Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1823

Search results for: cerebrospinal fluid

1823 Comparison of Serological and Molecular Diagnosis of Cerebral Toxoplasmosis in Blood and Cerebrospinal Fluid in HIV Infected Patients

Authors: Berredjem Hajira, Benlaifa Meriem, Becheker Imene, Bardi Rafika, Djebar Med Reda


Recent acquired or reactivation T.gondii infection is a serious complication in HIV patients. Classical serological diagnosis relies on the detection of anti-Toxoplasma immunoglobulin ; however, serology may be unreliable in HIV immunodeficient patients who fail to produce significant titers of specific antibodies. PCR assays allow a rapid diagnosis of Toxoplasma infection. In this study, we compared the value of the PCR for diagnosing active toxoplasmosis in cerebrospinal fluid and blood samples from HIV patients. Anti-Toxoplasma antibodies IgG and IgM titers were determined by ELISA. In parallel, nested PCR targeting B1 gene and conventional PCR-ELISA targeting P30 gene were used to detect T. gondii DNA in 25 blood samples and 12 cerebrospinal fluid samples from patients in whom toxoplasmic encephalitis was confirmed by clinical investigations. A total of 15 negative controls were used. Serology did not contribute to confirm toxoplasmic infection, as IgG and IgM titers decreased early. Only 8 out 25 blood samples and 5 out 12 cerebrospinal fluid samples PCRs yielded a positive result. 5 patients with confirmed toxoplasmosis had positive PCR results in either blood or cerebrospinal fluid samples. However, conventional nested B1 PCR gave best results than the P30 gene one for the detection of T.gondii DNA in both samples. All samples from control patients were negative. This study demonstrates the unusefulness of the serological tests and the high sensitivity and specificity of PCR in the diagnosis of toxoplasmic encephalitis in HIV patients.

Keywords: cerebrospinal fluid, HIV, Toxoplasmosis, PCR

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1822 Two Years Retrospective Study of Body Fluid Cultures Obtained from Patients in the Intensive Care Unit of General Hospital of Ioannina

Authors: N. Varsamis, M. Gerasimou, P. Christodoulou, S. Mantzoukis, G. Kolliopoulou, N. Zotos


Purpose: Body fluids (pleural, peritoneal, synovial, pericardial, cerebrospinal) are an important element in the detection of microorganisms. For this reason, it is important to examine them in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) patients. Material and Method: Body fluids are transported through sterile containers and enriched as soon as possible with Tryptic Soy Broth (TSB). After one day of incubation, the broth is poured into selective media: Blood, Mac Conkey No. 2, Chocolate, Mueller Hinton, Chapman and Saboureaud agar. The above selective media are incubated directly for 2 days. After this period, if any number of microbial colonies are detected, gram staining is performed. After that, the isolated organisms are identified by biochemical techniques in the automated Microscan system (Siemens) and followed by a sensitivity test on the same system using the minimum inhibitory concentration MIC technique. The sensitivity test is verified by Kirby Bauer-based plate test. Results: In 2017 the Laboratory of Microbiology received 60 samples of body fluids from the ICU. More specifically the Microbiology Department received 6 peritoneal fluid specimens, 18 pleural fluid specimens and 36 cerebrospinal fluid specimens. 36 positive cultures were tested. S. epidermidis was identified in 18 specimens, S. haemolyticus in 6, and E. faecium in 12. Conclusions: The results show low detection of microorganisms in body fluid cultures.

Keywords: body fluids, culture, intensive care unit, microorganisms

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1821 Analysis of Brain Specific Creatine Kinase of Postmortem Cerebrospinal Fluid and Serum in Blunt Head Trauma Cases

Authors: Rika Susanti, Eryati Darwin, Dedi Afandi, Yanwirasti, Syahruddin Said, Noverika Windasari, Zelly Dia Rofinda


Introduction: Blunt head trauma is one of the leading causes of death associated with murders and other deaths involved in criminal acts. Creatine kinase (CKBB) levels have been used as a biomarker for blunt head trauma. Therefore, it is now used as an alternative to an autopsy. The aim of this study is to investigate CKBB levels in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and post-mortem serum in order to deduce the cause and time of death. Method: This investigation was conducted through post-test–only group design involving deaths caused by blunt head trauma, which was compared to deaths caused by ketamine poisoning. Results: There were eight treatment groups, each consisting of six adult rats (Rattus norvegicus) Sprague-Dawley strain. Examinations were done at 0 hours, 1 hour, 2 hours, and 3 hours post-mortem, which followed by brain tissue observation. Data were then analyzed statistically with a repeated-measures general linear model. Conclusion: There were increases in the level of CKBB in CSF and postmortem serum in both blunt head trauma and ketamine poisoning treatment groups. However, there were no significant differences between these two groups.

