Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 216

Search results for: cow urine

216 The Use of Urine Cytology in an Australian Regional Hospital Compared to International Guidelines

Authors: Jake Tempo, Stephen Brough

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Introduction and Objectives: Urine cytology has a role in the diagnosis of urothelial cancer when used alongside cystoscopy and imaging, according to the European Association of Urology guidelines. It also has a role in the surveillance post-treatment of urothelial carcinoma. Collecting and analysing urine cytology is costly and time-consuming. We investigated the use of urine cytology in an Australian regional hospital to determine whether clinicians are following international guidelines. Materials and Methods: We analysed all urine cytology requests performed in an Australian regional hospital between 1st January 2017 and 31st December 2018. We reviewed the indication for urine cytology and the patients’ case notes to determine whether urine cytology changed management. Results: During the two-year study period, 153 patients had urine cytology analysed for a variety of indications. In no cases did cytology change the outcome of patient management significantly. In total, 69 of 153 (41%) urine cytology requests were not supported by urological society guidelines. Fifty requests were for haematuria, and twenty requests were for urothelial cancer surveillance. Seven were analysed for follow-up from previous urological investigations. Nine samples were sent for ureteric obstruction of unknown origin. Conclusion: Urine cytology, even when positive, did not significantly change management for the investigation of potential urothelial cancer, and therefore, its use as a diagnostic tool for this purpose should be reconsidered. Many cytology tests are expensive, unnecessary, and not supported by urological society guidelines.

Keywords: cytology, bladder cancer, urine, urothelial carcinoma

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215 Growth of Struvite Crystals in Synthetic Urine Using Magnesium Nitrate

Authors: Reneiloe Seodigeng, John Kabuba, Hilary Rutto, Tumisang Seodigeng

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Urine diversion toilets have become popular as a means of solving the challenges in sanitation. As a result, the source-separated urine must be adequately treated so that it can be disposed of safely and valuable struvite can be extracted for use as fertilizer. In this study, synthetic urine was prepared, and struvite crystallisation experiments carried out using magnesium nitrate. The effect of residence time on crystal growth was studied. At residence time of 10, 30 and 60 minutes, mean particle sizes were 17, 34 and 53 µm showing that with higher residence times, larger crystal sizes can be achieved. SEM analysis of the crystal showed that the resultant crystals had the typical morphology of struvite crystals.

Keywords: struvite, magnesium nitrate, crystallisation, urine treatment

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214 Diagnostic Evaluation of Urinary Angiogenin (ANG) and Clusterin (CLU) as Biomarker for Bladder Cancer

Authors: Marwa I. Shabayek, Ola A. Said, Hanan A. Attaia, Heba A. Awida

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Bladder carcinoma is an important worldwide health problem. Both cystoscopy and urine cytology used in detecting bladder cancer suffer from drawbacks where cystoscopy is an invasive method and urine cytology shows low sensitivity in low grade tumors. This study validates easier and less time-consuming techniques to evaluate the value of combined use of angiogenin and clusterin in comparison and combination with voided urine cytology in the detection of bladder cancer patients. This study includes malignant (bladder cancer patients, n= 50), benign (n=20), and healthy (n=20) groups. The studied groups were subjected to cystoscopic examination, detection of bilharzial antibodies, urine cytology, and estimation of urinary angiogenin and clusterin by ELISA. The overall sensitivity and specifcity were 66% and 75% for angiogenin, 70% and 82.5% for clusterin and 46% and 80% for voided urine cytology. Combined sensitivity of angiogenin and clusterin with urine cytology increased from 82 to 88%.

Keywords: angiogenin, bladder cancer, clusterin, cytology

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213 Studies on the Feasibility of Cow’s Urine as Non-Conventional Energy Sources

Authors: Raj Kumar Rajak, Bharat Mishra

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Bio-batteries represent an entirely new long-term, reasonable, reachable, and eco-friendly approach to generation of sustainable energy. In the present experimental work, we have studied the effect of the generation of power by bio-battery using different electrode pairs. The tests show that it is possible to generate electricity using cow’s urine as an electrolyte. C-Mg electrode pair shows maximum Voltage and Short Circuit Current (SCC), while C-Zn electrode pair shows less Open Circuit Voltage (OCV) and SCC. By the studies of cow urine and different electrodes, it is found that C-Zn electrode battery is more economical. The cow urine battery with C-Zn electrode provides maximum power (707.4 mW) and durability (up to 145 h). This result shows that the bio-batteries have the potency to full fill the need of electricity demand for lower energy equipment.

Keywords: bio-batteries, cow's urine, electrodes, non-conventional

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212 Perceptions of Farmers against Liquid Fertilizer Benefits of Beef Cattle Urine

Authors: Sitti Nurani Sirajuddin, Ikrar Moh. Saleh, Kasmiyati Kasim

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The aim of this study was to know the perception of livestock farmers on the use of liquid organic fertilizer from urine of cattle at Sinjai Regency, South Sulawesi Province. The choice of location for a farmer group manufactures and markets liquid organic fertilizer from cattle urine. This research was conducted in May to July 2013.The population were all livestock farmers who use organic liquid fertilizer from cattle urine samples while livestock farmers who are directly involved in the manufacture of liquid organic fertilizer totaled 42 people. Data were collected through observation and interview. Data were analyzed descriptively. The results showed that the perception of livestock farmers of using liquid organic fertilizer from cattle urine provide additional revenue benefits, cost minimization farming, reducing environmental pollution which not contrary to the customs.

Keywords: liquid organic fertilizer, perceptions, farmers, beef cattle

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211 Protective Effect of Cow Urine against Chlorpyrifos Induced-Genotoxicity and Neurotoxicity in Albino Rats

Authors: Shelly Sharma, Pooja Chadha

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Humans are exposed to pesticides and insecticides either directly or indirectly. Exposure to these pesticides may lead to acute toxicity to mammals and non-target organisms. Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is a broad spectrum organophosphate pesticide widely used in various countries of the world. The aim of the present study was to assess the toxicity associated with chlorpyrifos exposure and possible mitigating effect of cow urine against genotoxic and toxic effects in rat brain induced by chlorpyrifos. For this purpose LD50 was determined and rats were orally administered with 1/8th of LD50 (19mg/kg b.wt). Brain samples were taken after 24hrs, 48hrs and 72hrs of treatment. A significant increase in the % tail DNA was observed along with the increase in MDA levels of brain tissues in chlorpyrifos treated groups as compared to control. Cow urine treated groups show decrease in DNA damage and MDA levels as compared to CPF treated group. The study indicates that cow urine has ameliorative potential against neurotoxicity and genotoxicity induced by CPF. Cow urine is considered rich in vitamin A, E and volatile fatty acids which provide antioxidant potential to it. Thus, it can be used as a genoprotective agent.

