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Paper Count: 898

Search results for: gall bladder ejection fraction

898 Assessment of the Effect of Orally Administered Itopride on Gall Bladder Ejection Fraction by a Fatty Meal Cholescintigraphy in Patients with Diabetes

Authors: Avani Jain, Hasmukh Jain, S. Shelley, M. Indirani, Shilpa Kalal, Jayakanth Amalachandran

Abstract:

Aim of the Study: To assess the effect of orally administered Itopride on gall bladder ejection fraction by fatty meal cholescintigraphy in patients with diabetes. Materials and Methods: Thirty patients (20 males, 10 females, mean age 46+10 yrs) with history of diabetes mellitus (mean duration 4.8+4.1 yrs, fasting blood glucose level 130+35 mg/dl and 2-hours post-prandial blood glucose level 196+76 mg/dl) and found to have gall bladder dysfunction on fatty-meal stimulated cholescintigraphy were selected for this study. These patients underwent a repeat cholescintigraphy similar to baseline study, with 50 mg of Itopride orally along with fatty meal. Pre- and post-Itopride GBEF were then compared to assess the effect of Itopride on gall bladder contraction. Results: Out of these 30 patients, 2 had dyskinetic, 4 had akinetic, 22 had moderately hypokinetic and the remaining 2 had hypokinetic gall bladder function in the baseline study with > 60% GBEF being taken as the normal value. Mean percentage of GBEF in the baseline study was 32%+13% and the mean percentage of GBEF in the post-Itopride study was 57%+17% with change in mean percentage of GBEF being 24%+21%. GBEF of the “baseline study” was significantly lower as compared to GBEF in the “post-Itopride study” (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Diabetic patients with biliary-type pain often tend to have impaired gallbladder function. Cholescintigraphy with fatty meal-stimulation is a simple, cheap and useful investigation for assessment of gallbladder dysfunction in these patients, before any structural changes occur within the lumen or wall of the gall bladder. Improvement in gallbladder ejection fraction after oral administration of a single dose of Itopride, a newer prokinetic drug with fewer side effects, as assessed by cholescintigraphy, provides enough evidence of future therapeutic response. Administration of Itopride, in therapeutic dosage, therefore may be expected to cause significant improvement in gallbladder ejection fraction and hence prolong stone formation within the gall bladder and also prevent the associated long term complications. Hence, based on scintigraphic evidence, Itopride may be recommended, by clinicians, for management of symptomatic diabetic patients having gallbladder dysfunction.

Keywords: itopride, gall bladder ejection fraction, fatty meal, cholescintigraphy, diabetes

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897 In-House Fatty Meal Cholescintigraphy as a Screening Tool in Patients Presenting with Dyspepsia

Authors: Avani Jain, S. Shelley, M. Indirani, Shilpa Kalal, Jaykanth Amalachandran

Abstract:

Aim: To evaluate the prevalence of gall bladder dysfunction in patients with dyspepsia using In-House fatty meal cholescintigraphy. Materials & Methods: This study is a prospective cohort study. 59 healthy volunteers with no dyspeptic complaints and negative ultrasound and endoscopy were recruited in study. 61 patients having complaint of dyspepsia for duration of more than 6 months were included. All of them underwent 99mTc-Mebrofenin fatty meal cholescintigraphy following a standard protocol. Dynamic acquisitions were acquired for 120 minutes with an In-House fatty meal being given at 45th minute. Gall bladder emptying kinetics was determined with gall bladder ejection fractions (GBEF) calculated at 30minutes, 45minutes and at 60 minutes (30min, 45min & 60 min). Standardization of fatty meal was done for volunteers. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used assess the diagnostic accuracy of 3 time points (30min, 45min & 60 min) used for measuring gall bladder emptying. On the basis of cut off derived from volunteers, the patients were assessed for gall bladder dysfunction. Results: In volunteers, the GBEF at 30 min was 74.42±8.26 % (mean ±SD), at 45 min was 82.61 ± 6.5 % and at 60 min was 89.37±4.48%, compared to patients where at 30min it was 33.73±22.87%, at 45 min it was 43.03±26.97% and at 60 min it was 51.85±29.60%. The lower limit of GBEF in volunteers at 30 min was 60%, 45 min was 69% and at 60 min was 81%. ROC analysis showed that area under curve was largest for 30 min GBEF (0.952; 95% CI = 0.914-0.989) and that all the 3 measures were statistically significant (p < 0.005). Majority of the volunteers had 74% of gall bladder emptying by 30 minutes; hence it was taken as an optimum cutoff time to assess gall bladder contraction. > 60% GBEF at 30 min post fatty meal was considered as normal and < 60% GBEF as indicative of gall bladder dysfunction. In patients, various causes for dyspepsia were identified: GB dysfunction (63.93%), Peptic ulcer (8.19 %), Gastroesophageal reflux disease (8.19%), Gastritis (4.91%). In 18.03% of cases GB dysfunction coexisted with other gastrointestinal conditions. The diagnosis of functional dyspepsia was made in 14.75% of cases. Conclusions: Gall bladder dysfunction contributes significantly to the causation of dyspepsia. It could coexist with various other gastrointestinal diseases. Fatty meal was well tolerated and devoid of any side effects. Many patients who are labeled as functional dyspeptics could actually have gall bladder dysfunction. Hence as an adjunct to ultrasound and endoscopy, fatty meal cholescintigraphy can also be used as a screening modality in characterization of dyspepsia.

Keywords: in-house fatty meal, choescintigraphy, dyspepsia, gall bladder ejection fraction, functional dyspepsia

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896 Gall Bladder Polyp Identified as Solitary RCC Metastasis 4 Years after Nephrectomy: An Unusual Case Report

Authors: Gerard Bray, Arya Bahadori, Sachinka Ranasinghe

Abstract:

Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is among the top 10 most common cancers worldwide, where metastatic disease carries a poor prognosis. Herein, we present a 74-year-old male presenting with asymptomatic solitary metachronous metastasis to the gall bladder 4 years following nephrectomy for clear cell RCC. Solitary RCC metastasis to the gall bladder following nephrectomy is rarely reported in the literature and brings with it a clinical conundrum of whether surgical resection or systemic therapy should be utilized. In this case, surgical excision with cholecystectomy was employed without systemic therapy. We, therefore, contribute a rare and interesting case that highlights that metastasectomy of a solitary metastasis can improve survival according to current literature.