Keywords: blunt head trauma, CKBB, the cause of death, estimated time of death

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1820 Corrosion Study of Magnetically Driven Components in Spinal Implants by Immersion Testing in Simulated Body Fluids

Authors: Benjawan Saengwichian, Alasdair E. Charles, Philip J. Hyde


Magnetically controlled growing rods (MCGRs) have been used to stabilise and correct spinal curvature in children to support non-invasive scoliosis adjustment. Although the encapsulated driving components are intended to be isolated from body fluid contact, in vivo corrosion was observed on these components due to sealing mechanism damage. Consequently, a corrosion circuit is created with the body fluids, resulting in malfunction of the lengthening mechanism. Particularly, the chloride ions in blood plasma or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) may corrode the MCGR alloys, possibly resulting in metal ion release in long-term use. However, there is no data available on the corrosion resistance of spinal implant alloys in CSF. In this study, an in vitro immersion configuration was designed to simulate in vivo corrosion of 440C SS-Ti6Al4V couples. The 440C stainless steel (SS) was heat-treated to investigate the effect of tempering temperature on intergranular corrosion (IGC), while crevice and galvanic corrosion were studied by limiting the clearance of dissimilar couples. Tests were carried out in a neutral artificial cerebrospinal fluid (ACSF) and phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) under aeration and deaeration for 2 months. The composition of the passive films and metal ion release were analysed. The effect of galvanic coupling, pH, dissolved oxygen and anion species on corrosion rates and corrosion mechanisms are discussed based on quantitative and qualitative measurements. The results suggest that ACSF is more aggressive than PBS due to the combination of aggressive chlorides and sulphate anions, while phosphate in PBS acts as an inhibitor to delay corrosion. The presence of Vivianite on the SS surface in PBS lowered the corrosion rate (CR) more than 5 times for aeration and nearly 2 times for deaeration, compared with ACSF. The CR of 440C is dependent on passive film properties varied by tempering temperature and anion species. Although the CR of Ti6Al4V is insignificant, it tends to release more Ti ions in deaerated ACSF than under aeration, about 6 µg/L. It seems the crevice-like design has more effect on macroscopic corrosion than combining the dissimilar couple, whereas IGC is dominantly observed on sensitized microstructure.

Keywords: cerebrospinal fluid, crevice corrosion, intergranular corrosion, magnetically controlled growing rods

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1819 Use of a New Multiplex Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction Based Assay for Simultaneous Detection of Neisseria Meningitidis, Escherichia Coli K1, Streptococcus agalactiae, and Streptococcus pneumoniae

Authors: Nastaran Hemmati, Farhad Nikkhahi, Amir Javadi, Sahar Eskandarion, Seyed Mahmuod Amin Marashi


Neisseria meningitidis, Escherichia coli K, Streptococcus agalactiae, and Streptococcus pneumoniae cause 90% of bacterial meningitis. Almost all infected people die or have irreversible neurological complications. Therefore, it is essential to have a diagnostic kit with the ability to quickly detect these fatal infections. The project involved 212 patients from whom cerebrospinal fluid samples were obtained. After total genome extraction and performing multiplex quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), the presence or absence of each infectious factor was determined by comparing with standard strains. The specificity, sensitivity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value calculated were 100%, 92.9%, 50%, and 100%, respectively. So, due to the high specificity and sensitivity of the designed primers, they can be used instead of bacterial culture that takes at least 24 to 48 hours. The remarkable benefit of this method is associated with the speed (up to 3 hours) at which the procedure could be completed. It is also worth noting that this method can reduce the personnel unintentional errors which may occur in the laboratory. On the other hand, as this method simultaneously identifies four common factors that cause bacterial meningitis, it could be used as an auxiliary method diagnostic technique in laboratories particularly in cases of emergency medicine.

Keywords: cerebrospinal fluid, meningitis, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, simultaneous detection, diagnosis testing

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1818 Cerebrovascular Modeling: A Vessel Network Approach for Fluid Distribution

Authors: Karla E. Sanchez-Cazares, Kim H. Parker, Jennifer H. Tweedy


The purpose of this work is to develop a simple compartmental model of cerebral fluid balance including blood and cerebrospinal-fluid (CSF). At the first level the cerebral arteries and veins are modelled as bifurcating trees with constant scaling factors between generations which are connected through a homogeneous microcirculation. The arteries and veins are assumed to be non-rigid and the cross-sectional area, resistance and mean pressure in each generation are determined as a function of blood volume flow rate. From the mean pressure and further assumptions about the variation of wall permeability, the transmural fluid flux can be calculated. The results suggest the next level of modelling where the cerebral vasculature is divided into three compartments; the large arteries, the small arteries, the capillaries and the veins with effective compliances and permeabilities derived from the detailed vascular model. These vascular compartments are then linked to other compartments describing the different CSF spaces, the cerebral ventricles and the subarachnoid space. This compartmental model is used to calculate the distribution of fluid in the cranium. Known volumes and flows for normal conditions are used to determine reasonable parameters for the model, which can then be used to help understand pathological behaviour and suggest clinical interventions.