Keywords: comet assay, brain, cow urine, genotoxicity, toxicity

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210 Simultaneous Determination of p-Phenylenediamine, N-Acetyl-p-phenylenediamine and N,N-Diacetyl-p-phenylenediamine in Human Urine by LC-MS/MS

Authors: Khaled M. Mohamed

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Background: P-Phenylenediamine (PPD) is used in the manufacture of hair dyes and skin decoration. In some developing countries, suicidal, homicidal and accidental cases by PPD were recorded. In this work, a sensitive LC-MS/MS method for determination of PPD and its metabolites N-acetyl-p-phenylenediamine (MAPPD) and N,N-diacetyl-p-phenylenediamine (DAPPD) in human urine has been developed and validated. Methods: PPD, MAPPD and DAPPD were extracted from urine by methylene chloride at alkaline pH. Acetanilide was used as internal standard (IS). The analytes and IS were separated on an Eclipse XDB- C18 column (150 X 4.6 mm, 5 µm) using a mobile phase of acetonitrile-1% formic acid in gradient elution. Detection was performed by LC-MS/MS using electrospray positive ionization under multiple reaction-monitoring mode. The transition ions m/z 109 → 92, m/z 151 → 92, m/z 193 → 92, and m/z 136 → 77 were selected for the quantification of PPD, MAPPD, DAPPD, and IS, respectively. Results: Calibration curves were linear in the range 10–2000 ng/mL for all analytes. The mean recoveries for PPD, MAPPD and DAPPD were 57.62, 74.19 and 50.99%, respectively. Intra-assay and inter-assay imprecisions were within 1.58–9.52% and 5.43–9.45% respectively for PPD, MAPPD and DAPPD. Inter-assay accuracies were within -7.43 and 7.36 for all compounds. PPD, MAPPD and DAPPD were stable in urine at –20 degrees for 24 hours. Conclusions: The method was successfully applied to the analysis of PPD, MAPPD and DAPPD in urine samples collected from suicidal cases.

Keywords: p-Phenylenediamine, metabolites, urine, LC-MS/MS, validation

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209 Customized Cow’s Urine Battery Using MnO2 Depolarizer

Authors: Raj Kumar Rajak, Bharat Mishra

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Bio-battery represents an entirely new long term, reasonable, reachable and ecofriendly approach to production of sustainable energy. Types of batteries have been developed using MnO2 in various ways. MnO2 is suitable with physical, chemical, electrochemical, and catalytic properties, serving as an effective cathodic depolarizer and may be considered as being the life blood of the battery systems. In the present experimental work, we have studied the effect of generation of power by bio-battery using different concentrations of MnO2. The tests show that it is possible to generate electricity using cow’s urine as an electrolyte. After ascertaining the optimum concentration of MnO2, various battery parameters and performance indicates that cow urine solely produces power of 695 mW, while a combination with MnO2 (40%) enhances power of bio-battery, i.e. 1377 mW. On adding more and more MnO2 to the electrolyte, the power suppressed because inflation of internal resistance. The analysis of the data produced from experiment shows that MnO2 is quite suitable to energize the bio-battery.

Keywords: bio-batteries, cow’s urine, manganese dioxide, non-conventional

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208 The Role of Chemokine Family, CXCL-10 Urine as a Marker Diagnosis of Active Lung Tuberculosis in HIV/AIDS Patients

Authors: Dwitya Elvira, Raveinal Masri, Rohayat Bilmahdi

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Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) pandemic increased significantly worldwide. The rise in cases of HIV/AIDS was also followed by an increase in the incidence of opportunistic infection, with tuberculosis being the most opportunistic infection found in HIV/AIDS and the main cause of mortality in HIV/AIDS patients. Diagnosis of tuberculosis in HIV/AIDS patients is often difficult because of the uncommon symptom in HIV/AIDS patients compared to those without the disease. Thus, diagnostic tools are required that are more effective and efficient to diagnose tuberculosis in HIV/AIDS. CXCL-10/IP-10 is a chemokine that binds to the CXCR3 receptor found in HIV/AIDS patients with a weakened immune system. Tuberculosis infection in HIV/AIDS activates chemokine IP-10 in urine, which is used as a marker for diagnosis of infection. The aim of this study was to prove whether IP-10 urine can be a biomarker diagnosis of active lung tuberculosis in HIV-AIDS patients. Design of this study is a cross sectional study involving HIV/AIDS patients with lung tuberculosis as the subject of this study. Forty-seven HIV/AIDS patients with tuberculosis based on clinical and biochemical laboratory were asked to collect urine samples and IP-10/CXCL-10 urine being measured using ELISA method with 18 healthy human urine samples as control. Forty-seven patients diagnosed as HIV/AIDS were included as a subject of this study. HIV/AIDS were more common in male than in women with the percentage in male 85.1% vs. 14.5% of women. In this study, most diagnosed patients were aged 31-40 years old, followed by those 21-30 years, and > 40 years old, with one case diagnosed at age less than 20 years of age. From the result of the urine IP-10 using ELISA method, there was significant increase of the mean value of IP-10 urine in patients with TB-HIV/AIDS co-infection compared to the healthy control with mean 61.05 pg/mL ± 78.01 pg/mL vs. mean 17.2 pg/mL. Based on this research, there was significant increase of urine IP-10/CXCL-10 in active lung tuberculosis with HIV/AIDS compared to the healthy control. From this finding, it is necessary to conduct further research into whether urine IP-10/CXCL-10 plays a significant role in TB-HIV/AIDS co-infection, which can also be used as a biomarker in the early diagnosis of TB-HIV.

