impairment (5%) and current or ex-smoking (77%). The main indications were transient ischaemic attacks (42%), stroke (31%), asymptomatic carotid disease (16%) and amaurosis fugax (8%). 247 carotid endarterectomies (109 with patch arterioplasty, 88 with eversion and transection technique, 50 with endarterectomy only) were performed. 2 carotid bypasses, 1 embolectomy, 1 thrombectomy with patch arterioplasty and 1 excision of a carotid body tumour were also performed. 92% of the cases were performed under general anaesthesia. A shunt was used in 29% of cases. The mean length of stay was 5.1 ± 3.7days with the range of 2 to 22 days. No patient was discharged on day 1. The mean time from admission to surgery was 1.4 ± 2.8 days, ranging from 0 to 19 days. The mean time from surgery to discharge was 2.7 ± 2.0 days with the of range 0 to 14 days. 36 complications were encountered over this period, with 12 failed repairs (5 major strokes, 2 minor strokes, 3 transient ischaemic attacks, 1 cerebral bleed, 1 occluded graft), 11 bleeding episodes requiring a return to the operating theatre, 5 adverse cardiac events, 3 cranial nerve injuries, 2 respiratory complications, 2 wound complications and 1 acute kidney injury. There were no deaths. 17 complications occurred on postoperative day 0, 11 on postoperative day 1, 6 on postoperative day 2 and 2 on postoperative day 3. 78% of all complications happened before the second postoperative day. Out of the complications which occurred on the second or third postoperative day, 4 (1.6%) were bleeding episodes, 1 (0.4%) failed repair , 1 respiratory complication (0.4%) and 1 wound complication (0.4%). Conclusion: Although it has been common practice to discharge patients on the second postoperative day following carotid endarterectomy, we find here that discharge on the first operative day is safe. The overall complication rate is low and most complications are captured before the second postoperative day. We suggest that patients having an uneventful first 24 hours post surgery be discharged on the first day. This should reduce hospital length of stay and the health economic burden.

Keywords: carotid, complication, discharge, surgery

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4639 Comparison of Quality of Life One Year after Bariatric Intervention: Systematic Review of the Literature with Bayesian Network Meta-Analysis

Authors: Piotr Tylec, Alicja Dudek, Grzegorz Torbicz, Magdalena Mizera, Natalia Gajewska, Michael Su, Tanawat Vongsurbchart, Tomasz Stefura, Magdalena Pisarska, Mateusz Rubinkiewicz, Piotr Malczak, Piotr Major, Michal Pedziwiatr


Introduction: Quality of life after bariatric surgery is an important factor when evaluating the final result of the treatment. Considering the vast surgical options, we tried to globally compare available methods in terms of quality of following the surgery. The aim of the study is to compare the quality of life a year after bariatric intervention using network meta-analysis methods. Material and Methods: We performed a systematic review according to PRISMA guidelines with Bayesian network meta-analysis. Inclusion criteria were: studies comparing at least two methods of weight loss treatment of which at least one is surgical, assessment of the quality of life one year after surgery by validated questionnaires. Primary outcomes were quality of life one year after bariatric procedure. The following aspects of quality of life were analyzed: physical, emotional, general health, vitality, role physical, social, mental, and bodily pain. All questionnaires were standardized and pooled to a single scale. Lifestyle intervention was considered as a referenced point. Results: An initial reference search yielded 5636 articles. 18 studies were evaluated. In comparison of total score of quality of life, we observed that laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) (median (M): 3.606, Credible Interval 97.5% (CrI): 1.039; 6.191), laparoscopic Roux en-Y gastric by-pass (LRYGB) (M: 4.973, CrI: 2.627; 7.317) and open Roux en-Y gastric by-pass (RYGB) (M: 9.735, CrI: 6.708; 12.760) had better results than other bariatric intervention in relation to lifestyle interventions. In the analysis of the physical aspects of quality of life, we notice better results in LSG (M: 3.348, CrI: 0.548; 6.147) and in LRYGB procedure (M: 5.070, CrI: 2.896; 7.208) than control intervention, and worst results in open RYGB (M: -9.212, CrI: -11.610; -6.844). Analyzing emotional aspects, we found better results than control intervention in LSG, in LRYGB, in open RYGB, and laparoscopic gastric plication. In general health better results were in LSG (M: 9.144, CrI: 4.704; 13.470), in LRYGB (M: 6.451, CrI: 10.240; 13.830) and in single-anastomosis gastric by-pass (M: 8.671, CrI: 1.986; 15.310), and worst results in open RYGB (M: -4.048, CrI: -7.984; -0.305). In social and vital aspects of quality of life, better results were observed in LSG and LRYGB than control intervention. We did not find any differences between bariatric interventions in physical role, mental and bodily aspects of quality of life. Conclusion: The network meta-analysis revealed that better quality of life in total score one year after bariatric interventions were after LSG, LRYGB, open RYGB. In physical and general health aspects worst quality of life was in open RYGB procedure. Other interventions did not significantly affect the quality of life after a year compared to dietary intervention.

