Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 347

Search results for: electrodes

347 Porous Ni Electrodes Modified with Au Nanoparticles for Hydrogen Production

Authors: V. Pérez-Herranz, C. González-Buch, E. M. Ortega, S. Mestre


In this work new macroporous Ni electrodes modified with Au nanoparticles for hydrogen production have been developed. The supporting macroporous Ni electrodes have been obtained by means of the electrodeposition at high current densities. Then, the Au nanoparticles were synthesized and added to the electrode surface. The electrocatalytic behaviour of the developed electrocatalysts was studied by means of pseudo-steady-state polarization curves, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and hydrogen discharge curves. The size of the Au synthetized nanoparticles shows a monomodal distribution, with a very sharp band between 10 and 50 nm. The characteristic parameters d10, d50 and d90 were 14, 20 and 31 nm respectively. From Tafel polarization data has been concluded that the Au nanoparticles improve the catalytic activity of the developed electrodes towards the HER respect to the macroporous Ni electrodes. EIS permits to obtain the electrochemically active area by means of the roughness factor value. All the developed electrodes show roughness factor values in the same order of magnitude. From the activation energy results it can be concluded that the Au nanoparticles improve the intrinsic catalytic activity of the macroporous Ni electrodes.

Keywords: Au nano particles, hydrogen evolution reaction, porous Ni electrodes, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy

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346 Effect of Electrodes Spacing on Energy Consumption of Electrocoagulation Cells

Authors: Khalid S. Hashim, Andy Shaw, Rafid Al-Khaddar, Montserrat Ortoneda Pedrola


In spite of the acknowledged advantages of the electrocoagulation (EC) method to remove a wide range of pollutants from waters and wastewaters, its efficiency is limited by several operational parameters (such as electrolysis time, current density, electrode material, distance between electrodes, and water temperature). Hence, optimizing these key operating parameters is considered a vital step to remove a pollutant efficiently. In this context, the present study has been carried out to explore the influence of electrodes spacing on energy consumption, temperature of the water being treated, and iron removal from water. To achieve this target, iron containing synthetic water samples were electrolysed for 20 min, using a new flow column electrocoagulation reactor (FCER), at three different gaps between electrodes (5, 10, and 20 mm). These batch experiments were commenced at a constant current density of 1.5 mA/cm² and initial pH of 6. The obtained results demonstrated that increasing gap between electrodes negatively influenced the performance of the EC method. It was found that increasing the gap between electrodes from 5 to 20 mm increased the energy consumption from about 3.3 to 7.3 kW.h/m³, and water temperature from 20.2 to 22 °C, respectively. In addition, it has been found, after 20 min of electrolysing, that increasing the gap between electrodes from 5 to 20 mm increased the residual iron concentration from 0.05 to 1.01 mg/L, respectively.

Keywords: electrocoagulation, water, electrodes, iron

Procedia PDF Downloads 158
345 Characterization of Graphene Oxide Coated Gold Electrodes for Bioimpedance Measurements

Authors: Fatma Gülden Şi̇mşek, Osman Meli̇h Can, Mehmet Yumak, Bora Gari̇pcan, Yekta Ülgen


In this study, the impedance spectroscopy is used as a detection tool in order to characterize surface coating with graphene oxide. Gold electrodes are produced by standard lithography procedures and then coated with graphene oxide using self-assembly method. The impedance of redox solution through bare gold electrodes and graphene oxide coated gold electrodes is measured in the low and high frequency range. The graphene oxide coating reduces the impedance value of the gold electrode and this reduction is distinguishable in the low-frequency range.

Keywords: bioimpedance, electrode characterization, graphene oxide, gold electrodes, impedance spectroscopy

Procedia PDF Downloads 332
344 Depth of Penetration and Nature of Interferential Current in Cutaneous, Subcutaneous and Muscle Tissues

Authors: A. Beatti, L. Chipchase, A. Rayner, T. Souvlis


The aims of this study were to investigate the depth of interferential current (IFC) penetration through soft tissue and to investigate the area over which IFC spreads during clinical application. Premodulated IFC and ‘true’ IFC at beat frequencies of 4, 40 and 90Hz were applied via four electrodes to the distal medial thigh of 15 healthy subjects. The current was measured via three Teflon coated fine needle electrodes that were inserted into the superficial layer of skin, then into the subcutaneous tissue (≈1 cm deep) and then into muscle tissue (≈2 cm deep). The needle electrodes were placed in the middle of the four IFC electrodes, between two channels and outside the four electrodes. Readings were taken at each tissue depth from each electrode during each treatment frequency then digitized and stored for analysis. All voltages were greater at all depths and locations than baseline (p < 0.01) and voltages decreased with depth (P=0.039). Lower voltages of all currents were recorded in the middle of the four electrodes with the highest voltage being recorded outside the four electrodes in all depths (P=0.000).For each frequency of ‘true’ IFC, the voltage was higher in the superficial layer outside the electrodes (P ≤ 0.01).Premodulated had higher voltages along the line of one circuit (P ≤ 0.01). Clinically, IFC appears to pass through skin layers to depth and is more efficient than premodulated IFC when targeting muscle tissue.

