Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8

Search results for: microsurgery

8 A Microsurgery-Specific End-Effector Equipped with a Bipolar Surgical Tool and Haptic Feedback

Authors: Hamidreza Hoshyarmanesh, Sanju Lama, Garnette R. Sutherland


In tele-operative robotic surgery, an ideal haptic device should be equipped with an intuitive and smooth end-effector to cover the surgeon’s hand/wrist degrees of freedom (DOF) and translate the hand joint motions to the end-effector of the remote manipulator with low effort and high level of comfort. This research introduces the design and development of a microsurgery-specific end-effector, a gimbal mechanism possessing 4 passive and 1 active DOFs, equipped with a bipolar forceps and haptic feedback. The robust gimbal structure is comprised of three light-weight links/joint, pitch, yaw, and roll, each consisting of low-friction support and a 2-channel accurate optical position sensor. The third link, which provides the tool roll, was specifically designed to grip the tool prongs and accommodate a low mass geared actuator together with a miniaturized capstan-rope mechanism. The actuator is able to generate delicate torques, using a threaded cylindrical capstan, to emulate the sense of pinch/coagulation during conventional microsurgery. While the tool left prong is fixed to the rolling link, the right prong bears a miniaturized drum sector with a large diameter to expand the force scale and resolution. The drum transmits the actuator output torque to the right prong and generates haptic force feedback at the tool level. The tool is also equipped with a hall-effect sensor and magnet bar installed vis-à-vis on the inner side of the two prongs to measure the tooltip distance and provide an analogue signal to the control system. We believe that such a haptic end-effector could significantly increase the accuracy of telerobotic surgery and help avoid high forces that are known to cause bleeding/injury.

Keywords: end-effector, force generation, haptic interface, robotic surgery, surgical tool, tele-operation

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7 Active Surface Tracking Algorithm for All-Fiber Common-Path Fourier-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

Authors: Bang Young Kim, Sang Hoon Park, Chul Gyu Song


A conventional optical coherence tomography (OCT) system has limited imaging depth, which is 1-2 mm, and suffers unwanted noise such as speckle noise. The motorized-stage-based OCT system, using a common-path Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (CP-FD-OCT) configuration, provides enhanced imaging depth and less noise so that we can overcome these limitations. Using this OCT systems, OCT images were obtained from an onion, and their subsurface structure was observed. As a result, the images obtained using the developed motorized-stage-based system showed enhanced imaging depth than the conventional system, since it is real-time accurate depth tracking. Consequently, the developed CP-FD-OCT systems and algorithms have good potential for the further development of endoscopic OCT for microsurgery.

Keywords: common-path OCT, FD-OCT, OCT, tracking algorithm

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6 The Osteocutaneous Distal Tibia Turn-over Fillet Flap: A Novel Spare-parts Orthoplastic Surgery Option for Functional Below-knee Amputation

Authors: Harry Burton, Alexios Dimitrios Iliadis, Neil Jones, Aaron Saini, Nicola Bystrzonowski, Alexandros Vris, Georgios Pafitanis


This article portrays the authors’ experience with a complex lower limb bone and soft tissue defect, following chronic osteomyelitis and pathological fracture, which was managed by the multidisciplinary orthoplastic team. The decision for functional amputation versus limb salvage was deemed necessary, enhanced by the principles of “spares parts” in reconstructive microsurgery. This case describes a successful use of the osteocutaneous distal tibia turn-over fillet flap that allowed ‘lowering the level of the amputation’ from a through knee to the conventional level of a below-knee amputation to preserve the knee joint function. This case demonstrates the value of ‘spare-parts’ surgery principles and how these concepts refine complex orthoplastic approaches when limb salvage is not possible to enhance function. The osteocutaneous distal tibia turn-over fillet flap is a robust technique for modified BKA reconstructions that provides sufficient bone length to achieve a tough, sensate stump and functional knee joint.

Keywords: osteocutaneous flap, fillet flap, spare-parts surgery, Below knee amputation

Procedia PDF Downloads 41
5 Wrong Site Surgery Should Not Occur In This Day And Age!

