Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 17

Search results for: cytology

17 Diagnostic Evaluation of Urinary Angiogenin (ANG) and Clusterin (CLU) as Biomarker for Bladder Cancer

Authors: Marwa I. Shabayek, Ola A. Said, Hanan A. Attaia, Heba A. Awida


Bladder carcinoma is an important worldwide health problem. Both cystoscopy and urine cytology used in detecting bladder cancer suffer from drawbacks where cystoscopy is an invasive method and urine cytology shows low sensitivity in low grade tumors. This study validates easier and less time-consuming techniques to evaluate the value of combined use of angiogenin and clusterin in comparison and combination with voided urine cytology in the detection of bladder cancer patients. This study includes malignant (bladder cancer patients, n= 50), benign (n=20), and healthy (n=20) groups. The studied groups were subjected to cystoscopic examination, detection of bilharzial antibodies, urine cytology, and estimation of urinary angiogenin and clusterin by ELISA. The overall sensitivity and specifcity were 66% and 75% for angiogenin, 70% and 82.5% for clusterin and 46% and 80% for voided urine cytology. Combined sensitivity of angiogenin and clusterin with urine cytology increased from 82 to 88%.

Keywords: angiogenin, bladder cancer, clusterin, cytology

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16 Performance of the Abbott RealTime High Risk HPV Assay with SurePath Liquid Based Cytology Specimens from Women with Low Grade Cytological Abnormalities

Authors: Alexandra Sargent, Sarah Ferris, Ioannis Theofanous


The Abbott RealTime High Risk HPV test (RealTime HPV) is one of five assays clinically validated and approved by the English NHS Cervical Screening Programme (CSP) for HPV triage of low grade dyskaryosis and test-of-cure of treated Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia. The assay is a highly automated multiplex real-time PCR test for detecting 14 high risk (hr) HPV types, with simultaneous differentiation of HPV 16 and HPV 18 versus non-HPV 16/18 hrHPV. An endogenous internal control ensures sample cellularity, controls extraction efficiency and PCR inhibition. The original cervical specimen collected in SurePath (SP) liquid-based cytology (LBC) medium (BD Diagnostics) and the SP post-gradient cell pellets (SPG) after cytological processing are both CE marked for testing with the RealTime HPV test. During the 2011 NHSCSP validation of new tests only the original aliquot of SP LBC medium was investigated. Residual sample volume left after cytology slide preparation is low and may not always have sufficient volume for repeat HPV testing or for testing of other biomarkers that may be implemented in testing algorithms in the future. The SPG samples, however, have sufficient volumes to carry out additional testing and necessary laboratory validation procedures. This study investigates the correlation of RealTime HPV results of cervical specimens collected in SP LBC medium from women with low grade cytological abnormalities observed with matched pairs of original SP LBC medium and SP post-gradient cell pellets (SPG) after cytology processing. Matched pairs of SP and SPG samples from 750 women with borderline (N = 392) and mild (N = 351) cytology were available for this study. Both specimen types were processed and parallel tested for the presence of hrHPV with RealTime HPV according to the manufacturer´s instructions. HrHPV detection rates and concordance between test results from matched SP and SPGCP pairs were calculated. A total of 743 matched pairs with valid test results on both sample types were available for analysis. An overall-agreement of hrHPV test results of 97.5% (k: 0.95) was found with matched SP/SPG pairs and slightly lower concordance (96.9%; k: 0.94) was observed on 392 pairs from women with borderline cytology compared to 351 pairs from women with mild cytology (98.0%; k: 0.95). Partial typing results were highly concordant in matched SP/SPG pairs for HPV 16 (99.1%), HPV 18 (99.7%) and non-HPV16/18 hrHPV (97.0%), respectively. 19 matched pairs were found with discrepant results: 9 from women with borderline cytology and 4 from women with mild cytology were negative on SPG and positive on SP; 3 from women with borderline cytology and 3 from women with mild cytology were negative on SP and positive on SPG. Excellent correlation of hrHPV DNA test results was found between matched pairs of SP original fluid and post-gradient cell pellets from women with low grade cytological abnormalities tested with the Abbott RealTime High-Risk HPV assay, demonstrating robust performance of the test with both specimen types and reassuring the utility of the assay for cytology triage with both specimen types.