Keywords: electrotherapy, interferential current, interferential therapy, medium frequency current

Procedia PDF Downloads 246
343 Enhanced Performance of an All-Vanadium Redox Flow Battery Employing Graphene Modified Carbon Paper Electrodes

Authors: Barun Chakrabarti, Dan Nir, Vladimir Yufit, P. V. Aravind, Nigel Brandon


Fuel cell grade gas-diffusion layer carbon paper (CP) electrodes are subjected to electrophoresis in N,N’-dimethylformamide (DMF) consisting of reduced graphene oxide (rGO). The rGO modified electrodes are compared with CP in a single asymmetric all-vanadium redox battery system (employing a double serpentine flow channel for each half-cell). Peak power densities improved by 4% when the rGO deposits were facing the ion-exchange membrane (cell performance was poorer when the rGO was facing the flow field). Cycling of the cells showed least degradation of the CP electrodes that were coated with rGO in comparison to pristine samples.

Keywords: all-vanadium redox flow batteries, carbon paper electrodes, electrophoretic deposition, reduced graphene oxide

Procedia PDF Downloads 106
342 Electrochemical Studies of Nickel Nanoparticles Decorated the Surface of Some Conducting Polymers for Glucose Oxidation in Biofuel Cells

Authors: Z. Khalifa, K. M. Hassan, M. Abdel Azzem


Potential strategies for deriving useful forms of renewable high density energy from abundant energy stored in carbohydrates is direct conversion of glucose (GLU) to electrical power. A three novel versatile modified electrodes, synthesized by electrochemical polymerization of organic monomers on glassy carbon electrodes (GC), have been developed for biofuel cells results in stable and long-term power production. Electrocatalytic oxidation of glucose in alkaline solution on conducting polymers electrodes modified by incorporation of Ni nanoparticles (NiNPs) onto poly(1,5-aminonaphthalene) (1,5-PDAN), poly(1,8-diaminonaphthalene) (1,8-PDAN) and poly(1-amino-2-methyl-9,10-anthraquinone) (PAMAQ) was investigated. The electrocatalytic oxidation of glucose at NiNPs-modified 1,5-PDAN/GC, 1,8-PDAN/GC and PAMAQ/GC electrodes has been studied using voltammetry technique. The PDAN electrodes show a slight activity in the potential of interest. The prepared NiNPs/PAMAQ/GC catalyst showed a very interesting catalytic activity that was nicely comparable to the NiNPs/1,5-PDAN/GC, NiNPs/1,8-PDAN/GC modified electrodes. In advance, both shows a significant more catalytic activity compared to the reported data for electrodes for glucose electrocatalytic oxidation.

Keywords: biofuel cells, glucose oxidation, electrocatalysis, nanoparticles and modified electrodes

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341 Developing Biocompatible Iridium Oxide Electrodes for Bone-Guided Extra-Cochlear Implant

Authors: Yung-Shan Lu, Chia-Fone Lee, Shang-Hsuan Li, Chien-Hao Liu


Recently, various bioelectronic devices have been developed for neurologic disease treatments via electro-stimulations such as cochlear implants and retinal prosthesis. Since the electric signal needs electrodes to be transmitted to an organism, electrodes play an important role of stimulations. The materials of stimulation electrodes affect the efficiency of the delivered currents. The higher the efficiency of the electrodes, the lower the threshold current can be used to stimulate the organism which minimizes the potential damages to the adjacent tissues. In this study, we proposed a biocompatible composite electrode composed of high-charge-capacity iridium oxide (IrOₓ) film for a bone-guide extra-cochlear implant. IrOₓ was exploited to decrease the threshold current due to its high capacitance and low impedance. The IrOₓ electrode was fabricated via microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) photolithography and examined with in-vivo tests with guinea pigs. Based on the measured responses of brain waves to sound, the results demonstrated that IrOₓ electrodes have a lower threshold current compared with the Platinum (Pt) electrodes. The research results are expected to be beneficial for implantable and biocompatible electrodes for electrical stimulations.

Keywords: cochlear implants, electrode, electrical stimulation, iridium oxide

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340 Effects of Array Electrode Placement on Identifying Localised Muscle Fatigue

Authors: Mohamed R. Al-Mulla, Bader Al-Bader, Firouz K. Ghaaedi, Francisco Sepulveda


Surface electromyography (sEMG) is utilised in numerous studies on muscle activity. In the beginning, single electrodes were utilised; however, the newest approach is to use an array of electrodes or a grid of electrodes to improve the accuracy of the recorded reading. This research focuses on electrode placement on the biceps brachii, using an array of electrodes placed longitudinal and diagonally on the muscle belly. Trials were conducted on four healthy males, with sEMG signal acquisition from fatiguing isometric contractions. The signal was analysed using the power spectrum density. The separation between the two classes of fatigue (non-fatigue and fatigue) was calculated using the Davies-Bouldin Index (DBI). Results show that higher separability between the fatigue content of the sEMG signal when placed longitudinally, in the same direction as the muscle fibers.

