Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5887

Search results for: type 2 diabetes mellitus

5887 Pattern Of Polymorphism SLC22A1 Gene In Children With Diabetes Mellitus Type 2

Authors: Elly Usman, S. Dante, Diah Purnamasari

Abstract:

Type 2 diabetes mellitus ( T2DM ) is a syndrome characterized by a state of increased blood sugar levels due to chronic disorders of insulin secretion by pancreatic beta cells and insulin action or a combination of both. The organic cation transporter 1, encoded by the SLC22A1 gene, responsible for the uptake of the antihyperglycemic drug, metformin, in the hepatocyte. We assessed whether a genetic variation in the SLC22A1 gene was associated with the glucose - lowering effect of metformin. Method case study research design. Samples are children with type 2 diabetes mellitus who meet the inclusion criteria. The results proportions SLC22A1 gene polymorphisms in children with diabetes mellitus type 2 amounted to 52.04 % at position 400T/C, there is one heterozygous and one at position 595T/C Conclusion The presence of SLC22A1 gene polymorphisms in children with diabetes mellitus type 2.

Keywords: diabetes Mellitus type 2, metformin, organic cation transporter 1, pharmacogenomics

Procedia PDF Downloads 332
5886 Prevalence of Diabetes Mellitus in the Western North Part of Libya

Authors: Mustafa Ali Abugila

Abstract:

A total of 13807 diabetic patients [(males 5893(42.68%), females 7914 (57.32%)] were on the registered in diabetic clinics in the western north of Libya at the end of 2012. Of the total clinic population, 865 patients had Type 1 IDDM (6.26%) and the rest cases had Type 2 NIDDM (93.74%). Diabetes mellitus was higher in females than in males (57.32% , 42.68%), the male to female ratio was (0.74 : 1).

Keywords: Diabetes Mellitus (DM), gestational diabetes mellitus, North Western of Libya,

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5885 A Retrospective Study on the Age of Onset for Type 2 Diabetes Diagnosis

Authors: Mohamed A. Hammad, Dzul Azri Mohamed Noor, Syed Azhar Syed Sulaiman, Majed Ahmed Al-Mansoub, Muhammad Qamar

Abstract:

There is a progressive increase in the prevalence of early onset Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Early detection of Type 2 diabetes enhances the length and/or quality of life which might result from a reduction in the severity, frequency or prevent or delay of its long-term complications. The study aims to determine the onset age for the first diagnosis of Type 2 diabetes mellitus. A retrospective study conducted in the endocrine clinic at Hospital Pulau Pinang in Penang, Malaysia, January- December 2016. Records of 519 patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus were screened to collect demographic data and determine the age of first-time diabetes mellitus diagnosis. Patients classified according to the age of diagnosis, gender, and ethnicity. The study included 519 patients with age (55.6±13.7) years, female 265 (51.1%) and male 254 (48.9%). The ethnicity distribution was Malay 191 (36.8%), Chinese 189 (36.4%) and Indian 139 (26.8%). The age of Type 2 diabetes diagnosis was (42±14.8) years. The female onset of diabetes mellitus was at age (41.5±13.7) years, while male (42.6±13.7) years. Distribution of diabetic onset by ethnicity was Malay at age (40.7±13.7) years, Chinese (43.2±13.7) years and Indian (42.3±13.7) years. Diabetic onset was classified by age as follow; ≤20 years’ cohort was 33 (6.4%) cases. Group >20- ≤40 years was 190 (36.6%) patients, and category >40- ≤60 years was 270 (52%) subjects. On the other hand, the group >60 years was 22 (4.2%) patients. The range of diagnosis was between 10 and 73 years old. Conclusion: Malay and female have an earlier onset of diabetes than Indian, Chinese and male. More than half of the patients had diabetes between 40 and 60 years old. Diabetes mellitus is becoming more common in younger age <40 years. The age at diagnosis of Type 2 diabetes mellitus has decreased with time.

Keywords: age of onset, diabetes diagnosis, diabetes mellitus, Malaysia, outpatients, type 2 diabetes, retrospective study

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5884 C-Reactive Protein in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Authors: Athar Hussain Memon

Abstract:

Objectives: We tried to determine the frequency of raised C-reactive protein (CRP) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Patients and Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive study of six months study was conducted at Liaquat University Hospital Hyderabad from March 2013 to August 2013. All diabetic patients of ≥35 years age of either gender for >01 year duration visited at OPD were evaluated for C-reactive protein and their glycemic status by hemoglobin A1c. The data was analyzed in SPSS and the frequency and percentage were calculated. Results: During six month study period, total 100 diabetic patients were evaluated for C-reactive protein. The majority of patients were from urban areas 75/100 (75%). The mean ±SD for age of patients with diabetes mellitus was 51.63±7.82. The mean age ±SD of patient with raised CRP was 53±7.21. The mean ±SD for HbA1c in patients with raised CRP is 9.55±1.73. The mean random blood sugar level in patients with raised CRP was 247.42 ± 6.62. The majority of subjects were of 50-69 years of age group with female predominance (p=0.01) while the CRP was raised in 70 (70%) patients in relation to age (p=0.02) and gender (p=0.01), respectively. Both HbA1c and CRP were raised in 64.9% (p=0.04) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The mean ±SD of CRP was 5.8±1.21 while for male and female individuals with raised CRP was 3.52±1.22 and 5.7±1.63, respectively. Conclusions: The raised CRP was observed in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Keywords: diabetes mellitus, C-reactive protein, hemoglobin A1c, diabetes and metabolism

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5883 Stress as Risk Factor for Onset of Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus in Visakhapatnam Tribal Community of Andhra Pradesh, India

Authors: Vijaya Nirmala Pangi, K. V. Subhramanyam, C. Vijay Lakshmi

Abstract:

Background: The prevalence of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus is increasing drastically at a vigorous rate all over the world population. Aim: The present study aims to determine the prevalence of type-2 diabetes mellitus in Paderu tribal area population of Visakhapatnam district, located in northeastern region of Andhra Pradesh. Methods: A random sampling method was followed in 1025 subjects including controls (n=25) and determined 75-g oral glucose tolerance test to assess the presence of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The effect of anthropometric factors like age, gender, literacy, socio economic status, and environmental risk factors such as body fat response, hypertension and psychophysical stress response were determined in the studied subjects. Results: 78 (7.8%) were diabetic. Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus was found to be comparable between the two genders. Prevalence of diabetes was observed to be high in illiterate, low economic status subjects. Body fat response was comparable between control and diabetic subjects. However hypertension, stress associated enzymes showed significant (p < 0.05) decrease in diabetic subjects compared to controls in both the genders. Conclusion: It appears that there is a rising pattern in the prevalence of diabetes mellitus in tribal area, Paderu, Andhra Pradesh, India compared to previous rural studies.

Keywords: anthropometric studies, hypertension, oral glucose tolerance test, stress enzymes, type-2 diabetes mellitus

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5882 Effect of Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation on Acupoints in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Blood Glucose Analysis

Authors: Asif Arsalan

Abstract:

The mortality rate of type 2 diabetes increasing day by day at an alarming rate. Changing lifestyle and environment have contributory effect in increase rate of type 2 diabetes mellitus. This study introduces a new method in physiotherapy field of treating a disease like diabetes, and gives the new way to control the diabetes without medicines.50 patients were selected on the basis of inclusion and exclusion criteria and were assigned to receive either TENS (group A) on the bilateral ST36 acupoints at a frequency of 25 Hz with intensity of 9 mA or placebo (group B) treatment for 5 minutes for 7 days. The blood glucose level was measured at both pre and post stimulation. Stimulation was given after 3 hours of food on every day regularly on stipulated time.There was significant improvement (P<0.05) in random blood sugar level of type 2 diabetes mellitus. It has been found TENS on bilateral ST36 acupoints have an effect to control plasma glucose level for type 2 diabetic mellitus patients and can be used without having any side effect. This study gives new idea to treat the type 2 diabetes conservatively with the TENS. As there are some study that TENS had been used to treat nausea, spasticity etc. condition by stimulating the acupoint but it is the very first time that TENS has been used to treat diabetes like disease. This study help the physiotherapy community to spread the physiotherapy treatment in other branches of the medical field and this gives a new identity for the physiotherapy. This also gives the benefit to patients to take a safe and cost effective treatment for the diabetes, and make the new use of TENS to treat other condition rather than pain.

Keywords: acupoint, plasma glucose level, type 2 diabetic mellitus, TENS

Procedia PDF Downloads 216
5881 Analysis of Gait Characteristics Using Dynamic Foot Scanner in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Authors: C. G. Shashi Kumar, G. Arun Maiya, H. Manjunath Hande, K. V. Rajagopal

Abstract:

Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disorder with involvement of neurovascular and muscular system. Studies have documented that the gait parameter is altered in type 2 diabetes mellitus with peripheral neuropathy. However, there is a dearth of literature regarding the gait characteristics in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) without peripheral neuropathy. Therefore, the present study is focused on identifying gait changes in early type 2 diabetes mellitus without peripheral neuropathy. Objective: To analyze the gait characteristics in Type 2 diabetes mellitus without peripheral neuropathy. Methods: After obtaining ethical clearance from Institutional Ethical Committee (IEC), 36 T2DM without peripheral neuropathy and 32 matched healthy subjects were recruited. Gait characteristics (step duration, gait cycle length, gait cycle duration, stride duration, step length, double stance duration) of all the subjects were analyzed using Windtrack dynamic foot scanner. Data were analyzed using Independent‘t’ test to find the difference between the groups (step duration, gait cycle length, gait cycle duration) and Mann-Whitney test was used to analyze the step length and double stance duration to find difference between the groups. Level of significance was kept at P<0.05. Results: Result analysis showed significant decrease in step duration, gait cycle length, gait cycle duration, step length, double stance duration in T2DM subjects as compared to healthy subjects. We also observed a mean increase in stride duration in T2DM subjects compared to healthy subjects.

Keywords: type 2 diabetes mellitus, dynamic foot scan, gait characteristics, medical and health sciences

Procedia PDF Downloads 352
5880 The Role of Defense Mechanisms in Treatment Adherence in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: An Exploratory Study

Authors: F. Marchini, A. Caputo, J. Balonan, F. Fedele, A. Napoli, V. Langher

Abstract:

Aim: The present study aims to explore the specific role of defense mechanisms in persons with type 2 diabetes mellitus in treatment adherence. Materials and methods: A correlational study design was employed. Thirty-two persons with type 2 diabetes mellitus were enrolled and assessed with Defense Mechanism Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory-II, Toronto Alexithymia Scale and Self-Care Inventory-Revised. Bivariate correlation and two-step regression analyses were performed. Results: Treatment adherence negatively correlates with hetero-directed hostility (r= -.537; p < .01), whereas it is positively associated with principalization (r= .407; p < .05). These two defense mechanisms overall explain an incremental variance of 26.9% in treatment adherence (ΔF=4.189, df1=2, df2 =21, p < .05), over and above the control variables for depression and alexithymia. However, only higher hetero-directed hostility is found to be a solid predictor of a decreased treatment adherence (β=-.497, p < .05). Conclusions: Despite providing preliminary results, this pilot study highlights the original contribution of defense mechanisms in adherence to type 2 diabetes regimens. Specifically, hetero-directed hostility may relate to an unconscious process, according to which disease-related painful feelings are displaced onto care relationships with negative impacts on adherence.