Keywords: Abbott realtime test, HPV, SurePath liquid based cytology, surepath post-gradient cell pellet

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15 Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: Cervical Cytology Features and Its Association with Endometrial Cancer

Authors: Faezah Shekh Abdullah, Mohd. Azizuddin Mohd. Yussof, Komathy Thiagarajan, Hasnoorina Husin, Noor Azreena Abd Aziz


Polycystic ovary syndrome has been associated with multiple disorders such as endocrine disorder, metabolic syndrome, infertility, and endometrial cancer. Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are anticipated to develop three times more chances for endometrial cancer than women without PCOS. This study, therefore, was conducted to determine the association between polycystic ovary syndrome and endometrial cancer and to determine the cervical cytology features of PCOS. Patients attending the Subfertility Clinic of the National Population and Family Development Board were recruited and examined physically by medical practitioners. They were categorized into two groups; i) the PCOS group if they met Rotterdam Criteria 2004 and ii) the control group if they did not meet Rotterdam Criteria 2004. Cervical sampling was done on all patients via the Liquid-Based Cytology (LBC) method in the pre-and post-subfertility treatment. A total of 167 patients participated in the study, of which 79 belonged to the PCOS group and 88 to the control group. The findings showed no cervical and endometrial cancer cases in both groups. The Liquid-Based Cytology results in the PCOS group displayed more cases with cellular changes, i.e., benign inflammation, atrophic smear and Candida sp. infection. To conclude, no association was found between polycystic ovary syndrome and endometrial cancer. A more holistic study with a higher number of participants can further determine the association between endometrial cancer and PCOS. Furthermore, a longer duration between LBC pre- and post-subfertility treatment should be implied to observe changes in the cervical cells.

Keywords: endometrial cancer, liquid-based cytology, PCOS, polycystic ovary syndrome

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14 Cytology and Flow Cytometry of Three Japanese Drosera Species

Authors: Santhita Tungkajiwangkoon, Yoshikazu Hoshi


Three Japaneses Drosera species are the good model to study genome organization with highly specialized morphological group for insect trapping, and has revealed anti-inflammatory, and antibacterial effects, so there must be a reason for botanists are so appealing in these plants. Cytology and Flow cytometry were used to investigate the genetic stability and ploidy estimation in three related species. The cytological and Flow cytometry analysis were done in Drosera rotundifolia L., Drosera spatulata Labill and Drosera tokaiensis. The cytological studies by fluorescence staining (DAPI) showed that D. tokaiensis was an alloploid (2n=6x=60, hexaploid) which is a natural hybrid polyploids of D. rotundifolia and D. spatulata. D. rotundifolia was a diploid with the middle size of metaphase chromosomes (2n=2x=20) as a paternal origin and D. spatulata was a tetraploid with small size of metaphase chromosome (2n=4x=40) as a maternal origin. We confirmed by Flow cytometry analysis to determine the ploidy level and DNA content of the plants. The 2C-DNA values of D. rotundiflolia were 2.8 pg, D. spatulata was 1.6 pg and D. tokaiensis was 3.9 pg. However, 2C- DNA values of D. tokaiensis should be related from their parents but in the present study the 2C-DNA values of D. tokaiensis was no relation from the theoretical of hybrids representing additive parental. Possibility of D. tokaiensis is a natural hybrid, which is also hybridization in natural evolution can cause the genome reduction in plant.

Keywords: drosera, hybrid, cytology, flow cytometry

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13 Cytology Is a Promising Tool for the Diagnosis of High-Grade Serous Ovarian Carcinoma from Ascites

Authors: Miceska Simona, Škof Erik, Frković Grazio Snježana, Jeričević Anja, Smrkolj Špela, Cvjetićanin Branko, Novaković Srdjan, Grčar Kuzmanov Biljana, Kloboves-Prevodnik Veronika