Keywords: renal cell carcinoma, gall bladder metastasis, solitary metastasectomy, metachronous

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895 Semiautomatic Calculation of Ejection Fraction Using Echocardiographic Image Processing

Authors: Diana Pombo, Maria Loaiza, Mauricio Quijano, Alberto Cadena, Juan Pablo Tello

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In this paper, we present a semi-automatic tool for calculating ejection fraction from an echocardiographic video signal which is derived from a database in DICOM format, of Clinica de la Costa - Barranquilla. Described in this paper are each of the steps and methods used to find the respective calculation that includes acquisition and formation of the test samples, processing and finally the calculation of the parameters to obtain the ejection fraction. Two imaging segmentation methods were compared following a methodological framework that is similar only in the initial stages of processing (process of filtering and image enhancement) and differ in the end when algorithms are implemented (Active Contour and Region Growing Algorithms). The results were compared with the measurements obtained by two different medical specialists in cardiology who calculated the ejection fraction of the study samples using the traditional method, which consists of drawing the region of interest directly from the computer using echocardiography equipment and a simple equation to calculate the desired value. The results showed that if the quality of video samples are good (i.e., after the pre-processing there is evidence of an improvement in the contrast), the values provided by the tool are substantially close to those reported by physicians; also the correlation between physicians does not vary significantly.

Keywords: echocardiography, DICOM, processing, segmentation, EDV, ESV, ejection fraction

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894 Efficacy of Heart Failure Reversal Treatment Followed by 90 Days Follow up in Chronic Heart Failure Patients with Low Ejection Fraction

Authors: Rohit Sane, Snehal Dongre, Pravin Ghadigaonkar, Rahul Mandole

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The present study was designed to evaluate efficacy of heart failure reversal therapy (HFRT) that uses herbal procedure (panchakarma) and allied therapies, in chronic heart failure (CHF) patients with low ejection fraction. Methods: This efficacy study was conducted in CHF patients (aged: 25-65 years, ejection fraction (EF) < 30%) wherein HFRT (60-75 minutes) consisting of snehana (external oleation), swedana (passive heat therapy), hrudaydhara(concoction dripping treatment) and basti(enema) was administered twice daily for 7 days. During this therapy and next 30 days, patients followed the study dinarcharya and were prescribed ARJ kadha in addition to their conventional treatment. The primary endpoint of this study was evaluation of maximum aerobic capacity uptake (MAC) as assessed by 6-minute walk distance (6MWD) using Cahalins equation from baseline, at end of 7 day treatment, follow-up after 30 days and 90 days. EF was assessed by 2D Echo at baseline and after 30 days of follow-up. Results: CHF patients with < 30% EF (N=52, mean [SD] age: 58.8 [10.8], 85% men) were enrolled in the study. There was a 100% compliance to study therapy. A significant improvement was observed in MAC levels (7.11%, p =0.029), at end of 7 day therapy as compared to baseline. This improvement was maintained at two follow-up visits. Moreover, ejection fraction was observed to be increased by 6.38%, p=0,012 as compared to baseline at day 7 of the therapy. Conclusions: This 90 day follow up study highlights benefit of HFRT, as a part of maintenance treatment for CHF patients with reduced ejection fraction.

Keywords: chronic heart failure, functional capacity, heart failure reversal therapy, oxygen uptake, panchakarma

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893 Measurement of Echocardiographic Ejection Fraction Reference Values and Evaluation between Body Weight and Ejection Fraction in Domestic Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus)

Authors: Reza Behmanesh, Mohammad Nasrolahzadeh-Masouleh, Ehsan Khaksar, Saeed Bokaie

Abstract:

Domestic rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) are an excellent model for cardiovascular research because the size of these animals is more suitable for study and experimentation than smaller animals. One of the most important diagnostic imaging methods is echocardiography, which is used today to evaluate the anatomical and functional cardiovascular system and is one of the most accurate and sensitive non-invasive methods for examining heart disease. Ventricular function indices can be assessed with cardiac imaging techniques. One of these important cardiac parameters is the ejection fraction (EF), which has a valuable place along with other involved parameters. EF is a measure of the percentage of blood that comes out of the heart with each contraction. For this study, 100 adult and young standard domestic rabbits, six months to one year old and of both sexes (50 female and 50 male rabbits) without anesthesia and sedation were used. In this study, the mean EF in domestic rabbits studied in males was 58.753 ± 6.889 and in females, 61.397 ± 6.530, which are comparable to the items mentioned in the valid books and the average size of EF measured in this study; there is no significant difference between this research and other research. There was no significant difference in the percentage of EF between most weight groups, but there was a significant difference (p < 0.05) in weight groups (2161–2320 g and 2481–2640 g). Echocardiographic EF reference values for domestic rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) non-anesthetized are presented, providing reference values for future studies.

Keywords: echocardiography, ejection fraction, rabbit, heart

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892 Eucalyptus camaldulensis Leaves Attacked by the Gall Wasp Leptocybe invasa: A Phyto-Volatile Constituents Study

Authors: Maged El-Sayed Mohamed

Abstract:

Eucalyptus camaldulensis is one on the most well-known species of the genus Eucalyptus in the Middle east, its importance relay on the high production of its unique volatile constituents which exhibits many medicinal and pharmacological activities. The gall-forming wasp (Leptocybe invasa) has recently come into sight as the main pest attacking E. camaldulensis and causing severe injury. The wasp lays its eggs in the petiole and midrib of leaves and stems of young shoots of E. camaldulensis, which leads to gall formation. Gall formation by L. invasa damages growing shoot and leaves of Eucalyptus, resulting in abscission of leaves and drying. AIM: This study is an attempt to investigate the effect of the gall wasp (Leptocybe invasa) attack on the volatile constitutes of E. camaldulensis. This could help in the control of this wasp through stimulating plant defenses or production of a new allelochemicals or insecticide. The study of volatile constitutes of Eucalyptus before and after attack by the wasp can help the re-use and recycle of the infected Eucalyptus trees for new pharmacological and medicinal activities. Methodology: The fresh gall wasp-attacked and healthy leaves (100 g each) were cut and immediately subjected to hydrodistillation using Clevenger-type apparatus for 3 hours. The volatile fractions isolated were analyzed using Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Kovat’s retention indices (RI) were calculated with respect to a set of co-injected standard hydrocarbons (C10-C28). Compounds were identified by comparing their spectral data and retention indices with Wiley Registry of Mass Spectral Data 10th edition (April 2013), NIST 11 Mass Spectral Library (NIST11/2011/EPA/NIH) and literature data. Results: Fifty-nine components representing 89.13 and 88.60% of the total volatile fraction content respectively were quantitatively analyzed. Twenty-six major compounds at an average concentration greater than 0.1 ± 0.02% have been used for the statistical comparison. From those major components, twenty-one were found in both the attacked and healthy Eucalyptus leaves’ fractions in different concentration and five components, mono terpene p-Mentha-2-4(8) diene and the sesquiterpenes δ-elemene, β-elemene, E-caryophyllene and Bicyclogermacrene, were unique and only produced in the attacked-leaves’ fraction. CONCLUSION: Newly produced components or those commonly found in the volatile fraction and changed in concentration could represent a part of the plant defense mechanisms or might be an element of the plant allelopathic and communication mechanisms. Identification of the components of the gall wasp-damaged leaves can help in their recycling for different physiological, pharmacological and medicinal uses.