Keywords: alexithymia, defense mechanisms, treatment adherence, type 2 diabetes mellitus

Procedia PDF Downloads 233
5879 Hypoglycemic Coma in Elderly Patients with Diabetes mellitus

Authors: D. Furuya, H. Ryujin, S. Takahira, Y. Sekine, Y. Oya, K. Sonoda, H. Ogawa, Y. Nomura, R. Maruyama, H. Kim, T. Kudo, A. Nakano, T. Saruta, S. Sugita, M. Nemoto, N. Tanahashi

Abstract:

Purpose: To study the clinical characteristics of hypoglycemic coma in adult patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Methods: Participants in this retrospective study comprised 91 patients (54 men, 37 women; mean age ± standard deviation, 71.5 ± 12.6 years; range, 42-97 years) brought to our emergency department by ambulance with disturbance of consciousness in the 7 years from April 2007 to March 2014. Patients with hypoglycemia caused by alcoholic ketoacidosis, nutrition disorder, malignancies and psychological disorder were excluded. Results: Patients with type 1 (8 of 91) or type 2 DM (83 of 91) were analyzed. Mean blood sugar level was 31.6 ± 10.4 in all patients. A sulfonylurea (SU) was more commonly used in elderly (>75 years old; n=44)(70.5%) than in younger patients (36.2%, p < 0.05). Cases showing prolonged unconsciousness (range, 1 hour to 21 days; n=30) included many (p < 0.05) patients with dementia (13.3%; 0.5% without dementia) and fewer (p < 0.05) patients with type 1 DM (0%; 13.1% in type 2 DM). Specialists for DM (n=33) used SU less often (24.2%) than general physicians (69.0%, p < 0.05). Conclusion: In cases of hypoglycemic coma, SU was frequently used in elderly patients with DM.

Keywords: hypoglycemic coma, Diabetes mellitus, unconsciousness, elderly patients

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5878 Self-Management among the Ethnic Groups with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Thailand

Authors: Siwarak Kitchanapaibul, Warren Gillibrand, Rob Burton

Abstract:

The prevalence of diabetes mellitus has been rising all over the world. Self-management is required for diabetes mellitus patients. The objective of this study is to explore the self-management among the ethnic groups with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Thailand, an upper middle-income country which is located in South East Asia. The ethnic groups in Thailand are a minority group which has limited education and a different culture, language, costume and lifestyle from Thai people. The qualitative exploratory study was used in this study. In-depth interviews with semi-structured open questions were conducted by 20 participants from purposive sampling. These participants were the ethnic groups who have type 2 diabetes mellitus, received the services from a region hospital, understood Thai and were willing to participate. Content analysis was adopted for the study. The results showed that all of the participants controlled their diet before the appointment day and never miss their appointment. Only 3 participants did their exercise while 2 participants stated that they occasionally forgot to take medicine. 10 participants use the herbs for reducing the sugar level. 12 participants drank a lot of water after a lapse in the diet because they believed that water could dilute the sugar. The findings identified 5 themes; ‘controlling diet before appointment day’; ‘drinking water after a lapse in diet’; ‘medication being a vital importance’; ‘exercise is unimportant’; and ‘taking herbs for sugar reduction’. The results of this study are important to the health professionals to understand the self-management of Ethnic groups and use the data to create the appropriate intervention for promoting health among the ethnic groups with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Thailand. The findings will lead to the revision of health policy and the procedure for promoting health in this special ethnic groups.

Keywords: self-management, diabetes, ethnic groups, Thailand

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5877 Functional Compounds Activity of Analog Rice Based on Purple Yam and Bran as Alternative Food for People with Diabetes Mellitus Type II

Authors: A. Iqbal Banauaji, Muchamad Sholikun

Abstract:

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolism disorder that tends to increase its prevalence in the world, including in Indonesia. The development of DM type 2 can cause oxidative stress characterized by an imbalance between oxidants and antioxidants in the body Increased oxidative stress causes type 2 diabetes mellitus to require intake of exogenous antioxidants in large quantities to inhibit oxidative damage in the body. Bran can be defined as a functional food because it consists of 11.39% fiberand 28.7% antioxidants and the purple yam consists of anthocyanin which functions as an antioxidant. With abundant amount and low price, purple yam and bran can be used for analog rice as the effort to diversify functional food. The antioxidant’s activity of analog rice from purple yam and bran which is measured by using DPPH’s method is 12,963%. The rough fiber’s level on the analog rice from purple yam is 2.985%. The water amount of analog rice from purple yam and bran is 8.726%. Analog rice from purple yam and bran has the similar texture as the usual rice, tasted slightly sweet, light purple colored, and smelled like bran.

Keywords: antioxidant, analog rice, functional food, diabetes mellitus

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5876 Acrochordons and Diabetes Mellitus: A Case Control Study

Authors: Pratistha Shrestha

Abstract:

Background: Acrochordons (Skin tags) are common benign skin tumors usually occurring on the neck and major flexors of older people. These range in size from 1 mm to 1cm in diameter and are skin-colored or brownish. A possible association with diabetes mellitus has been suggested in previous studies, but the result is not conclusive. Objective: The aim of this study was to find out the association of diabetes mellitus with acrochordons. Material and Methods: One hundred and two patients were selected for the study. Among them, 51 (males–23 and females–28) with acrochordons were taken as cases, and 51 with other dermatologic diseases after matching age and sex were taken as controls. The patients were selected from OPD of the Department of Dermatology and Venereology in Universal College of Medical Sciences–Teaching Hospital (UCMS-TH). Blood glucose levels, including both fasting plasma glucose and 2-hour post-glucose load, were determined for both case and control and compared. Results: Patients with acrochordons had a significantly higher frequency of diabetes than the control group (p < 0.001). A total of 48.5% and 40% of patients with acrochordons having diabetes were obese and overweight, respectively. Conclusion: There is an increased risk of diabetes mellitus in patients with acrochordons. With regard to the importance of early diagnosis of diabetes, it is recommended a high level of suspicion for diabetes mellitus in patients with acrochordons.