Objectives: High-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) is characterized by the dissemination of the tumor cells (TC) in the peritoneal cavity forming malignant ascites at the time of diagnosis or recurrence. Still, cytology itself has been underutilized as a modality for the diagnosis of HGSOC from ascites, and histological examination from the tumor tissue is yet the only validated method used. The objective of this study was to evaluate the reliability of cytology in the diagnosis of HGSOC in relation to the histopathological examination. Methods: The study included 42 patients with histologically confirmed HGSOC, accompanied by malignant ascites. To confirm the malignancy of the TC in the ascites and to define their immunophenotype, immunohistochemical reaction (IHC) of the following antigens: Calretinin, MOC, WT1, PAX8, p53, p16 & Ki-67 was evaluated on ascites cytospins and tissue blocks. For complete cytological determination of HGSOC, BRCA 1/2 gene mutation was determined from ascites, tissue block, and blood. BRCA1/2 mutation from blood was performed to define the type of mutation, somatic vs germline. Results: Among 42 patients, the immunophenotype of HGSOC from ascites was confirmed in 36 cases (86%). For more profound analysis, the patients were divided in 3 groups regarding the number of TC present in the ascites: patients with less than 10% TC, 10% TC, and more than 10% TC. From all included patients, in the group with less than 10% TC, there were 10 cases, and only 5 of them(50%) showed HGSOC phenotype; 12 cases had equally 10% of TC, and 11 cases (92%) showed HGSOC phenotype; 20 cases had more than 10% TC and all of them (100%) confirmed the HGSOC immunophenotype from ascites. Only 33 patients were eligible for further BRCA1/2 analysis. Eleven BRCA1/2 mutations were detected from thetissue block: 6 germline and 5 somatic. In 2 cases with less than 10% TC, BRCA1/2 mutation was not detected; 4 cases had 10% TC, and 2 of them (50%) confirmed the mutation; 4 cases had more than 10% TC, and all showed 100% reliability with the tumor tissue. Conclusions: Cytology is a highly reliable method for determining the immunophenotype of HGSOC and BRCA1/2 mutation if more than 10% of tumor cells are present in the ascites. This may present an additional non-invasive clinical approach for fast and effective diagnose in the future, especially in inoperable conditions or relapses.

Keywords: cytology, ascites, high-grade serous ovarian cancer, immunophenotype, BRCA1/2

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12 Diagnosis of Gingivitis Based on Correlations of Laser Doppler Data and Gingival Fluid Cytology

Authors: A. V. Belousov, Yakushenko


One of the main problems of modern dentistry is development a reliable method to detect inflammation in the gums on the stages of diagnosis and assessment of treatment efficacy. We have proposed a method of gingival fluid intake, which successfully combines accessibility, excluding the impact of the annoying and damaging the gingival sulcus factors and provides reliable results (patent of RF№ 2342956 Method of gingival fluid intake). The objects of the study were students - volunteers of Dentistry Faculty numbering 75 people aged 20-21 years. Cellular composition of gingival fluid was studied using microscope "Olympus CX 31" (Japan) with the calculation of epithelial leukocyte index (ELI). Assessment of gingival micro circulation was performed using the apparatus «LAKK–01» (Lazma, Moscow). Cytological investigation noted the highly informative of epithelial leukocyte index (ELI), which demonstrated changes in the mechanisms of protection gums. The increase of ELI occurs during inhibition mechanisms of phagocytosis and activation of epithelial desquamation. The cytological data correlate with micro circulation indicators obtained by laser Doppler flowmetry. We have identified and confirmed the correlations between parameters laser Doppler flowmetry and data cytology gingival fluid in patients with gingivitis.

Keywords: gingivitis, laser doppler flowmetry, gingival fluid cytology, epithelial leukocyte index (ELI)

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11 Regional Review of Outcome of Cervical Smears Reported with Cytological Features of Non Cervical Glandular Neoplasia

Authors: Uma Krishnamoorthy, Vivienne Beavers, Janet Marshall


Introduction: Cervical cytology showing features raising the suspicion of non cervical glandular neoplasia are reported as code 0 under the United Kingdom National Health Service Cervical screening programme ( NHSCSP). As the suspicion is regarding non cervical neoplasia, smear is reported as normal and patient informed that cervical screening result is normal. GP receives copy of results where it states further referral is indicated in small font within text of report. Background: There were several incidents of delayed diagnosis of endometrial cancer in Lancashire which prompted this Northwest Regional review to enable an understanding of underlying pathology outcome of code zero smears to raise awareness and also to review whether further action on wording of smear results was indicated to prevent such delay. Methodology: All Smears reported at the Manchester cytology centre who process cytology for Lancashire population from March 2013 to March 2014 were reviewed and histological diagnosis outcome of women in whom smear was reported as code zero was reviewed retrospectively . Results: Total smears reported by the cytology centre during this period was approximately 109400. Reports issued with result code 0 among this during this time period was 49.Results revealed that among three fourth (37) of women with code zero smear (N=49), evidence of underlying pathology of non cervical origin was confirmed. Of this, 73 % (36) were due to endometrial pathology with 49 % (24) endometrial carcinoma, 12 % (6)polyp, 4 % atypical endometrial hyperplasia (2), 6 % endometrial hyperplasia without atypia (3), and 2 % adenomyosis (1 case) and 2 % ( 1 case) due to ovarian adenocarcinoma. Conclusion: This review demonstrated that more than half (51 %) of women with a code 0 smear report were diagnosed with underlying carcinoma and 75 % had a confirmed underlying pathology contributory to code 0 smear findings. Recommendations and Action Plan: A local rapid access referral and management pathway for this group of women was implemented as a result of this in our unit. The findings and Pathway were shared with other regional units served by the cytology centre through the Pan Lancashire cervical screening board and through the Cytology centre. Locally, the smear report wording was updated to include a rubber stamp/ print in "Red Bold letters" stating that " URGENT REFERRAL TO GYNAECOLOGY IS INDICATED". Findings were also shared through the Pan Lancashire board with National cervical screening programme board, and revisions to wording of code zero smear reports to highlight the need for Urgent referral has now been agreed at National level to be implemented.