Keywords: array electrodes, biceps brachii, electrode placement, EMG, isometric contractions, muscle fatigue

Procedia PDF Downloads 245
339 Studies on the Feasibility of Cow Dung as a Non-Conventional Energy Source

Authors: Raj Kumar Rajak, Bharat Mishra


Bio-batteries represent an entirely new long-term, reasonable, reachable and ecofriendly approach to produce sustainable energy. In the present experimental work, we have studied the effect of generation of power by bio-battery using different electrode pairs. The tests show that it is possible to generate electricity using cow dung as an electrolyte. C-Mg electrode pair shows maximum voltage and SCC (Short Circuit Current) while C-Zn electrode pair shows less OCV (Open Circuit Voltage) and SCC. We have chosen C-Zn electrodes because Mg electrodes are not economical. By the studies of different electrodes and cow dung, it is found that C-Zn electrode battery is more suitable. This result shows that the bio-batteries have the potency to full fill the need of electricity demand for lower energy equipment.

Keywords: bio-batteries, electricity, cow-dung, electrodes, non-conventional

Procedia PDF Downloads 92
338 Hydrogen Production Using Solar Energy

Authors: I. M. Sakr, Ali M. Abdelsalam, K. A. Ibrahim, W. A. El-Askary


This paper presents an experimental study for hydrogen production using alkaline water electrolysis operated by solar energy. Two methods are used and compared for separation between the cathode and anode, which are acrylic separator and polymeric membrane. Further, the effects of electrolyte concentration, solar insolation, and space between the pair of electrodes on the amount of hydrogen produced and consequently on the overall electrolysis efficiency are investigated. It is found that the rate of hydrogen production increases using the polymeric membrane installed between the electrodes. The experimental results show also that, the performance of alkaline water electrolysis unit is dominated by the electrolyte concentration and the gap between the electrodes. Smaller gaps between the pair of electrodes are demonstrated to produce higher rates of hydrogen with higher system efficiency.

Keywords: hydrogen production, water electrolysis, solar energy, concentration

Procedia PDF Downloads 269
337 Reduction of Wear via Hardfacing of Rotavator Blades

Authors: Gurjinder Singh Randhawa, Jonny Garg, Sukhraj Singh, Gurmeet Singh Cheema


A major problem related to the use of rotavator is wear of rotavator blades due to abrasion by soil hard particles, as it seriously affects tillage quality and agricultural production economy. The objective of this study was to increase the wear resistance by covering the rotavator blades with two different hard facing electrodes. These blades are generally produced from low carbon or low alloy steel. During the field work i.e. preparing land for the cultivation these blades are subjected to severe wear conditions. Comparative wear tests on a regular rotavator blade and two kinds of hardfacing with electrodes were conducted in the field. These two different hardfacing electrodes, which are designated HARD ALLOY-400 and HARD ALLOY-650, were used for hardfacing. The wear rate in the field tests was found to be significantly different statistically. When the cost is taken into consideration; HARD ALLOY-650 and HARD ALLOY-400 have been found to be the best hardfacing electrodes.

Keywords: hardfacing, rotavator blades, hard alloy-400, abrasive wear

Procedia PDF Downloads 224
336 A Virtual Electrode through Summation of Time Offset Pulses

Authors: Isaac Cassar, Trevor Davis, Yi-Kai Lo, Wentai Liu


Retinal prostheses have been successful in eliciting visual responses in implanted subjects. As these prostheses progress, one of their major limitations is the need for increased resolution. As an alternative to increasing the number of electrodes, virtual electrodes may be used to increase the effective resolution of current electrode arrays. This paper presents a virtual electrode technique based upon time-offsets between stimuli. Two adjacent electrodes are stimulated with identical pulses with too short of pulse widths to activate a neuron, but one has a time offset of one pulse width. A virtual electrode of twice the pulse width was then shown to appear in the center, with a total width capable of activating a neuron. This can be used in retinal implants by stimulating electrodes with pulse widths short enough to not elicit responses in neurons, but with their combined pulse width adequate to activate a neuron in between them.

Keywords: electrical stimulation, neuroprosthesis, retinal implant, retinal prosthesis, virtual electrode

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335 Transparent and Solution Processable Low Contact Resistance SWCNT/AZONP Bilayer Electrodes for Sol-Gel Metal Oxide Thin Film Transistor

Authors: Su Jeong Lee, Tae Il Lee, Jung Han Kim, Chul-Hong Kim, Gee Sung Chae, Jae-Min Myoung


The contact resistance between source/drain electrodes and semiconductor layer is an important parameter affecting electron transporting performance in the thin film transistor (TFT). In this work, we introduced a transparent and the solution prossable single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT)/Al-doped ZnO nano particle (AZO NP) bilayer electrodes showing low contact resistance with indium-oxide (In2O3) sol gel thin film. By inserting low work function AZO NPs into the interface between the SWCNTs and the In2O3 which has a high energy barrier, we could obtain an electrical Ohmic contact between them. Finally, with the SWCNT-AZO NP bilayer electrodes, we successfully fabricated a TFT showing a field effect mobility of 5.38 cm2/V∙s at 250 °C.

