Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 85

Search results for: ocular fundus

85 Attention Based Fully Convolutional Neural Network for Simultaneous Detection and Segmentation of Optic Disc in Retinal Fundus Images

Authors: Sandip Sadhukhan, Arpita Sarkar, Debprasad Sinha, Goutam Kumar Ghorai, Gautam Sarkar, Ashis K. Dhara


Accurate segmentation of the optic disc is very important for computer-aided diagnosis of several ocular diseases such as glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, and hypertensive retinopathy. The paper presents an accurate and fast optic disc detection and segmentation method using an attention based fully convolutional network. The network is trained from scratch using the fundus images of extended MESSIDOR database and the trained model is used for segmentation of optic disc. The false positives are removed based on morphological operation and shape features. The result is evaluated using three-fold cross-validation on six public fundus image databases such as DIARETDB0, DIARETDB1, DRIVE, AV-INSPIRE, CHASE DB1 and MESSIDOR. The attention based fully convolutional network is robust and effective for detection and segmentation of optic disc in the images affected by diabetic retinopathy and it outperforms existing techniques.

Keywords: attention-based fully convolutional network, optic disc detection and segmentation, retinal fundus image, screening of ocular diseases

Procedia PDF Downloads 33
84 Generative Adversarial Network for Bidirectional Mappings between Retinal Fundus Images and Vessel Segmented Images

Authors: Haoqi Gao, Koichi Ogawara


Retinal vascular segmentation of color fundus is the basis of ophthalmic computer-aided diagnosis and large-scale disease screening systems. Early screening of fundus diseases has great value for clinical medical diagnosis. The traditional methods depend on the experience of the doctor, which is time-consuming, labor-intensive, and inefficient. Furthermore, medical images are scarce and fraught with legal concerns regarding patient privacy. In this paper, we propose a new Generative Adversarial Network based on CycleGAN for retinal fundus images. This method can generate not only synthetic fundus images but also generate corresponding segmentation masks, which has certain application value and challenge in computer vision and computer graphics. In the results, we evaluate our proposed method from both quantitative and qualitative. For generated segmented images, our method achieves dice coefficient of 0.81 and PR of 0.89 on DRIVE dataset. For generated synthetic fundus images, we use ”Toy Experiment” to verify the state-of-the-art performance of our method.

Keywords: retinal vascular segmentations, generative ad-versarial network, cyclegan, fundus images

Procedia PDF Downloads 31
83 The Clinical Use of Ahmed Valve Implant as an Aqueous Shunt for Control of Uveitic Glaucoma in Dogs

Authors: Khaled M. Ali, M. A. Abdel-Hamid, Ayman A. Mostafa


Objective: Safety and efficacy of Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation for the management of uveitis induced glaucoma evaluated on the five dogs with uncontrollable glaucoma. Materials and Methods: Ahmed Glaucoma Valve (AGV®; New World Medical, Rancho Cucamonga, CA, USA) is a flow restrictive, non-obstructive self-regulating valve system. Preoperative ocular evaluation included direct ophthalmoscopy and measurement of the intraocular pressure (IOP). The implant was examined and primed prior to implantation. The selected site of the valve implantation was the superior quadrant between the superior and lateral rectus muscles. A fornix-based incision was made through the conjunectiva and Tenon’s capsule. A pocket is formed by blunt dissection of Tenon’s capsule from the episclera. The body of the implant was inserted into the pocket with the leading edge of the device around 8-10 mm from the limbus. Results: No post operative complications were detected in the operated eyes except a persistent corneal edema occupied the upper half of the cornea in one case. Hyphaema was very mild and seen only in two cases which resolved quickly two days after surgery. Endoscopical evaluation for the operated eyes revealed a normal ocular fundus with clearly visible optic papilla, tapetum and retinal blood vessels. No evidence of hemorrhage, infection, adhesions or retinal abnormalities was detected. Conclusion: Ahmed glaucoma valve is safe and effective implant for treatment of uveitic glaucoma in dogs.

Keywords: Ahmed valve, endoscopy, glaucoma, ocular fundus

Procedia PDF Downloads 378
82 Morphology Operation and Discrete Wavelet Transform for Blood Vessels Segmentation in Retina Fundus

Authors: Rita Magdalena, N. K. Caecar Pratiwi, Yunendah Nur Fuadah, Sofia Saidah, Bima Sakti


Vessel segmentation of retinal fundus is important for biomedical sciences in diagnosing ailments related to the eye. Segmentation can simplify medical experts in diagnosing retinal fundus image state. Therefore, in this study, we designed a software using MATLAB which enables the segmentation of the retinal blood vessels on retinal fundus images. There are two main steps in the process of segmentation. The first step is image preprocessing that aims to improve the quality of the image to be optimum segmented. The second step is the image segmentation in order to perform the extraction process to retrieve the retina’s blood vessel from the eye fundus image. The image segmentation methods that will be analyzed in this study are Morphology Operation, Discrete Wavelet Transform and combination of both. The amount of data that used in this project is 40 for the retinal image and 40 for manually segmentation image. After doing some testing scenarios, the average accuracy for Morphology Operation method is 88.46 % while for Discrete Wavelet Transform is 89.28 %. By combining the two methods mentioned in later, the average accuracy was increased to 89.53 %. The result of this study is an image processing system that can segment the blood vessels in retinal fundus with high accuracy and low computation time.

Keywords: discrete wavelet transform, fundus retina, morphology operation, segmentation, vessel

Procedia PDF Downloads 82
81 Glaucoma Detection in Retinal Tomography Using the Vision Transformer

Authors: Sushish Baral, Pratibha Joshi, Yaman Maharjan


Glaucoma is a chronic eye condition that causes vision loss that is irreversible. Early detection and treatment are critical to prevent vision loss because it can be asymptomatic. For the identification of glaucoma, multiple deep learning algorithms are used. Transformer-based architectures, which use the self-attention mechanism to encode long-range dependencies and acquire extremely expressive representations, have recently become popular. Convolutional architectures, on the other hand, lack knowledge of long-range dependencies in the image due to their intrinsic inductive biases. The aforementioned statements inspire this thesis to look at transformer-based solutions and investigate the viability of adopting transformer-based network designs for glaucoma detection. Using retinal fundus images of the optic nerve head to develop a viable algorithm to assess the severity of glaucoma necessitates a large number of well-curated images. Initially, data is generated by augmenting ocular pictures. After that, the ocular images are pre-processed to make them ready for further processing. The system is trained using pre-processed images, and it classifies the input images as normal or glaucoma based on the features retrieved during training. The Vision Transformer (ViT) architecture is well suited to this situation, as it allows the self-attention mechanism to utilise structural modeling. Extensive experiments are run on the common dataset, and the results are thoroughly validated and visualized.