Keywords: chemokine, HIV/AIDS, IP-10 urine, tuberculosis

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207 To Individualisation of Subject, Donar, by Determination of Serological Markers from Obtain Biological Fluid at Crime Scene

Authors: Arun Kumar, Ravindra Pal Verma, Harsh Sharma, Shani Kumar

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For the present study samples was collected from 20 donors with unknown blood group and secretor status had been determined from saliva by using biological fluid. ABO typing on the concentrated samples was successfully performed after 1 month of storage. Urine stained clothing samples are often submitted to forensic science laboratories for ABH blood group antigen determination. The serogenetic markers of semen stains submitted can be used to determine the origin of any of these samples. ABH blood group substances have previously been identified from urine. ABH blood group substance is low in urine in comparison with other body fluids.

Keywords: ABH blood group, crime scene, serological markers, body fluids and urine

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206 Detection of Leptospira interrogans in Kidney and Urine of water Buffalo and its Relationship with Histopathological and Serological Findings

Authors: M. R. Haji Hajikolaei, A. A. Nikvand, A. R. Ghadrdan, M. Ghorbanpoor, B. Mohammadian

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This study was carried out on water buffalo for detection of Leptospira interrogans in kidney and urine and its relationship with serological findings. Blood, urine and kidney samples were taken immediately after slaughter from 353 water buffalos at Ahvaz abattoir in Khouzestan province, Iran. Sera were initially screened at serum dilution of 1:100 against seven live antigens of Leptospira interrogans: pomona, hardjo, ballum, icterohemorrhagiae, tarasovi, australis and grippotyphosa using the microscopic agglutination test (MAT) and sera with positive results were titrated against reacting antigens in serial twofold dilution from 1:100 to 1:800. The samples of kidney were embedded in paraffin wax and 5µm thick sections were stained routinely with Haematoxylin and Eosin (H&E). Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) examination was done on urine and kidney by using LipL32 gene primers. Antibodies against one or more serovars at dilution >:100 were detected in sera. The most frequent reactor was hardjo (56.2%), followed by pomona (52.3%), australis (9.8%), tarassovi (5.9%), grippotyphosa (4.5%) and icterohaemorrhagiae (3.9%). The L. interrogans were detected in 43 (12.2%) of examined buffaloes, so that 26 (8.2%) of kidney tissues, 14 (4.8%) of urine samples separately and 3 (0.84%) of both kidney and urine samples were positive in PCR. From 153 (43.3%) buffaloes with positive MAT, 24 cases were positive by PCR of kidney and/or urine samples, synchronously. Renal lesions such as interstitial nephritis, acute tubular necrosis (ATN), pyelonephritis, glomerolonephritis, renal fibrosis and hydronephrosis were found in 128 (36.3%) cases. Statistical analysis indicated that there was no significant association between results of MAT, PCR and interstitial nephritis.

Keywords: leptospiral infection, PCR, MAT, histopathology, river buffalo

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205 Study on the Relative Factors of Introducing Table Vinegar in Reducing Urinary Tract Infection in Patients with Long-Term Indwelling Catheter

Authors: Yu-Ju Hsieh, Lin-Hung Lin, Wen-Hui Chang

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This study was designed as an interventional research and intended to validate whether the introduction of drinking vinegar every day can reduce and even prevent urinary tract infection in Taiwan home stayed disabilities who using indwelling catheter. The data was collected from the subjects who have received home care case at northern Taiwan, according to the questionnaire and a medical records retroactive methodology, the subjects were informed and consent to drink 15ml of table vinegar in a daily diet, and through routine urine testing and culture study. Home care nurses would assist collecting urine at the point of before and after a meal from total 35 studied subjects per month, and total collected 4 times for testing. The results showed that when the average age of study subjects was 65.46 years and catheter indwelling time was 15 years, drinking table vinegar could inhibit the activity of E. coli O157: H7 and reduce its breeding. Before drinking table vinegar daily, the subjects’ urine pH value was 7.0-8.0, and the average was 7.5, and the urine PH value dropped to 6.5 after drinking table vinegar for a month. There were two purple urine cases whose urine were changed from purple to normal color after two weeks of drinking, and the protein and bacteria values of urine gradually improved. Urine smell unpleasant before attending to this study, and the symptom improved significantly only after 1 week, and the urine smell returned to normal ammonia and became clean after 1 month later. None of these subjects received treatment in a hospital due to urinary tract infection, and there were no signs of bleeding in all cases during this study. The subjects of this study are chronic patients with a long-term bedridden catheterization; drinking cranberry juice is an economic burden for them, and also highly prohibited for diabetes patients. By adapting to use cheaper table vinegar to acidified urine and improve its smell and ease Purple Urine Syndrome, to furthermore, proven urinary tract infection, it can also to reduce the financial burden on families, the cost of social resources and the rate of re-admission.

Keywords: table vinegar, urinary tract infection, disability patients, long-term indwelling catheter

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204 AGEs-Aggravating Renal Lesions in C57BL/6J Mice, STZ-Induced Diabetes Nephropathy Model

Authors: Xing Lv, Hui-Qin Xu

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The present study aimed to reveal the mechanism in aggravating STZ induced diabetic nephropathy (DN) by AGEs (advanced glycation end products). At the eighth day, 20 diabetic mice were randomly divided into STZ group and combination (combine AGEs with STZ) group. Simultaneously, AGEs group and normal group were set. Only mice in AGEs group, combination group were fed with high-AGEs diets. Mice diabetic conventional indicators, biochemical analysis were measured. Among the indictors, food consumptions, water intake, urine output, blood glucose, urine protein, urine creatinine, serum urea nitrogen were increased significantly in STZ, combination groups. The AGEs levels in combination group increased significantly when compared with STZ group. Weights and insulin levels in the STZ, combination groups were decreased significantly when compared with normal group, and the difference was significantly between AGEs group and STZ group. As a conclusion, AGEs play an important role in the DN development, inducing kidney damages.