Keywords: single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT), Al-doped ZnO (AZO) nanoparticle, contact resistance, thin-film transistor (TFT)

Procedia PDF Downloads 343
334 Numerical Study on the EHD Pump with a Recirculating Channel

Authors: Dong Sik Cho, Yong Kweon Suh


Numerical study has been conducted on the electro-hydrodynamic (EHD) pumping method in terms of a recirculating channel. The method relies on the principle of EHD generated by the electric-field dependent electrical conductivity (Onsager effect). Before considering the full three-dimensional simulation, we solved the two-dimensional problem of EHD flow in a circular channel like a doughnut shape. We observed that when dc voltage was applied a fast and regular flow was produced around electrodes, which is then used as a driving force for the fluid pumping. In this parametric study, the diameters of circular electrodes are varied in the range 0.3mm~3mm and the gap between the electrodes pair is varied in the range 0.3mm~2mm. We found that both the volume flow rate and the pumping efficiency are increased as the distance between the electrodes is decreased. Finally, we also performed the numerical simulation for the three-dimensional channel and found that the averaged flow velocity is in the same order of magnitude as the two-dimensional one.

Keywords: electro-hydrodynamic, electric-field, onsager effect, DC voltage

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333 In Situ Laser-Induced Synthesis of Copper Microstructures with High Catalytic Properties and Sensory Characteristics

Authors: Maxim Panov, Evgenia Khairullina, Sergey Ermakov, Oleg Gundobin, Vladimir Kochemirovsky


The continuous in situ laser-induced catalysis proceeding via generation and growth of nano-sized copper particles was discussed. Also, the simple and lost-cost method for manufacturing of microstructural copper electrodes was proposed. The electrochemical properties of these electrodes were studied by cyclic voltammetry and impedance spectroscopy. The surface of the deposited copper structures (electrodes) was investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. These microstructures are highly conductive and porous with a dispersion of pore size ranging from 50 nm to 50 μm. An analytical response of the fabricated copper electrode is 30 times higher than those observed for a pure bulk copper with similar geometric parameters. A study of sensory characteristics for hydrogen peroxide determination showed that the value of Faraday current at the fabricated copper electrode is 2-2.5 orders of magnitude higher than for etalon one.

Keywords: laser-induced deposition, electrochemical electrodes, non-enzymatic sensors, copper

Procedia PDF Downloads 158
332 A Polyimide Based Split-Ring Neural Interface Electrode for Neural Signal Recording

Authors: Ning Xue, Srinivas Merugu, Ignacio Delgado Martinez, Tao Sun, John Tsang, Shih-Cheng Yen


We have developed a polyimide based neural interface electrode to record nerve signals from the sciatic nerve of a rat. The neural interface electrode has a split-ring shape, with four protruding gold electrodes for recording, and two reference gold electrodes around the split-ring. The split-ring electrode can be opened up to encircle the sciatic nerve. The four electrodes can be bent to sit on top of the nerve and hold the device in position, while the split-ring frame remains flat. In comparison, while traditional cuff electrodes can only fit certain sizes of the nerve, the developed device can fit a variety of rat sciatic nerve dimensions from 0.6 mm to 1.0 mm, and adapt to the chronic changes in the nerve as the electrode tips are bendable. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurement was conducted. The gold electrode impedance is on the order of 10 kΩ, showing excellent charge injection capacity to record neural signals.

Keywords: impedance, neural interface, split-ring electrode, neural signal recording

Procedia PDF Downloads 237
331 Multiscale Entropy Analysis of Electroencephalogram (EEG) of Alcoholic and Control Subjects

Authors: Lal Hussain, Wajid Aziz, Imtiaz Ahmed Awan, Sharjeel Saeed


Multiscale entropy analysis (MSE) is a useful technique recently developed to quantify the dynamics of physiological signals at different time scales. This study is aimed at investigating the electroencephalogram (EEG) signals to analyze the background activity of alcoholic and control subjects by inspecting various coarse-grained sequences formed at different time scales. EEG recordings of alcoholic and control subjects were taken from the publically available machine learning repository of University of California (UCI) acquired using 64 electrodes. The MSE analysis was performed on the EEG data acquired from all the electrodes of alcoholic and control subjects. Mann-Whitney rank test was used to find significant differences between the groups and result were considered statistically significant for p-values<0.05. The area under receiver operator curve was computed to find the degree separation between the groups. The mean ranks of MSE values at all the times scales for all electrodes were higher control subject as compared to alcoholic subjects. Higher mean ranks represent higher complexity and vice versa. The finding indicated that EEG signals acquired through electrodes C3, C4, F3, F7, F8, O1, O2, P3, T7 showed significant differences between alcoholic and control subjects at time scales 1 to 5. Moreover, all electrodes exhibit significance level at different time scales. Likewise, the highest accuracy and separation was obtained at the central region (C3 and C4), front polar regions (P3, O1, F3, F7, F8 and T8) while other electrodes such asFp1, Fp2, P4 and F4 shows no significant results.