Keywords: glaucoma, vision transformer, convolutional architectures, retinal fundus images, self-attention, deep learning

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80 Copy Effect Myopic Anisometropia in a Pair of Monozygotic Twins

Authors: Fatma Sümer


Introductıon: This case report aims to report myopic anisometropia with copy-image in monozygotic twins. Methods: In February 2021, a 6-year-old identical twin was seen, who was referred to us with the diagnosis of amblyopia in their left eyes from an external center. Both twins had a full ophthalmic examination, which included visual acuity testing, ocular motility testing, cycloplegic refraction, and fundus examination. Results: On examination, “copy image” myopic anisometropia was discovered. Twin 1 had anisometropia with myopic astigmatism in the left eye. His cycloplegic refraction was +1.00 (-0.75x 75) in the right eye and -8.0 (-1.50x175) in the left eye. Similarly, twin 2 had anisometropia with myopic astigmatism in the left eye. His cycloplegic refraction was -7.75 (-1.50x180) in the left eye and +1.25 (-0.75x90 ) in the right eye. The best-corrected visual acuity was 20/60 in the amblyopic eyes and 20/20 in the unaffected eyes. There was no ocular deviation. In either patient, a slit-lamp microscopic examination revealed no abnormalities in the anterior parts of either eye. Fundoscopic examination revealed no abnormalities. No abnormal ocular movements were demonstrated. Conclusion: As far as we have reviewed in the literature, previous studies with twins were mostly concerned with mirror effect myopic anisometropia and myopic anisometropia, whereas ipsilateral amblyopia and anisometropia were not reported in monozygotic twins. This case underscores the possible genetic basis of myopic anisometropia.

Keywords: amblyopia, anisometropia, myopia, twins

Procedia PDF Downloads 23
79 Automatic Method for Exudates and Hemorrhages Detection from Fundus Retinal Images

Authors: A. Biran, P. Sobhe Bidari, K. Raahemifar


Diabetic Retinopathy (DR) is an eye disease that leads to blindness. The earliest signs of DR are the appearance of red and yellow lesions on the retina called hemorrhages and exudates. Early diagnosis of DR prevents from blindness; hence, many automated algorithms have been proposed to extract hemorrhages and exudates. In this paper, an automated algorithm is presented to extract hemorrhages and exudates separately from retinal fundus images using different image processing techniques including Circular Hough Transform (CHT), Contrast Limited Adaptive Histogram Equalization (CLAHE), Gabor filter and thresholding. Since Optic Disc is the same color as the exudates, it is first localized and detected. The presented method has been tested on fundus images from Structured Analysis of the Retina (STARE) and Digital Retinal Images for Vessel Extraction (DRIVE) databases by using MATLAB codes. The results show that this method is perfectly capable of detecting hard exudates and the highly probable soft exudates. It is also capable of detecting the hemorrhages and distinguishing them from blood vessels.

Keywords: diabetic retinopathy, fundus, CHT, exudates, hemorrhages

Procedia PDF Downloads 165
78 Autogenous Diabetic Retinopathy Censor for Ophthalmologists - AKSHI

Authors: Asiri Wijesinghe, N. D. Kodikara, Damitha Sandaruwan


The Diabetic Retinopathy (DR) is a rapidly growing interrogation around the world which can be annotated by abortive metabolism of glucose that causes long-term infection in human retina. This is one of the preliminary reason of visual impairment and blindness of adults. Information on retinal pathological mutation can be recognized using ocular fundus images. In this research, we are mainly focused on resurrecting an automated diagnosis system to detect DR anomalies such as severity level classification of DR patient (Non-proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy approach) and vessel tortuosity measurement of untwisted vessels to assessment of vessel anomalies (Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy approach). Severity classification method is obtained better results according to the precision, recall, F-measure and accuracy (exceeds 94%) in all formats of cross validation. In ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic) curves also visualized the higher AUC (Area Under Curve) percentage (exceeds 95%). User level evaluation of severity capturing is obtained higher accuracy (85%) result and fairly better values for each evaluation measurements. Untwisted vessel detection for tortuosity measurement also carried out the good results with respect to the sensitivity (85%), specificity (89%) and accuracy (87%).

Keywords: fundus image, exudates, microaneurisms, hemorrhages, tortuosity, diabetic retinopathy, optic disc, fovea

Procedia PDF Downloads 234
77 Comparison of Vessel Detection in Standard vs Ultra-WideField Retinal Images

Authors: Maher un Nisa, Ahsan Khawaja


Retinal imaging with Ultra-WideField (UWF) view technology has opened up new avenues in the field of retinal pathology detection. Recent developments in retinal imaging such as Optos California Imaging Device helps in acquiring high resolution images of the retina to help the Ophthalmologists in diagnosing and analyzing eye related pathologies more accurately. This paper investigates the acquired retinal details by comparing vessel detection in standard 450 color fundus images with the state of the art 2000 UWF retinal images.