Keywords: code zero smears, endometrial cancer, non cervical glandular neoplasia, ovarian cancer

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10 Evaluating Multiple Diagnostic Tests: An Application to Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia

Authors: Areti Angeliki Veroniki, Sofia Tsokani, Evangelos Paraskevaidis, Dimitris Mavridis


The plethora of diagnostic test accuracy (DTA) studies has led to the increased use of systematic reviews and meta-analysis of DTA studies. Clinicians and healthcare professionals often consult DTA meta-analyses to make informed decisions regarding the optimum test to choose and use for a given setting. For example, the human papilloma virus (HPV) DNA, mRNA, and cytology can be used for the cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2+ (CIN2+) diagnosis. But which test is the most accurate? Studies directly comparing test accuracy are not always available, and comparisons between multiple tests create a network of DTA studies that can be synthesized through a network meta-analysis of diagnostic tests (DTA-NMA). The aim is to summarize the DTA-NMA methods for at least three index tests presented in the methodological literature. We illustrate the application of the methods using a real data set for the comparative accuracy of HPV DNA, HPV mRNA, and cytology tests for cervical cancer. A search was conducted in PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus from inception until the end of July 2019 to identify full-text research articles that describe a DTA-NMA method for three or more index tests. Since the joint classification of the results from one index against the results of another index test amongst those with the target condition and amongst those without the target condition are rarely reported in DTA studies, only methods requiring the 2x2 tables of the results of each index test against the reference standard were included. Studies of any design published in English were eligible for inclusion. Relevant unpublished material was also included. Ten relevant studies were finally included to evaluate their methodology. DTA-NMA methods that have been presented in the literature together with their advantages and disadvantages are described. In addition, using 37 studies for cervical cancer obtained from a published Cochrane review as a case study, an application of the identified DTA-NMA methods to determine the most promising test (in terms of sensitivity and specificity) for use as the best screening test to detect CIN2+ is presented. As a conclusion, different approaches for the comparative DTA meta-analysis of multiple tests may conclude to different results and hence may influence decision-making. Acknowledgment: This research is co-financed by Greece and the European Union (European Social Fund- ESF) through the Operational Programme «Human Resources Development, Education and Lifelong Learning 2014-2020» in the context of the project “Extension of Network Meta-Analysis for the Comparison of Diagnostic Tests ” (MIS 5047640).

Keywords: colposcopy, diagnostic test, HPV, network meta-analysis

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9 Incidence of Vulval, Vaginal and Cervical Disease in Rapid Access Clinic in a London Tertiary Hospital Setting