Keywords: cerebrovascular, compartmental model, CSF model, vascular network

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1817 A Benchtop Experiment to Study Changes in Tracer Distribution in the Subarachnoid Space

Authors: Smruti Mahapatra, Dipankar Biswas, Richard Um, Michael Meggyesy, Riccardo Serra, Noah Gorelick, Steven Marra, Amir Manbachi, Mark G. Luciano


Intracranial pressure (ICP) is profoundly regulated by the effects of cardiac pulsation and the volume of the incoming blood. Furthermore, these effects on ICP are incremented by the presence of a rigid skull that does not allow for changes in total volume during the cardiac cycle. These factors play a pivotal role in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dynamics and distribution, with consequences that are not well understood to this date and that may have a deep effect on the Central Nervous System (CNS) functioning. We designed this study with two specific aims: (a) To study how pulsatility influences local CSF flow, and (b) To study how modulating intracranial pressure affects drug distribution throughout the SAS globally. In order to achieve these aims, we built an elaborate in-vitro model of the SAS closely mimicking the dimensions and flow rates of physiological systems. To modulate intracranial pressure, we used an intracranially implanted, cardiac-gated, volume-oscillating balloon (CADENCE device). Commercially available dye was used to visualize changes in CSF flow. We first implemented two control cases, seeing how the tracer behaves in the presence of pulsations from the brain phantom and the balloon individually. After establishing the controls, we tested 2 cases, having the brain and the balloon pulsate together in sync and out of sync. We then analyzed the distribution area using image processing software. The in-sync case produced a significant increase, 5x times, in the tracer distribution area relative to the out-of-sync case. Assuming that the tracer fluid would mimic blood flow movement, a drug introduced in the SAS with such a system in place would enhance drug distribution and increase the bioavailability of therapeutic drugs to a wider spectrum of brain tissue.

Keywords: blood-brain barrier, cardiac-gated, cerebrospinal fluid, drug delivery, neurosurgery

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1816 Orientia Tsutsugamushi an Emerging Etiology of Acute Encephalitis Syndrome in Northern Part of India

Authors: Amita Jain, Shantanu Prakash, Suruchi Shukla


Introduction: Acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) is a complex multi etiology syndrome posing a great public health problem in the northern part of India. Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus is an established etiology of AES in this region. Recently, Scrub typhus (ST) is being recognized as an emerging aetiology of AES in JE endemic belt. This study was conducted to establish the direct evidence of Central nervous system invasion by Orientia tsutsugamushi leading to AES. Methodology: A total of 849 cases with clinical diagnosis of AES were enrolled from six districts (Deoria and its adjoining area) of the traditional north Indian Japanese encephalitis (JE) belt. Serum and Cerebrospinal fluid samples were collected and tested for major agent causing acute encephalitis. AES cases either positive for anti-ST IgM antibodies or negative for all tested etiologies were investigated for ST-DNA by real-time PCR. Results: Of these 505 cases, 250 patients were laboratory confirmed for O. tsutsugamushi infection either by anti-ST IgM antibodies positivity (n=206) on serum sample or by ST-DNA detection by real-time PCR assay on CSF sample (n=2) or by both (n=42).Total 29 isolate could be sequenced for 56KDa gene. Conclusion: All the strains were found to cluster with Gilliam strains. The majority of the isolates showed a 97–99% sequence similarity with Thailand and Cambodian strains. Gilliam strain of O.tsusugamushi is an emerging as one of the major aetiologies leading to AES in northern part of India.

Keywords: acute encephalitis syndrome, O. tsutsugamushi, Gilliam strain, North India, cerebrospinal fluid

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1815 Numerical Simulation of Fluid Structure Interaction Using Two-Way Method

Authors: Samira Laidaoui, Mohammed Djermane, Nazihe Terfaya


The fluid-structure coupling is a natural phenomenon which reflects the effects of two continuums: fluid and structure of different types in the reciprocal action on each other, involving knowledge of elasticity and fluid mechanics. The solution for such problems is based on the relations of continuum mechanics and is mostly solved with numerical methods. It is a computational challenge to solve such problems because of the complex geometries, intricate physics of fluids, and complicated fluid-structure interactions. The way in which the interaction between fluid and solid is described gives the largest opportunity for reducing the computational effort. In this paper, a problem of fluid structure interaction is investigated with two-way coupling method. The formulation Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) was used, by considering a dynamic grid, where the solid is described by a Lagrangian formulation and the fluid by a Eulerian formulation. The simulation was made on the ANSYS software.

Keywords: ALE, coupling, FEM, fluid-structure, interaction, one-way method, two-way method

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1814 Bionaut™: A Breakthrough Robotic Microdevice to Treat Non-Communicating Hydrocephalus in Both Adult and Pediatric Patients

Authors: Suehyun Cho, Darrell Harrington, Florent Cros, Olin Palmer, John Caputo, Michael Kardosh, Eran Oren, William Loudon, Alex Kiselyov, Michael Shpigelmacher