Keywords: color fundus, retinal images, ultra-widefield, vessel detection

Procedia PDF Downloads 338
76 Comparison of Central Light Reflex Width-to-Retinal Vessel Diameter Ratio between Glaucoma and Normal Eyes by Using Edge Detection Technique

Authors: P. Siriarchawatana, K. Leungchavaphongse, N. Covavisaruch, K. Rojananuangnit, P. Boondaeng, N. Panyayingyong


Glaucoma is a disease that causes visual loss in adults. Glaucoma causes damage to the optic nerve and its overall pathophysiology is still not fully understood. Vasculopathy may be one of the possible causes of nerve damage. Photographic imaging of retinal vessels by fundus camera during eye examination may complement clinical management. This paper presents an innovation for measuring central light reflex width-to-retinal vessel diameter ratio (CRR) from digital retinal photographs. Using our edge detection technique, CRRs from glaucoma and normal eyes were compared to examine differences and associations. CRRs were evaluated on fundus photographs of participants from Mettapracharak (Wat Raikhing) Hospital in Nakhon Pathom, Thailand. Fifty-five photographs from normal eyes and twenty-one photographs from glaucoma eyes were included. Participants with hypertension were excluded. In each photograph, CRRs from four retinal vessels, including arteries and veins in the inferotemporal and superotemporal regions, were quantified using edge detection technique. From our finding, mean CRRs of all four retinal arteries and veins were significantly higher in persons with glaucoma than in those without glaucoma (0.34 vs. 0.32, p < 0.05 for inferotemporal vein, 0.33 vs. 0.30, p < 0.01 for inferotemporal artery, 0.34 vs. 0.31, p < 0.01 for superotemporal vein, and 0.33 vs. 0.30, p < 0.05 for superotemporal artery). From these results, an increase in CRRs of retinal vessels, as quantitatively measured from fundus photographs, could be associated with glaucoma.

Keywords: glaucoma, retinal vessel, central light reflex, image processing, fundus photograph, edge detection

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75 Assessment of Ocular Morbidity, Knowledge and Barriers to Access Eye Care Services among the Children Live in Offshore Island, Bangladesh

Authors: Abir Dey, Shams Noman


Introduction: Offshore Island is the remote and isolated area from the terrestrial mainland. They are deprived of their needs. The children from an offshore island are usually underserved in the case of health care because it is a remote area where the health care systems are quite poor compared to mainland. So, the proper information is required for appropriate planning to reduce underlying causes behind visual deprivation among the surviving children of the Offshore Island. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine ocular morbidities, knowledge, and barriers of eye care services among children in an Offshore Island. Methods: The study team visited, and all data were collected from different rural communities at Sandwip Upazila, Chittagong district for screening the children aged 5-16 years old by doing spot examination. The whole study was conducted in both qualitative and quantitative methods. To determine ocular status of children, examinations were done under skilled Ophthalmologists and Optometrists. A focus group discussion was held. The sample size was 490. It was a community based descriptive study and the sampling method was purposive sampling. Results: In total 490 children, about 56.90% were female and 43.10% were male. Among them 456 were school-going children (93.1%) and 34 were non-school going children (6.9%). In this study the most common ocular morbidity was Allergic Conjunctivitis (35.2%). Other mentionable ocular morbidities were Refractive error (27.7%), Blepharitis (13.8%), Meibomian Gland Dysfunction (7.5%), Strabismus (6.3%) and Amblyopia (6.3%). Most of the non-school going children were involved in different types of domestic work like farming, fishing, etc. About 90.04% children who had different ocular abnormalities could not attend to the doctor due to various reasons. Conclusions: The ocular morbidity was high in rate on the offshore island. Eye health care facility was also not well established there. Awareness should be raised about necessity of maintaining hygiene and eye healthcare among the island people. Timely intervention through available eye care facilities and management can reduce the ocular morbidity rate in that area.

Keywords: morbidities, screening, barriers, offshore island, knowledge

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74 Proniosomes as a Carrier for Ocular Drug Delivery

Authors: Rawia M. Khalil, Ghada Abd-Elbary, Mona Basha, Ghada E. A. Awad, Hadeer A. Elhashemy


Background: Bacterial infections of the eye are the clinical conditions responsible for ocular morbidity and blindness. Conjunctivitis is an inflammation of the conjunctiva, due to Staphylococcus aureus. Lomefloxacin HCl (LXN) is a third generation flouroquinolone antibiotic with a broad spectrum against wide range of bacteria and very effective against Staph infections especially in conjunctiva (conjunctivitis). The present study aims to develop and evaluate novel ocular proniosomal gels of Lomefloxacin Hcl (LXN); in order to improve its ocular bioavailability for the management of bacterial conjunctivitis. Materials and methods: Proniosomes were prepared by coacervation phase separation method using different types of nonionic surfactants (Span 60,40,20,Tween 20,40,60,80,Brij 35,98,72) solely and as mixtures with Span® 60. The formed gels were characterized for entrapment efficiency, vesicle size and in vitro drug release. The optimum proniosomal gel; P-LXN 7 were characterized for pH measurement, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) as well as Stability study and microbiological evaluation .The results revealed that only Span 60 was able to form stable LXN proniosomal gel when used individually while the other nonionic surfactants formed gels only in combination with Span 60 at different ratios. The optimum proniosomal gel; P-LXN 7 (Span60:Tween60, 9:1) appeared as spherical shaped vesicles having high entrapment efficiency (>80 %), appropriate vesicle size (187 nm) as well as controlled drug release over 12h. DSC confirmed the amorphous nature and the uniformity of LXN inclusion within the vesicles. Physical stability study did not show any significant changes in appearance or entrapment efficiency or vesicle size after storage for 3 months at 4°C. Ocular irritancy test revealed that P-LXN 7 was safe, well tolerable and suitable for ocular delivery. In vivo antibacterial activity of P-LXN 7 evaluated using the susceptibility test and topical therapy of induced ocular conjunctivitis confirmed the enhanced antibacterial therapeutic efficacy of the LXN-proniosomal gel compared to the commercially available LXN eye drops; Orchacin®. Conclusions: Our results suggest that proniosomal gels could provide a promising carrier of LXN for efficient ocular treatment of bacterial conjunctivitis.