Keywords: acrochordons, diabetes mellitus, obesity, skin tags

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5875 Cadmium Levels in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Thasala Southern Thailand

Authors: Supabhorn Yimthiang, Wiyada Khanwian

Abstract:

Cadmium is a heavy metal that is important in the environment because it is highly toxic. The incidence and severity of type 2 diabetes mellitus are known to be associated with cadmium. The purpose of this study was to investigate the cadmium levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus at diabetes mellitus clinic, Thasala hospital, Nakhon Si Thummarat, Thailand. The study population was composed of forty five subjects. Among them, twenty two were diabetic patients and twenty three were apparently healthy non-diabetic individual subjects. After an overnight fasting, blood and morning urine samples were collected from each subject to determine fasting blood sugar and cadmium levels in urine, respectively. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure values were measured by aneroid sphygmomanometer. Study approval was taken from the human subject ethics committee of Walailak University. Verbal and written informed consent was taken from all participants. In the study samples, there were 31.8% males and 68.2% females with mean age of 47+10.53 years. The geometric mean of urine cadmium was significantly higher in diabetic patients (1.015 + 0.79 µg/g creatinine) when compared with the healthy subjects (0.395 + 0.53 µg/g creatinine) (P<0.05). This result also showed that urine cadmium excretion in diabetic patients was higher than in healthy subjects by 2.6 times. Moreover, fasting blood sugar (153+47.86 μg/dl) and systolic blood pressure (183.26+17.15 mmHg) of diabetic patients was significantly different when compared with healthy subjects (79+5.38 μg/dl and 112.78+11.32 mmHg, respectively) (P<0.05). Meanwhile, the concentration of cadmium in urine showed positive correlation with fasting plasma glucose (r=0.616) and systolic blood pressure (r=0.487). This preliminary study showed that cadmium might play an important role in the development and pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus in general population. However, these findings require confirmation through additional epidemiological and biological research.

Keywords: blood pressure, cadmium, fasting blood sugar, type 2 diabetes mellitus

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5874 Effects of Resistance Exercise Training on Blood Profile and CRP in Men with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Authors: Mohsen Salesi, Seyyed Zoheir Rabei

Abstract:

Exercise has been considered a cornerstone of diabetes prevention and treatment for decades, but the benefits of resistance training are less clear. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of resistance training on blood profile and inflammatory marker (CRP) of type 2 diabetes mellitus people. Thirty diabetic male were recruited (age: 50.34±10.28 years) and randomly assigned to 8 weeks resistance exercise training (n=15) and control groups (n=15). Before and after training blood pressure, weight, lipid profile (TC, TG, LDL-c, and HDL-c) and hs-CRP were measured. The resistance exercise training group took part in supervised 50–80 minutes resistance training sessions, three days a week on non-consecutive days for 8 weeks. Each exercise session included approximately 10 min of warm-up and cool-down periods. Results showed that TG significantly decreased (pre 210.19±9.31 vs. 101.12±7.25, p=0.03) and HDL-c significantly increased (pre 42.37±3.15 vs. 47.50±2.19, p=0.01) after exercise training. However, there was no difference between groups in TC, LDL-c, BMI and weight. In addition, a decrease in fasting blood glucose levels showed significant difference between groups (pre 144.65±5.73 vs. 124.21±6.48 p=0.04). Regular resistance exercise training can improve the lipid profile and reducing the cardiovascular risk factors in T2DM patients.

Keywords: lipid profile, resistance exercise, type 2 diabetes mellitus, men

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5873 Parameter Estimation of Additive Genetic and Unique Environment (AE) Model on Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 Using Bayesian Method

Authors: Andi Darmawan, Dewi Retno Sari Saputro, Purnami Widyaningsih

Abstract:

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic disease in human that occurred if pancreas cannot produce enough of insulin hormone or the body uses ineffectively insulin hormone which causes increasing level of glucose in the blood, or it was called hyperglycemia. In Indonesia, DM is a serious disease on health because it can cause blindness, kidney disease, diabetic feet (gangrene), and stroke. The type of DM criteria can also be divided based on the main causes; they are DM type 1, type 2, and gestational. Diabetes type 1 or previously known as insulin-independent diabetes is due to a lack of production of insulin hormone. Diabetes type 2 or previously known as non-insulin dependent diabetes is due to ineffective use of insulin while gestational diabetes is a hyperglycemia that found during pregnancy. The most one type commonly found in patient is DM type 2. The main factors of this disease are genetic (A) and life style (E). Those disease with 2 factors can be constructed with additive genetic and unique environment (AE) model. In this article was discussed parameter estimation of AE model using Bayesian method and the inheritance character simulation on parent-offspring. On the AE model, there are response variable, predictor variables, and parameters were capable of representing the number of population on research. The population can be measured through a taken random sample. The response and predictor variables can be determined by sample while the parameters are unknown, so it was required to estimate the parameters based on the sample. Estimation of AE model parameters was obtained based on a joint posterior distribution. The simulation was conducted to get the value of genetic variance and life style variance. The results of simulation are 0.3600 for genetic variance and 0.0899 for life style variance. Therefore, the variance of genetic factor in DM type 2 is greater than life style.