Keywords: electroencephalogram (EEG), multiscale sample entropy (MSE), Mann-Whitney test (MMT), Receiver Operator Curve (ROC), complexity analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 285
330 Microwave-Assisted Synthesis of RuO2-TiO2 Electrodes with Improved Chlorine and Oxygen Evolutions

Authors: Tran Le Luu, Jeyong Yoon


RuO2-TiO2 electrode now becomes popular in the chlor-alkali industry because of high electrocatalytic and stability with chlorine and oxygen evolutions. Using alternative green method for preparation RuO2-TiO2 electrode is necessary to reduce the cost, time. In addition, it is needed to increase the electrocatalyst performance, stability, and environmental compatibility. In this study, the Ti/RuO2-TiO2 electrodes were synthesized using sol-gel method under microwave irradiation and investigated for the anodic chlorine and oxygen evolutions. This method produced small size and uniform distribution of RuO2-TiO2 nanoparticles with mean diameter of 8-10 nm on the big crack size surface which contributes for the increasing of the outer active surface area. The chlorine, oxygen evolution efficiency and stability comparisons show considerably higher for microwave-assisted coated electrodes than for those obtained by the conventional heating method. The microwave-assisted sol-gel route has been identified as a novel and powerful method for quick synthesis of RuO2–TiO2 electrodes with excellent chlorine and oxygen evolution performances.

Keywords: RuO2, electro-catalyst, sol-gel, microwave, chlorine, oxygen evolution

Procedia PDF Downloads 143
329 Multi-Size Continuous Particle Separation on a Dielectrophoresis-Based Microfluidics Chip

Authors: Arash Dalili, Hamed Tahmouressi, Mina Hoorfar


Advances in lab-on-a-chip (LOC) devices have led to significant advances in the manipulation, separation, and isolation of particles and cells. Among the different active and passive particle manipulation methods, dielectrophoresis (DEP) has been proven to be a versatile mechanism as it is label-free, cost-effective, simple to operate, and has high manipulation efficiency. DEP has been applied for a wide range of biological and environmental applications. A popular form of DEP devices is the continuous manipulation of particles by using co-planar slanted electrodes, which utilizes a sheath flow to focus the particles into one side of the microchannel. When particles enter the DEP manipulation zone, the negative DEP (nDEP) force generated by the slanted electrodes deflects the particles laterally towards the opposite side of the microchannel. The lateral displacement of the particles is dependent on multiple parameters including the geometry of the electrodes, the width, length and height of the microchannel, the size of the particles and the throughput. In this study, COMSOL Multiphysics® modeling along with experimental studies are used to investigate the effect of the aforementioned parameters. The electric field between the electrodes and the induced DEP force on the particles are modelled by COMSOL Multiphysics®. The simulation model is used to show the effect of the DEP force on the particles, and how the geometry of the electrodes (width of the electrodes and the gap between them) plays a role in the manipulation of polystyrene microparticles. The simulation results show that increasing the electrode width to a certain limit, which depends on the height of the channel, increases the induced DEP force. Also, decreasing the gap between the electrodes leads to a stronger DEP force. Based on these results, criteria for the fabrication of the electrodes were found, and soft lithography was used to fabricate interdigitated slanted electrodes and microchannels. Experimental studies were run to find the effect of the flow rate, geometrical parameters of the microchannel such as length, width, and height as well as the electrodes’ angle on the displacement of 5 um, 10 um and 15 um polystyrene particles. An empirical equation is developed to predict the displacement of the particles under different conditions. It is shown that the displacement of the particles is more for longer and lower height channels, lower flow rates, and bigger particles. On the other hand, the effect of the angle of the electrodes on the displacement of the particles was negligible. Based on the results, we have developed an optimum design (in terms of efficiency and throughput) for three size separation of particles.

Keywords: COMSOL Multiphysics, Dielectrophoresis, Microfluidics, Particle separation

Procedia PDF Downloads 39
328 Investigating Concentration of Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes on Electrochemical Sensors

Authors: Mohsen Adabi, Mahdi Adabi, Reza Saber


The recent advancements in nanomaterials have provided a platform to develop efficient transduction matrices for sensors. Modified electrodes allow to electrochemists to enhance the property of electrode surface and provide desired properties such as improved sensing capabilities, higher electron transfer rate and prevention of undesirable reactions competing kinetically with desired electrode process. Nanostructured electrodes including arrays of carbon nanotubes have demonstrated great potential for the development of electrochemical sensors and biosensors. The aim of this work is to evaluate the concentration of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) on the conductivity of gold electrode. For this work, raw MWCNTs was functionalized and shortened. Raw and shorten MWCNTs were characterized using transfer electron microscopy (TEM). Next, 0.5, 2 and 3.5 mg of Shortened and functionalized MWCNTs were dispersed in 2 mL Dimethyl formamide (DMF) and cysteamine modified gold electrodes were incubated in the different concentrations of MWCNTs for 8 hours. Then, the immobilization of MWCNTs on cysteamine modified gold electrode was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the effect of MWCNT concentrations on electron transfer of modified electrodes was investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV). The results demonstrated that CV response of ferricyanide redox at modified gold electrodes increased as concentration of MWCNTs enhanced from 0.5 to 2 mg in 2 mL DMF. This increase can be attributed to the number of MWCNTs which enhance on the surface of cysteamine modified gold electrode as the MWCNTs concentration increased whereas CV response of ferricyanide redox at modified gold electrodes did not changed significantly as the MWCNTs concentration increased from 2 to 3.5 mg in 2 mL DMF. The reason may be that amine groups of cysteamine modified gold electrodes are limited to a given number which can interact with the given number of carboxylic groups of MWCNTs and CV response of ferricyanide redox at modified gold do not enhance after amine groups of cysteamine are saturated with carboxylic groups of MWCNTs.