Keywords: bacterial conjunctivitis, lomefloxacin HCl, ocular drug delivery, proniosomes

Procedia PDF Downloads 141
73 Ocular Manifestations and Biometrics in Marfan’s Syndrome from Eastern Nepal

Authors: Rinkal Suwal, Simanta Khadka, Purushottam Joshi


Purpose: To evaluate the ocular characteristics of Marfan’s syndrome (MFS), fulfilling the revised Ghent-2 nosology in Eastern Nepal. Methods: A hospital-based observational and cross-sectional study was conducted. Ocular manifestations and biometrics were incorporated. Patients were subdivided into adults (16 years or older) and children (5-15 years). Ocular biometric parameters consisted of values of refractive error, keratometry readings, anterior chamber depth (ACD), central corneal thickness (CCT), lens thickness (LT) and axial length (AL). Results: A total of 34 eyes of 17 patients with MFS were included, where 32 eyes were phakic. The mean age of the study participants was 14.5 ± 9.1 years. The mean best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) of phakic eyes was 0.99 ± 0.82 LogMAR. Myopia greater than -3 Diopters (D) was present in 28/34 (82.35%) eyes. The average spherical equivalent was -12.34 ± 8.85 D. Ectopia lentis (EL) was present in 24/32 (75%) eyes where superonasal was the most common subluxation in 10/24 (41.7%) eyes. AL was longer in adults, 26.54 ± 4.42 mm, compared to 25.21 ± 1.93 mm in children. Likewise, LT in adults was 4.9 ± 0.70 mm and 4.40 ± 0.59 mm in pediatric participants. Flat corneas were noted in both the groups with an average of 41.53 ± 2.21 D. The mean CCT and ACD were 524.62 ± 21.74 μm and 3.64 ± 0.80 mm respectively. There was a negative association between the AL and the average corneal curvature (Kmed, correlation coefficient -0.11, p = 0.54). Conclusion: Myopia is the foremost ocular involvement with significant visual disability in MFS. Though AL and corneal curvature are not included in revised Ghent-2 nosology, we strongly recommend these parameters to be considered during ophthalmic evaluation in suspected and diagnosed cases of MFS in the absence of genetic testing.

Keywords: corneal astigmatism, ectopia lentis, flattened cornea, Marfan’s syndrome, ocular biometry

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72 Bilateral Choroidal Metastases as the Presenting Manifestation of Lung Adenocarcinoma in a Young, Non-smoking Female: A Case Report

Authors: Paras Agarwal


Background: Initially believed to be rare, metastases to the eye are the most common ocular malignancy. The choroid’s high perfusion rate not only makes it the most susceptible ocular site for tumour seeding, but also promotes its growth. The cancers most frequently responsible for choroidal metastases originate from the breast and lung, although a significant proportion have unidentified primaries at the time of presentation. Case Presentation: This case report describes a 34 year old female presenting to the ophthalmology department with a one month history of painless distorted vision. On fundus examination, she was noted to have bilateral choroidal lesionsand subsequently underwent a comprehensive diagnostic work-up. The patient was diagnosed with metastatic pulmonary adenocarcinoma, despite lacking conventional risk factors. As she was found to have a mutation in EGFR, the patient was commenced on tyrosine-kinase inhibition with afatinib. The choroidal lesions regressed with a significant improvement in visual acuity and a dramatic anatomical reduction of the choroidal masses. Conclusions: Our case demonstrates the importance of considering metastases as a differential diagnosis for choroidal lesions. Appropriate and thorough history-taking, examination and investigations may be required in order to deduce the underlying cause. Our case is unusual in view of the choroidal lesion being the primary manifestation of metastatic lung cancer in a young patient with no known risk factors. Early recognition of choroidal metastases is important as it is often the first sign of tumour dissemination and will prompt earlier treatment with systemic medications such as chemotherapy, immunotherapy, targeted therapy or hormonal therapy. Our case report also demonstrates the efficacy of afatinib for the treatment of choroidal metastases, with morphological and functional improvements observed with regard to the choroidal metastatic tumour.

Keywords: choroidal neoplasm, choroidal naevus, pulmonary adenocarcinoma, metastases, lung cancer

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71 Novel Algorithm for Restoration of Retina Images

Authors: P. Subbuthai, S. Muruganand


Diabetic Retinopathy is one of the complicated diseases and it is caused by the changes in the blood vessels of the retina. Extraction of retina image through Fundus camera sometimes produced poor contrast and noises. Because of this noise, detection of blood vessels in the retina is very complicated. So preprocessing is needed, in this paper, a novel algorithm is implemented to remove the noisy pixel in the retina image. The proposed algorithm is Extended Median Filter and it is applied to the green channel of the retina because green channel vessels are brighter than the background. Proposed extended median filter is compared with the existing standard median filter by performance metrics such as PSNR, MSE and RMSE. Experimental results show that the proposed Extended Median Filter algorithm gives a better result than the existing standard median filter in terms of noise suppression and detail preservation.

Keywords: fundus retina image, diabetic retinopathy, median filter, microaneurysms, exudates

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70 Development and in vitro Characterization of Loteprednol Etabonate-Loaded Polymeric Nanoparticles for Ocular Delivery

Authors: Abhishek Kumar Sah, Preeti K. Suresh


Effective drug delivery to the eye is a massive challenge, due to complicated physiological ocular barriers, rapid washout by tear and nasolachrymal drainage. Thus, most of the conventional ophthalmic formulations face the problem of low ocular bioavailability. Ophthalmic drug therapy can be improved by enhancing the precorneal drug retention along with improved drug penetration. The aim of the present investigation was to develop and evaluate a biodegradable polymer poly (D, L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) coated nanoparticulate carrier of loteprednol etabonate. PLGA nanoparticles were prepared by modified emulsification/solvent diffusion method using high-speed homogenizer followed by sonication. The nanoparticles were characterized for various parameters such as particle size, zeta potential, polydispersity index, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), in vitro drug release profile and stability. The prepared nanocarriers displayed mean particle size in the range of 271.7 to 424.4 nm, with zeta potential less than –10 mV. In vitro release in simulated tear fluid (STF) nanocarrier showed an extended release profile of loteprednol etabonate. TEM confirmed the spherical morphology and smooth surface of the particles. All the prepared formulations were found to be stable at varying temperatures.