Keywords: AE model, Bayesian method, diabetes mellitus type 2, genetic, life style

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5872 Antioxidant Effects of Regular Aerobic Exercise in Postmenopausal Women with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Authors: Parvin Farzanegi

Abstract:

Background: Diabetes is a metabolic disorder associated with increased free radicals and oxidative stress. The evidence indicates that physical inactivity is a modifiable behavioral risk factor for a wide range of chronic disorders such as diabetes mellitus. We investigated the effects of eight-week aerobic exercise on some antioxidant enzyme activities in postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods: sixteen sedentary postmenopausal women with T2DM were randomly assigned to the control (n=8; CG) and exercise group (n=8; EG). The exercise consisted of progressive aerobic training at a moderate intensity (50-70% of the maximum heart rate), for 25-60 min/day, and 3 days/week for 8 weeks. Age, sex, and body mass index were similar in the two groups. Antioxidant status was evaluated by measuring the superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activity. Also levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) as an index of lipid peroxidation and glucose in the plasma were measured before and after the intervention. Results: Following the 8 weeks of exercise training, the plasma MDA and glucose levels were significantly reduced in EG compared to CG (P=0.001 and P=0.011 respectively). However, SOD (P=0.017) and CAT (P=0.011) activities were increased in EG compared to CG. Conclusion: The present study suggests regular aerobic exercise appears can exert protective effects against oxidative stress due to its ability to increase antioxidant defense and glucose control in postmenopausal women with T2DM.

Keywords: aerobic exercise, antioxidant, diabetes mellitus, type 2

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5871 Apolipoprotein E Gene Polymorphism and Its Association with Cardiovascular Heart Disease Risk Factors in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Authors: Amani Ashari, Julia Omar, Arif Hashim, Shahrul Hamid

Abstract:

Apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene polymorphism has influence on serum lipids which relates to cardiovascular risk. The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency distribution of APOE alleles among Malaysian Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (DM) patients with and without coronary artery disease (CAD) and their association with serum lipid profiles. A total of 115 patients were recruited in which 78 patients had Type 2 DM without CAD and 37 patients had Type 2 DM with CAD. The APOE polymorphism was detected by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). The APOE ɛ3 allele was the most common one in both groups. There was no significant association between the APOE genotypes and the CAD status in Type 2 DM using Pearson χ2 test. Further analysis indicated there were no significant differences in all lipid parameters between E2, E3 and E4 subgroups in both groups. The study showed that the E4 allele carriers of Type 2 DM with CAD patients had higher LDL-C level and lower HDL-C level compared to the other allele carriers. However, analyses showed these levels were not statistically different. The study also showed that the Type 2 DM with CAD group with E2 allele had higher triglyceride (TG). In conclusion, further study with larger sample size is needed to confirm role of E4 as a marker of CAD among Type 2 DM patients in Malaysian population.

Keywords: Apolipoprotein E, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, lipids

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5870 Coffee Consumption and Glucose Metabolism: a Systematic Review of Clinical Trials

Authors: Caio E. G. Reis, Jose G. Dórea, Teresa H. M. da Costa

Abstract:

Objective: Epidemiological data shows an inverse association of coffee consumption with risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, the clinical effects of coffee consumption on the glucose metabolism biomarkers remain controversial. Thus, this paper reviews clinical trials that evaluated the effects of coffee consumption on glucose metabolism. Research Design and Methods: We identified studies published until December 2014 by searching electronic databases and reference lists. We included randomized clinical trials which the intervention group received caffeinated and/or decaffeinated coffee and the control group received water or placebo treatments and measured biomarkers of glucose metabolism. The Jadad Score was applied to evaluate the quality of the studies whereas studies that scored ≥ 3 points were considered for the analyses. Results: Seven clinical trials (total of 237 subjects) were analyzed involving adult healthy, overweight and diabetic subjects. The studies were divided in short-term (1 to 3h) and long-term (2 to 16 weeks) duration. The results for short-term studies showed that caffeinated coffee consumption may increase the area under the curve for glucose response, while for long-term studies caffeinated coffee may improve the glycemic metabolism by reducing the glucose curve and increasing insulin response. These results seem to show that the benefits of coffee consumption occur in the long-term as has been shown in the reduction of type 2 diabetes mellitus risk in epidemiological studies. Nevertheless, until the relationship between long-term coffee consumption and type 2 diabetes mellitus is better understood and any mechanism involved identified, it is premature to make claims about coffee preventing type 2 diabetes mellitus. Conclusion: The findings suggest that caffeinated coffee may impairs glucose metabolism in short-term but in the long-term the studies indicate reduction of type 2 diabetes mellitus risk. More clinical trials with comparable methodology are needed to unravel this paradox.

Keywords: coffee, diabetes mellitus type 2, glucose, insulin

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5869 Computer Aided Screening of Secreted Frizzled-Related Protein 4 (SFRP4): A Potential Control for Diabetes Mellitus

Authors: Shazia Anwer Bukhari, Waseem Akhtar Shamshari, Mahmood-Ur-Rahman, Muhammad Zia-Ul-Haq, Hawa Z. E. Jaafar

Abstract:

Diabetes mellitus is a life threatening disease and scientists are doing their best to find a cost effective and permanent treatment of this malady. The recent trend is to control the disease by target base inhibiting of enzymes or proteins. Secreted frizzled-related protein 4 (SFRP4) is found to cause five times more risk of diabetes when expressed above average levels. This study was therefore designed to analyze the SFRP4 and to find its potential inhibitors. SFRP4 was analyzed by bio-informatics tools of sequence tool and structure tool. A total of three potential inhibitors of SFRP4 were found, namely cyclothiazide, clopamide and perindopril. These inhibitors showed significant interactions with SFRP4 as compared to other inhibitors as well as control (acetohexamide). The findings suggest the possible treatment of diabetes mellitus type 2 by inhibiting the SFRP4 using the inhibitors cyclothiazide, clopamide and perindopril.