Keywords: bariatric surgery, network meta-analysis, quality of life, one year follow-up

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4638 Development of Pediatric Medical Trauma Stress (PMTS) Among Children at Risk

Authors: Amichai Ben ari, Daniella Margalit


Medical procedures, such as surgery, may have traumatic significance for some children. This study examines the relationship between maltreatment in children and the development Pediatric Medical Traumatic Stress (PMTS). To this end, differences in the level of distress of children after surgery were examined between two groups: children who were maltreated ("children at risk") and children from the control group ("children who are not at risk"). The study involved 230 parents of children who came to the hospital to undergo surgery. Parents filled out demographic questionnaires to measure socioeconomic variables and psychological questionnaires to measure the distress of the child and parent before surgery. After 6 months from the time of surgery, the parents again filled in the questionnaire measuring the child's distress. The results of the study showed that the level of distress experienced by children at risk after surgery was significantly higher relative to children who are not at risk. It was also found that the level of distress experienced by parents of children at risk in relation to their child’s surgery is significantly higher compared to parents of children who are not at risk. Finally, it was found that the variables: (1) pre-morbid psychological functioning of the child. (2) Parental and family functioning in daily life. (3) Exposure of the child to traumatic events. (4) Support factors for the family. Are variables that predict the development of PMTS in children after surgery, but only for children at risk and not for children who are not at risk. The significance of the findings in relation to the need to identify at-risk populations in the hospitals and the policies derived from them were discussed, and several directions were raised for further research.

Keywords: children at risk, pediatric medical traumatic stress (PMTS), PTSD, medical procedures

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4637 Role of Ologen in Previously Failed Trabeculectomy in Advanced Glaucoma

Authors: Reetika Sharma, Lalit Tejwani, Himanshu Shekhar, Arun Singhvi


Purpose: Advanced Glaucoma with Failed trab is not an uncommon sight in glaucoma clinic, and such cases usually tend to present with high intraocular pressure (IOP) and advanced cupping, or even glaucomatous atrophy stage. Re-surgery is needed for such cases, and wound modulation poses a major challenge in these cases. We share our experience in this case series with the use of Ologen (collagen matrix implant) along with MMC 0.04% used in surgery. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the efficacy and outcome of collagen matrix implant in re-trabeculectomy in advanced glaucoma cases. Methodology: Eleven eyes of 11 patients (one eye of one patient) underwent re-trabeculectomy surgery with MMC and Ologen. Ologen implant was used in sub scleral and subconjunctival space, as a spacer and wound modulator. In five cases, triple modulation with implant soaked in anti-VEGF was used. Results: All patients had cupping more than 0.9, and one case was GOA. All cases were on maximal medication at presentation and majority were on systemic anti-glaucoma therapy also. Post-surgery, follow-up ranged from 13 – 34 months, and all cases had a follow longer than the gap between previous surgery (which was failed) and re-trab. One case needed AC reformation and one needling was done. Phaco was done at same sitting in four cases. All cases had their IOP lowered post surgery, and vision was maintained in all, however one case was considered as failed re-surgery case. Topical medication was needed in seven cases post-surgery also. Conclusion: Ologen as adjuvant should be considered in all re-trab cases and all high risk and advanced cases, and triple modulation can be next step in these cases. Aggressive IOP control and non- reluctance to continue topical medications post second surgery should be considered in such cases, to give them best possible vision.

Keywords: failed trabeculectomy, ologen, trabeculectomy, advanced glaucoma

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4636 Wireless Based System for Continuous Electrocardiography Monitoring during Surgery

Authors: K. Bensafia, A. Mansour, G. Le Maillot, B. Clement, O. Reynet, P. Ariès, S. Haddab


This paper presents a system designed for wireless acquisition, the recording of electrocardiogram (ECG) signals and the monitoring of the heart’s health during surgery. This wireless recording system allows us to visualize and monitor the state of the heart’s health during a surgery, even if the patient is moved from the operating theater to post anesthesia care unit. The acquired signal is transmitted via a Bluetooth unit to a PC where the data are displayed, stored and processed. To test the reliability of our system, a comparison between ECG signals processed by a conventional ECG monitoring system (Datex-Ohmeda) and by our wireless system is made. The comparison is based on the shape of the ECG signal, the duration of the QRS complex, the P and T waves, as well as the position of the ST segments with respect to the isoelectric line. The proposed system is presented and discussed. The results have confirmed that the use of Bluetooth during surgery does not affect the devices used and vice versa. Pre- and post-processing steps are briefly discussed. Experimental results are also provided.

Keywords: electrocardiography, monitoring, surgery, wireless system

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4635 Risk Factors for Post-Induction Hypotension Among Elderly Patients Undergoing Elective Non-Cardiac Surgery Under General Anesthesia

Authors: Karuna Sutthibenjakul, Sunisa Chatmongkolchart


Background: Postinduction hypotension is common and occurs more often in elderly patients. We aimed to determine risk factors for hypotension after induction among elderly patients (aged 65 years and older) who underwent elective non-cardiac surgery under general anesthesia. Methods: This cohort study analyzed from 580 data between December 2017 and July 2018 at a tertiary university hospital in south of Thailand. Hypotension is defined as more than 30% decrease mean arterial pressure from baseline after induction within 20 minutes or the use of vasopressive agent to treat low blood pressure. Intraoperative parameters were blood pressure and heart rate at T0, TEI, T5, T10, T15 and T20 (immediately after arrival at operating room, time after intubation, 5, 10, 15 and 20 minutes after intubation) respectively. Results: The median age was 72.5 (68, 78) years. A prevalence of post-induction hypotension was 64.8%. The highest prevalence (39.7%) was at 15 minutes after intubation. The association of post-induction hypotension is rising with diuretic drug as preoperative medication (P-value=0.016), hematocrit level (P-value=0.031) and the degree of hypertension immediately after arrival at operating room (P-value<0.001). Increasing fentanyl dosage during induction was associated with hypotension at intubation time (P-value<0.01) and 5 minutes after intubation (P-value<0.001). There was no statistically significant difference in the increasing propofol dosage. Conclusion: The degree of hypertension immediately after arrival at operating room and increasing fentanyl dosage were a significant risk factors for postinduction hypotension in elderly patients.

Keywords: risk factors, post-induction, hypotension, elderly

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