Keywords: AGEs, diabetic nephropathy, serum urea nitrogen, urine protein

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203 Use of a Chagas Urine Nanoparticle Test (Chunap) to Correlate with Parasitemia Levels in T. cruzi/HIV Co-Infected Patients

Authors: Yagahira E. Castro-Sesquen, Robert H. Gilman, Carolina Mejia, Daniel E. Clark, Jeong Choi, Melissa J. Reimer-Mcatee, Rocio Castro, Jorge Flores, Edward Valencia-Ayala, Faustino Torrico, Ricardo Castillo-Neyra, Lance Liotta, Caryn Bern, Alessandra Luchini

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Early diagnosis of reactivation of Chagas disease in HIV patients could be lifesaving; however, in Latin American the diagnosis is performed by detection of parasitemia by microscopy which lacks sensitivity. To evaluate if levels of T. cruzi antigens in urine determined by Chunap (Chagas urine nanoparticle test) are correlated with parasitemia levels in T. cruzi/HIV co-infected patients. T. cruzi antigens in urine of HIV patients (N=55: 31 T. cruzi infected and 24 T. cruzi serology negative) were concentrated using hydrogel particles and quantified by Western Blot and a calibration curve. The percentage of Chagas positive patients determined by Chunap compared to blood microscopy, qPCR, and ELISA was 100% (6/6), 95% (18/19) and 74% (23/31), respectively. Chunap specificity was 91.7%. Linear regression analysis demonstrated a direct relationship between parasitemia levels (determined by qPCR) and urine T. cruzi antigen concentrations (p<0.001). A cut-off of > 105 pg was chosen to determine patients with reactivation of Chagas disease (6/6). Urine antigen concentration was significantly higher among patients with CD4+ lymphocyte counts below 200/mL (p=0.045). Chunap shows potential for early detection of reactivation and with appropriate adaptation can be used for monitoring Chagas disease status in T. cruzi/HIV co-infected patients.

Keywords: antigenuria, Chagas disease, Chunap, nanoparticles, parasitemia, poly N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAm)/trypan blue particles (polyNIPAm/TB), reactivation of Chagas disease.

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202 The Effects of Seasonal Variation on the Microbial-N Flow to the Small Intestine and Prediction of Feed Intake in Grazing Karayaka Sheep

Authors: Mustafa Salman, Nurcan Cetinkaya, Zehra Selcuk, Bugra Genc

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The objectives of the present study were to estimate the microbial-N flow to the small intestine and to predict the digestible organic matter intake (DOMI) in grazing Karayaka sheep based on urinary excretion of purine derivatives (xanthine, hypoxanthine, uric acid, and allantoin) by the use of spot urine sampling under field conditions. In the trial, 10 Karayaka sheep from 2 to 3 years of age were used. The animals were grazed in a pasture for ten months and fed with concentrate and vetch plus oat hay for the other two months (January and February) indoors. Highly significant linear and cubic relationships (P<0.001) were found among months for purine derivatives index, purine derivatives excretion, purine derivatives absorption, microbial-N and DOMI. Through urine sampling and the determination of levels of excreted urinary PD and Purine Derivatives / Creatinine ratio (PDC index), microbial-N values were estimated and they indicated that the protein nutrition of the sheep was insufficient. In conclusion, the prediction of protein nutrition of sheep under the field conditions may be possible with the use of spot urine sampling, urinary excreted PD and PDC index. The mean purine derivative levels in spot urine samples from sheep were highest in June, July and October. Protein nutrition of pastured sheep may be affected by weather changes, including rainfall. Spot urine sampling may useful in modeling the feed consumption of pasturing sheep. However, further studies are required under different field conditions with different breeds of sheep to develop spot urine sampling as a model.

Keywords: Karayaka sheep, spot sampling, urinary purine derivatives, PDC index, microbial-N, feed intake

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201 Detection of Heroin and Its Metabolites in Urine Samples: A Chemiluminescence Approach

Authors: Sonu Gandhi, Neena Capalash, Prince Sharma, C. Raman Suri

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A sensitive chemiluminescence immunoassay (CIA) for heroin and its major metabolites is reported. The method is based on the competitive reaction of horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-labeled anti-MAM antibody and free drug in spiked urine samples. A hapten-protein conjugate was synthesized by using acidic derivative of monoacetyl morphine (MAM) coupled to carrier protein BSA and was used as an immunogen for the generation of anti-MAM (monoacetyl morphine) antibody. A high titer of antibody (1:64,0000) was obtained and the relative affinity constant (Kaff) of antibody was 3.1×107 l/mol. Under the optimal conditions, linear range and reactivity for heroin, mono acetyl morphine (MAM), morphine and codeine were 0.08, 0.09, 0.095 and 0.092 ng/mL respectively. The developed chemiluminescence inhibition assay could detect heroin and its metabolites in standard and urine samples up to 0.01 ng/ml.

Keywords: heroin, metabolites, chemiluminescence immunoassay, horse radish peroxidase

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200 Cross Reactivity of Risperidone in Fentanyl Point of Care Devices

Authors: Barry D. Kyle, Jessica Boyd, Robin Pickersgill, Nicole Squires, Cynthia Balion

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Background-Aim: Fentanyl is a highly-potent synthetic μ-opioid receptor agonist used for exceptional pain management. Its main metabolite, norfentanyl, is typically present in urine at significantly high concentrations (i.e. ~20%) representing an effective targeting molecule for immunoassay detection. Here, we evaluated the NCSTM One Step Fentanyl Test Device© and the BTNX Rapid ResponseTM Single Drug Test Strip© point of care (POC) test strips targeting norfentanyl (20 ng/ml) and fentanyl (100 ng/ml) molecules for potential risperidone interference. Methods: POC tests calibrated against norfentanyl (20 ng/ml) used [immunochromatographic] lateral flow devices to provide qualitative results within five minutes of urine sample contact. Results were recorded as negative if lines appeared in the test and control regions according to manufacturer’s instructions. Positive results were recorded if no line appeared in the test region (i.e., control line only visible). Pooled patient urine (n=20), that screened negative for drugs of abuse (using NCS One Step Multi-Line Screen) and fentanyl (using BTNX Rapid Response Strip) was used for spiking studies. Urine was spiked with risperidone alone and with combinations of fentanyl, norfentanyl and/or risperidone to evaluate cross-reactivity in each test device. Results: A positive screen result was obtained when 8,000 ng/mL of risperidone was spiked into drug free urine using the NCS test device. Positive screen results were also obtained in spiked urine samples containing fentanyl and norfentanyl combinations below the cut-off concentrations when 4000 ng/mL risperidone was present using the NCS testing device. There were no screen positive test results using the BTNX test strip with up to 8,000 ng/mL alone or in combination with concentrations of fentanyl and norfentanyl below the cut-off. Both devices screened positive when either fentanyl or norfentanyl exceeded the cut-off threshold in the absence and presence of risperidone. Conclusion: We report that urine samples containing risperidone may give a false positive result using the NCS One Step Fentanyl Test Device.