Keywords: bioscreening, clopamide, cyclothiazide, diabetes mellitus, perindopril, SFRP4

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5868 Development Of Diabetes Mellitus In Overweight People

Authors: Ashiraliyev SHavkat

Abstract:

Relevance of the topic: Diabetes mellitus in overweight people development and absence of treatment measures. Objective: to give patients the correct instructions on proper nutrition, to organize a network of preventive and therapeutic measures. Materials and methods: Multidisciplinary Tashkent Medical Academy. As a result of objective observations in patients who applied to the clinic, 28 11 overweight patients had to type 2 diabetes. Diabetesmellituswasdiagnosed. Results: 11.5 mmol / L on an empty stomach in the morning. EDT yes. Pathogenesis: fat content in the diet of patients with diabetes mellitus. Carbohydrate foods make up 60%. Eating disorders and physical inactivity As a result, the accumulation of glucose in the form of fat increases, and this is constantly in the blood, which led to an increase in the number of fatty acids. Clinic: Frequent fasting in 11 patients (hypothalamus). Associated with glucose deficiency), drinking 8-9 liters of water per day of blood in 7 people Systolic pressure 150 diastolic pressures 100. Sensation of ants in 3 people and poor eyesight in 5 people. Conclusion: Explain to patients that nutritional guidelines should be followed. Assign active movement in accordance with the energy entering the body.

Keywords: mellitus, diabetes, pathogenesis, clinic

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5867 Changes in Pulmonary Functions in Diabetes Mellitus Type 2

Authors: N. Anand, P. S. Nayyer, V. Rana, S. Verma

Abstract:

Background: Diabetes mellitus is a group of disorders characterized by hyperglycemia and associated with microvascular and macrovascular complications. Among the lesser known complications is the involvement of respiratory system. Changes in pulmonary volume, diffusion and elastic properties of lungs as well as the performance of the respiratory muscles lead to a restrictive pattern in lung functions. The present study was aimed to determine the changes in various parameters of pulmonary function tests amongst patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and also try to study the effect of duration of Diabetes Mellitus on pulmonary function tests. Methods: It was a cross sectional study performed at Dr Baba Saheb Ambedkar Hospital and Medical College in, Delhi, A Tertiary care referral centre which included 200 patients divided into 2 groups. The first group included diagnosed patients with diabetes and the second group included controls. Cases and controls symptomatic for any acute or chronic Respiratory or Cardiovascular illness or a history of smoking were excluded. Both the groups were subjected to spirometry to evaluate for the pulmonary function tests. Result: The mean Forced Vital Capacity (FVC), Forced Expiratory Volume in first second (FEV1), Peak Expiratory Flow Rate(PEFR) was found to be significantly decreased ((P < 0.001) as compared to controls while the mean ratio of Forced Expiratory Volume in First second to Forced Vital Capacity was not significantly decreased( p>0.005). There was no correlation seen with duration of the disease. Conclusion: Forced Vital Capacity (FVC), Forced Expiratory Volume in first second (FEV1), Peak Expiratory Flow Rate(PEFR) were found to be significantly decreased in patients of Diabetes mellitus while ratio of Forced Expiratory Volume in First second to Forced Vital Capacity (FEV1/FVC) was not significantly decreased. The duration of Diabetes mellitus was not found to have any statistically significant effect on Pulmonary function tests (p > 0.005).

Keywords: diabetes mellitus, pulmonary function tests, forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in first second

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5866 [Keynote Talk]: Treatment Satisfaction and Safety of Sitagliptin versus Pioglitazone in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Inadequately Controlled on Metformin Monotherapy

Authors: Shahnaz Haque, Anand Shukla, Sunita Singh, Anil Kem

Abstract:

Introduction: Diabetes Mellitus is a chronic metabolic disease affecting millions worldwide. Metformin is the most commonly prescribed first line oral hypoglycemic drug for type 2 diabetes mellitus, but due to progressive worsening of blood glucose control during the natural history of type 2 diabetes, combination therapy usually becomes necessary. Objective: This study was designed to assess the treatment satisfaction between Sitagliptin versus Pioglitazone added to Metformin in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods: We conducted a prospective, open label, randomized, parallel group study in SIMS, Hapur, U.P. Eligible patients fulfilling inclusion criteria were randomized into two groups having 25 patients in each group using tab Sitagliptin 100mg, tab Pioglitazone 30mg added to ongoing tab Metformin (500mg) therapy for 16 weeks. The follow-up visits were on weeks 4,12 and 16. Result: 16 weeks later, addition of Sitagliptin 100mg compared to that of Pioglitazone 30 mg to ongoing Metformin therapy provided similar glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) lowering efficacy in patients with T2DM with inadequate glycemic control on metformin monotherapy. Change in HbA1c in group1 was -0.656±0.21%(p<0.0001) whereas in group2 was -0.748±0.35%(p<0.0001). Hence decrease in HbA1c from baseline was more in group2. Both treatments were well tolerated with negligible risk of hypoglycaemia. Weight loss was observed with Sitagliptin in contrast to weight gain seen in Pioglitazone. Conclusion: In this study, Sitagliptin 100 mg along with metformin therapy in comparison to pioglitazone 30 mg plus metformin therapy was both effective, well-tolerated and improved glycemic control in both the groups. Addition of pioglitazone had cause oedema and weight gain to the patients whereas sitagliptin caused weight loss in its patients.

Keywords: sitagliptin, pioglitazone, metformin, type 2 diabetes mellitus

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5865 An Early Detection Type 2 Diabetes Using K - Nearest Neighbor Algorithm

Authors: Ng Liang Shen, Ngahzaifa Abdul Ghani

Abstract:

This research aimed at developing an early warning system for pre-diabetic and diabetics by analyzing simple and easily determinable signs and symptoms of diabetes among the people living in Malaysia using Particle Swarm Optimized Artificial. With the skyrocketing prevalence of Type 2 diabetes in Malaysia, the system can be used to encourage affected people to seek further medical attention to prevent the onset of diabetes or start managing it early enough to avoid the associated complications. The study sought to find out the best predictive variables of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, developed a system to diagnose diabetes from the variables using Artificial Neural Networks and tested the system on accuracy to find out the patent generated from diabetes diagnosis result in machine learning algorithms even at primary or advanced stages.