Keywords: carbon nanotube, cysteamine, electrochemical sensor, gold electrode

Procedia PDF Downloads 362
327 Optimized Brain Computer Interface System for Unspoken Speech Recognition: Role of Wernicke Area

Authors: Nassib Abdallah, Pierre Chauvet, Abd El Salam Hajjar, Bassam Daya


In this paper, we propose an optimized brain computer interface (BCI) system for unspoken speech recognition, based on the fact that the constructions of unspoken words rely strongly on the Wernicke area, situated in the temporal lobe. Our BCI system has four modules: (i) the EEG Acquisition module based on a non-invasive headset with 14 electrodes; (ii) the Preprocessing module to remove noise and artifacts, using the Common Average Reference method; (iii) the Features Extraction module, using Wavelet Packet Transform (WPT); (iv) the Classification module based on a one-hidden layer artificial neural network. The present study consists of comparing the recognition accuracy of 5 Arabic words, when using all the headset electrodes or only the 4 electrodes situated near the Wernicke area, as well as the selection effect of the subbands produced by the WPT module. After applying the articial neural network on the produced database, we obtain, on the test dataset, an accuracy of 83.4% with all the electrodes and all the subbands of 8 levels of the WPT decomposition. However, by using only the 4 electrodes near Wernicke Area and the 6 middle subbands of the WPT, we obtain a high reduction of the dataset size, equal to approximately 19% of the total dataset, with 67.5% of accuracy rate. This reduction appears particularly important to improve the design of a low cost and simple to use BCI, trained for several words.

Keywords: brain-computer interface, speech recognition, artificial neural network, electroencephalography, EEG, wernicke area

Procedia PDF Downloads 178
326 Electrochemical Deposition of Pb and PbO2 on Polymer Composites Electrodes

Authors: A. Merzouki, N. Haddaoui


Polymers have a large reputation as electric insulators. These materials are characterized by weak weight, reduced price and a large domain of physical and chemical properties. They conquered new application domains that were until a recent past the exclusivity of metals. In this work, we used some composite materials (polymers/conductive fillers), as electrodes and we try to cover them with metallic lead layers in order to use them as courant collector grids in lead-acid battery plates.

Keywords: electrodeposition, polymer composites, carbon black, acetylene black

Procedia PDF Downloads 354
325 Modified Poly (Pyrrole) Film-Based Biosensors for Phenol Detection

Authors: S. Korkut, M. S. Kilic, E. Erhan


In order to detect and quantify the phenolic contents of a wastewater with biosensors, two working electrodes based on modified Poly (Pyrrole) films were fabricated. Enzyme horseradish peroxidase was used as biomolecule of the prepared electrodes. Various phenolics were tested at the biosensor. Phenol detection was realized by electrochemical reduction of quinones produced by enzymatic activity. Analytical parameters were calculated and the results were compared with each other.

Keywords: carbon nanotube, phenol biosensor, polypyrrole, poly (glutaraldehyde)

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324 A Review on Electrical Behavior of Different Substrates, Electrodes and Membranes in Microbial Fuel Cell

Authors: Bharat Mishra, Sanjay Kumar Awasthi, Raj Kumar Rajak


The devices, which convert the energy in the form of electricity from organic matters, are called microbial fuel cell (MFC). Recently, MFCs have been given a lot of attention due to their mild operating conditions, and various types of biodegradable substrates have been used in the form of fuel. Traditional MFCs were included in anode and cathode chambers, but there are single chamber MFCs. Microorganisms actively catabolize substrate, and bioelectricities are produced. In the field of power generation from non-conventional sources, apart from the benefits of this technique, it is still facing practical constraints such as low potential and power. In this study, most suitable, natural, low cost MFCs components are electrodes (anode and cathode), organic substrates, membranes and its design is selected on the basis of maximum potential (voltage) as an electrical parameter, which indicates a vital role of affecting factor in MFC for sustainable power production.

Keywords: substrates, electrodes, membranes, MFCs design, voltage

Procedia PDF Downloads 165
323 Developing Wearable EMG Sensor Designed for Parkinson's Disease (PD) Monitoring, and Treatment