Keywords: fentanyl, interferences, point of care test, Risperidone

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199 Management of Urine Recovery at the Building Level

Authors: Joao Almeida, Ana Azevedo, Myriam Kanoun-Boule, Maria Ines Santos, Antonio Tadeu

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The effects of the increasing expansion of cities and climate changes have encouraged European countries and regions to adopt nature-based solutions with ability to mitigate environmental issues and improve life in cities. Among these strategies, green roofs and urban gardens have been considered ingenious solutions, since they have the desirable potential to improve air quality, prevent floods, reduce the heat island effect and restore biodiversity in cities. However, an additional consumption of fresh water and mineral nutrients is necessary to sustain larger green urban areas. This communication discusses the main technical features of a new system to manage urine recovery at the building level and its application in green roofs. The depletion of critical nutrients like phosphorus constitutes an emergency. In turn, their elimination through urine is one of the principal causes for their loss. Thus, urine recovery in buildings may offer numerous advantages, constituting a valuable fertilizer abundantly available in cities and reducing the load on wastewater treatment plants. Although several urine-diverting toilets have been developed for this purpose and some experiments using urine directly in agriculture have already been carried out in Europe, several challenges have emerged with this practice concerning collection, sanitization, storage and application of urine in buildings. To our best knowledge, current buildings are not designed to receive these systems and integrated solutions with ability to self-manage the whole process of urine recovery, including separation, maturation and storage phases, are not known. Additionally, if from a hygiene point of view human urine may be considered a relatively safe fertilizer, the risk of disease transmission needs to be carefully analysed. A reduction in microorganisms can be achieved by storing the urine in closed tanks. However, several factors may affect this process, which may result in a higher survival rate for some pathogens. In this work, urine effluent was collected under real conditions, stored in closed containers and kept in climatic chambers under variable conditions simulating cold, temperate and tropical climates. These samples were subjected to a first physicochemical and microbiological control, which was repeated over time. The results obtained so far suggest that maturation conditions were reached for all the three temperatures and that a storage period of less than three months is required to achieve a strong depletion of microorganisms. The authors are grateful for the Project WashOne (POCI-01-0247-FEDER-017461) funded by the Operational Program for Competitiveness and Internationalization (POCI) of Portugal 2020, with the support of the European Regional Development Fund (FEDER).

Keywords: sustainable green roofs and urban gardens, urban nutrient cycle, urine-based fertilizers, urine recovery in buildings

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198 Purification, Extraction and Visualization of Lipopolysaccharide of Escherichia coli from Urine Samples of Patients with Urinary Tract Infection

Authors: Fariha Akhter Chowdhury, Mohammad Nurul Islam, Anamika Saha, Sabrina Mahboob, Abu Syed Md. Mosaddek, Md. Omar Faruque, Most. Fahmida Begum, Rajib Bhattacharjee

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Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common infectious diseases in Bangladesh where Escherichia coli is the prevalent organism and responsible for most of the infections. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is known to act as a major virulence factor of E. coli. The present study aimed to purify, extract and visualize LPS of E. coli clinical isolates from urine samples of patients with UTI. The E. coli strain was isolated from the urine samples of 10 patients with UTI and then the antibiotic sensitivity pattern of the isolates was determined. The purification of LPS was carried out using the hot aqueous-phenol method and separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, which was directly stained using the modified silver staining method and Coomassie blue. The silver-stained gel demonstrated both smooth and rough type LPS by showing trail-like band patterns with the presence and lacking O-antigen region, respectively. Coomassie blue staining showed no band assuring the absence of any contaminating protein. Our successful extraction of purified LPS from E. coli isolates of UTI patients’ urine samples can be an important step to understand the UTI disease conditions.

Keywords: Escherichia coli, electrophoresis, polyacrylamide gel, silver staining, sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE)

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197 Cadmium Levels in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Thasala Southern Thailand

Authors: Supabhorn Yimthiang, Wiyada Khanwian

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Cadmium is a heavy metal that is important in the environment because it is highly toxic. The incidence and severity of type 2 diabetes mellitus are known to be associated with cadmium. The purpose of this study was to investigate the cadmium levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus at diabetes mellitus clinic, Thasala hospital, Nakhon Si Thummarat, Thailand. The study population was composed of forty five subjects. Among them, twenty two were diabetic patients and twenty three were apparently healthy non-diabetic individual subjects. After an overnight fasting, blood and morning urine samples were collected from each subject to determine fasting blood sugar and cadmium levels in urine, respectively. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure values were measured by aneroid sphygmomanometer. Study approval was taken from the human subject ethics committee of Walailak University. Verbal and written informed consent was taken from all participants. In the study samples, there were 31.8% males and 68.2% females with mean age of 47+10.53 years. The geometric mean of urine cadmium was significantly higher in diabetic patients (1.015 + 0.79 µg/g creatinine) when compared with the healthy subjects (0.395 + 0.53 µg/g creatinine) (P<0.05). This result also showed that urine cadmium excretion in diabetic patients was higher than in healthy subjects by 2.6 times. Moreover, fasting blood sugar (153+47.86 μg/dl) and systolic blood pressure (183.26+17.15 mmHg) of diabetic patients was significantly different when compared with healthy subjects (79+5.38 μg/dl and 112.78+11.32 mmHg, respectively) (P<0.05). Meanwhile, the concentration of cadmium in urine showed positive correlation with fasting plasma glucose (r=0.616) and systolic blood pressure (r=0.487). This preliminary study showed that cadmium might play an important role in the development and pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus in general population. However, these findings require confirmation through additional epidemiological and biological research.