Keywords: diabetes diagnosis, Artificial Neural Networks, artificial intelligence, soft computing, medical diagnosis

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5864 Effects of Knowledge on Fruit Diets by Integrating Posters and Actual-Sized Fruit Models in Health Education for Elderly Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Authors: Suchada Wongsawat

Abstract:

The objectives of this quasi-experiment were: 1) to compare pretest and posttest scores of the experimental group who were given health education on the “Fruit Diets for Elderly Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus”; and 2) to compare the posttest scores between experimental group and controlled group. The samples of this study were elderly patients with type 2 Diabetes Mellitus at Tambon Kanai Health Promoting Hospital, Thailand. The samples were randomly assigned to experimental and controlled groups, with 30 patients in each group. Statistics used in the data analysis included frequency, percentage, average, standard deviation, paired t-test and independent t-test. The study revealed that the patients in the experimental group had significantly higher posttest scores than the pretest scores in the health education at the .05 statistical level. The posttest scores of the experimental group in the health education were significantly higher than the controlled group at the .05 statistical level.

Keywords: fruit, health education, elderly, diabetes

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5863 Altered L-Type Calcium Channel Activity in Atrioventricular Nodal Myocytes from Rats with Streptozotocin-Induced Type I Diabetes Mellitus

Authors: Kathryn H. Yull, Lina T. Al Kury, Frank Christopher Howarth

Abstract:

Cardiovascular diseases are frequently reported in patients with Type-1 Diabetes mellitus (DM). In addition to changes in cardiac muscle inotropy, electrical abnormalities are also commonly observed in these patients. In the present study, using streptozotocin (STZ) rat model of Type-1 DM, we have characterized the changes in L-type calcium channel activity in single atrioventricular nodal (AVN) myocytes. Ionic currents were recorded from AVN myocytes isolated from the hearts of control rats and from those with STZ-induced diabetes. Patch-clamp recordings were used to assess changes in cellular electrical activity in individual myocytes. Type-1 DM significantly altered the cellular characteristics of L-type calcium current (ICaL). A reduction in peak ICaL density was observed, with no corresponding changes in the activation parameters of the current. ICaL also exhibited faster time-dependent inactivation in AVN myocytes from diabetic rats. A negative shift in the voltage dependence of inactivation was also evident. These findings demonstrate that experimentally–induced type-1 DM significantly alters AVN L-type calcium channel cellular electrophysiology. The changes in ion channel activity may underlie the abnormalities in the cardiac electrical function that contribute to the high mortality levels in patients with DM.

Keywords: cardiac, ion-channel, diabetes, atrioventricular node, calcium channel

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5862 Prevalence of Microalbuminuria and Its Relation with Various Risk Factors in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

Authors: Singh Baljinder, Sharma Navneet

Abstract:

Microalbuminuria is the earliest detectable marker of diabetic nephropathy. We planned to evaluate the prevalence of microalbuminuria in type 1 diabetics and correlate with various risk factor. We randomly selected 100 type 1 diabetic patients after inclusion and exclusion criteria from DCRC, S. P. Medical College, Bikaner. Clinical examinations for anthropometeric parameters, hypertension, retinopathy, glycaemic status, lipid profile were done and microalbuminuria was estimated by micral test. Microalbuminuria was seen in 38% patients. The mean urinary albumin concentration was 96.61 mg/l in microalbuminuria positive cases, 134 mg/L in hypertensive patients while 74.5 mg/L in normal patients. Mean diabetic duration was 6.43 years in microalbuminurics. Albumin excretion increased significantly with age at onset of 10-18 years and declined thereafter. Microalbuminuria cases exhibited mean cholesterol 181.63 mg%, TG 130.94 mg%, LDL 109.87 mg%, HDL 57.5 mg% and VLDL 30.64 mg%. Mean urinary albumin concentration in patients with retinopathy was 160.52 mg/L while 78.66 mg/L without retinopathy. In multiple stepwise logistic regression analysis, a strong positive association was seen between microalbuminuria and hypertension (OR=5.087, CI=2.1319-12.101), fasting blood sugar (OR=3. 491, CI=1.138-10.70), duration of diabetes (OR=3.41, CI=1.360-8.55) and HbA1c (OR=2.381, CI-=1.1-5.64). The present study indicates that microalbuminuria is a common complication of type 1 diabetes mellitus and can be prevented by careful management of risk factors.

Keywords: type 1 diabetes, microalbuminuria, diabetic nephropathy, retinopathy, hypertension

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5861 Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) Increasing Postpartum Screening to Prevent T2D

Authors: Boma Nellie S, Nambiar Ritu, K. Kanchanmala, T. Rashida, Israell Imelda, Moul Khusnud, Michael Marina

Abstract:

Gestational diabetes (GDM) imparts an increased life long risk of developing Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease in women. Once diagnosed with GDM women have up to 74% increased cumulative risk developing T2DM in 10-15 years. Identifying women at increased risk of developing T2DM and offering them pharmacological and lifestyle management interventions will delay or eliminate the development of diabetes in this population. While ADA recommends that all gestational diabetics be offered postnatal screening, worldwide the screening rates from 35-75% and Al Rahba Hospital with a robust universal antenatal screening program for GDM was at a dismal 9% in 2011. A multidisciplinary team was put together involving OB/Gyn Physicians, Midwives, Nurses (ward and OPD) Diabetic Educators, Dietitians, Medical Records, Laboratory & IT with the implementation of multiple strategies to increase the uptake of postpartum screening of the gestational diabetic.