Authors: C. Kuoh, C. Lucas, T. Lopes, I. Mechie, J. Yoong, W. Yoong


For all surgeons, there is one preventable but still highly occurring complication – wrong site surgeries. They can have potentially catastrophic, irreversible, or even fatal consequences on patients. With the exponential development of microsurgery and the use of advanced technological tools, the consequences of operating on the wrong side, anatomical part, or even person is seen as the most visible and destructive of all surgical errors and perhaps the error that is dreaded by most clinicians as it threatens their licenses and arouses feelings of guilt. Despite the implementation of the WHO surgical safety checklist more than a decade ago, the incidence of wrong-site surgeries remains relatively high, leading to tremendous physical and psychological repercussions for the clinicians involved, as well as a financial burden for the healthcare institution. In this presentation, the authors explore various factors which can lead to wrong site surgery – a combination of environmental and human factors and evaluate their impact amongst patients, practitioners, their families, and the medical industry. Major contributing factors to these “never events” include deviations from checklists, excessive workload, and poor communication. Two real-life cases are discussed, and systems that can be implemented to prevent these errors are highlighted alongside lessons learnt from other industries. The authors suggest that reinforcing speaking-up, implementing medical professional trainings, and higher patient’s involvements can potentially improve safety in surgeries and electrosurgeries.

Keywords: wrong side surgery, never events, checklist, workload, communication

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4 Risk Factors and Outcome of Free Tissue Transfer at a Tertiary Care Referral Center

Authors: Majid Khan


Introduction: In this era of microsurgery, free flap holds a remarkable spot in reconstructive surgery. A free flap is well suited for composite defects as it provides sufficient and well-vascularized tissue for coverage. We report our experience with the use of the free flaps for the reconstruction of composite defects. Methods: This is a retrospective case series (chart review) of patients who underwent reconstruction of composite defects with a free flap at Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi (Pakistan) from January 01, 2015, to December 31, 2019. Data were collected for patient demographics, size of the defect, size of flap, recipient vessels, postoperative complications, and outcome of the free flap. Results: Over this period, 532 free flaps are included in this study. The overall success rate is 95.5%. The mean age of the patient was 44.86 years. In 532 procedures, there were 448 defects from tumor ablation of head and neck cancer. The most frequent free flap was the anterolateral thigh flap in 232 procedures. In this study, the risk factor hypertension (p=0.004) was found significant for wound dehiscence, preop radiation/chemotherapy (p=0.003), and malnutrition (p=0.005) were found significant for fistula formation. Malnutrition (p=0.02) and use of vein grafts (p=0.025) were significant factors for flap failure. Conclusion: Free tissue transfer is a reliable option for the reconstruction of large and composite defects. Hypertension, malnutrition, and preoperative radiotherapy can cause significant morbidity.

Keywords: free flap, free flap failure, risk factors for flap failure, free flap outcome

Procedia PDF Downloads 51
3 Laser Registration and Supervisory Control of neuroArm Robotic Surgical System

Authors: Hamidreza Hoshyarmanesh, Hosein Madieh, Sanju Lama, Yaser Maddahi, Garnette R. Sutherland, Kourosh Zareinia


This paper illustrates the concept of an algorithm to register specified markers on the neuroArm surgical manipulators, an image-guided MR-compatible tele-operated robot for microsurgery and stereotaxy. Two range-finding algorithms, namely time-of-flight and phase-shift, are evaluated for registration and supervisory control. The time-of-flight approach is implemented in a semi-field experiment to determine the precise position of a tiny retro-reflective moving object. The moving object simulates a surgical tool tip. The tool is a target that would be connected to the neuroArm end-effector during surgery inside the magnet bore of the MR imaging system. In order to apply flight approach, a 905-nm pulsed laser diode and an avalanche photodiode are utilized as the transmitter and receiver, respectively. For the experiment, a high frequency time to digital converter was designed using a field-programmable gate arrays. In the phase-shift approach, a continuous green laser beam with a wavelength of 530 nm was used as the transmitter. Results showed that a positioning error of 0.1 mm occurred when the scanner-target point distance was set in the range of 2.5 to 3 meters. The effectiveness of this non-contact approach exhibited that the method could be employed as an alternative for conventional mechanical registration arm. Furthermore, the approach is not limited by physical contact and extension of joint angles.

