Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 19

Search results for: colonoscopy

19 Automatic Method for Classification of Informative and Noninformative Images in Colonoscopy Video

Authors: Nidhal K. Azawi, John M. Gauch

Abstract:

Colorectal cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer death in the US and the world, which is why millions of colonoscopy examinations are performed annually. Unfortunately, noise, specular highlights, and motion artifacts corrupt many images in a typical colonoscopy exam. The goal of our research is to produce automated techniques to detect and correct or remove these noninformative images from colonoscopy videos, so physicians can focus their attention on informative images. In this research, we first automatically extract features from images. Then we use machine learning and deep neural network to classify colonoscopy images as either informative or noninformative. Our results show that we achieve image classification accuracy between 92-98%. We also show how the removal of noninformative images together with image alignment can aid in the creation of image panoramas and other visualizations of colonoscopy images.

Keywords: colonoscopy classification, feature extraction, image alignment, machine learning

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18 Comparison of Efficacy between Low-Residue Diet and Clear-Liquid Diet in Colonoscopic Bowel Preparation at a Surgical Clinic: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Authors: Sopana Wongtawee

Abstract:

Purpose: Adequate bowel cleansing is essential for a high quality, effective and safe colonoscopy. The aims of this study were to compare the efficacy of bowel preparation based on a low-residue diet before 8:00 followed by a clear-liquid diet, and a low-residue diet until 16:00 one day before colonoscopy using sodium phosphate solution (Xubil ®), the side effects of the two protocols and the patient satisfaction with them. Method: This was an endoscopist-blinded, prospective, randomized, controlled trial. A total of 224 patients (112 in each group) scheduled for outpatient colonoscopy met the criteria.They were randomized to either a low-residue diet consisting of white rice porridge with either fish, chicken or eggs before 8:00 followed by a clear-liquid diet (Group 1) or a low-residue diet consisting of the same food and drink, until 16:00 the day before colonoscopy(Group 2). All of them received 45 ml of sodium phosphate solution (Xubil ®) and three glasses of water (300 ml/glass) the evening before and the morning of the procedure. The cleansing efficacy of bowel preparation was rated according to the modified Rajawithi hospital bowel preparation score scale, patient satisfaction with bowel preparation was rated using Likert scale, and side effects of the 2 protocols was assessed using a patient questionnaire. Results: The cleansing efficacy between the two groups was significantly different (p=0.02). Satisfaction with bowel preparation and side effects were not different, except for the feeling of hunger in the first group (p=0.001). Conclusion: The low-residue diet consisting of white rice porridge with fish, chicken or eggs until 16:00 one day before colonoscopy achieved a better bowel-cleansing efficacy than the protocol consisting of clear liquid all day and rice porridge only before 8:00 one day before colonoscopy.

Keywords: bowel preparation, colonoscopy, sodium phosphate solution, nursing management

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17 Utility of Routine Colonoscopy in Acute Diverticulitis

Authors: Naya Masood, Russell Hodgson, Mark Tacey

Abstract:

Purpose: Patients with acute diverticulitis (AD) have an increased risk of underlying colorectal cancer (CRC); however, those with uncomplicated AD may have the same underlying population risk. This study informs on an Australian AD population who were not routinely offered colonoscopic follow-up. Methods: A 2-year (July 2016 – June 2018) retrospective study of patients admitted with CT-confirmed acute diverticulitis was conducted. CT findings were categorised as ‘complicated’ and ‘uncomplicated’ and were correlated with the detection of cancer in subsequent colonoscopy or follow-up. Results: 67.7% (n=292) of 431 patients were seen to have had complicated AD on an abdominopelvic CT scan. Patients were complicated most commonly due to bowel wall thickening reported on CT (90.4%), perforation (20.2%), or an abscess (12%). Follow-up colonoscopic evaluation was conducted in 52.9% (n=228) of total cases of AD, out of which 156 suffered complicated AD and the rest uncomplicated. None of the uncomplicated AD patients in our cohort were found to have CRC. Of those with complicated AD, six were found to have CRC. Conclusion: The only CRC diagnoses were made in patients with complicated AD. Despite available evidence, a significant proportion of uncomplicated AD patients were still undergoing colonoscopy. There is scope to further safely decrease the number of colonoscopies performed in AD patients.