Authors: Bulcha Belay Etana


Electromyography is used to measure the electrical activity of muscles for various health monitoring applications using surface electrodes or needle electrodes. Recent developments in electromyogram signal acquisition using textile electrodes open the door for wearable health monitoring which enables patients to monitor and control their health issues outside of traditional healthcare facilities. The aim of this research is therefore to develop and analyze wearable textile electrodes for the acquisition of electromyography signals for Parkinson’s patients and apply an appropriate thermal stimulus to relieve muscle cramping. In order to achieve this, textile electrodes are sewn with a silver-coated thread in an overlapping zigzag pattern into an inextensible fabric, and stainless steel knitted textile electrodes attached to a sleeve were prepared and its electrical characteristics including signal to noise ratio were compared with traditional electrodes. To relieve muscle cramping, a heating element using stainless steel conductive yarn Sewn onto a cotton fabric, coupled with a vibration system were developed. The system was integrated using a microcontroller and a Myoware muscle sensor so that when muscle cramping occurs, measured by the system activates the heating elements and vibration motors. The optimum temperature considered for treatment was 35.50c, so a Temperature measurement system was incorporated to deactivate the heating system when the temperature reaches this threshold, and the signals indicating muscle cramping have subsided. The textile electrode exhibited a signal to noise ratio of 6.38dB while the signal to noise ratio of the traditional electrode was 7.05dB. The rise time of the developed heating element was about 6 minutes to reach the optimum temperature using a 9volt power supply. The treatment of muscle cramping in Parkinson's patients using heat and muscle vibration simultaneously with a wearable electromyography signal acquisition system will improve patients’ livelihoods and enable better chronic pain management.

Keywords: electromyography, heating textile, vibration therapy, parkinson’s disease, wearable electronic textile

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322 Inkjet Printed Silver Nanowire Network as Semi-Transparent Electrode for Organic Photovoltaic Devices

Authors: Donia Fredj, Marie Parmentier, Florence Archet, Olivier Margeat, Sadok Ben Dkhil, Jorg Ackerman


Transparent conductive electrodes (TCEs) or transparent electrodes (TEs) are a crucial part of many electronic and optoelectronic devices such as touch panels, liquid crystal displays (LCDs), organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs), solar cells, and transparent heaters. The indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode is the most widely utilized transparent electrode due to its excellent optoelectrical properties. However, the drawbacks of ITO, such as the high cost of this material, scarcity of indium, and the fragile nature, limit the application in large-scale flexible electronic devices. Importantly, flexibility is becoming more and more attractive since flexible electrodes have the potential to open new applications which require transparent electrodes to be flexible, cheap, and compatible with large-scale manufacturing methods. So far, several materials as alternatives to ITO have been developed, including metal nanowires, conjugated polymers, carbon nanotubes, graphene, etc., which have been extensively investigated for use as flexible and low-cost electrodes. Among them, silver nanowires (AgNW) are one of the promising alternatives to ITO thanks to their excellent properties, high electrical conductivity as well as desirable light transmittance. In recent years, inkjet printing became a promising technique for large-scale printed flexible and stretchable electronics. However, inkjet printing of AgNWs still presents many challenges. In this study, a synthesis of stable AgNW that could compete with ITO was developed. This material was printed by inkjet technology directly on a flexible substrate. Additionally, we analyzed the surface microstructure, optical and electrical properties of the printed AgNW layers. Our further research focused on the study of all inkjet-printed organic modules with high efficiency.

Keywords: transparent electrodes, silver nanowires, inkjet printing, formulation of stable inks

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321 Electrochemical Performance of Carbon Nanotube Based Supercapacitor

Authors: Jafar Khan Kasi, Ajab Khan Kasi, Muzamil Bokhari


Carbon nanotube is one of the most attractive materials for the potential applications of nanotechnology due to its excellent mechanical, thermal, electrical and optical properties. In this paper we report a supercapacitor made of nickel foil electrodes, coated with multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) thin film using electrophoretic deposition (EPD) method. Chemical vapor deposition method was used for the growth of MWCNTs and ethanol was used as a hydrocarbon source. High graphitic multiwall carbon nanotube was found at 750 C analyzing by Raman spectroscopy. We observed the electrochemical performance of supercapacitor by cyclic voltammetry. The electrodes of supercapacitor fabricated from MWCNTs exhibit considerably small equivalent series resistance (ESR), and a high specific power density. Electrophoretic deposition is an easy method in fabricating MWCNT electrodes for high performance supercapacitor.

Keywords: carbon nanotube, chemical vapor deposition, catalyst, charge, cyclic voltammetry

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320 Fabrication of Glucose/O₂ Microfluidic Biofuel Cell with Double Layer of Electrodes

Authors: Haroon Khan, Chul Min Kim, Sung Yeol Kim, Sanket Goel, Prabhat K. Dwivedi, Ashutosh Sharma, Gyu Man Kim


Enzymatic biofuel cells (EBFCs) have drawn the attention of researchers due to its demanding application in medical implants. In EBFCs, electricity is produced with the help of redox enzymes. In this study, we report the fabrication of membraneless EBFC with new design of electrodes to overcome microchannel related limitations. The device consists of double layer of electrodes on both sides of Y-shaped microchannel to reduce the effect of oxygen depletion layer and diffusion of fuel and oxidant at the end of microchannel. Moreover, the length of microchannel was reduced by half keeping the same area of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) electrodes. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) stencils were used to pattern MWCNT electrodes on etched Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) glass. PDMS casting was used to fabricate microchannel of the device. Both anode and cathode were modified with glucose oxidase and laccase. Furthermore, these enzymes were covalently bound to carboxyl MWCNTs with the help of EDC/NHS. Glucose used as fuel was oxidized by glucose oxidase at anode while oxygen was reduced to water at the cathode side. The resulted devices were investigated with the help of polarization curves obtained from Chronopotentiometry technique by using potentiostat. From results, we conclude that the performance of double layer EBFC is improved 15 % as compared to single layer EBFC delivering maximum power density of 71.25 µW cm-2 at a cell potential of 0.3 V and current density of 250 µA cm-2 at micro channel height of 450-µm and flow rate of 25 ml hr-1. However, the new device was stable only for three days after which its power output was rapidly dropped by 75 %. This work demonstrates that the power output of membraneless EBFC is improved comparatively, but still efforts will be needed to make the device stable over long period of time.