Keywords: 3D laser scanner, intraoperative MR imaging, neuroArm, real time registration, robot-assisted surgery, supervisory control

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2 Bionaut™: A Breakthrough Robotic Microdevice to Treat Non-Communicating Hydrocephalus in Both Adult and Pediatric Patients

Authors: Suehyun Cho, Darrell Harrington, Florent Cros, Olin Palmer, John Caputo, Michael Kardosh, Eran Oren, William Loudon, Alex Kiselyov, Michael Shpigelmacher


Bionaut Labs, LLC is developing a minimally invasive robotic microdevice designed to treat non-communicating hydrocephalus in both adult and pediatric patients. The device utilizes biocompatible microsurgical particles (Bionaut™) that are specifically designed to safely and reliably perform accurate fenestration(s) in the 3rd ventricle, aqueduct of Sylvius, and/or trapped intraventricular cysts of the brain in order to re-establish normal cerebrospinal fluid flow dynamics and thereby balance and/or normalize intra/intercompartmental pressure. The Bionaut™ is navigated to the target via CSF or brain tissue in a minimally invasive fashion with precise control using real-time imaging. Upon reaching the pre-defined anatomical target, the external driver allows for directing the specific microsurgical action defined to achieve the surgical goal. Notable features of the proposed protocol are i) Bionaut™ access to the intraventricular target follows a clinically validated endoscopy trajectory which may not be feasible via ‘traditional’ rigid endoscopy: ii) the treatment is microsurgical, there are no foreign materials left behind post-procedure; iii) Bionaut™ is an untethered device that is navigated through the subarachnoid and intraventricular compartments of the brain, following pre-designated non-linear trajectories as determined by the safest anatomical and physiological path; iv) Overall protocol involves minimally invasive delivery and post-operational retrieval of the surgical Bionaut™. The approach is expected to be suitable to treat pediatric patients 0-12 months old as well as adult patients with obstructive hydrocephalus who fail traditional shunts or are eligible for endoscopy. Current progress, including platform optimization, Bionaut™ control, and real-time imaging and in vivo safety studies of the Bionauts™ in large animals, specifically the spine and the brain of ovine models, will be discussed.

Keywords: Bionaut™, cerebrospinal fluid, CSF, fenestration, hydrocephalus, micro-robot, microsurgery

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1 Non-Melanoma Skin Cancer of Cephalic Extremity – Clinical and Histological Aspects

Authors: Razvan Mercut, Mihaela Ionescu, Vlad Parvanescu, Razvan Ghita, Tudor-Gabriel Caragea, Cristina Simionescu, Marius-Eugen Ciurea


Introduction: Over the past years, the incidence of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) has continuously increased, being one of the most commonly diagnosed carcinomasofthe cephalic extremity. NMSC regroups basal cell carcinoma (BCC), squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), Merkel cell carcinoma, cutaneous lymphoma, and sarcoma. The most common forms are BCC and SCC, both still implying a significant level of morbidity due to local invasion (especially BCC), even if the overall death rates are declining. The objective of our study was the evaluation of clinical and histological aspects of NMSC for a group of patients with BCC and SCC, from Craiova, a south-western major city in Romania. Materialand method: Our study lot comprised 65 patients, with an almost equal distribution of sexes, and ages between 23-91 years old (mean value±standard deviation62.61±16.67), all treated within the Clinic of Plastic Surgery and Reconstructive Microsurgery, Clinical Emergency County Hospital Craiova, Romania, between 2019-2020. In order to determine the main morphological characteristics of both studied cancers, we used paraffin embedding techniques, with various staining methods:hematoxylin-eosin, Masson's trichrome stain with aniline blue, and Periodic acid-schiffAlcian Blue. The statistical study was completed using Microsoft Excel (Microsoft Corp., Redmond, WA, USA), with XLSTAT (Addinsoft SARL, Paris, France). Results: The overall results of our study indicate that BCC accounts for 67.69% of all NMSC forms; SCC covers 27.69%, while 4.62% are representedby other forms. The most frequent site is the nose for BCC (27.69%, 18 patients), being followed by preauricular regions, forehead, and periorbital areas. For patients with SCC, tumors were mainly located at lips level (66.67%, 12 patients). The analysis of NMSC histological forms indicated that nodular BCC is predominant (45.45%, 20 patients), as well as ulcero-vegetant SCC (38.89%, 7 patients). We have not identified any topographic characteristics or NMSC forms significantly related to age or sex. Conclusions: The most frequent NMSC form identified for our study lot was BCC. The preferred location was the nose for BCC. For SCC, the oral cavity is the most frequent anatomical site, especially the lips level. Nodular BCC and ulcero-vegetant SCC were the most commonly identified histological types. Our findings emphasize the need for periodic screening, in order to improve prevention and early treatment for these malignancies.

Keywords: non-melanoma skin cancer, basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, histological

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