Keywords: blood pressure, cadmium, fasting blood sugar, type 2 diabetes mellitus

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196 Estimation of Microbial-N Supply to Small Intestine in Angora Goats Fed by Different Roughage Sources

Authors: Nurcan Cetinkaya

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The aim of the study was to estimate the microbial-N flow to small intestine based on daily urinary purine derivatives(PD) mainly xanthine, hypoxanthine, uric acid and allantoin excretion in Angora goats fed by grass hay and concentrate (Period I); barley straw and concentrate (Period II). Daily urine samples were collected during last 3 days of each period from 10 individually penned Angora bucks( LW 30-35 Kg, 2-3 years old) receiving ad libitum grass hay or barley straw and 300 g/d concentrate. Fresh water was always available. 4N H2SO4 was added to collected daily urine .samples to keep pH under 3 to avoid of uric acid precipitation. Diluted urine samples were stored at -20°C until analysis. Urine samples were analyzed for xanthine, hypoxanthine, uric acid, allantoin and creatinine by High-Performance Liquid Chromatographic Method (HPLC). Urine was diluted 1:15 in ratio with water and duplicate samples were prepared for HPLC analysis. Calculated mean levels (n=60) for urinary xanthine, hypoxanthine, uric acid, allantoin, total PD and creatinine excretion were 0.39±0.02 , 0.26±0.03, 0.59±0.06, 5.91±0.50, 7.15±0.57 and 3.75±0.40 mmol/L for Period I respectively; 0.35±0.03, 0.21±0.02, 0.55±0.05, 5.60±0.47, 6.71±0.46 and 3.73±0.41 mmol/L for Period II respectively.Mean values of Period I and II were significantly different (P< 0.05) except creatinine excretion. Estimated mean microbial-N supply to the small intestine for Period I and II in Angora goats were 5.72±0.46 and 5.41±0.61 g N/d respectively. The effects of grass hay and barley straw feeding on microbial-N supply to small intestine were found significantly different (P< 0.05). In conclusion, grass hay showed a better effect on the ruminal microbial protein synthesis compared to barley straw, therefore; grass hay is suggested as roughage source in Angora goat feeding.

Keywords: angora goat, HPLC method, microbial-N supply to small intestine, urinary purine derivatives

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195 Urinary Incontinence and Performance in Elite Athletes

Authors: María Barbaño Acevedo Gómez, Elena Sonsoles Rodríguez López, Sofía Olivia Calvo Moreno, Ángel Basas García, Christophe RamíRez Parenteau

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Introduction: Urinary incontinence (UI) is defined as the involuntary leakage of urine. In persons who practice sport, its prevalence is 36.1% (95% CI 26.5% –46.8%) and varies as it seems to depend on the intensity of exercise, movements and impact on the ground. Such high impact sports are likely to generate higher intra-abdominal pressures and leading to pelvic floor muscle weakness. Although physical exercise reduces the risk of suffering from many diseases the mentality of an elite athlete is not to optimize their health, achieving their goals can put their health at risk. Furthermore, feeling or suffering from any discomfort during training seems to be normal within the elite sport demands. Objective: The main objective of the present study was to know the effects of UI in sports performance in athletes. Methods: This was an observational study conducted in 754 elite athletes. After collecting questions about pelvic floor, UI and sport-related data, participants completed the questionnaire International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-UI Short- Form (ICIQ-SF) and ISI (index of incontinence severity). Results: 48.8% of the athletes declare having losses also in rest, preseason and / or competition (χ2 [3] = 3.64; p = 0.302), being the competition period (29.1%) the most frequent where suffer from urine leakage. Of the elite athletes surveyed, 33% had UI according ICIQ-SF (mean age 23.75 ± 7.74 years). Elite athletes with UI (5.31 ± 1.07 days) dedicate significantly more days per week to training [M = 0.28; 95% CI = 0.08-0.48; t (752) = 2.78; p = 0.005] than those without UI. Regarding frequency, 59.7% lose urine once a week, 25.6% lose urine more than 3 times a week, and 14.7% daily. Based on the amount, approximately 15% claim to lose a moderate and abundant. Athletes with the highest number of urine leaks during their training, the UI affects them more in their daily life (r = 0.259; p = 0.001), they present a greater number of losses in their day to day (r = 0.341; p <0.001 ) and greater severity of UI (r = 0.341; p <0.001). Conclusions: Athletes consider that UI affects them negatively in their daily routine, 30.9% affirm having a severity between moderate and severe in their daily routine, and 29.1% loss urine in competition period. An interesting fact is that more than half of the samples collected were elite athletes who compete at the highest level (Olympic Games, World and European Championship), the dedication to sport occupies a big piece in their life. The most frequent period where athletes suffers urine leakage is in competition and there are many emotions that athletes manage to get their best performance, if we add urine losses in that moments it is possible that their performance could be affected.

Keywords: athletes, performance, prevalence, sport, training, urinary incontinence

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194 The Presence of Ochratoxin a in Breast-Milk, Urine and Serum of Lactating Women

Authors: Magdalena Twaruzek, Karolina Ropejko

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Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites of molds. Ochratoxin A (OTA) is the most common in the Polish climate. It is produced by fungi of the genera Aspergillus and Penicillium. It is produced as a result of improper food storage. It is present in many products that are consumed both by humans and animals: cereals, wheat gluten, coffee, dried fruit, wine, grape juice, spices, beer, and products based on them. OTA is nephrotoxic, hepatotoxic, potentially carcinogenic, and teratogenic. OTA mainly enters an organism by oral intake. The aim of the study was to detect the presence of OTA in milk, urine, and serum of lactating women. A survey was also conducted regarding the daily diet of women. The research group consisted of 32 lactating women (11 were the donors from the Milk Bank in Toruń, the other 21 were recruited for this study). Results of the analysis showed the occurrence of OTA only in 3 milk samples (9.38%). The minimum level was 0.01 ng/ml, while the maximum 0.018 ng/ml and the mean 0.0013 ng/ml. Twenty-six urine samples (81.25%) were OTA positive, with minimum level 0.013 ng/ml, maximum level 0.117 ng/ml and mean 0.0192 ng/ml. Also, all 32 serum samples (100%) were contaminated by OTA, with a minimum level of 0.099 ng/ml, a maximum level of 2.38 ng/ml, and a mean of 0.4649 ng/ml. In the case of 3 women, OTA was present in all tested body fluids. Based on the results, the following conclusions can be drawn: the breast-milk of women in the study group is slightly contaminated with ochratoxin A. Ten samples of urine contained ochratoxin A above its average content in tested samples. Moreover, serum of 8 women contains ochratoxin A at a level above the average content of this mycotoxin in tested samples. The average ochratoxin A level in serum in the presented studies was 0.4649 ng/ml, which is much lower than the average serum ochratoxin A level established in several countries in the world, i.e., 0.7 ng/ml. Acknowledgment: This study was supported by the Polish Minister of Science and Higher Education under the program 'Regional Initiative of Excellence' in 2019 - 2022 (Grant No. 008/RID/2018/19).