Keywords: drug delivery, ocular delivery, polymeric nanoparticles, loteprednol etabonate

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69 Automatic Detection and Classification of Diabetic Retinopathy Using Retinal Fundus Images

Authors: A. Biran, P. Sobhe Bidari, A. Almazroe, V. Lakshminarayanan, K. Raahemifar


Diabetic Retinopathy (DR) is a severe retinal disease which is caused by diabetes mellitus. It leads to blindness when it progress to proliferative level. Early indications of DR are the appearance of microaneurysms, hemorrhages and hard exudates. In this paper, an automatic algorithm for detection of DR has been proposed. The algorithm is based on combination of several image processing techniques including Circular Hough Transform (CHT), Contrast Limited Adaptive Histogram Equalization (CLAHE), Gabor filter and thresholding. Also, Support Vector Machine (SVM) Classifier is used to classify retinal images to normal or abnormal cases including non-proliferative or proliferative DR. The proposed method has been tested on images selected from Structured Analysis of the Retinal (STARE) database using MATLAB code. The method is perfectly able to detect DR. The sensitivity specificity and accuracy of this approach are 90%, 87.5%, and 91.4% respectively.

Keywords: diabetic retinopathy, fundus images, STARE, Gabor filter, support vector machine

Procedia PDF Downloads 207
68 Ocular Biometry: Common Etiologies of Difference More Than 0.33mm between Axial Lengths of the 2 Eyes

Authors: Ghandehari Motlagh, Mohammad


Purpose: We tried to find the most common etiologies for anisometropia in pre-op cataract cases: axial or refractive. Methods: In this cross-sectional study ,41 pre-op cataract eyes with more than 0.33 difference between axial lengths of 2 eyes were enrolled.Considered for each 1mm difference between axial lengths in long eyes( AXL more than 25):1.75-2.00 D of anisometropia, for normal eyes(AXL: 22- 25):2.50D and for short eyes (AXL less than 22):3.50-3.75 D as axial anisometropia. If there are more or lesser anisometropia, we recorded as refractive anisometropia. Results: Average of anisometropia :4.24 D, prevalence of PK or LK :1 (2.38%), kc:1(2.38%), glaucoma surgery: 1(2.38%), and pseudophakic status of the opposite eye 8(19.04%). Prevalence of axial anisometropia:21 (52.4%) and refractive anisometropia 20(47.6%).Then on basis of this study we can rely on the patient’s refraction exactly before phaco for evaluation of axial length differences between the 2 eyes, because most of the anisometropias are axial. Conclusion: In most cases, cataract does not induce significant change in refractive error (secondary myopia) and AXL difference between the 2 eyes are correlated with it can be used for cataract patient’s ocular biometry evaluation. Pre-cataract refraction is a valuable variable should be measured and recorded in routin eye examination.

Keywords: ocular axial length, anisometropia, cataract, ophthalmology and optometry

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67 Usability Testing on Information Design through Single-Lens Wearable Device

Authors: Jae-Hyun Choi, Sung-Soo Bae, Sangyoung Yoon, Hong-Ku Yun, Jiyoung Kwahk


This study was conducted to investigate the effect of ocular dominance on recognition performance using a single-lens smart display designed for cycling. A total of 36 bicycle riders who have been cycling consistently were recruited and participated in the experiment. The participants were asked to perform tasks riding a bicycle on a stationary stand for safety reasons. Independent variables of interest include ocular dominance, bike usage, age group, and information layout. Recognition time (i.e., the time required to identify specific information measured with an eye-tracker), error rate (i.e. false answer or failure to identify the information in 5 seconds), and user preference scores were measured and statistical tests were conducted to identify significant results. Recognition time and error ratio showed significant difference by ocular dominance factor, while the preference score did not. Recognition time was faster when the single-lens see-through display on the dominant eye (average 1.12sec) than on the non-dominant eye (average 1.38sec). Error ratio of the information recognition task was significantly lower when the see-through display was worn on the dominant eye (average 4.86%) than on the non-dominant eye (average 14.04%). The interaction effect of ocular dominance and age group was significant with respect to recognition time and error ratio. The recognition time of the users in their 40s was significantly longer than the other age groups when the display was placed on the non-dominant eye, while no difference was observed on the dominant eye. Error ratio also showed the same pattern. Although no difference was observed for the main effect of ocular dominance and bike usage, the interaction effect between the two variables was significant with respect to preference score. Preference score of daily bike users was higher when the display was placed on the dominant eye, whereas participants who use bikes for leisure purposes showed the opposite preference patterns. It was found more effective and efficient to wear a see-through display on the dominant eye than on the non-dominant eye, although user preference was not affected by ocular dominance. It is recommended to wear a see-through display on the dominant eye since it is safer by helping the user recognize the presented information faster and more accurately, even if the user may not notice the difference.

Keywords: eye tracking, information recognition, ocular dominance, smart headware, wearable device

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66 Deep Convolutional Neural Network for Detection of Microaneurysms in Retinal Fundus Images at Early Stage

Authors: Goutam Kumar Ghorai, Sandip Sadhukhan, Arpita Sarkar, Debprasad Sinha, G. Sarkar, Ashis K. Dhara


Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common chronic diseases in all countries and continues to increase in numbers significantly. Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is damage to the retina that occurs with long-term diabetes. DR is a major cause of blindness in the Indian population. Therefore, its early diagnosis is of utmost importance towards preventing progression towards imminent irreversible loss of vision, particularly in the huge population across rural India. The barriers to eye examination of all diabetic patients are socioeconomic factors, lack of referrals, poor access to the healthcare system, lack of knowledge, insufficient number of ophthalmologists, and lack of networking between physicians, diabetologists and ophthalmologists. A few diabetic patients often visit a healthcare facility for their general checkup, but their eye condition remains largely undetected until the patient is symptomatic. This work aims to focus on the design and development of a fully automated intelligent decision system for screening retinal fundus images towards detection of the pathophysiology caused by microaneurysm in the early stage of the diseases. Automated detection of microaneurysm is a challenging problem due to the variation in color and the variation introduced by the field of view, inhomogeneous illumination, and pathological abnormalities. We have developed aconvolutional neural network for efficient detection of microaneurysm. A loss function is also developed to handle severe class imbalance due to very small size of microaneurysms compared to background. The network is able to locate the salient region containing microaneurysms in case of noisy images captured by non-mydriatic cameras. The ground truth of microaneurysms is created by expert ophthalmologists for MESSIDOR database as well as private database, collected from Indian patients. The network is trained from scratch using the fundus images of MESSIDOR database. The proposed method is evaluated on DIARETDB1 and the private database. The method is successful in detection of microaneurysms for dilated and non-dilated types of fundus images acquired from different medical centres. The proposed algorithm could be used for development of AI based affordable and accessible system, to provide service at grass root-level primary healthcare units spread across the country to cater to the need of the rural people unaware of the severe impact of DR.