Authors: Kieren Wilson, Gulnaz Majeed


NHS constitution gives rights to the patient with suspected cancer to be seen by a cancer specialist within 2 weeks of referral. Guys and St Thomas Hospital (GSTT) is one of the largest cancer centres in London. NICE guidelines have provided guidance for health professionals to refer patients appropriately to RAC. In GSTT suspected gynae cancer referrals are mostly by NHS e-Referral Service with some fax, emails as well as paper referrals. The objective of this study was to evaluate compliance with 2-week referral pathway with emphasis on one stop diagnostic service with supporting efficient pathways. A prospective evaluation over 3 months (1 Jan 2017 to 31 Mar 2017) was undertaken. There were 26 clinics, 761 patients were booked in the clinics with a DNA rate of 13% (n=101) hence 606 patients were seen. Majority of referrals were for post menopausal bleeding (PMB) 25% (n=194) followed by cervical, vaginal, vulval reasons 23% (n=179) (abnormal cytology excluded as patients directly referred to colposcopy unit in GSTT), ovarian 7% (n=54) and endometrial 5% (n=41). Women with new or previous established diagnosis of cancer were 24, cervical (n=17), vulva (n=6) and vagina (n=1). Multifocal preinvasive disease vulva (VIN), vagina (VAIN) and cervix (CIN) was confirmed in twenty-six patients 4% (high prevalence in HIV patients). Majority of cervical referrals: PCB (n=14), cervical erosion (n=7), polyps (n=9) and cervical cyst were benign. However, two women with PMB had cervical cancer. Only 2 out of 13 referrals with vaginal concerns had VAIN. One case with non-cervical glandular cytology was confirmed to have endometrial cancer. One stop service based on the diagnostic support of ultrasound, colposcopy and hysteroscopy was achieved in 54% (n=359). Patients were discharged to GP, benign gynaecology, endometriosis, combined vulval/dermatology clinic or gynae oncology. 33% (n=202) required a second visit, 12% (n=70) third visit, 3% (n=19) fourth visit, 1% (n=4) fifth visit and 1% (n=6) sixth visit. Main reasons for follow ups were the unavailability of diagnostic slots, patient choice, need for interpreters, the discussion following gynae MDM review for triage to benign gynae, delay in availability of diagnostic results like histology/MRI/CT. Recommendations following this study are multi disciplinary review of pathways with the availability of additional diagnostic procedure slots to aim for one stop service. Furthermore, establishment of virtual and telephone consultations to reduce follow ups.

Keywords: multifocal disease, post menopausal bleeding, preinvasive disease, rapid access clinic

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8 Abnormal Pap Smear Detection by Application of Revised Bethesda System in Commercial Sex Workers and a Control Group: A Comparative Study

Authors: Priyanka Manghani, Manthan Patel, Rahul Peddawad


Cervical Cancer is a major public health hurdle in the area of women’s health. The most common cause of Cervical Cancer is the Human Papilloma Virus (HPV). Human papilloma virus has various genotypes, with HPV 16 and HPV 18 being the major etiological factor causing carcinoma of the Cervix. Early screening and detection by Papanicolaou Smears (PAP) is an effective method for identifying premalignant and malignant lesions. In case of existing pre- malignant lesions /cervical dysplasia’s found with HPV 16 or 18, appropriate follow up can be done to prevent it from developing into a neoplasm. Aims and Objectives: Primary Aim; To study various abnormal cervical cytology reports as detected by Pap Smear Tests, using the Bethesda System in women at a Tertiary Care Hospital. Secondary Aim; To discuss the importance of Pap smear in Cervical Cancer Screening Program. Materials and Methods: Our study is a prospective study, based on 101 women who attended the Out-patient department of Obstetrics and Gynecology at a tertiary care hospital in age group 20-40 years with chief complaints of white/foul vaginal discharge, post-coital Bleeding, low back pain, irregular menstruation, etc. 60 women, who were tested, of the total no of women, were commercial sex workers, thus being a high-risk group for HPV infection. All women underwent conventional cytology. For all the abnormal smears, further cervical biopsies were done, and the final diagnosis was done on the basis of histopathology (gold standard). Results: In all these patients, 16 patients presented with normal smears out of which 2 belonged to the category of commercial sex workers (3.33%) and 14 being from the normal/control group (34.15%). 44 women presented with inflammatory smears out of which 30 were commercial sex workers (50%) and 14 from the control Group (34.15%). A total of 11 women presented with infectious etiology with 6 being commercial sex workers (10%) and 5 (12.2%) being in the control group. A total of 8 patients presented with low-grade squamous intra epithelial lesion (LSIL) with 7 (11.7%) being commercial sex workers and 1(2.44%) patient belonging to the control group. A Total of 7 patients presented with high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) with 6 (10%) being commercial sex workers and 1 (2.44%) belonging to the control group. 9 patients in total presented with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) with 6(10%) being commercial sex workers and 3 (7.32%) belonging to the control group. Squamous cell carcinoma(SCC) presence was found only in 1(1.7%) commercial sex worker. Conclusion – We conclude that HSIL, LSIL, SCC and sexually related infections are comparatively more common in vulnerable groups such as sex workers due to a variety of factors such as multiple sexual partners and poor genital hygiene. Early screening and follow up interventions are highly needed for them along with Health education for risk factors and to emphasize on the importance of Pap smear screening.