Keywords: acute diverticulitis, colonoscopy, colorectal cancer, advanced adenoma, complicated diverticulitis

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16 Modeling and Shape Prediction for Elastic Kinematic Chains

Authors: Jiun Jeon, Byung-Ju Yi

Abstract:

This paper investigates modeling and shape prediction of elastic kinematic chains such as colonoscopy. 2D and 3D models of elastic kinematic chains are suggested and their behaviors are demonstrated through simulation. To corroborate the effectiveness of those models, experimental work is performed using a magnetic sensor system.

Keywords: elastic kinematic chain, shape prediction, colonoscopy, modeling

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15 Tolerance of Colonoscopy: Questioning Its Utility in the Elderly

Authors: Faizan Rathore, Naveed Sultan, Humphrey O. Connor

Abstract:

This study was carried out from Jan '12-Dec'12 to assess current practice in Kerry General Hospital against the age-related indicators for colonoscopies. A total of 1474 colonoscopies were performed,1177(79.9%) were diagnostic and 297 (20.1%) were therapeutic, patients were divided into 4 age groups under 75, 75-80, 81-85, 86+. The trend analysis revealed an increase in diagnostic colonoscopies and decrease in therapeutic colonoscopies with age. 664(45.04%) of colonoscopies were reported normal which made up the majority of the total diagnoses, 1330 (90.2%) of colonoscopies occurred without any complications. Main complications were patient discomfort being the highest, present in 112(7.6%) of patients, and lowest being urticaria around the IV site present in 1 (0.1%) of the cases. Patient discomfort was higher in younger patients as evidenced by 98 cases aged <75 , followed by 11 cases aged 75-80, 2 cases aged 81-85 and 1 case aged >86. Highest percentage of poor tolerance was found in 14 (1.1%) of total patients <75, 1 (0.8%) of total patients aged 75-80, 1(1.7%) of total patients in age group 81-85 and none (0%) in age group >86. We have established the safety of colonoscopy, low rate of complications and a better tolerance in the elderly from this study, however, its utility, especially in the presence of other comorbidities in elderly is questionable.

Keywords: colonoscopy, elderly patients, utility, tolerance

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14 Adaptive Motion Compensated Spatial Temporal Filter of Colonoscopy Video

Authors: Nidhal Azawi

Abstract:

Colonoscopy procedure is widely used in the world to detect an abnormality. Early diagnosis can help to heal many patients. Because of the unavoidable artifacts that exist in colon images, doctors cannot detect a colon surface precisely. The purpose of this work is to improve the visual quality of colonoscopy videos to provide better information for physicians by removing some artifacts. This work complements a series of work consisting of three previously published papers. In this paper, Optic flow is used for motion compensation, and then consecutive images are aligned/registered to integrate some information to create a new image that has or reveals more information than the original one. Colon images have been classified into informative and noninformative images by using a deep neural network. Then, two different strategies were used to treat informative and noninformative images. Informative images were treated by using Lucas Kanade (LK) with an adaptive temporal mean/median filter, whereas noninformative images are treated by using Lucas Kanade with a derivative of Gaussian (LKDOG) with adaptive temporal median images. A comparison result showed that this work achieved better results than that results in the state- of- the- art strategies for the same degraded colon images data set, which consists of 1000 images. The new proposed algorithm reduced the error alignment by about a factor of 0.3 with a 100% successfully image alignment ratio. In conclusion, this algorithm achieved better results than the state-of-the-art approaches in case of enhancing the informative images as shown in the results section; also, it succeeded to convert the non-informative images that have very few details/no details because of the blurriness/out of focus or because of the specular highlight dominate significant amount of an image to informative images.