Keywords: Eucalyptus camaldulensis, eucalyptus recycling, gall wasp, Leptocybe invasa, plant defense mechanisms, Terpene fraction

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891 Extrapulmonary Gastrointestinal Small Cell Carcinoma: A Single Institute Experience of 14 Patients from a Low Middle Income Country

Authors: Awais Naeem, Osama Shakeel, Faizan Ullah, Abdul Wahid Anwer

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Introduction: To study the clinic-pathological factors, diagnostic factors and survival of extra-pulmonary small cell carcinoma. Methodology: From 1995 to 2017 all patients with a diagnosis of extra-pulmonary small cell carcinoma were included in the study. Demographic variables and clinic-pathological factors were collected. Management of disease was recorded. Short and long term oncological outcomes were recorded. All data was entered and analyzed in SPSS version 21. Results: A total of 14 patients were included in the study. Median age was 53.42 +/- 16.1 years. There were 5 male and 9 female patients. Most common presentation was dysphagia in 16 patient among esophageal small cell carcinoma and while other patient had pain in abdomen. Mean duration of symptoms was 4.23+/-2.91 months .Most common site is esophagus (n=6) followed by gall bladder(n=3). Almost all of the patients received chemo-radiotherapy. Majority of the patient presented with extensive disease. Five patients (35.7%) died during the follow up period, two (14.3%) were alive and rest of the patients were lost to follow up. Mean follow up period was 22.92 months and median follow up was 15 months. Conclusion: Extra-pulmonary small cell carcinoma is rare and needs to be managed aggressively. All patients should be treated with both systemic and local therapies.

Keywords: small cell carcinoma of esophagus, extrapulmonary small cell carcinoma, small cell carcinoma of gall bladder, small cell carcinoma of rectum, small cell carcinoma of stomach

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890 Automatic LV Segmentation with K-means Clustering and Graph Searching on Cardiac MRI

Authors: Hae-Yeoun Lee

Abstract:

Quantification of cardiac function is performed by calculating blood volume and ejection fraction in routine clinical practice. However, these works have been performed by manual contouring,which requires computational costs and varies on the observer. In this paper, an automatic left ventricle segmentation algorithm on cardiac magnetic resonance images (MRI) is presented. Using knowledge on cardiac MRI, a K-mean clustering technique is applied to segment blood region on a coil-sensitivity corrected image. Then, a graph searching technique is used to correct segmentation errors from coil distortion and noises. Finally, blood volume and ejection fraction are calculated. Using cardiac MRI from 15 subjects, the presented algorithm is tested and compared with manual contouring by experts to show outstanding performance.

Keywords: cardiac MRI, graph searching, left ventricle segmentation, K-means clustering

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889 Ballistics of Main Seat Ejection Cartridges for Aircraft Application

Authors: B. A. Parate, K. D. Deodhar, V. K. Dixit, V. V. Rao

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This article outlines the ballistics of main seat ejection cartridges for aircraft application. The ballistics of main seat ejection cartridges plays a vital role during the ejection of the pilot in an emergency. The ballistic parameters such as maximum pressure, time is taken to reach the maximum pressure, and time required to reach half the maximum pressure contributes to the spinal injury of the pilot. Therefore, the evaluations of these parameters are very critical during various stages of development. Elaborate testing was carried out for main seat ejection cartridges on seat ejection tower (SET) at different operating temperatures considering physiological limits. As these trials are cumbersome in nature, a vented vessel (VV) testing facility was devised to lay down the performance parameters at hot and cold temperature conditions. Single base (SB) propellant having hepta-tubular configuration is selected as the main filling. Gun powder plays the role of a booster based on ballistic requirements. The evaluation methodology of various performance parameters of main seat ejection cartridges is explained in this paper. Physiological parameters such as maximum seat ejection velocity, acceleration, and rate of rising of acceleration are also experimentally determined on seat ejection tower. All the parameters are observed well within physiological limits. This paper addresses the internal ballistic of main seat ejection cartridges, propellant selection, its calculation, and evaluation of various performance parameters for an aircraft application.

Keywords: ballistics of seat ejection, ejection seat, gas generator, gun propulsion, main seat ejection cartridges, maximum pressure, performance parameters, propellant, progressive burning and vented vessel

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888 Oak Gall Wasps (Hymenoptera, Cynipidae, Cynipini) and Galls Form Recorded from Georgia

Authors: Marine Nozadze, George Japoshvili, George Melika

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In 2020-2021 we studied oaks gall wasps of different oak species in Georgia at 7 locations of their natural distribution: 1. Quercuse petrea subsp. iberica - Mtskheta municipality, village. Mukhattskaro; 2. Quercus subsp. pendunculifloria - Kvareli municipality, village. Gramy;3. Quercus robur subsp. imeretina -Baghdati Municipality, Ajameti Reserve; 4. Quercus pontica -Chokhatauri municipality, village. Tskhratskaro; 5. Quercus macranthera -Tetritskaro Municipality, Algeti National Park; 6. Quercuse petrea subsp. iberica - Shuakhevi municipality, village. Uchamba 7. Quercus hartwissiana - Baghdatis municipality, village. Dimi. Samples were collected from early spring to late autumn. As a result, 7 forms of galls were collected and described wich caused by different species of oak gall wasps: 1. Neuroterus numismalis asexual gall 2. Neuroterus quercusbaccarum asexual galls 3. Cynips korsakovi asexual gall 4. Biorhiza pallida sexual gall 5. Neuroterus quercusbaccarum asexual galls 6. Neuroterus numismalis sexual gall 7. Cynips quercusfolii. Neuroterus quercusbaccarum asexual galls form the most represented of them: In Algeti National Park; In Mtskheta municipality; In Shuakhevi municipality and Ajameti reserve. The most damaged locations by oak gall wasps were Algeti National Park and Mtskheta Municipality, whereas the most biodiversity according to galls form was represented In Algeti National Park.

Keywords: gall wasps, oak, cynipidae, species

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887 Diagnostic Evaluation of Urinary Angiogenin (ANG) and Clusterin (CLU) as Biomarker for Bladder Cancer

Authors: Marwa I. Shabayek, Ola A. Said, Hanan A. Attaia, Heba A. Awida

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Bladder carcinoma is an important worldwide health problem. Both cystoscopy and urine cytology used in detecting bladder cancer suffer from drawbacks where cystoscopy is an invasive method and urine cytology shows low sensitivity in low grade tumors. This study validates easier and less time-consuming techniques to evaluate the value of combined use of angiogenin and clusterin in comparison and combination with voided urine cytology in the detection of bladder cancer patients. This study includes malignant (bladder cancer patients, n= 50), benign (n=20), and healthy (n=20) groups. The studied groups were subjected to cystoscopic examination, detection of bilharzial antibodies, urine cytology, and estimation of urinary angiogenin and clusterin by ELISA. The overall sensitivity and specifcity were 66% and 75% for angiogenin, 70% and 82.5% for clusterin and 46% and 80% for voided urine cytology. Combined sensitivity of angiogenin and clusterin with urine cytology increased from 82 to 88%.