Keywords: breast-milk, urine, serum, contamination, ochratoxin A

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193 Simultaneous Determination of Cefazolin and Cefotaxime in Urine by HPLC

Authors: Rafika Bibi, Khaled Khaladi, Hind Mokran, Mohamed Salah Boukhechem

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A high performance liquid chromatographic method with ultraviolet detection at 264nm was developed and validate for quantitative determination and separation of cefazolin and cefotaxime in urine, the mobile phase consisted of acetonitrile and phosphate buffer pH4,2(15 :85) (v/v) pumped through ODB 250× 4,6 mm, 5um column at a flow rate of 1ml/min, loop of 20ul. In this condition, the validation of this technique showed that it is linear in a range of 0,01 to 10ug/ml with a good correlation coefficient ( R>0,9997), retention time of cefotaxime, cefazolin was 9.0, 10.1 respectively, the statistical evaluation of the method was examined by means of within day (n=6) and day to day (n=5) and was found to be satisfactory with high accuracy and precision.

Keywords: cefazolin, cefotaxime, HPLC, bioscience, biochemistry, pharmaceutical

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192 Electrochemical Behavior and Cathodic Stripping Voltammetric Determination of Dianabol Steroid in Urine at Bare Glassy Carbon Paste Electrode

Authors: N. Al-Orfi, M. S. El-Shahawi, A. S. Bashammakh

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The electrochemical response of glassy carbon electrode (GCE) for the sensitive and selective determination of dianabol steroid (DS) in phosphate, Britton-Robinson (B-R) and HEPES buffers of pH 2.0 - 11, 2.0 - 11 and 6.2 - 8.0, respectively using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse- adsorptive cathodic stripping voltammetry (DP-CSV) at bare GCE was studied. The dependence of the CV response of the developed cathodic peak potential (Ep, c), peak current (ip, c) and the current function (ip, c / υ1/2) on the scan rate (υ) at the bare GCE revealed the occurrence of electrode coupled chemical reaction of EC type mechanism. The selectivity of the proposed method was assessed in the presence of high concentrations of major interfering species e.g. uric acid, ascorbic acid, citric acid, glucose, fructose, sucrose, starch and ions Na+, K+, PO4-3, NO3- and SO42-. The recovery of the method was not significant where t(critical)=2.20 > texp=1.81-1.93 at 95% confidence. The analytical application of the sensor for the quantification of DS in biological fluids as urine was investigated. The results were demonstrated as recovery percentages in the range 95±2.5-97±4.7% with relative standard deviation (RSD) of 0.5-1.5%.

Keywords: dianabol, determination, modified electrode, urine

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191 Dietary Anion-Cation Balance of Grass and Net Acid-Base Excretion in Urine of Suckler Cows

Authors: H. Scholz, P. Kuehne, G. Heckenberger

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Dietary Anion-Cation Balance (DCAB) in grazing systems under German conditions has a tendency to decrease from May until September and often are measured DCAB lower than 100 meq per kg dry matter. Lower DCAB in grass feeding system can change the metabolic status of suckler cows and often are results in acidotic metabolism. Measurement of acid-base excretion in dairy cows has been proved to a method to evaluate the acid-base status. The hypothesis was that metabolic imbalances could be identified by urine measurement in suckler cows. The farm study was conducted during the grazing seasons 2017 and 2018 and involved 7 suckler cow farms in Germany. Suckler cows were grazing during the whole time of the investigation and had no access to other feeding components. Cows had free access to water and salt block and free access to minerals (loose). The dry matter of the grass was determined at 60 °C and were then analysed for energy and nutrient content and for the Dietary Cation-Anion Balance (DCAB). Urine was collected in 50 ml-glasses and analysed for net acid-base excretion (NSBA) and the concentration of creatinine and urea in the laboratory. Statistical analysis took place with ANOVA with fixed effects of farms (1-7), month (May until September), and number of lactations (1, 2, and ≥ 3 lactations) using SPSS Version 25.0 for windows. An alpha of 0.05 was used for all statistical tests. During the grazing periods of years 2017 and 2018, an average DCAB was observed in the grass of 167 meq per kg DM. A very high mean variation could be determined from -42 meq/kg to +439 meq/kg. Reference values in relation to DCAB were described between 150 meq and 400 meq per kg DM. It was found the high chlorine content with reduced potassium level led to this reduction in DCAB at the end of the grazing period. Between the DCAB of the grass and the NSBA in urine of suckler cows was a correlation according to PEARSON of r = 0.478 (p ≤ 0.001) or after SPEARMAN of r = 0.601 (p ≤ 0.001) observed. For the control of urine values of grazing suckler cows, the wide spread of the values poses a challenge of the interpretation, especially since the DCAB is unknown. The influence of several feeding components such as chlorine, sulfur, potassium, and sodium (ions for the DCAB) and dry matter feed intake during the grazing period of suckler cows should be taken into account in further research. The results obtained show that up a decrease in the DCAB is related to a decrease in NSBA in urine of suckler cows. Monitoring of metabolic disturbances should include analysis of urine, blood, milk, and ruminal fluid.

Keywords: dietary anion-cation balance, DCAB, net acid-base excretion, NSBA, suckler cow, grazing period

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190 Evalution of Antiurolithiatic Potentials from Cucumis sativus Fruits

Authors: H. J. Pramod, S. Pethkar

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The evaluation of antiurolithiatic potentials from the extracts of Cucumis sativus fruits at different doses and cystone (standard formulation) at a dose of 750 mg/kg were measured for both preventive and curative regimen in wistar rats by adding 0.75% v/v ethylene glycol (EG) to drinking water for 28 days, except normal rats. After the completion of the experimental period, (28th day) urinary parameters like (urine volume, routine urine analysis, levels of calcium, phosphate, oxalate, magnesium, sodium) serum biomarkers like (creatinine, BUN, uric acid, ALP, ALT, AST) kidney homogenate analysis for (levels of calcium, oxalate and phosphate) were analysed. The treated groups shows increased in the urine output significantly compared to the normal. The extract shows significantly decreased in the urinary excretion of the calcium, phosphate, magnesium, sodium and oxalate. The both preventive and curative treatment of extracts showed decrease in the stone forming constituents in the kidneys of urolithiatic rats further the kidneys of all the groups were excised and sectioned for histopathological examination which further claims to posses antiurolithiatic activity.