Keywords: optic flow, colonoscopy, artifacts, spatial temporal filter

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13 Diagnostic Evaluation of Micro Rna (miRNA-21, miRNA-215 and miRNA-378) in Patients with Colorectal Cancer

Authors: Ossama Abdelmotaal, Olfat Shaker, Tarek Salman, Lamiaa Nabeel, Mostafa Shabayek

Abstract:

Colorectal Cancer (CRC) is an important worldwide health problem. Colonoscopy is used in detecting CRC suffer from drawbacks where colonoscopy is an invasive method. This study validates easier and less time-consuming techniques to evaluate the usefulness of detecting miRNA-21, miRNA-215 and miRNA-378 in the sera of colorectal cancer patients as new diagnostic tools. This study includes malignant (Colo Rectal Cancer patients, n= 64)) and healthy (n=27) groups. The studied groups were subjected to colonoscopic examination and estimation of miRNA-21, miRNA-215 and miRNA-378 in sera by RT-PCR. miRNA-21 showed the statistically significantly highest median fold change. miRNA-378 showed statistically significantly lower value (Both showed over-expression). miRNA-215 showed the statistically significantly lowest median fold change (It showed down-regulation). Overall the miRNA (21-215 and 378) appear to be promising method of detecting CRC and evaluating its stages.

Keywords: colorectal cancer, miRNA-21, miRNA-215, miRNA-378

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12 The Value of Routine Terminal Ileal Biopsies for the Investigation of Diarrhea

Authors: Swati Bhasin, Ali Ahmed, Valence Xavier, Ben Liu

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Aims: Diarrhea is a problem that is a frequent clinic referral to the gastroenterology and surgical team from the General practitioner. To establish a diagnosis, these patients undergo colonoscopy. The current practice at our district general hospital is to perform random left and right colonic biopsies. National guidelines issued by the British Society of Gastroenterology advise all patients presenting with chronic diarrhea should have an Ileoscopy as an indicator for colonoscopy completion. Our primary aim was to check if Terminal ileum (TI) biopsy is required to establish a diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Methods: Data was collected retrospectively from November 2018 to November 2019. The target population were patients who underwent colonoscopies for diarrhea. Demographic data, endoscopic and histology findings of TI were assessed and analyzed. Results: 140 patients with a mean age of 57 years (19-84) underwent a colonoscopy (M: F; 1:2.3). 92 patients had random colonic biopsies taken and based on the histological results of these, 15 patients (16%) were diagnosed with IBD. The TI was successfully intubated in 40 patients, of which 32 patients had colonic biopsies taken as well. 8 patients did not have a colonic biopsy taken. Macroscopic abnormality in the TI was detected in 5 patients, all of whom were biopsied. Based on histological results of the biopsy, 3 patients (12%) were diagnosed with IBD. These 3 patients (100%) also had colonic biopsies taken simultaneously and showed inflammation. None of the patients had a diagnosis of IBD confirmed on TI intubation alone (where colonic biopsies were not done). None of the patients has a diagnosis of IBD confirmed on TI intubation alone (where colonic biopsies were negative). Conclusion: TI intubation is a highly-skilled, time-consuming procedure with a higher risk of perforation, which as per our study, has little additional diagnostic value in finding IBD for symptoms of diarrhea if colonic biopsies are taken. We propose that diarrhea is a colonic symptom; therefore, colonic biopsies are positive for inflammation if the diarrhea is secondary to IBD. We conclude that all of the IBDs can be diagnosed simply with colonic biopsies.

Keywords: biopsy, colon, IBD, terminal ileum

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11 Design of Cylindrical Crawler Robot Inspired by Amoeba Locomotion

Authors: Jun-ya Nagase

Abstract:

Recently, the need of colonoscopy is increasing because of the rise of colonic disorder including cancer of the colon. However, current colonoscopy depends on doctor's skill strongly. Therefore, a large intestine endoscope that does not depend on the techniques of a doctor with high safety is required. In this research, we aim at development a novel large intestine endoscope that can realize safe insertion without specific techniques. A wheel movement type robot, a snake-like robot and an earthworm-like robot are all described in the relevant literature as endoscope robots that are currently studied. Among them, the tracked crawler robot can travel by traversing uneven ground flexibly with a crawler belt attached firmly to the ground surface. Although conventional crawler robots have high efficiency and/or high ground-covering ability, they require a comparatively large space to move. In this study, a small cylindrical crawler robot inspired by amoeba locomotion, which does not need large space to move and which has high ground-covering ability, is proposed. In addition, we developed a prototype of the large intestine endoscope using the proposed crawler mechanism. Experiments have demonstrated smooth operation and a forward movement of the robot by application of voltage to the motor. This paper reports the structure, drive mechanism, prototype, and experimental evaluation.