Keywords: angiogenin, bladder cancer, clusterin, cytology

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886 A Literature Review on Bladder Management in Individuals with Spinal Cord Injury

Authors: Elif Ates, Naile Bilgili

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Background: One of the most important medical complications that individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) face are the neurogenic bladder. Objectives: To review methods used for management of neurogenic bladder and their effects. Methods: The study was conducted by searching CINAHL, Ebscohost, MEDLINE, Science Direct, Ovid, ProQuest, Web of Science, and ULAKBİM National Databases for studies published between 2005 and 2015. Key words used during the search included ‘spinal cord injury’, ‘bladder injury’, ‘nursing care’, ‘catheterization’ and ‘intermittent urinary catheter’. After examination of 551 studies, 21 studies which met inclusion criteria were included in the review. Results: Mean age of individuals in all study samples was 42 years. The most commonly used bladder management method was clean intermittent catheterization (CIC). Compliance with CIC was found to be significantly related to spasticity, maximum cystometric capacity, and the person performing catheterization (p < .05). The main reason for changing the existing bladder management method was urinary tract infections (UTI). Individuals who performed CIC by themselves and who voided spontaneously had better life quality. Patient age, occupation status and whether they performed CIC by themselves or not were found to be significantly associated with depression level (p ≤ .05). Conclusion: As the most commonly used method for bladder management, CIC is a reliable and effective method, and reduces the risk of UTI development. Individuals with neurogenic bladder have a higher prevalence of depression symptoms than the normal population.

Keywords: bladder management, catheterization, nursing, spinal cord injury

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885 Autophagy Suppresses Bladder Tumor Formation in a Mouse Orthotopic Bladder Tumor Formation Model

Authors: Wan-Ting Kuo, Yi-Wen Liu, Hsiao-Sheng Liu

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Annual incidence of bladder cancer increases in the world and occurs frequently in the male. Most common type is transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) which is treated by transurethral resection followed by intravesical administration of agents. In clinical treatment of bladder cancer, chemotherapeutic drugs-induced apoptosis is always used in patients. However, cancers usually develop resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs and often lead to aggressive tumors with worse clinical outcomes. Approximate 70% TCC recurs and 30% recurrent tumors progress to high-grade invasive tumors, indicating that new therapeutic agents are urgently needed to improve the successful rate of overall treatment. Nonapoptotic program cell death may assist to overcome worse clinical outcomes. Autophagy which is one of the nonapoptotic pathways provides another option for bladder cancer patients. Autophagy is reported as a potent anticancer therapy in some cancers. First of all, we established a mouse orthotopic bladder tumor formation model in order to create a similar tumor microenvironment. IVIS system and micro-ultrasound were utilized to noninvasively monitor tumor formation. In addition, we carried out intravesical treatment in our animal model to be consistent with human clinical treatment. In our study, we carried out intravesical instillation of the autophagy inducer in mouse orthotopic bladder tumor to observe tumor formation by noninvasive IVIS system and micro-ultrasound. Our results showed that bladder tumor formation is suppressed by the autophagy inducer, and there are no significant side effects in the physiology of mice. Furthermore, the autophagy inducer upregulated autophagy in bladder tissues of the treated mice was confirmed by Western blot, immunohistochemistry, and immunofluorescence. In conclusion, we reveal that a novel autophagy inducer with low side effects suppresses bladder tumor formation in our mouse orthotopic bladder tumor model, and it provides another therapeutic approach in bladder cancer patients.

Keywords: bladder cancer, transitional cell carcinoma, orthotopic bladder tumor formation model, autophagy

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884 An Unusual Presentation of Plasmacytoid Urothelial Carcinoma of the Bladder - A Case Report and Literature Review

Authors: Bharti Arora, Michael Chen, Steven Lun

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Plasmacytoid urothelial carcinoma (PUC) of the bladder is a rare and aggressive subtype of urothelial carcinoma that usually presents at an advanced clinical stage, has a predilection for early metastatic potential and is associated with poor prognosis. The first reported case of PUC was in 1991 and approximately 100 cases were reported in the literature worldwide. We present a case of a 43 year old female presenting with a 3-month history of urgency and frequency. Failing medical management of her urinary symptoms with anticholinergic medication, she underwent a diagnostic cystoscopy which revealed an erythematous and indurated bladder. Bladder biopsies of these regions revealed plasmacytoid urothelial carcinoma. Pre-operative staging scans were clear of any metastatic disease and the patient subsequently underwent a radical cystectomy and pelvic clearance with the formation of ileal conduit for urinary diversion. Histology confirmed plasmacytoid urothelial carcinoma with involvement of right upper vagina and focally positive margins in soft tissue at right and left sides of bladder. She received adjuvant chemotherapy but passed away within a year from disease progression. PUC can present atypically and our case highlights the role of cystoscopy in patients with persistent urinary symptoms. By reviewing the literature on PUC, we aim to raise awareness and improve understanding of this rare bladder cancer subtype amongst urologists.

Keywords: urology, bladder cancer, plasmacytoid urothelial cancer, literature review

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883 Epidemiology of Bladder Malignancy in Patients Treated with Urethral Resection in Kurdistan Province

Authors: Heshmatollah Sofimajidpour, Mohammad Aziz Rasouli

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Bladder cancer is the ninth most common cancer in the world and the fourth most common cancer in men in Iran, and the second most common genitourinary cancer after prostate cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the epidemiology of bladder malignancy in patients treated with transurethral resection in Tohid Hospital in Sanandaj. In this cross-sectional study, data was extracted from321 medical records of patients with bladder malignancy treated by urethral resection. Patients 'information, including age, sex, place of residence, occupation, smoking history, histopathology, disease stage, and type of treatment, were extracted from patients' medical records from 2012-2017. The frequency and percentage of each variable were calculated using Stata software Ver. 14 and analyzed. The results of this study showed that the mean ± standard deviation of the age of the subjects was 65.6 ± 14 years. 264 people (82.2%) were men, and 247 people (76.9%) lived in the city. In terms of smoking and family history, 172 patients (53.6%) and 20 patients (6.2%) were reported, respectively. Most people were diagnosed with Transitional Cell carcinoma, and 210 patients (65.4%) were diagnosed with stage 1, and 8 patients (2.5%) were diagnosed with stage 4 of the disease. Regarding the type of treatment, TURBT was reported in 207 patients (64.5%), and TURBT and BCG in the bladder were reported in 74 patients (23%). The incidence of bladder cancer is increasing, although this increase may be due to improved cancer registration systems, as well as the use of new diagnostic methods and increased patient awareness, the risk of bladder cancer is increasing due to lifestyle changes, job encounters, and other risk factors. Therefore planning and identifying the causes of this cancer can be helpful in preventing it.