Bionaut Labs, LLC is developing a minimally invasive robotic microdevice designed to treat non-communicating hydrocephalus in both adult and pediatric patients. The device utilizes biocompatible microsurgical particles (Bionaut™) that are specifically designed to safely and reliably perform accurate fenestration(s) in the 3rd ventricle, aqueduct of Sylvius, and/or trapped intraventricular cysts of the brain in order to re-establish normal cerebrospinal fluid flow dynamics and thereby balance and/or normalize intra/intercompartmental pressure. The Bionaut™ is navigated to the target via CSF or brain tissue in a minimally invasive fashion with precise control using real-time imaging. Upon reaching the pre-defined anatomical target, the external driver allows for directing the specific microsurgical action defined to achieve the surgical goal. Notable features of the proposed protocol are i) Bionaut™ access to the intraventricular target follows a clinically validated endoscopy trajectory which may not be feasible via ‘traditional’ rigid endoscopy: ii) the treatment is microsurgical, there are no foreign materials left behind post-procedure; iii) Bionaut™ is an untethered device that is navigated through the subarachnoid and intraventricular compartments of the brain, following pre-designated non-linear trajectories as determined by the safest anatomical and physiological path; iv) Overall protocol involves minimally invasive delivery and post-operational retrieval of the surgical Bionaut™. The approach is expected to be suitable to treat pediatric patients 0-12 months old as well as adult patients with obstructive hydrocephalus who fail traditional shunts or are eligible for endoscopy. Current progress, including platform optimization, Bionaut™ control, and real-time imaging and in vivo safety studies of the Bionauts™ in large animals, specifically the spine and the brain of ovine models, will be discussed.

Keywords: Bionaut™, cerebrospinal fluid, CSF, fenestration, hydrocephalus, micro-robot, microsurgery

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1813 Intracranial Hypotension: A Brief Review of the Pathophysiology and Diagnostic Algorithm

Authors: Ana Bermudez de Castro Muela, Xiomara Santos Salas, Silvia Cayon Somacarrera


The aim of this review is to explain what is the intracranial hypotension and its main causes, and also to approach to the diagnostic management in the different clinical situations, understanding radiological findings, and physiopathological substrate. An approach to the diagnostic management is presented: what are the guidelines to follow, the different tests available, and the typical findings. We review the myelo-CT and myelo-RM studies in patients with suspected CSF fistula or hypotension of unknown cause during the last 10 years in three centers. Signs of intracranial hypotension (subdural hygromas/hematomas, pachymeningeal enhancement, venous sinus engorgement, pituitary hyperemia, and lowering of the brain) that are evident in baseline CT and MRI are also sought. The intracranial hypotension is defined as a lower opening pressure of 6 cmH₂O. It is a relatively rare disorder with an annual incidence of 5 per 100.000, with a female to male ratio 2:1. The clinical features it’s an orthostatic headache, which is defined as development or aggravation of headache when patients move from a supine to an upright position and disappear or typically relieve after lay down. The etiology is a decrease in the amount of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), usually by loss of it, either spontaneous or secondary (post-traumatic, post-surgical, systemic disease, post-lumbar puncture etc.) and rhinorrhea and/or otorrhea may exist. The pathophysiological mechanisms of hypotension and CSF hypertension are interrelated, as a situation of hypertension may lead to hypotension secondary to spontaneous CSF leakage. The diagnostic management of intracranial hypotension in our center includes, in the case of being spontaneous and without rhinorrhea and/or otorrhea and according to necessity, a range of available tests, which will be performed from less to more complex: cerebral CT, cerebral MRI and spine without contrast and CT/MRI with intrathecal contrast. If we are in a situation of intracranial hypotension with the presence of rhinorrhea/otorrhea, a sample can be obtained for the detection of b2-transferrin, which is found in the CSF physiologically, as well as sinus CT and cerebral MRI including constructive interference steady state (CISS) sequences. If necessary, cisternography studies are performed to locate the exact point of leakage. It is important to emphasize the significance of myelo-CT / MRI to establish the diagnosis and location of CSF leak, which is indispensable for therapeutic planning (whether surgical or not) in patients with more than one lesion or doubts in the baseline tests.

Keywords: cerebrospinal fluid, neuroradiology brain, magnetic resonance imaging, fistula

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1812 Early Diagnosis of Alzheimer's Disease Using a Combination of Images Processing and Brain Signals

Authors: E. Irankhah, M. Zarif, E. Mazrooei Rad, K. Ghandehari


Alzheimer's prevalence is on the rise, and the disease comes with problems like cessation of treatment, high cost of treatment, and the lack of early detection methods. The pathology of this disease causes the formation of protein deposits in the brain of patients called plaque amyloid. Generally, the diagnosis of this disease is done by performing tests such as a cerebrospinal fluid, CT scan, MRI, and spinal cord fluid testing, or mental testing tests and eye tracing tests. In this paper, we tried to use the Medial Temporal Atrophy (MTA) method and the Leave One Out (LOO) cycle to extract the statistical properties of the three Fz, Pz, and Cz channels of ERP signals for early diagnosis of this disease. In the process of CT scan images, the accuracy of the results is 81% for the healthy person and 88% for the severe patient. After the process of ERP signaling, the accuracy of the results for a healthy person in the delta band in the Cz channel is 81% and in the alpha band the Pz channel is 90%. In the results obtained from the signal processing, the results of the severe patient in the delta band of the Cz channel were 89% and in the alpha band Pz channel 92%.