Keywords: retinal fundus image, deep convolutional neural network, early detection of microaneurysms, screening of diabetic retinopathy

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65 Computer-Aided Exudate Diagnosis for the Screening of Diabetic Retinopathy

Authors: Shu-Min Tsao, Chung-Ming Lo, Shao-Chun Chen


Most diabetes patients tend to suffer from its complication of retina diseases. Therefore, early detection and early treatment are important. In clinical examinations, using color fundus image was the most convenient and available examination method. According to the exudates appeared in the retinal image, the status of retina can be confirmed. However, the routine screening of diabetic retinopathy by color fundus images would bring time-consuming tasks to physicians. This study thus proposed a computer-aided exudate diagnosis for the screening of diabetic retinopathy. After removing vessels and optic disc in the retinal image, six quantitative features including region number, region area, and gray-scale values etc… were extracted from the remaining regions for classification. As results, all six features were evaluated to be statistically significant (p-value < 0.001). The accuracy of classifying the retinal images into normal and diabetic retinopathy achieved 82%. Based on this system, the clinical workload could be reduced. The examination procedure may also be improved to be more efficient.

Keywords: computer-aided diagnosis, diabetic retinopathy, exudate, image processing

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64 Virtual Reality Application for Neurorehabilitation

Authors: Daniel Vargas-Herrera, Ivette Caldelas, Fernando Brambila-Paz, Rodrigo Montufar-Chaveznava


In this paper, we present a virtual reality application for neurorehabilitation. This application was developed using the Unity SDK integrating the Oculus Rift and Leap Motion devices. Essentially, it consists of three stages according to the kind of rehabilitation to carry on: ocular rehabilitation, head/neck rehabilitation, and eye-hand coordination. We build three scenes for each task; for ocular and head/neck rehabilitation, there are different objects moving in the field of view and extended field of view of the user according to some patterns relative to the therapy. In the third stage the user must try to touch with the hand some objects guided by its view. We report the primer results of the use of the application with healthy people.

Keywords: virtual reality, interactive technologies, video games, neurorehabilitation

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63 A Case Report on Neonatal Conjunctivitis in Pugs

Authors: Maria L. G. Lourenco, Viviane Y. Hibaru, Keylla H. N. P. Pereira, Fabiana F. Souza, Joao C. P. Ferreira, Simone B. Chiacchio, Luiz H. A. Machado


Neonatal conjunctivitis, or ophthalmia, is an infection of the conjunctiva or cornea before opening the eyelids. It is believed that immunodeficiency contributes to the development of the condition. This study aims at reporting a case of ophthalmia neonatorum in a dog, in addition to its diagnosis and treatment. A litter of five pug neonates was admitted to the Sao Paulo State University (UNESP) Veterinary Hospital, Botucatu, Sao Paulo, Brazil, with complaints of ocular secretion. The neonates were five days old. The clinical examination revealed that three newborns presented swelling in the ocular region and a purulent secretion in the medial corner of the eye that was exerting pressure on the ocular globes, which are compatible with the description of this disease. The diagnosis was made based on the clinical signs and bacterial culture of the secretion, which revealed the presence of bacteria belonging to the genus Staphylococcus sp. The laboratory assays did not reveal any alterations. The treatment was instituted gently, opening the eyelids early and cleaning the purulent ocular secretion with saline solution. An ophthalmic ointment with retinol, amino acids, methionine, and chloramphenicol (Epitezan®) was prescribed four times a day for seven days. Blood plasma (2 mL/100 g) was administered subcutaneously because bacterial infections in neonates may represent a failure in the transference of passive immunity. A more thorough cleaning of the environment was also recommended. Neonatal conjunctivitis has a simple diagnosis and treatment. If not treated early, it can evolve to adherence of the eyelids to the cornea, ulceration, and perforation of the cornea. Therefore, the prognosis is favorable as long as the condition is diagnosed early, and the treatment is instituted quickly.

Keywords: ophthalmia neonatorum, neonatal infection, puppy, newborn

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62 A Five–Year Review Study of Epidemiology of Ocular and Adnexal Injuries Requiring Surgical Intervention in a Middle Eastern Area: Al Ain, UAE

Authors: Tahra AlMahmoud, Sameeha Mohamed Al Hadhrami, Mohamed Elhanan, Hanan Naser Alshamsi, Fikri Abu-Zidan


Background: To the best of the author(s)’ knowledge there are no epidemiological studies for traumatic eye injuries in UAE, neither data on groups at risk or mechanisms for ocular trauma. Purpose: To report the epidemiology of eye injuries that required hospital admission and surgery at a referral center at the eastern part of Abu Dhabi. Method: Retrospective charts review of all patients who had suffered an eye injury that required surgical intervention between 2012 and 2017 at Al Ain Hospital. Demographic data, place of occurrence, the cause of injury, visual acuity (VA) before and after treatment, number of admission days and follow up were extracted. Data were tabulated and presented as number (%), mean (SD), or median (range) as appropriate. Wilcoxon signed rank test was used for VA outcome. Results: One hundred forty-one patients were identified, 96 eyes with open-globe and 48 other types of injuries. The mean age of the patients was 26±15.5 years, and 89% were male. Majority of injuries occurred at the workplace (50.4%) followed by home (31.2%). Trauma with a sharp object (24.1%), blunt object (16.3%), nail (11.3%), and hammer on metal (7.8%) were the most common etiologies of injury. Corneas injuries (48.2%) was the most frequent cause for visual acuity limitation followed by lens/cataract (23.4%). Among the traumatized eyes, 30 eyes (21.3%) retained intraocular foreign body, Mean admission days was 3.16± 2.81days (1-16) and a number of follow up visit was 3.17± 4.11times (0-26). Conclusion: Ocular trauma requiring surgical intervention is an area of concern in particular for occupations involving work with metals. This work may give insight into the value and necessity of implementing preventive measures.