Keywords: tracked-crawler, endoscopic robot, narrow path, amoeba locomotion.

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10 A Review of Current Practices in Tattooing of Colonic Lesion at Endoscopy

Authors: Dhanashree Moghe, Roberta Bullingham, Rizwan Ahmed, Tarun Singhal

Abstract:

Aim: The NHS Bowel Screening Programme recommends the use of endoscopic tattooing for suspected malignant lesions that later require surgical or endoscopic localisation, using local protocols as guidance. This is in accordance with guidance from the BSG (The British Society of Gastroenterologists). We used a well-recognised local protocol as a standard to audit current tattooing practice in a large district general hospital with no current local guidelines. Method: A retrospective quantitative analysis of 50 patients who underwent segmental colonic resection for cancer over a 6-month period in 2021. We reviewed historic electronic endoscopy reports recording relevant data on tattoo indication and placement. Secondly, we carried out an anonymous survey of 16 independent lower GI endoscopists on self-reported details of their practice. Results: In our study, 28 patients (56%) had a tattoo placed at the time of their colonoscopy. Of these, only 53% (n=15) had the tattoo distal to the lesion, with the measured distance of the tattoo from the lesion only being documented in 8 reports. Only seven patients (25%) had a circumferential (4 quadrant) placement of the tattoo. 13 patients had lesions either in the caecum or rectum, locations deemed unnecessary as per BSG guidelines. Of the survey responses collected, there were four different protocols being used to guide practice. Only 50% of respondents placed tattoos at the correct distance from the lesion, and 83% placed the correct number of tattoos. Conclusion: There is a lack of standardisation of practices in colonic tattooing demonstrated in our study with incomplete compliance to our standard. The inadequate documentation of tattoo location can contribute to confusion and inaccuracy in the intraoperative localisation of lesions. This has the potential to increase operation length and morbidity. There is a need to standardise both technique and documentation in colonoscopic tattooing practice.

Keywords: colorectal cancer, endoscopic tattooing, colonoscopy, NHS BSCP

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9 Intestinal Tuberculosis in a Patient with Cushing’s Syndrome: A Case Report

Authors: Johanne Myrrh E. Soriano, Rene A. Amadore Jr., Roy Raoul H. Felipe, Lovell B. Gatchalian

Abstract:

A 39-year-old woman presented with cushingoid features was worked up and diagnosed to have ACTH-independent Cushing’s syndrome. Computed tomography of the whole abdomen revealed a left adrenal mass. She was scheduled for elective laparoscopic left adrenalectomy; however, a few days prior to the procedure, the patient had hematochezia and was admitted earlier than scheduled. Colonoscopy revealed multiple ulcers on the terminal ileum, to which biopsy and gen expert revealed Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. The patient underwent laparoscopic left adrenalectomy on the same admission, which revealed adrenal adenoma on histopathology.

Keywords: Cushing’s syndrome, Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, adrenal adenoma, hematochezia

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8 Congenital Positional Anomaly of Descending Colon and Sigmoid Colon: Its Embryological Basis and Clinical Implications

Authors: Dhivyalakshmi Gnanasekaran, Sonali Adole Prasante, Raveendranath Veeramamani, H. Y. Suma

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A rare case of intestinal malrotation with midline descending colon and right sided sigmoid colon was observed in an adult male cadaver aged around 55 years during routine dissection. The descending colon began from the splenic flexure and gradually descended downwards to occupy the midline position and turned to the right side to be continued as sigmoid colon at the level of the fifth lumbar vertebra. In the right iliac fossa some part of loop of sigmoid colon displaced into the right lumbar region before entering into the true pelvis to continue as rectum. This anomalous descending and sigmoid colon was supplied by varying branching pattern of inferior mesenteric artery. It is extremely important to consider this embryological anomaly before any interventional diagnostic procedures like colonoscopy and to enhance the safety of colonic surgery.