Keywords: Cucumis sativus, urolithiasis, ethylene glycol, cystone

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189 An Automated Magnetic Dispersive Solid-Phase Extraction Method for Detection of Cocaine in Human Urine

Authors: Feiyu Yang, Chunfang Ni, Rong Wang, Yun Zou, Wenbin Liu, Chenggong Zhang, Fenjin Sun, Chun Wang

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Cocaine is the most frequently used illegal drug globally, with the global annual prevalence of cocaine used ranging from 0.3% to 0.4 % of the adult population aged 15–64 years. Growing consumption trend of abused cocaine and drug crimes are a great concern, therefore urine sample testing has become an important noninvasive sampling whereas cocaine and its metabolites (COCs) are usually present in high concentrations and relatively long detection windows. However, direct analysis of urine samples is not feasible because urine complex medium often causes low sensitivity and selectivity of the determination. On the other hand, presence of low doses of analytes in urine makes an extraction and pretreatment step important before determination. Especially, in gathered taking drug cases, the pretreatment step becomes more tedious and time-consuming. So developing a sensitive, rapid and high-throughput method for detection of COCs in human body is indispensable for law enforcement officers, treatment specialists and health officials. In this work, a new automated magnetic dispersive solid-phase extraction (MDSPE) sampling method followed by high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) was developed for quantitative enrichment of COCs from human urine, using prepared magnetic nanoparticles as absorbants. The nanoparticles were prepared by silanizing magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles and modifying them with divinyl benzene and vinyl pyrrolidone, which possesses the ability for specific adsorption of COCs. And this kind of magnetic particle facilitated the pretreatment steps by electromagnetically controlled extraction to achieve full automation. The proposed device significantly improved the sampling preparation efficiency with 32 samples in one batch within 40mins. Optimization of the preparation procedure for the magnetic nanoparticles was explored and the performances of magnetic nanoparticles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, vibrating sample magnetometer and infrared spectra measurements. Several analytical experimental parameters were studied, including amount of particles, adsorption time, elution solvent, extraction and desorption kinetics, and the verification of the proposed method was accomplished. The limits of detection for the cocaine and cocaine metabolites were 0.09-1.1 ng·mL-1 with recoveries ranging from 75.1 to 105.7%. Compared to traditional sampling method, this method is time-saving and environmentally friendly. It was confirmed that the proposed automated method was a kind of highly effective way for the trace cocaine and cocaine metabolites analyses in human urine.

Keywords: automatic magnetic dispersive solid-phase extraction, cocaine detection, magnetic nanoparticles, urine sample testing

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188 Biophysical Features of Glioma-Derived Extracellular Vesicles as Potential Diagnostic Markers

Authors: Abhimanyu Thakur, Youngjin Lee

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Glioma is a lethal brain cancer whose early diagnosis and prognosis are limited due to the dearth of a suitable technique for its early detection. Current approaches, including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT), and invasive biopsy for the diagnosis of this lethal disease, hold several limitations, demanding an alternative method. Recently, extracellular vesicles (EVs) have been used in numerous biomarker studies, majorly exosomes and microvesicles (MVs), which are found in most of the cells and biofluids, including blood, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and urine. Remarkably, glioma cells (GMs) release a high number of EVs, which are found to cross the blood-brain-barrier (BBB) and impersonate the constituents of parent GMs including protein, and lncRNA; however, biophysical properties of EVs have not been explored yet as a biomarker for glioma. We isolated EVs from cell culture conditioned medium of GMs and regular primary culture, blood, and urine of wild-type (WT)- and glioma mouse models, and characterized by nano tracking analyzer, transmission electron microscopy, immunogold-EM, and differential light scanning. Next, we measured the biophysical parameters of GMs-EVs by using atomic force microscopy. Further, the functional constituents of EVs were examined by FTIR and Raman spectroscopy. Exosomes and MVs-derived from GMs, blood, and urine showed distinction biophysical parameters (roughness, adhesion force, and stiffness) and different from that of regular primary glial cells, WT-blood, and -urine, which can be attributed to the characteristic functional constituents. Therefore, biophysical features can be potential diagnostic biomarkers for glioma.

Keywords: glioma, extracellular vesicles, exosomes, microvesicles, biophysical properties

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187 Effectiveness of Homoeopathic Medicine Conium Maculatum 200 C for Management of Pyuria

Authors: Amir Ashraf

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Homoeopathy is an alternative system of medicine discovered by German physician Samuel Hahnemann in 1796. It has been used by several people for various health conditions globally for more than last 200 years. In India, homoeopathy is considered as a major system of alternative medicine. Homoeopathy is found effective in various medical conditions including Pyuria. Pyuria is the condition in which pus cells are found in urine. Homoeopathy is very useful for reducing pus cells, and homeopathically potentized Conium Mac (Hemlock) is an important remedy commonly used for reducing pyuria. Aim: To reduce the amount pus cells found in urine using Conium Mac 200C. Methods: Design. Small N Design. Samples: Purposive Sampling with 5 cases diagnosed as pyuria. Tools: Personal Data Schedule and ICD-10 Criteria for Pyuria. Techniques: Potentized homoeopathic medicine, Conium Mac 200th potency is used. Statistical Analysis: The statistical analyses were done using non-parametric tests. Results: There is significant pre/post difference has been identified. Conclusion: Homoeopathic potency, Conium Mac 200 C is effective in reducing the increased level of pus cells found in urine samples.

Keywords: homoeopathy, alternative medicine, Pyuria, Conim Mac, small N design, non-parametric tests, homeopathic physician, Ashirvad Hospital, Kannur

Procedia PDF Downloads 266