Keywords: epidemiology, bladder malignancy, transurethral resection, urinary tract, kurdistan, iran

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882 Modelling of a Biomechanical Vertebral System for Seat Ejection in Aircrafts Using Lumped Mass Approach

Authors: R. Unnikrishnan, K. Shankar

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In the case of high-speed fighter aircrafts, seat ejection is designed mainly for the safety of the pilot in case of an emergency. Strong windblast due to the high velocity of flight is one main difficulty in clearing the tail of the aircraft. Excessive G-forces generated, immobilizes the pilot from escape. In most of the cases, seats are ejected out of the aircrafts by explosives or by rocket motors attached to the bottom of the seat. Ejection forces are primarily in the vertical direction with the objective of attaining the maximum possible velocity in a specified period of time. The safe ejection parameters are studied to estimate the critical time of ejection for various geometries and velocities of flight. An equivalent analytical 2-dimensional biomechanical model of the human spine has been modelled consisting of vertebrae and intervertebral discs with a lumped mass approach. The 24 vertebrae, which consists of the cervical, thoracic and lumbar regions, in addition to the head mass and the pelvis has been designed as 26 rigid structures and the intervertebral discs are assumed as 25 flexible joint structures. The rigid structures are modelled as mass elements and the flexible joints as spring and damper elements. Here, the motions are restricted only in the mid-sagittal plane to form a 26 degree of freedom system. The equations of motions are derived for translational movement of the spinal column. An ejection force with a linearly increasing acceleration profile is applied as vertical base excitation on to the pelvis. The dynamic vibrational response of each vertebra in time-domain is estimated.

Keywords: biomechanical model, lumped mass, seat ejection, vibrational response

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881 The Anti-Bladder Cancer Effects Exerted by Hyaluronan Nanoparticles Encapsulated Heteronemin Isolated from Hippospongia Sp.

Authors: Kuan Yin Hsiao, Shyh Ming Kuo, Yi Jhen Wu, Chin Wen Chuang, Chuen-Fu Lin, Wei-qing Yang, Han Hsiang Huang

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Anti-tumor effects of natural products, like compounds from marine sponges and soft corals, have been investigated for decades. Polymeric nanoparticles prepared from biodegradable and biocompatible molecules, such as Hyaluronan (HA), Chitosan (CHI) and gelatin have been widely studied. Encapsulation of anti-cancer therapies by the biopolymeric nanoparticles in drug delivery system is potentially capable of improving the therapeutic effects and attenuating their toxicity. In the current study, the anti-bladder cancer effects of heteronemin extracted from the sponge Hippospongia sp. with or without HA and CHI nanoparticle encapsulation were assessed and evaluated in vitro. Results showed that IC50 (half maximal inhibitory concentration) of heteronemin toward T24 human bladder cancer cell viability is approximately 0.18 µg/mL. Both plain and HA nanoparticles-encapsulated heteronemin at 0.2 and 0.4 µg/mL significantly reduced T24 cell viability (P<0.001) while HA nanoparticles-encapsulated heteronemin showed weaker viability-inhibitory effects on L929 fibroblasts compared with plain heteronemin at the identical concentrations. HA and CHI nanoparticles-encapsulated heteronemin exhibited significantly stronger inhibitory effects against migration of T24 human bladder cancer cell than those exerted by plain heteronemin at the same concentrations (P<0.001). The flow cytometric results showed that 0.2 µg/mL HA and CHI nanoparticles-encapsulated heteronemin induced higher early apoptosis rate than that induced by plain heteronemin at the same concentration. These results show that HA and CHI nanoparticle encapsulation is able to elevate anti-migratory and apoptosis-inducing effects exerted by heteronemin against bladder cancer cells in vitro. The in vivo anti-bladder cancer effects of the compound with or without HA/CHI nanoparticle encapsulation will be further investigated and examined using murine tumor models. The data obtained from this study will extensively evaluate of the anti-bladder cancer effects of heteronemin as well as HA/CHI-encapsulated heteronemin and pave a way to develop potential bladder cancer treatment.

Keywords: heteronemin, nanoparticles, hyaluronan, chitosan, bladder cancer

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880 Dosimetric Comparison of Conventional Plans versus Three Dimensional Conformal Simultaneously Integrated Boost Plans

Authors: Shoukat Ali, Amjad Hussain, Latif-ur-Rehman, Sehrish Inam

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Radiotherapy plays an important role in the management of cancer patients. Approximately 50% of the cancer patients receive radiotherapy at one point or another during the course of treatment. The entire radiotherapy treatment of curative intent is divided into different phases, depending on the histology of the tumor. The established protocols are useful in deciding the total dose, fraction size, and numbers of phases. The objective of this study was to evaluate the dosimetric differences between the conventional treatment protocols and the three-dimensional conformal simultaneously integrated boost (SIB) plans for three different tumors sites (i.e. bladder, breast, and brain). A total of 30 patients with brain, breast and bladder cancers were selected in this retrospective study. All the patients were CT simulated initially. The primary physician contoured PTV1 and PTV2 in the axial slices. The conventional doses prescribed for brain and breast is 60Gy/30 fractions, and 64.8Gy/36 fractions for bladder treatment. For the SIB plans biological effective doses (BED) were calculated for 25 fractions. The two conventional (Phase I and Phase II) and a single SIB plan for each patient were generated on Eclipse™ treatment planning system. Treatment plans were compared and analyzed for coverage index, conformity index, homogeneity index, dose gradient and organs at risk doses.In both plans 95% of PTV volume received a minimum of 95% of the prescribe dose. Dose deviation in the optic chiasm was found to be less than 0.5%. There is no significant difference in lung V20 and heart V30 in the breast plans. In the rectum plans V75%, V50% and V25% were found to be less than 1.2% different. Deviation in the tumor coverage, conformity and homogeneity indices were found to be less than 1%. SIB plans with three dimensional conformal radiotherapy technique reduce the overall treatment time without compromising the target coverage and without increasing dose to the organs at risk. The higher dose per fraction may increase the late effects to some extent. Further studies are required to evaluate the late effects with the intention of standardizing the SIB technique for practical implementation.