Keywords: sigmoid colon, descending colon, hindgut, malrotation

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7 Giant Filiform Polyposis in a Patient with Ulcerative Colitis Mimicking Colorectal Cancer

Authors: Godwin Dennison, Edwin Cooper, George Theobald, Richard Dalton

Abstract:

We report an unusual case of giant filiform polyposis in a patient with ulcerative colitis, causing a large stricture in the colon. A 62-year-old man was referred to the Bowel Cancer Screening Programme with a positive Faecal Immunochemical Test (FIT). He was known to have UC for 30 years. A CT scan showed a 9 cm stricture in the transverse colon suspicious of malignancy. A colonoscopy was attempted three times, and biopsies confirmed features of ulcerative colitis. A laparoscopic assisted transverse colectomy (Left hemicolectomy) was performed, and the histology revealed giant filiform polyposis. This should be considered in a UC patient presenting with signs of obstruction mimicking a carcinoma. Whilst it is a benign condition, because of the size of the lesion, it often causes obstruction, and surgery is indicated to relieve symptoms.

Keywords: giant inflammatory polyposis, filiform polyposis, ulcerative colitis, inflammatory bowel disease

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6 Urinary Volatile Organic Compound Testing in Fast-Track Patients with Suspected Colorectal Cancer

Authors: Godwin Dennison, C. E. Boulind, O. Gould, B. de Lacy Costello, J. Allison, P. White, P. Ewings, A. Wicaksono, N. J. Curtis, A. Pullyblank, D. Jayne, J. A. Covington, N. Ratcliffe, N. K. Francis

Abstract:

Background: Colorectal symptoms are common but only infrequently represent serious pathology, including colorectal cancer (CRC). A large number of invasive tests are presently performed for reassurance. We investigated the feasibility of urinary volatile organic compound (VOC) testing as a potential triage tool in patients fast-tracked for assessment for possible CRC. Methods: A prospective, multi-centre, observational feasibility study was performed across three sites. Patients referred on NHS fast-track pathways for potential CRC provided a urine sample which underwent Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS), Field Asymmetric Ion Mobility Spectrometry (FAIMS) and Selected Ion Flow Tube Mass Spectrometry (SIFT-MS) analysis. Patients underwent colonoscopy and/or CT colonography and were grouped as either CRC, adenomatous polyp(s), or controls to explore the diagnostic accuracy of VOC output data supported by an artificial neural network (ANN) model. Results: 558 patients participated with 23 (4.1%) CRC diagnosed. 59% of colonoscopies and 86% of CT colonographies showed no abnormalities. Urinary VOC testing was feasible, acceptable to patients, and applicable within the clinical fast track pathway. GC-MS showed the highest clinical utility for CRC and polyp detection vs. controls (sensitivity=0.878, specificity=0.882, AUROC=0.884). Conclusion: Urinary VOC testing and analysis are feasible within NHS fast-track CRC pathways. Clinically meaningful differences between patients with cancer, polyps, or no pathology were identified therefore suggesting VOC analysis may have future utility as a triage tool. Acknowledgment: Funding: NIHR Research for Patient Benefit grant (ref: PB-PG-0416-20022).

Keywords: colorectal cancer, volatile organic compound, gas chromatography mass spectrometry, field asymmetric ion mobility spectrometry, selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry

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5 Protecting the Health of Astronauts: Enhancing Occupational Health Monitoring and Surveillance for Former NASA Astronauts to Understand Long-Term Outcomes of Spaceflight-Related Exposures