Keywords: Alzheimer's disease, image and signal processing, LOO cycle, medial temporal atrophy

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1811 Herschel-Bulkley Fluid Flow through Narrow Tubes

Authors: Santhosh Nallapu, G. Radhakrishnamacharya


A two-fluid model of Herschel-Bulkley fluid flow through tubes of small diameters is studied. It is assumed that the core region consists of Herschel-Bulkley fluid and Newtonian fluid in the peripheral region. The analytical solutions for velocity, flow flux, effective viscosity, core hematocrit and mean hematocrit have been derived and the effects of various relevant parameters on these flow variables have been studied. It has been observed that the effective viscosity and mean hematocrit increase with yield stress, power-law index, hematocrit and tube radius. Further, the core hematocrit decreases with hematocrit and tube radius.

Keywords: two-layered model, non-Newtonian fluid, hematocrit, Fahraeus-Lindqvist effect, plug flow

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1810 Soret-Driven Convection in a Binary Fluid with Coriolis Force

Authors: N. H. Z. Abidin, N. F. M. Mokhtar, S. S. A. Gani


The influence of diffusion of the thermal or known as Soret effect in a heated Binary fluid model with Coriolis force is investigated theoretically. The linear stability analysis is used, and the eigenvalue is obtained using the Galerkin method. The impact of the Soret and Coriolis force on the onset of stationary convection in a system is analysed with respect to various Binary fluid parameters and presented graphically. It is found that an increase of the Soret values, destabilize the Binary fluid layer system. However, elevating the values of the Coriolis force helps to lag the onset of convection in a system.

Keywords: Benard convection, binary fluid, Coriolis, Soret

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1809 Introduction of the Fluid-Structure Coupling into the Force Analysis Technique

Authors: Océane Grosset, Charles Pézerat, Jean-Hugh Thomas, Frédéric Ablitzer


This paper presents a method to take into account the fluid-structure coupling into an inverse method, the Force Analysis Technique (FAT). The FAT method, also called RIFF method (Filtered Windowed Inverse Resolution), allows to identify the force distribution from local vibration field. In order to only identify the external force applied on a structure, it is necessary to quantify the fluid-structure coupling, especially in naval application, where the fluid is heavy. This method can be decomposed in two parts, the first one consists in identifying the fluid-structure coupling and the second one to introduced it in the FAT method to reconstruct the external force. Results of simulations on a plate coupled with a cavity filled with water are presented.

Keywords: aeroacoustics, fluid-structure coupling, inverse methods, naval, turbulent flow

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1808 Blindness and Deafness, the Outcomes of Varicella Zoster Virus Encephalitis in HIV Positive Patient

Authors: Hadiseh Hosamirudsari, Farhad Afsarikordehmahin, Pooria Sekhavatfar


Concomitant cortical blindness and deafness that follow varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection is rare. We describe a case of ophthalmic zoster that caused cortical blindness and deafness after central nervous system (CNS) involvement. A 42-year old, HIV infected woman has developed progressive blurry vision and deafness, 4 weeks after ophthalmic zoster. A physical examination and positive VZV polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) suggested VZV encephalitis. Complication of VZV encephalitis is considered as the cause of blindness and deafness. In neurological deficit patient especially with a history of herpes zoster, VZV infection should be regarded as the responsible agent in inflammatory disorders of nervous system. The immunocompromised state of patient (including HIV) is as important an agent as VZV infection in developing the disease.

Keywords: blindness, deafness, hiv, VZV encephalitis

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1807 Vibration Analysis of Pendulum in a Viscous Fluid by Analytical Methods

Authors: Arash Jafari, Mehdi Taghaddosi, Azin Parvin


In this study, a vibrational differential equation governing on swinging single-degree-of-freedom pendulum in a viscous fluid has been investigated. The damping process is characterized according to two different regimes: at first, damping in stationary viscous fluid, in the second, damping in flowing viscous fluid with constant velocity. Our purpose is to enhance the ability of solving the mentioned nonlinear differential equation with a simple and innovative approach. Comparisons are made between new method and Numerical Method (rkf45). The results show that this method is very effective and simple and can be applied for other nonlinear problems.

Keywords: oscillating systems, angular frequency and damping ratio, pendulum at fluid, locus of maximum

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1806 Construction of a Dynamic Migration Model of Extracellular Fluid in Brain for Future Integrated Control of Brain State