Keywords: coverage index, conformity index, dose gradient, homogeneity index, simultaneously integrated boost

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879 A Crossover Study of Therapeutic Equivalence of Generic Product Versus Reference Product of Ivabradine in Patients with Chronic Heart Failure

Authors: Hadeer E. Eliwa, Naglaa S. Bazan, Ebtissam A. Darweesh, Nagwa A. Sabri

Abstract:

Background: Generic substitution of brand ivabradine prescriptions can reduce drug expenditures and improve adherence. However, the distrust of generic medicines by practitioners and patients due to doubts regarding their quality and fear of counterfeiting compromise the acceptance of this practice. Aim: The goal of this study is to compare the therapeutic equivalence of brand product versus the generic product of ivabradine in adult patients with chronic heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (≤ 40%) (HFrEF). Methodology: Thirty-two Egyptian patients with chronic heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) were treated with branded ivabradine (Procrolan ©) and generic (Bradipect ©) during 24 (2x12) weeks. Primary outcomes were resting heart rate (HR), NYHA FC, Quality of life (QoL) using Minnesota Living with Heart Failure (MLWHF) and EF. Secondary outcomes were the number of hospitalizations for worsening HFrEF and adverse effects. The washout period was not allowed. Findings: At the 12th week, the reduction in HR was comparable in the two groups (90.13±7.11 to 69±11.41 vs 96.13±17.58 to 67.31±8.68 bpm in brand and generic groups, respectively). Also, the increase in EF was comparable in the two groups (27.44 ±4.59 to 33.38±5.62 vs 32±5.96 to 39.31±8.95 in brand and generic groups, respectively). The improvement in NYHA FC was comparable in both groups (87.5% in brand group vs 93.8% in the generic group). The mean value of the QOL improved from 31.63±15.8 to 19.6±14.7 vs 35.68±17.63 to 22.9±15.1 for the brand and generic groups, respectively. Similarly, at end of 24 weeks, no significant changes were observed from data observed at 12th week regarding HR, EF, QoL and NYHA FC. Only minor side effects, mainly phosphenes, and a comparable number of hospitalizations were observed in both groups. Conclusion: The study revealed no statistically significant differences in the therapeutic effect and safety between generic and branded ivabradine. We assume that practitioners can safely interchange between them for economic reasons.

Keywords: bradipect©, heart failure, ivabradine, Procrolan ©, therapeutic equivalence

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878 Correlation of Serum Ferritin and Left Ventricular Function in Beta Thalassemia Major Patients with Increased Transfusion Dependence

Authors: Amna Imtiaz

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Aims: To correlate serum ferritin with left ventricular function in beta thalassemia major patients with increased transfusion dependence and to find out whether echocardiography can be used to assess pre clinical cardiac disease in these patients. Methods: The cross sectional study was conducted at Department of Pathology, Shaheed Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto Medical University, Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences, Islamabad. 60 patients of beta thalassemia major with increased transfusion dependence were enrolled in this study. Serum ferritin levels of all patients were measured by using indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Echocardiography was performed on all patients by a consultant cardiologist by linking conventional echocardiography with tissue Doppler imaging. Ejection fraction and E/A ratio were measured in all patients to assess left ventricular systolic and diastolic function. Results: On the basis of serum ferritin level, patients were divided into three groups. Group I consisted of patients having serum ferritin level equal to or less than 2500 ng/ml. A total of 25 patients were placed in this group. Group II included patients having serum ferritin level between 2500 to 5000 ng/ml. A total of 22 patients were placed in this group. Group III included patients having serum ferritin level more than 5000 ng/ml. This group consisted of 13 patients. All patients having serum ferritin below 2500ng/ml had normal systolic function, and only 16% of the patients in this group had diastolic dysfunction as reflected by abnormal E/A ratio. In group II, 27% of the patients had systolic dysfunction reflected by subnormal ejection fraction while 40% of the patients had diastolic dysfunction. In group III, 62% of the patients had abnormal systolic and diastolic function. Pearson correlation was used to find a correlation between serum ferritin and left ventricular function. A strong negative correlation was found which is reflected by a p value of less than 0.05 which is significant. Chi square test is used to correlate serum ferritin with E/A ratio. P value came out to be less than 0.05 which is significant.

Keywords: beta thalassemia major, left ventricular function, serum ferritin, transfusion dependence

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877 Comparing Trastuzumab-Related Cardiotoxicity between Elderly and Younger Patients with Breast Cancer: A Prospective Cohort Study

Authors: Afrah Aladwani, Alexander Mullen, Mohammad AlRashidi, Omamah Alfarisi, Faisal Alterkit, Abdulwahab Aladwani, Asit Kumar, Emad Eldosouky

Abstract:

Introduction: Trastuzumab is a HER-2 targeted humanized monoclonal antibody that significantly improves the therapeutic outcomes of metastatic and non-metastatic breast cancer. However, it is associated with increased risk of cardiotoxicity that ranges from mild decline in the cardiac ejection fraction to permanent cardiomyopathy. Concerns have been raised in treating eligible older patients. This study compares trastuzumab outcomes between two age cohorts in the Kuwait Cancer Control Centre (KCCC). Methods: In a prospective comparative observational study, 93 HER-2 positive breast cancer patients undergoing different chemotherapy protocols + trastuzumab were included and divided into two cohorts based on their age (˂60 and ≥60 years old). The baseline left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was assessed and monitored every three months during trastuzumab treatment. Event of cardiotoxicity was defined as ≥10% decline in the LVEF from the baseline. The lower accepted normal limit of the LVEF was 50%. Results: The median baseline LVEF was 65% in both age cohorts (IQR 8% and 9% for older and younger patients respectively). Whereas, the median LVEF post-trastuzumab treatment was 51% and 55% in older and younger patients respectively (IQR 8%; p-value = 0.22), despite the fact that older patients had significantly lower exposure to anthracyclines compared to younger patients (60% and 84.1% respectively; p-value ˂0.001). 86.7% and 55.6% of older and younger patients, respectively, developed ≥10% decline in their LVEF from the baseline. Among those, only 29% of older and 27% of younger patients reached a LVEF value below 50% (p-value = 0.88). Statistically, age was the only factor that significantly correlated with trastuzumab induced cardiotoxicity (OR 4; p-value ˂0.012), but it did not increase the requirement for permanent discontinuation of treatment. A baseline LVEF value below 60% contributed to developing a post-treatment value below normal ranges (50%). Conclusion: Breast cancer patients aged 60 years and above in Kuwait were at 4-fold higher risk of developing ≥10% decline in their LVEF from the baseline than younger patients during trastuzumab treatment. Surprisingly, previous exposure to anthracyclines and multiple comorbidities were not associated with significant increased risk of cardiotoxicity.