Keywords: epidemiology, Middle Eastern area, occupational injury, ocular traumas

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61 Bulbar Conjunctival Kaposi's Sarcoma Unmasked by Immune Reconstitution Syndrome

Authors: S. Mohd Afzal, R. O'Connell


Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is the most common HIV-related cancer, and ocular manifestations constitute at least 25% of all KS cases. However, ocular presentations often occur in the context of systemic KS, and isolated lesions are rare. We report a unique case of ocular KS masquerading as subconjunctival haemorrhage, and only developing systemic manifestations after initiation of HIV treatment. Case: A 49-year old man with previous hypertensive stroke and newly diagnosed HIV infection presented with an acutely red left eye following repeated bouts of coughing. Given the convincing history of poorly controlled hypertension and cough, a diagnosis of subconjunctival haemorrhage was made. Over the next week, his ocular lesion began to improve and he subsequently started anti-retroviral therapy. Prior to receiving anti-retroviral therapy, his CD4+ lymphocyte count was 194 cells/mm3 with HIV viral load greater than 1 million/ml. This rapidly improved to a viral load of 150 copies/ml within 2 weeks of starting treatment. However, a few days after starting HIV treatment, his ocular lesion recurred. Ophthalmic examination was otherwise normal. He also developed widespread lymphadenopathy and multiple dark lesions on his torso. Histology and virology confirmed KS, systemically triggered by Immune Reconstitution Syndrome (KS-IRIS). The patient has since undergone chemotherapy successfully. Discussion: Kaposi's sarcoma is an atypical tumour caused by human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8), also known as Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV). In immunosuppressed patients, KSHV can also cause lymphoproliferative disorders such as primary effusion lymphoma and Castleman's disease (in our patient’s case, this was excluded through histological analysis of lymph nodes). KSHV is one of the seven currently known human oncoviruses, and its pathogenesis is poorly understood. Up to 13% of patients with HIV-related KS experience worsening of the disease after starting anti-retroviral treatment, due to a sudden increase in CD4 cell counts. Histology remains the diagnostic gold standard. Current British HIV Association (BHIVA) guidelines recommend treatment using anti-retroviral drugs, with either intralesional vinblastine for local disease or systemic chemotherapy for disseminated KS. Conclusion: This case is unique as ocular KS as initial presentation is rare and our patient's diagnosis was only made after systemic lesions were triggered by immune reconstitution. KS should be considered as an important differential diagnosis for red eyes in all patients at risk of acquiring HIV infection.

Keywords: human herpesvirus 8, human immunodeficiency virus, immune reconstitution syndrome, Kaposi’s sarcoma, Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus

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60 Need for Eye Care Services, Clinical Characteristics, Surgical Outcome and Prognostic Predictors of Cataract in Adult Participants with Intellectual Disability

Authors: Yun-Shan Tsai, Si-Ping Lin, En-Chieh Lin, Xin-Hong Chen, Shin-Yun Ho, Shin-Hong Huang, Ching-ju Hsieh


Background and significance: Uncorrected refractive errors and cataracts are the main visually debilitating ophthalmological abnormalities in adult participants with intellectual disability (ID). However, not all adult participants with ID may receive a regular and timely ophthalmological assessment. Consequently, some of the ocular diseases may not be diagnosed until late, thereby causing unnecessary ocular morbidity. In addition, recent clinical practice and researches have also suggested that eye-care services for this group are neglected. Purpose: To investigate the unmet need for eye care services, clinical characteristics of cataract, visual function, surgical outcome and prognostic predictors in adult participants with ID at Taipei City Hospital in Taiwan. Methods: This is a one-year prospective clinical study. We recruited about 120 eyes of 60 adult participants with ID who were received cataract surgery. Caregivers of all participants received a questionnaire on current eye care services. Clinical demographic data, such as age, gender, and associated systemic diseases or syndromes, were collected. All complete ophthalmologic examinations were performed 1 month preoperatively and 3 months postoperatively, including ocular biometry, visual function, refractive status, morphology of cataract, associated ocular features, anesthesia methods, surgical types, and complications. Morphology of cataract, visual and surgical outcome was analyzed. Results: A total of 60 participants with mean age 43.66 ± 13.94 years, including 59.02% male and 40.98% female, took part in comprehensive eye-care services. The prevalence of unmet need for eye care services was high (about 70%). About 50% of adult participants with ID have bilateral cataracts at the time of diagnosis. White cataracts were noted in about 30% of all adult participants with ID at the time of presentation. Associated ocular disorders were included myopic maculopathy (4.54%), corneal disorders (11.36%), nystagmus (20.45%), strabismus (38.64%) and glaucoma (2.27%). About 26.7% of adult participants with ID underwent extracapsular cataract extraction whereas a phacoemulsification was performed in 100% of eyes. Intraocular lens implantation was performed in all eyes. The most common postoperative complication was posterior capsular opacification (30%). The mean best-corrected visual acuity was significantly improved from preoperatively (mean log MAR 0.48 ± 0.22) to at 3 months postoperatively (mean log MAR 0.045 ± 0.22) (p < .05). Conclusions: Regular follow up will help address the need for eye-care services in participants with ID. A high incidence of bilateral cataracts, as well as white cataracts, was observed in adult participants with ID. Because of early diagnosis and early intervention of cataract, the visual and surgical outcomes of cataract are good, but the visual outcomes are suboptimal due to associated ocular comorbidities.

Keywords: adult participants with intellectual disability, cataract, cataract surgery

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59 Validity of Simlified Javal’s Rule in 147 Pre-Operation Cataract Eyes

Authors: Mohammad Ghandehari Motlagh


Purpose: To evaluate validity of simplified Javal’s rule (Total Ast=Corneal [email protected]) in 147 pre-op cataract eyes. Methods: Due to change in lens tissue and structure in a cataract crystalline lens, we conceive the simplified javal’s rule may not be valid in cataract cases.In this cross-sectional study,147 pre-op cataract eyes without oblique astigmatism were enrolled in this study. Ocular biometry (with IOL master 500)and keratometry and refraction findings were recorded. Results: Mean age of our patients was 64.95 yrs/old (SD+_9.86) that confirms on senile cataract. Mean Axial length and average keratometry were respectively 23.86 and 44.62.Prevalence of systemic diseases diabet and high blood pressure were respectively 43 (29.25%) and 44 (29.93%)and shows importance of these diseases. The Corneal astigmatism axis is correlated with refractive astigmatism in cataract eyes (R=0.493). Simplified Javal’s rule is valid in cataract eyes (P<0.001). Conclusion: Simplified Javal’s rule is a valid formula in pre-op cataract eyes and can be used for keratometry results confirmation.