Authors: Tomohiko Utsuki, Kyoka Sato


In emergency medicine, it is recognized that brain resuscitation is very important for the reduction of mortality rate and neurological sequelae. Especially, the control of brain temperature (BT), intracranial pressure (ICP), and cerebral blood flow (CBF) are most required for stabilizing brain’s physiological state in the treatment for such as brain injury, stroke, and encephalopathy. However, the manual control of BT, ICP, and CBF frequently requires the decision and operation of medical staff, relevant to medication and the setting of therapeutic apparatus. Thus, the integration and the automation of the control of those is very effective for not only improving therapeutic effect but also reducing staff burden and medical cost. For realizing such integration and automation, a mathematical model of brain physiological state is necessary as the controlled object in simulations, because the performance test of a prototype of the control system using patients is not ethically allowed. A model of cerebral blood circulation has already been constructed, which is the most basic part of brain physiological state. Also, a migration model of extracellular fluid in brain has been constructed, however the condition that the total volume of intracranial cavity is almost changeless due to the hardness of cranial bone has not been considered in that model. Therefore, in this research, the dynamic migration model of extracellular fluid in brain was constructed on the consideration of the changelessness of intracranial cavity’s total volume. This model is connectable to the cerebral blood circulation model. The constructed model consists of fourteen compartments, twelve of which corresponds to perfused area of bilateral anterior, middle and posterior cerebral arteries, the others corresponds to cerebral ventricles and subarachnoid space. This model enable to calculate the migration of tissue fluid from capillaries to gray matter and white matter, the flow of tissue fluid between compartments, the production and absorption of cerebrospinal fluid at choroid plexus and arachnoid granulation, and the production of metabolic water. Further, the volume, the colloid concentration, and the tissue pressure of/in each compartment are also calculable by solving 40-dimensional non-linear simultaneous differential equations. In this research, the obtained model was analyzed for its validation under the four condition of a normal adult, an adult with higher cerebral capillary pressure, an adult with lower cerebral capillary pressure, and an adult with lower colloid concentration in cerebral capillary. In the result, calculated fluid flow, tissue volume, colloid concentration, and tissue pressure were all converged to suitable value for the set condition within 60 minutes at a maximum. Also, because these results were not conflict with prior knowledge, it is certain that the model can enough represent physiological state of brain under such limited conditions at least. One of next challenges is to integrate this model and the already constructed cerebral blood circulation model. This modification enable to simulate CBF and ICP more precisely due to calculating the effect of blood pressure change to extracellular fluid migration and that of ICP change to CBF.

Keywords: dynamic model, cerebral extracellular migration, brain resuscitation, automatic control

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1805 Spillage Prediction Using Fluid-Structure Interaction Simulation with Coupled Eulerian-Lagrangian Technique

Authors: Ravi Soni, Irfan Pathan, Manish Pande


The current product development process needs simultaneous consideration of different physics. The performance of the product needs to be considered under both structural and fluid loads. Examples include ducts and valves where structural behavior affects fluid motion and vice versa. Simulation of fluid-structure interaction involves modeling interaction between moving components and the fluid flow. In these scenarios, it is difficult to calculate the damping provided by fluid flow because of dynamic motions of components and the transient nature of the flow. Abaqus Explicit offers general capabilities for modeling fluid-structure interaction with the Coupled Eulerian-Lagrangian (CEL) method. The Coupled Eulerian-Lagrangian technique has been used to simulate fluid spillage through fuel valves during dynamic closure events. The technique to simulate pressure drops across Eulerian domains has been developed using stagnation pressure. Also, the fluid flow is calculated considering material flow through elements at the outlet section of the valves. The methodology has been verified on Eaton products and shows a good correlation with the test results.

Keywords: Coupled Eulerian-Lagrangian Technique, fluid structure interaction, spillage prediction, stagnation pressure

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1804 Numerical Investigation of Pressure and Velocity Field Contours of Dynamics of Drop Formation

Authors: Pardeep Bishnoi, Mayank Srivastava, Mrityunjay Kumar Sinha


This article represents the numerical investigation of the pressure and velocity field variation of the dynamics of pendant drop formation through a capillary tube. Numerical simulations are executed using volume of fluid (VOF) method in the computational fluid dynamics (CFD). In this problem, Non Newtonian fluid is considered as dispersed fluid whereas air is considered as a continuous fluid. Pressure contours at various time steps expose that pressure varies nearly hydrostatically at each step of the dynamics of drop formation. A result also shows the pressure variation of the liquid droplet during free fall in the computational domain. The evacuation of the fluid from the necking region is also shown by the contour of the velocity field. The role of surface tension in the Pressure contour of the dynamics of drop formation is also studied.

Keywords: pressure contour, surface tension, volume of fluid, velocity field

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1803 Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulation and Comparison of Flow through Mechanical Heart Valve Using Newtonian and Non-Newtonian Fluid

Authors: D. Šedivý, S. Fialová


The main purpose of this study is to show differences between the numerical solution of the flow through the artificial heart valve using Newtonian or non-Newtonian fluid. The simulation was carried out by a commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) package based on finite-volume method. An aortic bileaflet heart valve (Sorin Bicarbon) was used as a pattern for model of real heart valve replacement. Computed tomography (CT) was used to gain the accurate parameters of the valve. Data from CT were transferred in the commercial 3D designer, where the model for CFD was made. Carreau rheology model was applied as non-Newtonian fluid. Physiological data of cardiac cycle were used as boundary conditions. Outputs were taken the leaflets excursion from opening to closure and the fluid dynamics through the valve. This study also includes experimental measurement of pressure fields in ambience of valve for verification numerical outputs. Results put in evidence a favorable comparison between the computational solutions of flow through the mechanical heart valve using Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluid.

Keywords: computational modeling, dynamic mesh, mechanical heart valve, non-Newtonian fluid

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1802 Machine Learning for Aiding Meningitis Diagnosis in Pediatric Patients

Authors: Karina Zaccari, Ernesto Cordeiro Marujo


This paper presents a Machine Learning (ML) approach to support Meningitis diagnosis in patients at a children’s hospital in Sao Paulo, Brazil. The aim is to use ML techniques to reduce the use of invasive procedures, such as cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) collection, as much as possible. In this study, we focus on predicting the probability of Meningitis given the results of a blood and urine laboratory tests, together with the analysis of pain or other complaints from the patient. We tested a number of different ML algorithms, including: Adaptative Boosting (AdaBoost), Decision Tree, Gradient Boosting, K-Nearest Neighbors (KNN), Logistic Regression, Random Forest and Support Vector Machines (SVM). Decision Tree algorithm performed best, with 94.56% and 96.18% accuracy for training and testing data, respectively. These results represent a significant aid to doctors in diagnosing Meningitis as early as possible and in preventing expensive and painful procedures on some children.