Keywords: GDM, postnatal screening, preventing type 2 diabetes, lifestyle management

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5860 A Study of the Disorders of Sexual Functioning in Women with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in a Tertiary Care Hospital in India

Authors: Mehak Nagpal, T. S. Sathyanarayan Rao

Abstract:

Background: Sexual functioning is a neglected aspect of health in women with diabetes, though it contributes greatly towards quality of life and feeling of wellbeing. Also women with DM are at higher risk than men of developing sexual dysfunction and depression. Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional comparison study. Sample size: 100 previously diagnosed type 2DM patients attending Outpatient Diabetic Clinic at Medicine department JSS Hospital Mysore; aged 20-65 years and 60 normal healthy female subjects for Control group. Data was collected with ethical approval over a period of 2 years. Tools Used: 1) Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD – 17 item) 2) Female Sexual Functioning Index (FSFI) 3) Arizona Sexual Experience Scale (ASEX-F) for female-for screening. 4) The Appraisal of Diabetes Scale (ADS). Results: Statistically significant differences were observed in prevalence rate and severity of depression between diabetic group (45% vs 11% syndromal depression) and controls. Depression scores correlated significantly with glycaemic control, adherence to treatment, BMI and the cognitive appraisal of diabetes. There was significantly greater impairment in the sexual functioning of women with type 2 diabetes mellitus as compared to controls; both prevalence (62% vs 38.3%) and severity (p value < 0.01). Arousal (74.2% vs 53.3%), Desire (76.3% vs 50%) and Satisfaction (76.7% vs 63.7%) were most affected and 64.5% were affected in 2 or more domains. A negative illness appraisal on ADS correlated significantly with poor glycaemic control, higher rates of depression and also more severe female sexual dysfunction (p value < 0.05). Conclusion: Diabetes specific factors that correlated significantly with FSD in this study included the psychological appraisal of diabetes, duration of diabetes, presence of complications and BMI.

Keywords: depression, female sexual dysfunction, India, type 2 diabetes mellitus

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5859 Clinical Profile and Outcome of Type I Diabetes Mellitus at a Tertiary Care-Centre in Eastern Nepal

Authors: Gauri Shankar Shah

Abstract:

Objectives: The Type I diabetes mellitus in children is frequently a missed diagnosis and children presents in emergency with diabetic ketoacidosis having significant morbidity and mortality. The present study was done to find out the clinical presentation and outcome at a tertiary-care centre. Methods: This was retrospective analysis of data of Type I diabetes mellitus reporting to our centre during last one year (2012-2013). Results: There were 12 patients (8 males) and the age group was 4-14 years (mean ± 3.7). The presenting symptoms were fever, vomiting, altered sensorium and fast breathing in 8 (66.6%), 6 (50%), 4 (33.3%), and 4 (33.3%) cases, respectively. The classical triad of polyuria, polydypsia, and polyphagia were present only in two patients (33.2%). Seizures and epigastric pain were found in two cases each (33.2%). The four cases (33.3%) presented with diabetic ketoacidosis due to discontinuation of insulin doses, while 2 had hyperglycemia alone. The hemogram revealed mean hemoglobin of 12.1± 1.6 g/dL and total leukocyte count was 22,883.3 ± 10,345.9 per mm3, with polymorphs percentage of 73.1 ± 9.0%. The mean blood sugar at presentation was 740 ± 277 mg/ dl (544–1240). HbA1c ranged between 7.1-8.8 with mean of 8.1±0.6 %. The mean sodium, potassium, blood ph, pCO2, pO2 and bicarbonate were 140.8 ± 6.9 mEq/L, 4.4 ± 1.8mEq/L, 7.0 ± 0.2, 20.2 ± 10.8 mmHg, 112.6 ± 46.5 mmHg and 9.2 ± 8.8 mEq/L, respectively. All the patients were managed in pediatric intensive care unit as per our protocol, recovered and discharged on intermediate insulin given twice daily. Conclusions: Thus, it shows that these patients have uncontrolled hyperglycemia and often presents in emergency with ketoacidosis and deranged biochemical profile. The regular administration of insulin, frequent monitoring of blood sugar and health education are required to have better metabolic control and good quality of life.

Keywords: type I diabetes mellitus, hyperglycemia, outcome, glycemic control

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5858 Effect of Scaling and Root Planing on Improvement of Glycemic Control in Periodontitis Patients with Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus

Authors: Shivalal Sharma, Sanjib K. Sharma, Madhab Lamsal

Abstract:

Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical and laboratory changes three months after full-mouth scaling and root planing (SRP) in periodontitis patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Methods: Forty-seven type 2 DM subjects with moderate to severe periodontitis were randomly divided into two groups. Treatment group (TG), 25 subjects, received full-mouth scaling and root planning; control group (CG), 22 subjects, received no treatment. At baseline and at the end of three months, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) values, fasting glucose, and clinical parameters like plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), probing pocket depth (PPD), and clinical attachment level (CAL) were recorded in all the patients. Following SRP, the patients were enrolled in a monthly interval maintenance program for 3 months. Results: A statistically significant effect could be demonstrated for PI, GI, PPD, and CAL for the treatment group. HbA1c levels in the treatment group decreased significantly whereas the control group showed a slight but insignificant increase for these parameters. Conclusions: The results of this study showed that non-surgical periodontal treatment (SRP) is associated with improved glycemic control in type 2 DM patients and could be undertaken along with the standard measures for the diabetic patient care.

Keywords: periodontitis, type 2 diabetes mellitus, non-surgical periodontal therapy, SRP

Procedia PDF Downloads 201