Authors: Meredith Rossi, Lesley Lee, Mary Wear, Mary Van Baalen, Bradley Rhodes

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The astronaut community is unique, and may be disproportionately exposed to occupational hazards not commonly seen in other communities. The extent to which the demands of the astronaut occupation and exposure to spaceflight-related hazards affect the health of the astronaut population over the life course is not completely known. A better understanding of the individual, population, and mission impacts of astronaut occupational exposures is critical to providing clinical care, targeting occupational surveillance efforts, and planning for future space exploration. The ability to characterize the risk of latent health conditions is a significant component of this understanding. Provision of health screening services to active and former astronauts ensures individual, mission, and community health and safety. Currently, the NASA-Johnson Space Center (JSC) Flight Medicine Clinic (FMC) provides extensive medical monitoring to active astronauts throughout their careers. Upon retirement, astronauts may voluntarily return to the JSC FMC for an annual preventive exam. However, current retiree monitoring includes only selected screening tests, representing an opportunity for augmentation. The potential long-term health effects of spaceflight demand an expanded framework of testing for former astronauts. The need is two-fold: screening tests widely recommended for other aging populations are necessary to rule out conditions resulting from the natural aging process (e.g., colonoscopy, mammography); and expanded monitoring will increase NASA’s ability to better characterize conditions resulting from astronaut occupational exposures. To meet this need, NASA has begun an extensive exploration of the overall approach, cost, and policy implications of expanding the medical monitoring of former NASA astronauts under the Astronaut Occupational Health program. Increasing the breadth of monitoring services will ultimately enrich the existing evidence base of occupational health risks to astronauts. Such an expansion would therefore improve the understanding of the health of the astronaut population as a whole, and the ability to identify, mitigate, and manage such risks in preparation for deep space exploration missions.

Keywords: astronaut, long-term health, NASA, occupational health, surveillance

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4 Effects of the Affordable Care Act On Preventive Care Disparities

Authors: Cagdas Agirdas

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Background: The Affordable Care Act (ACA) requires non-grandfathered private insurance plans, starting with plan years on or after September 23rd, 2010, to provide certain preventive care services without any cost sharing in the form of deductibles, copayments or co-insurance. This requirement may affect racial and ethnic disparities in preventive care as it provides the largest copay reduction in preventive care. Objectives: We ask whether the ACA’s free preventive care benefits are associated with a reduction in racial and ethnic disparities in the utilization of four preventive services: cholesterol screenings, colonoscopies, mammograms, and pap smears. Methods: We use a data set of over 6,000 individuals from the 2009, 2010, and 2013 Medical Expenditure Panel Surveys (MEPS). We restrict our data set only to individuals who are old enough to be eligible for each preventive service. Our difference-in-differences logistic regression model classifies privately-insured Hispanics, African Americans, and Asians as the treatment groups and 2013 as the after-policy year. Our control group consists of non-Hispanic whites on Medicaid as this program already covered preventive care services for free or at a low cost before the ACA. Results: After controlling for income, education, marital status, preferred interview language, self-reported health status, employment, having a usual source of care, age and gender, we find that the ACA is associated with increases in the probability of the median, privately-insured Hispanic person to get a colonoscopy by 3.6% and a mammogram by 3.1%, compared to a non-Hispanic white person on Medicaid. Similarly, we find that the median, privately-insured African American person’s probability of receiving these two preventive services improved by 2.3% and 2.4% compared to a non-Hispanic white person on Medicaid. We do not find any significant improvements for any racial or ethnic group for cholesterol screenings or pap smears. Furthermore, our results do not indicate any significant changes for Asians compared to non-Hispanic whites in utilizing the four preventive services. These reductions in racial/ethnic disparities are robust to reconfigurations of time periods, previous diagnosis, and residential status. Conclusions: Early effects of the ACA’s provision of free preventive care are significant for Hispanics and African Americans. Further research is needed for the later years as more individuals became aware of these benefits.

Keywords: preventive care, Affordable Care Act, cost sharing, racial disparities

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3 Inguinal Hernia Preperitoneal Mesh and Internal Hernia with Caecal Volvulus

Authors: Daniel Tani, Goutham Sivasuthan, Reuben Ndegwa, Omar Mansour

Abstract:

We report a case of a caecal volvulus in a 52-year-old female who had an internal hernia from adhesions originating at the region of a previous inguinal hernia mesh repair. The patient described epigastric and right lower quadrant pain for the preceding two weeks that seemed to worsen with oral intake. She had previous laparoscopic preperitoneal hernia repairs with mesh bilaterally; the left in 2007 and the right in 2012. Further surgical history included an open Spigelian hernia repair with mesh in the left lower quadrant and a laparoscopic cholecystectomy 20 years earlier. In addition to this, she had had a colonoscopy done three months prior, which showed no masses or polyps. The patient was hemodynamically stable on review with a soft abdomen. The right lower quadrant was exquisitely tender with a rebound. There were no palpable masses. Blood tests revealed hemoglobin of 155 g/L, a white cell count of 8 x 109/L, and a C-reactive protein of 37 mg/L. A computed tomography scan with portal venous contrast demonstrated a mechanical small bowel obstruction with the terminal ileum and caecum looped around itself in a whirlpool appearance, and the colon collapsed distally. There was a trace of free fluid in the right paracolic gutter and no abdominal free air. Hernia meshes were visible in the inguinal orifices bilaterally and at the left lower quadrant. The mesh on the right inguinal canal appeared to be displaced intraperitoneally. The patient then underwent emergency diagnostic laparoscopy. Intraoperatively, there was a caecal volvulus caused by internal herniation underneath a thick band adhesion at the right iliac fossa. This band appeared to arise from the anterior abdominal wall just posterior to the right inguinal hernia preperitoneal mesh. There was no mesh or tacks exposed and there was no recurrent hernia. A right hemicolectomy was performed with a stapled side-to-side anastomosis. The postoperative course was uncomplicated, and she was discharged on day 6. At follow-up two weeks later, the patient was well and bowel function had returned to normal. Histopathology was negative for dysplasia or malignancy. Inguinal preperitoneal mesh has not been definitively linked to intraabdominal adhesion formation. There has been a study in 2016 that examined the formation of adhesions after ventral hernia repair as detected by MRI and laparoscopic correlation. However, this included intraperitoneal mesh, and the results were not stratified by mesh location. There was an overall 60% rate of adhesions after ventral hernia mesh. There has also been one case report in the literature that describes an adhesional small bowel obstruction that was attributed to a tack that had been placed during a laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair. In our case report, there was clearly a band adhesion from the preperitoneal mesh that had led to an internal hernia and caecal volvulus; however, whether the mesh had initiated the adhesion is uncertain. While inguinal hernia repair with mesh remains the gold standard, the formation of intra-abdominal adhesions may need to be a consideration in fixation techniques.

Keywords: internal hernia, inguinal hernia mesh, caecal volvulus, adhesion

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2 Case Report: Opioid Sparing Anaesthesia with Dexmedetomidine in General Surgery

Authors: Shang Yee Chong

Abstract:

Perioperative pain is a complex mechanism activated by various nociceptive, neuropathic, and inflammatory pathways. Opioids have long been a mainstay for analgesia in this period, even as we are continuously moving towards a multimodal model to improve pain control while minimising side effects. Dexmedetomidine, a potent alpha-2 agonist, is a useful sedative and hypnotic agent. Its use in the intensive care unit has been well described, and it is increasingly an adjunct intraoperatively for its opioid sparing effects and to decrease pain scores. We describe a case of a general surgical patient in whom minimal opioids was required with dexmedetomidine use. The patient was a 61-year-old Indian gentleman with a history of hyperlipidaemia and type 2 diabetes mellitus, presenting with rectal adenocarcinoma detected on colonoscopy. He was scheduled for a robotic ultra-low anterior resection. The patient was induced with intravenous fentanyl 75mcg, propofol 160mg and atracurium 40mg. He was intubated conventionally and mechanically ventilated. Anaesthesia was maintained with inhalational desflurane and anaesthetic depth was measured with the Masimo EEG Sedline brain function monitor. An initial intravenous dexmedetomidine dose (bolus) of 1ug/kg for 10 minutes was given prior to anaesthetic induction and thereafter, an infusion of 0.2-0.4ug/kg/hr to the end of surgery. In addition, a bolus dose of intravenous lignocaine 1.5mg/kg followed by an infusion at 1mg/kg/hr throughout the surgery was administered. A total of 10mmol of magnesium sulphate and intravenous paracetamol 1000mg were also given for analgesia. There were no significant episodes of bradycardia or hypotension. A total of intravenous phenylephrine 650mcg was given throughout to maintain the patient’s mean arterial pressure within 10-15mmHg of baseline. The surgical time lasted for 5 hours and 40minutes. Postoperatively the patient was reversed and extubated successfully. He was alert and comfortable and pain scores were minimal in the immediate post op period in the postoperative recovery unit. Time to first analgesia was 4 hours postoperatively – with paracetamol 1g administered. This was given at 6 hourly intervals strictly for 5 days post surgery, along with celecoxib 200mg BD as prescribed by the surgeon regardless of pain scores. Oral oxycodone was prescribed as a rescue analgesic for pain scores > 3/10, but the patient did not require any dose. Neither was there nausea or vomiting. The patient was discharged on postoperative day 5. This case has reinforced the use of dexmedetomidine as an adjunct in general surgery cases, highlighting its excellent opioid-sparing effects. In the entire patient’s hospital stay, the only dose of opioid he received was 75mcg of fentanyl at the time of anaesthetic induction. The patient suffered no opioid adverse effects such as nausea, vomiting or postoperative ileus, and pain scores varied from 0-2/10. However, intravenous lignocaine infusion was also used in this instance, which would have helped improve pain scores. Paracetamol, lignocaine, and dexmedetomidine is thus an effective, opioid-sparing combination of multi-modal analgesia for major abdominal surgery cases.