Keywords: EBFC, glucose, MWCNT, microfluidic

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319 Study on the Voltage Induced Wrinkling of Elastomer with Different Electrode Areas

Authors: Zhende Hou, Fan Yang, Guoli Zhang


Dielectric elastomer is a promising class of Electroactive polymers which can deform in response to an applied electric field. Comparing general smart material, the Dielectric elastomer is more compliance and can achieve higher energy density, which can be for diverse applications such as actuators, artificial muscles, soft robotics, and energy harvesters. The coupling of the Electroactive polymers and the electric field is that the elastomer is sandwiched between two compliant electrodes and when the electrodes are subjected to a voltage, the positive and negative charges on the two electrodes compress the polymer, so that the polymer reduces in thickness and expands in area. However, the pre-stretched dielectric elastomer film not only can achieve large electric-field induced deformation but also is prone to wrinkling, under the interaction of its own strain energy and the applied electric field energy. For a uniaxially pre-stretched dielectric elastomer film, the electrode area is an important parameter to the electric-field induced deformation and may also be a key factor affecting the film wrinkling. To determine and quantify the effect experimentally, VHB 9473 tapes were employed and compliant electrodes with different areas were pant on each of them. The tape was first tensed to a uniaxial stretch of 8. Then a DC voltage was applied to the electrodes and increased gradually until wrinkling occurred in the film. Then, the critical wrinkling voltages of the film with different electrode areas were obtained, and the wrinkle wavelengths were obtained simultaneously for analyzing the wrinkling characteristics. Experimental results indicate when the electrode area is smaller the wrinkling voltage is higher, and with the increases of electrode area, the wrinkling voltage decreases rapidly until a specific area. Beyond that, the wrinkling voltage becomes larger gradually with the increases of the area. While the wrinkle wavelength decreases gradually with the increase of voltage monotonically. That is, the relation between the critical wrinkling voltage and the electrode areas is U-shaped. Analysis believes that the film wrinkling is a kind of local effect, the interaction and the energy transfer between electrode region and non-electrode region have great influence on wrinkling. In the experiment, very thin copper wires are used as the electrode leads that just contact with the electrodes, which can avoid the stiffness of the leads affecting the wrinkling.

Keywords: elastomers, uniaxial stretch, electrode area, wrinkling

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318 In-Vitro Evaluation of the Long-Term Stability of PEDOT:PSS Coated Microelectrodes for Chronic Recording and Electrical Stimulation

Authors: A. Schander, T. Tessmann, H. Stemmann, S. Strokov, A. Kreiter, W. Lang


For the chronic application of neural prostheses and other brain-computer interfaces, long-term stable microelectrodes for electrical stimulation are essential. In recent years many developments were done to investigate different appropriate materials for these electrodes. One of these materials is the electrical conductive polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT), which has lower impedance and higher charge injection capacity compared to noble metals like gold and platinum. However the long-term stability of this polymer is still unclear. Thus this paper reports on the in-vitro evaluation of the long-term stability of PEDOT coated gold microelectrodes. For this purpose a highly flexible electrocorticography (ECoG) electrode array, based on the polymer polyimide, is used. This array consists of circular gold electrodes with a diameter of 560 µm (0.25 mm2). In total 25 electrodes of this array were coated simultaneously with the polymer PEDOT:PSS in a cleanroom environment using a galvanostatic electropolymerization process. After the coating the array is additionally sterilized using a steam sterilization process (121°C, 1 bar, 20.5 min) to simulate autoclaving prior to the implantation of such an electrode array. The long-term measurements were performed in phosphate-buffered saline solution (PBS, pH 7.4) at the constant body temperature of 37°C. For the in-vitro electrical stimulation a one channel bipolar current stimulator is used. The stimulation protocol consists of a bipolar current amplitude of 5 mA (cathodal phase first), a pulse duration of 100 µs per phase, a pulse pause of 50 µs and a frequency of 1 kHz. A PEDOT:PSS coated gold electrode with an area of 1 cm2 serves as the counter electrode. The electrical stimulation is performed continuously with a total amount of 86.4 million bipolar current pulses per day. The condition of the PEDOT coated electrodes is monitored in between with electrical impedance spectroscopy measurements. The results of this study demonstrate that the PEDOT coated electrodes are stable for more than 3.6 billion bipolar current pulses. Also the unstimulated electrodes show currently no degradation after the time period of 5 months. These results indicate an appropriate long-term stability of this electrode coating for chronic recording and electrical stimulation. The long-term measurements are still continuing to investigate the life limit of this electrode coating.

Keywords: chronic recording, electrical stimulation, long-term stability, microelectrodes, PEDOT

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