Keywords: breast cancer, elderly, Trastuzumab, cardiotoxicity

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876 Susceptibility of Different Clones of Eucalyptus Species against Gall Wasp, Leptocybe invasa Fisher and La Salle in Punjab, India

Authors: Ashwinder K. Dhaliwal, G. P. S. Dhillon

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Eucalyptus is one of the most important forest tree species that can tolerate and grow well on degraded and unfertile soils which are not suitable for other tree species. Besides this, these trees have a short rotation and good economic value. However, the gall inducing wasp Leptocybe invasa Fisher and La Salle has been reported from many countries throughout the world. The spread of L. invasa is of huge economic concern as more than 20,000 ha of young Eucalyptus trees have already been affected in southern states of India. The host plant resistance being the first line of defense against insect pests demands the screening of different germplasm source against L. invasa. Keeping this in view, fourteen different clones of Eucalyptus spp. were evaluated for their susceptibility to L. invasa from a replicated clonal trial planted at Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana. The degree of gall infestation was recorded from three plants of each clone in each replication. Three branches selected from the lower, middle and upper canopy of the trees were selected for recording the total number of galls induced by L. invasa. The statistical analysis was done as per the procedure laid down for completely randomised block design (CRBD), analysis of variance (ANOVA), critical difference (CD) and variance components using Proc GLM (SAS software 9.3, SAS Institute Ltd. U.S.A). All possible treatment means were compared with Duncan’s multiple range test (DMRT) at 1 % probability level. The results showed that the clones C-9, C-45 and C-42 were completely free from the infestation of L. invasa. However, there was minor infestation of L. invasa on C-2135, C-413, C-407, C-35, C-72 and C-37 clones. The clone C-6 was severely infested by L. invasa followed by C-11, C-12, F-316 and C-25 clones. The information generated by this study will be helpful for future breeding and use in afforestation programmes.

Keywords: eucalyptus clones, gall wasp, Leptocybe invasa, screening, susceptibility

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875 Effect of Diindolylmethane on BBN-Induced Bladder Carcinogenesis in Rats

Authors: Sundaresan Sivapatham, B. Prabhu

Abstract:

Cancer results from a multistage, multi-mechanism carcinogenesis process that involves mutagenic, cell death and epigenetic mechanisms, during the three distinguishable but closely allied stages: initiation, promotion, and progression. Chemoprevention is promising in the realm of cancer prevention and it has been shown to reduce the risk of development of carcinoma in highly susceptible individuals such as those with known genetic mutations or high level of risk factors. The present study is aimed at the need of early detection of bladder cancer in order to improve performance in the treatment of this disease. Consumption of certain natural products like DIM is associated with a reduction in cancer incidence in humans. The study showed the protective effects of Diindolylmethane in N-Butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl) nitrosamine treated rats. Results of the study had shown the changes in the tumor markers, biomarkers and histopathological alterations in experimental rats when compared to control rats. The protective effects of DIM were shown from the results of cell proliferation, apoptotic markers and histopathological findings when compared with experimental control animals. Hence, our results speculate that the tumor markers, apoptotic markers, histopathological changes and cell proliferation index measured as PCNA serves as an indicator suggestive of protective effects of DIM in BBN induced urinary bladder carcinogenesis.

Keywords: bladder cancer, N-Butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl) nitrosamine, diindolylmethane, histopathology

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874 Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Patients May Be Predisposed to Various Cardiomyopathies

Authors: Fouad Chebib, Marie Hogan, Ziad El-Zoghby, Maria Irazabal, Sarah Senum, Christina Heyer, Charles Madsen, Emilie Cornec-Le Gall, Atta Behfar, Barbara Ehrlich, Peter Harris, Vicente Torres

Abstract:

Background: Mutations in PKD1 and PKD2, the genes encoding the proteins polycystin-1 (PC1) and polycystin-2 (PC2) cause autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). ADPKD is a systemic disease associated with several extrarenal manifestations. Animal models have suggested an important role for the polycystins in cardiovascular function. The aim of the current study is to evaluate the association of various cardiomyopathies in a large cohort of patients with ADPKD. Methods: Clinical data was retrieved from medical records for all patients with ADPKD and cardiomyopathies (n=159). Genetic analysis was performed on available DNA by direct sequencing. Results: Among the 58 patients included in this case series, 39 patients had idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (IDCM), 17 had hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM), and 2 had left ventricular noncompaction (LVNC). The mean age at cardiomyopathy diagnosis was 53.3, 59.9 and 53.5 years in IDCM, HOCM and LVNC patients respectively. The median left ventricular ejection fraction at initial diagnosis of IDCM was 25%. Average basal septal thickness was 19.9 mm in patients with HOCM. Genetic data was available in 19, 8 and 2 cases of IDCM, HOCM, and LVNC respectively. PKD1 mutations were detected in 47.4%, 62.5% and 100% of IDCM, HOCM and LVNC cases. PKD2 mutations were detected only in IDCM cases and were overrepresented (36.8%) relative to the expected frequency in ADPKD (~15%). The prevalence of IDCM, HOCM, and LVNC in our ADPKD clinical cohort was 1:17, 1:39 and 1:333 respectively. When compared to the general population, IDCM and HOCM was approximately 10-fold more prevalent in patients with ADPKD. Conclusions: In summary, we suggest that PKD1 or PKD2 mutations may predispose to idiopathic dilated or hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. There is a trend for patients with PKD2 mutations to develop the former and for patients with PKD1 mutations to develop the latter. Predisposition to various cardiomyopathies may be another extrarenal manifestation of ADPKD.

Keywords: autosomal dominant polycystic kidney (ADPKD), polycystic kidney disease, cardiovascular, cardiomyopathy, idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, left ventricular noncompaction

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873 Characterization of Domestic Sewage Mixed with Baker's Yeast Factory Effluent of Beja Wastewater Treatment Plant by Respirometry

Authors: Fezzani Boubaker

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In this work, a comprehensive study of respirometric method was performed to assess the biodegradable COD fractions of domestic sewage mixed with baker’s yeast factory effluent treated by wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) of Beja. Three respirometric runs were performed in a closed tank reactor to characterize this mixed raw effluent. Respirometric result indicated that the readily biodegradable fraction (SS) was in range of 6-22%, the slowly biodegradable fraction (Xs) was in range of 33-42%, heterotrophic biomass (XH) was in range of 9-40% and the inert fractions: XI and SI were in range of 2-40% and 6-12% respectively which were high due to the presence of baker’s yeast factory effluent compared to domestic effluent alone. The fractions of the total nitrogen showed that SNO fraction is between 6 and 9% of TKN, the fraction of nitrogen ammonia SNH was ranging from 5 to 68%. The organic fraction divided into two compartments SND (11-85%) and XND (5-20%) the inert particulate nitrogen fraction XNI was between 0.4 and 1% and the inert soluble fraction of nitrogen SNI was ranged from 0.4 to 3%.