Keywords: analgesia, dexmedetomidine, general surgery, opioid sparing

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1 Post COVID-19 Multi-System Inflammatory Syndrome Masquerading as an Acute Abdomen

Authors: Ali Baker, Russel Krawitz

Abstract:

This paper describes a rare occurrence where a potentially fatal complication of COVID-19 infection (MIS-A) was misdiagnosed as an acute abdomen. As most patients with this syndrome present with fever and gastrointestinal symptoms, they may inadvertently fall under the care of the surgical unit. However, unusual imaging findings and a poor response to anti-microbial therapy should prompt clinicians to suspect a non-surgical etiology. More than half of MIS-A patients require ICU admission and vasopressor support. Prompt referral to a physician is key, as the cornerstone of treatment is IVIG and corticosteroid therapy. A 32 year old woman presented with right sided abdominal pain and fevers. She had also contracted COVID-19 two months earlier. Abdominal examination revealed generalised right sided tenderness. The patient had raised inflammatory markers, but other blood tests were unremarkable. CT scan revealed extensive lymphadenopathy along the ileocolic chain. The patient proved to be a diagnostic dilemma. She was reviewed by several surgical consultants and discussed with several inpatient teams. Although IV antibiotics were commenced, the right sided abdominal pain, and fevers persisted. Pan-culture returned negative. A mild cholestatic derangement developed. On day 5, the patient underwent preparation for colonoscopy to assess for a potential intraluminal etiology. The following day, the patient developed sinus tachycardia and hypotension that was refractory to fluid resuscitation. That patient was transferred to ICU and required vasopressor support. Repeat CT showed peri-portal edema and a thickened gallbladder wall. On re-examination, the patient was Murphy’s sign positive. Biliary ultrasound was equivocal for cholecystitis. The patient was planned for diagnostic laparoscopy. The following morning, a marked rise in cardiac troponin was discovered, and a follow-up echocardiogram revealed moderate to severe global systolic dysfunction. The impression was post-COVID MIS with myocardial involvement. IVIG and Methylprednisolone infusions were commenced. The patient had a great response. Vasopressor support was weaned, and the patient was discharged from ICU. The patient continued to improve clinically with oral prednisolone, and was discharged on day 17. Although MIS following COVID-19 infection is well-described syndrome in children, only recently has it come to light that it can occur in adults. The exact incidence is unknown, but it is thought to be rare. A recent systematic review found only 221 cases of MIS-A, which could be included for analysis. Symptoms vary, but the most frequent include fever, gastrointestinal, and mucocutaneous. Many patients progress to multi-organ failure and require vasopressor support. 7% succumb to the illness. The pathophysiology of MIS is only partly understood. It shares similarities with Kawasaki disease, macrophage activation syndrome, and cytokine release syndrome. Importantly, by definition, the patient must have an absence of severe respiratory symptoms. It is thought to be due to a dysregulated immune response to the virus. Potential mechanisms include reduced levels of neutralising antibodies and autoreactive antibodies that promote inflammation. Further research into MIS-A is needed. Although rare, this potentially fatal syndrome should be considered in the unwell surgical patient who has recently contracted COVID-19 and poses a diagnostic dilemma.

Keywords: acute-abdomen, MIS, COVID-19, ICU

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