Keywords: machine learning, medical diagnosis, meningitis detection, pediatric research

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1801 Estimation of Damping Force of Double Ended Shear Mode Magnetorheological Damper Using Computational Analysis

Authors: Gurubasavaraju T. M.


The magnetorheological (MR) damper could provide variable damping force with respect to the different input magnetic field. The damping force could be estimated through computational analysis using finite element and computational fluid dynamics analysis. The double-ended damper operates without changing the total volume of fluid. In this paper, damping force of double ended damper under different magnetic field is computed. Initially, the magneto-statics analysis carried out to evaluate the magnetic flux density across the fluid flow gap. The respective change in the rheology of the MR fluid is computed by using the experimentally fitted polynomial equation of shear stress versus magnetic field plot of MR fluid. The obtained values are substituted in the Herschel Buckley model to express the non-Newtonian behavior of MR fluid. Later, using computational fluid dynamic (CFD) analysis damping characteristics in terms of force versus velocity and force versus displacement for the respective magnetic field is estimated. The purpose of the present approach is to characterize the preliminary designed MR damper before fabricating.

Keywords: MR fluid, double ended MR damper, CFD, FEA

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1800 Risk Factors Associated with Outbreak of Cerebrospinal Meningitis in Kano State- Nigeria, March-May 2017

Authors: Visa I. Tyakaray, M. Abdulaziz, O. Badmus, N. Karaye, M. Dalhat, A. Shehu, I. Bello, T. Hussaini, S. Akar, G. Effah, P. Nguku


Introduction: Nigeria has recorded outbreaks of meningitis in the past, being in the meningitis belt. A multi-state outbreak of Cerebrospinal Meningitis (CSM) from Neisseria meningitides occurred in 2017 involving 24 states, and Kano State reported its first two confirmed CSM cases on 22nd March, 2017. We conducted the outbreak investigation to characterize the outbreak, determine its associated risk factors and institute appropriate control measures. Method: We conducted an unmatched Case-control study with ratio 1:2. A case was defined as any person with sudden onset of fever (>38.5˚C rectal or 38.0˚C axillary) and one of the following: neck stiffness, altered consciousness or bulging fontanelle in toddlers while a control was defined as any person who resides around the case such as family members, caregivers, neighbors, and healthcare personnel. We reviewed and validated line list and conducted active case search in health facilities and neighboring communities. Descriptive, bivariate, stratified and multivariate analysis were performed. Laboratory confirmation was by Latex agglutination and/or Culture. Results: We recruited 48 cases with median age of 11 years (1 month – 65 years), attack rate was 2.4/100,000 population with case fatality rate of 8%; 34 of 44 local government areas were affected.On stratification, age was found to be a confounder. Independent factors associated with the outbreak were age (Adjusted Odds Ratio, AOR =6.58; 95% Confidence Interval (CI) =2.85-15.180, history of Vaccination (AOR=0.37; 95% CI=0.13-0.99) and history of travel (AOR=10.16; (1.99-51.85). Laboratory results showed 22 positive cases for Neisseria meningitides types C and A/Y. Conclusion: Major risk factors associated with this outbreak were age (>14years), not being vaccinated and history of travel. We sensitized communities and strengthened case management. We recommended immediate reactive vaccination and enhanced surveillance in bordering communities.

Keywords: cerebrospinal, factors, Kano-Nigeria, meningitis, risk

Procedia PDF Downloads 132
1799 Comparison Analysis of CFD Turbulence Fluid Numerical Study for Quick Coupling

Authors: JoonHo Lee, KyoJin An, JunSu Kim, Young-Chul Park


In this study, the fluid flow characteristics and performance numerical study through CFD model of the Non-split quick coupling for flow control in hydraulic system equipment for the aerospace business group focused to predict. In this study, we considered turbulence models for the application of Computational Fluid Dynamics for the CFD model of the Non-split Quick Coupling for aerospace business. In addition to this, the adequacy of the CFD model were verified by comparing with standard value. Based on this analysis, accurate the fluid flow characteristics can be predicted. It is, therefore, the design of the fluid flow characteristic contribute the reliability for the Quick Coupling which is required in industries on the basis of research results.

Keywords: CFD, FEM, quick coupling, turbulence

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1798 Coupling Concept of Two Parallel Research Codes for Two and Three Dimensional Fluid Structure Interaction Analysis

Authors: Luciano Garelli, Marco Schauer, Jorge D’Elia, Mario A. Storti, Sabine C. Langer


This paper discuss a coupling strategy of two different software packages to provide fluid structure interaction (FSI) analysis. The basic idea is to combine the advantages of the two codes to create a powerful FSI solver for two and three dimensional analysis. The fluid part is computed by a program called PETSc-FEM, a software developed at Centro de Investigación de Métodos Computacionales (CIMEC). The structural part of the coupled process is computed by the research code elementary Parallel Solver (elPaSo) of the Technische Universität Braunschweig, Institut für Konstruktionstechnik (IK).