Keywords: wastewater characterization, COD fractions, respirometry, domestic sewage

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872 Cardiotoxicity Associated with Radiation Therapy: The Role of Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Cells in Improvement of Heart Function

Authors: Isalira Peroba Ramos, Cherley Borba Vieira de Andrade, Grazielle Suhett, Camila Salata, Paulo Cesar Canary, Guilherme Visconde Brasil, Antonio Carlos Campos de Carvalho, Regina Coeli dos Santos Goldenberg

Abstract:

Background: The therapeutic options for patients with cancer now include increasingly complex combinations of medications, radiation therapy (RT), and surgical intervention. Many of these treatments have important potential adverse cardiac effects and are likely to have significant effects on patient outcomes. Cell therapy appears to be promising for the treatment of chronic and degenerative diseases, including cardiomyopathy induced by RT, as the current therapeutic options are insufficient. Aims: To evaluate the potential of bone marrow mesenchymal cells (BMMCs) in radioinduced cardiac damage Methods: Female Wistar rats, 3 months old (Ethics Committee 054/14), were divided into 2 groups, non-treated irradiated group (IR n=15) and irradiated and BMMC treated (IRT n=10). Echocardiography was performed to evaluate heart function. After euthanasia, 3 months post treatment; the left ventricle was removed and prepared for RT-qPCR (VEGF and Pro Collagen I) and histological (picrosirius) analysis. Results: In both groups, 45 days after irradiation, ejection fraction (EF) was in the normal range for these animals (> 70%). However, the BMMC treated group had EF (83.1%±2.6) while the non-treated IR group showed a significant reduction (76.1%±2.6) in relation to the treated group. In addition, we observed an increase in VEGF gene expression and a decrease in Pro Collagen I in IRT when compared to IR group. We also observed by histology that the collagen deposition was reduced in IRT (10.26%±0.83) when compared to IR group (25.29%±0.96). Conclusions: Treatment with BMMCs was able to prevent ejection fraction reduction and collagen deposition in irradiated animals. The increase of VEGF and the decrease of pro collagen I gene expression might explain, at least in part, the cell therapy benefits. All authors disclose no financial or personal relationships with individuals or organizations that could be perceived to bias their work. Sources of funding: FAPERJ, CAPES, CNPq, MCT.

Keywords: mesenchymal cells, radioation, cardiotoxicity, bone marrow

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871 Characterization of Coronary Artery Obstruction and Related Findings in Ischemic Heart Patients Using Cardiac Scintigraphy

Authors: Yousif Mohamed Y. Abdallah, Eltayeb Wagi Allah Eltayeb, Mohamed E. Gar-elnabi, Mohamed Ahmed Ali

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To characterize coronary artery obstruction and related findings in ischemic heart patients using cardiac scintigraphy for the identification of myocardial ischemia, 146 patients were studied at basal conditions and also asked for fasting after night till the intravenous injection of the radiopharmaceutical. After the injection time about 15 to 20 minutes, the patient should eat a fatty meal and chocolate for the good excretion of the gall bladder, to evaluate the performance and regional wall motion of the left ventricle (LV). The results showed that the body mass index percentage in this sample was in range of 43.05 to 61.05. The number of patients who were catheter candidates were 56 with 43% and the patients that were not candidate to cathode were 74 patients with 57% of all patients. For the group of patients where type of ischemia was assessed, 29.5% of patients had reversible posterior and inferior wall, 15.1% of patients had fixed large from apex to base, 9.6% of patients had mild basal inferior wall, 4.8 % of patients had mild anterior wall, 6.2% of patients had antro-septal and 34.9% of patients had moderate ischemia.

Keywords: myocardial ischemia, myocardial scintigraphy, contrast ventriculography, coronary artery obstruction

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870 Bioassay Guided Isolation of Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic Components from Ethyl Acetate Extracts of Cassia Sieberiana D.C. (Fabaceae)

Authors: Abubakar Sani

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The leaves extracts of Cassia sieberiana D.C. were screened for cytotoxicity using Brine Shrimp Test (BST) and antimicrobial bioassay against Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi and Escherichia coli using crude ethanol extract, Chloroform soluble fraction, aqueous soluble fraction, ethyl acetate soluble fraction, methanol soluble fraction and n-hexane soluble fraction. The Ethyl acetate fraction obtained proved to be most active in inducing complete lethality at minimum doses in BST and also active on Salmonella typhi. The Bioactivity result was used to guide the column chromatography which led to the isolation of pure compound CSB-8 which was found active in the BST with LC₅₀ value of 34(722-182)µg/ml and showed remarkable activity on Salmonella typhi (zone of inhibition 25mm) at 10,000µg/ml. The ¹H-NMR, ¹³C NMR, FTIR and GC-MS spectra of compound suggested the proposed structure to be 2-pentadecanone.

Keywords: brine shrimp, Cassia sieberiana D. C, Column chromatography, antimicrobial bioassay

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869 Prediction of Super-Response to Cardiac Resynchronisation Therapy

Authors: Vadim A. Kuznetsov, Anna M. Soldatova, Tatyana N. Enina, Elena A. Gorbatenko, Dmitrii V. Krinochkin

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The aim of the study was to evaluate potential parameters related with super-response to CRT. Methods: 60 CRT patients (mean age 54.3 ± 9.8 years; 80% men) with congestive heart failure (CHF) II-IV NYHA functional class, left ventricular ejection fraction < 35% were enrolled. At baseline, 1 month, 3 months and each 6 months after implantation clinical, electrocardiographic and echocardiographic parameters, NT-proBNP level were evaluated. According to the best decrease of left ventricular end-systolic volume (LVESV) (mean follow-up period 33.7 ± 15.1 months) patients were classified as super-responders (SR) (n=28; reduction in LVESV ≥ 30%) and non-SR (n=32; reduction in LVESV < 30%). Results: At baseline groups differed in age (58.1 ± 5.8 years in SR vs 50.8 ± 11.4 years in non-SR; p=0.003), gender (female gender 32.1% vs 9.4% respectively; p=0.028), width of QRS complex (157.6 ± 40.6 ms in SR vs 137.6 ± 33.9 ms in non-SR; p=0.044). Percentage of LBBB was equal between groups (75% in SR vs 59.4% in non-SR; p=0.274). All parameters of mechanical dyssynchrony were higher in SR, but only difference in left ventricular pre-ejection period (LVPEP) was statistically significant (153.0 ± 35.9 ms vs. 129.3 ± 28.7 ms p=0.032). NT-proBNP level was lower in SR (1581 ± 1369 pg/ml vs 3024 ± 2431 pg/ml; p=0.006). The survival rates were 100% in SR and 90.6% in non-SR (log-rank test P=0.002). Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that LVPEP (HR 1.024; 95% CI 1.004–1.044; P = 0.017), baseline NT-proBNP level (HR 0.628; 95% CI 0.414–0.953; P=0.029) and age at baseline (HR 1.094; 95% CI 1.009-1.168; P=0.30) were independent predictors for CRT super-response. ROC curve analysis demonstrated sensitivity 71.9% and specificity 82.1% (AUC=0.827; p < 0.001) of this model in prediction of super-response to CRT. Conclusion: Super-response to CRT is associated with better survival in long-term period. Presence of LBBB was not associated with super-response. LVPEP, NT-proBNP level, and age at baseline can be used as independent predictors of CRT super-response.

Keywords: cardiac resynchronisation therapy, superresponse, congestive heart failure, left bundle branch block

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