Keywords: javals rule, cataract, keratometry, ocular axial length

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58 Development and Characterization of Controlled Release Photo Cross-Linked Implants for Ocular Delivery of Triamcinolone Acetonide

Authors: Ravi Sheshala, Annie Lee, Ai Lin Ong, Ling Ling Cheu, Thiagarajan Madheswaran, Thankur R. R. Singh


The objectives of the present research work were to develop and characterize biodegradable controlled release photo cross-linked implants of Triamcinolone Acetonide (TA) for the treatment of chronic ocular diseases. The photo cross-linked implants were prepared using film casting technique by mixing TA (2.5%) polyethylene glycol diacrylate (PEGDA 700), pore formers (mannitol, maltose, and gelatin) and the photoinitiator (Irgacure 2959). The resulting mixture was injected into moulds using 21 G and subjected to photocrosslinking at 365 nm. Scanning electron microscopy results demonstrated that more pores were formed in the films with the increase in the concentration of pore formers from 2%-10%. The maximum force required to break the films containing 2-10% of pore formers were determined in both dry and wet conditions using texture analyzer and found that films in a dry condition required a higher force to break compared to wet condition and blank films. In vitro drug release from photo cross-linked films were determined by incubating samples in 50 ml PBS pH 7.4 at 37 C and the samples were analyzed for drug release by HPLC. The films demonstrated a biphasic release profile i.e. an initial burst release (<20%) on the first day followed by a constant and continuous drug release in a controlled manner for 42 days. The drug release from all formulations followed the first-order release pattern and the combination of diffusion and erosion release mechanism. In conclusion, the developed formulations were able to provide controlled drug delivery to treat the chronic ocular diseases.

Keywords: controlled release, ophthalmic, PEGDA, photocrosslinking, pore formers

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57 Intrastromal Donor Limbal Segments Implantation as a Surgical Treatment of Progressive Keratoconus: Clinical and Functional Results

Authors: Mikhail Panes, Sergei Pozniak, Nikolai Pozniak


Purpose: To evaluate the effectiveness of intrastromal donor limbal segments implantation for treatment of progressive keratoconus considering on main characteristics of corneal endothelial cells. Setting: Outpatient ophthalmic clinic. Methods: Twenty patients (20 eyes) with progressive keratoconus II-III of Amsler classification were recruited. The worst eye was treated with the transplantation of donor limbal segments in the recipient corneal stroma, while the fellow eye was left untreated as a control of functional and morphological changes. Furthermore, twenty patients (20 eyes) without progressive keratoconus was used as a control of corneal endothelial cells changes. All patients underwent a complete ocular examination including uncorrected and corrected distance visual acuity (UDVA, CDVA), slit lamp examination fundus examination, corneal topography and pachymetry, auto-keratometry, Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography and Corneal Endothelial Specular Microscopy. Results: After two years, statistically significant improvement in the UDVA and CDVA (on the average on two lines for UDVA and three-four lines for CDVA) were noted. Besides corneal astigmatism decreased from 5.82 ± 2.64 to 1.92 ± 1.4 D. Moreover there were no statistically significant differences in the changes of mean spherical equivalent, keratometry and pachymetry indicators. It should be noted that after two years there were no significant differences in the changes of the number and form of corneal endothelial cells. It can be regarded as a process stabilization. In untreated control eyes, there was a general trend towards worsening of UDVA, CDVA and corneal thickness, while corneal astigmatism was increased. Conclusion: Intrastromal donor segments implantation is a safe technique for keratoconus treatment. Intrastromal donor segments implantation is an efficient procedure to stabilize and improve progressive keratoconus.

Keywords: corneal endothelial cells, intrastromal donor limbal segments, progressive keratoconus, surgical treatment of keratoconus

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56 Analyzing the Causes of Amblyopia among Patients in Tertiary Care Center: Retrospective Study in King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center

Authors: Hebah M. Musalem, Jeylan El-Mansoury, Lin M. Tuleimat, Selwa Alhazza, Abdul-Aziz A. Al Zoba


Background: Amblyopia is a condition that affects the visual system triggering a decrease in visual acuity without a known underlying pathology. It is due to abnormal vision development in childhood or infancy. Most importantly, vision loss is preventable or reversible with the right kind of intervention in most of the cases. Strabismus, sensory defects, and anisometropia are all well-known causes of amblyopia. However, ocular misalignment in Strabismus is considered the most common form of amblyopia worldwide. The risk of developing amblyopia increases in premature children, developmentally delayed or children who had brain lesions affecting the visual pathway. The prevalence of amblyopia varies between 2 to 5 % in the world according to the literature. Objective: To determine the different causes of Amblyopia in pediatric patients seen in ophthalmology clinic of a tertiary care center, i.e. King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center (KFSH&RC). Methods: This is a hospital based, random retrospective, based on reviewing patient’s files in the Ophthalmology Department of KFSH&RC in Riyadh city, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Inclusion criteria: amblyopic pediatric patients who attended the clinic from 2015 to 2016, who are between 6 months and 18 years old. Exclusion Criteria: patients above 18 years of age and any patient who is uncooperative to obtain an accurate vision or a proper refraction. Detailed ocular and medical history are recorded. The examination protocol includes a full ocular exam, full cycloplegic refraction, visual acuity measurement, ocular motility and strabismus evaluation. All data were organized in tables and graphs and analyzed by statistician. Results: Our preliminary results will be discussed on spot by our corresponding author. Conclusions: We focused on this study on utilizing various examination techniques which enhanced our results and highlighted a distinguished correlation between amblyopia and its’ causes. This paper recommendation emphasizes on critical testing protocols to be followed among amblyopic patient, especially in tertiary care centers.

Keywords: amblyopia, amblyopia causes, amblyopia diagnostic criterion, amblyopia prevalence, Saudi Arabia

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