Keywords: computational fluid dynamics (CFD), fluid structure interaction (FSI), finite element method (FEM), software

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1797 A Case Study of Meningoencephalitis following Le Fort I Osteotomy

Authors: Ryan Goh, Nicholas Beech


Introduction: Le Fort I Osteotomies, although are common procedures in Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, carry a degree of risk of unfavourable propagation of the down-fracture of the maxilla. This may be the first reported case in the literature for meningoencephalitis to occur following a Le Fort I Osteotomy. Case: A 32-year-old female was brought into the Emergency Department four days after a Le Fort I Osteotomy, with a Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) of 8 (E3V1M4). A Computed Tomography (CT) Head showed a skull base fracture at the right sphenoid sinus. Lumbar puncture was completed, and Klebsiella oxytoca was found in the Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF). She was treated with Meropenem, and rapidly improved thereafter. CSF rhinorrhoea was identified when she was extubated, which was successfully managed via a continuous lumbar drain. She was discharged on day 14 without any neurological deficits. Conclusion: The most likely aspect of the Le Fort I Osteotomy to obtain a skull base fracture is during the pterygomaxillary disjunction. Care should always be taken to avoid significant risks of skull base fractures, CSF rhinorrhoea, meningitis and encephalitis.

Keywords: meningitis, orthognathic surgery, post-operative complication, skull base, rhinorrhea

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1796 Seasonal Heat Stress Effect on Cholesterol, Estradiol and Progesterone during Follicular Development in Egyptian Buffalo

Authors: Heba F. Hozyen, Hodallah H. Ahmed, S. I. A. Shalaby, G. E. S. Essawy


Biochemical and hormonal changes that occur in both follicular fluid and blood are involved in the control of ovarian physiology. The present study was conducted on follicular fluid and serum samples obtained from 708 buffaloes. Samples were examined for estradiol, progesterone, and cholesterol concentrations in relation to seasonal changes, ovarian follicular size, and stage of estrous cycle. The obtained results revealed that follicular fluid and serum levels of estradiol, progesterone, and cholesterol were significantly lower during summer and autumn when compared to winter and spring seasons. With the increase in follicular size, the follicular fluid levels of progesterone and cholesterol were significantly decreased, while estradiol levels were significantly increased. Estradiol and progesterone levels were significantly higher in follicular fluid than blood, while cholesterol was significantly lower in follicular fluid than serum. In conclusion, the current study threw a light on the hormonal changes in the follicular fluid and blood under the effect of heat stress which could be related to the low fertility of buffalo in the summer.

Keywords: buffalo, follicular fluid, folliculogenesis, seasonal changes, steroids

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1795 Hydrodynamic Analysis with Heat Transfer in Solid Gas Fluidized Bed Reactor for Solar Thermal Applications

Authors: Sam Rasoulzadeh, Atefeh Mousavi


Fluidized bed reactors are known as highly exothermic and endothermic according to uniformity in temperature as a safe and effective mean for catalytic reactors. In these reactors, a wide range of catalyst particles can be used and by using a continuous operation proceed to produce in succession. Providing optimal conditions for the operation of these types of reactors will prevent the exorbitant costs necessary to carry out laboratory work. In this regard, a hydrodynamic analysis was carried out with heat transfer in the solid-gas fluidized bed reactor for solar thermal applications. The results showed that in the fluid flow the input of the reactor has a lower temperature than the outlet, and when the fluid is passing from the reactor, the heat transfer happens between cylinder and solar panel and fluid. It increases the fluid temperature in the outlet pump and also the kinetic energy of the fluid has been raised in the outlet areas.

Keywords: heat transfer, solar reactor, fluidized bed reactor, CFD, computational fluid dynamics

Procedia PDF Downloads 88
1794 Effect of Channel Variation of Two-Dimensional Water Tunnel to Study Fluid Dynamics Phenomenon

Authors: Rizka Yunita, Mas Aji Rizki Wijayanto


Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is the solution to explain how fluid dynamics behavior. In this work, we obtain the effect of channel width of two-dimensional fluid visualization. Using a horizontal water tunnel and flowing soap film, we got a visualization of continuous film that can be observe a graphical overview of the flow that occurs on a space or field in which the fluid flow. The horizontal water tunnel we used, divided into three parts, expansion area, parallel area that used to test the data, and contraction area. The width of channel is the boundary of parallel area with the originally width of 7.2 cm, and the variation of channel width we observed is about 1 cm and its times. To compute the velocity, vortex shedding, and other physical parameters of fluid, we used the cyclinder circular as an obstacle to create a von Karman vortex in fluid and analyzed that phenomenon by using Particle Imaging Velocimetry (PIV) method and comparing Reynolds number and Strouhal number from the visualization we got. More than width the channel, the film is more turbulent and have a separation zones that occurs of uncontinuous flowing fluid.

Keywords: flow visualization, width of channel, vortex, Reynolds number, Strouhal number

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