Keywords: cervical cancer, papanicolaou (pap) smear, bethesda system, neoplasm

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7 A 3-Year Evaluation Study on Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology and Corresponding Histology

Authors: Amjad Al Shammari, Ashraf Ibrahim, Laila Seada


Background and Objectives: Incidence of thyroid carcinoma has been increasing world-wide. In the present study, we evaluated diagnostic accuracy of Fine needle aspiration (FNA) and its efficiency in early detecting neoplastic lesions of thyroid gland over a 3-year period. Methods: Data have been retrieved from pathology files in King Khalid Hospital. For each patient, age, gender, FNA, site & size of nodule and final histopathologic diagnosis were recorded. Results: Study included 490 cases where 419 of them were female and 71 male. Male to female ratio was 1:6. Mean age was 43 years for males and 38 for females. Cases with confirmed histopathology were 131. In 101/131 (77.1%), concordance was found between FNA and histology. In 30/131 (22.9%), there was discrepancy in diagnosis. Total malignant cases were 43, out of which 14 (32.5%) were true positive and 29 (67.44%) were false negative. No false positive cases could be found in our series. Conclusion: FNA could diagnose benign nodules in all cases, however, in malignant cases, ultrasound findings have to be taken into consideration to avoid missing of a microcarcinoma in the contralateral lobe.

Keywords: FNA, hail, histopathology, thyroid

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6 Endoscopic Ultrasound Guided Fine Needle Aspiration/Brush in Cytopathology Diagnosis: A Fifteen-Month Study

Authors: Santosh Tummidi, Pragati Sathe, Kanchan Kothari, Prachi Gholap, Mona Agnihotri, Gwendolyn Fernandes, Leena Naik, Rachana Chaturvedi


Introduction: EUS-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration/Brush (EUS-FNA/Brush) has become increasingly popular for the diagnosis and staging of gastrointestinal and peri-gastrointestinal lesions. Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy and spectrum of lesions in gastrointestinal EUS-FNA. Material and Methods: A total of 124 EUS-FNA during the period from Aug 2015-Nov 2016 were studied. Results: Age ranged from 13-80 years with a slight female predominance. CBD was the most common site with 47 cases amongst which were 9 adenocarcinoma, and 7 cases were suspicious for malignancy. Pancreatic EUS-FNA showed 5 adenocarcinoma, 2 SPEN, 1 case each of neuroendocrine tumor, anaplastic carcinoma and NHL. Amongst oesophageal lesions, 3 cases were suspicious for malignancy, and 4 were inflammatory, 4 showed SCC, 1case each adenocarcinoma and leiomyoma. Stomach- 1 case each of adenocarcinoma, granulomatous inflammation, and GIST. Periportal lymph nodes were the commonest nodes, and there were 11 necrotising granulomatous inflammations, 3 metastatic adenocarcinoma, 2 cases of atypical cells and 1 case of NHL. 17 cases were unsatisfactory, 41 cases had histopathology follow up with 85% cases being concordant. Conclusion: EUS-FNA is reliable, sensitive and specific. It can be utilized for better management of intra-abdominal lesions.

Keywords: EUS-FNA, brush, cytology, histopathology

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5 Safety and Efficacy of Laparoscopic D2 Gastrectomy for Advanced Gastric Cancers Single Unit Experience

Authors: S. M. P Manjula, Ishara Amarathunga, Aryan Nath Koura, Jaideepraj Rao


Background: Laparoscopic D2 Gastrectomy for non metastatic advanced Gastric cancer (AGC) has become a controversial topic as there are confronting ideas from experts in the field. Lack of consensus are mainly due to non feasibility of the dissection and safety and efficacy. Method: Data from all D2 Gastrectomies performed (both Subtotal and Total Gastrectomies) in our unit from 2009 December to 2013 December were retrospectively analysed. Computor database was prospectively maintained. Pathological stage two A (iiA) and above considered advanced Gastric cancers, who underwent curative intent D2 Gastrectomy were included for analysis(n=46). Four patients excluded from the study as peritoneal fluid cytology came positive for cancer cells and one patient exempted as microscopic resection margin positive(R1) after curative resection. Thirty day morbidity and mortality, operative time, lymph nodes harvest and survival (disease free and overall) analyzed. Results: Complete curative resection achieved in 40 patients. Mean age of the study population was 62.2 (32-88) and male to female ratio was 23: 17. Thirty day mortality (1/40) and morbidity (6/40). Average operative time 203.7 minutes (185- 400) and average lymphnodes harvest was 40.5 (18-91). Disease free survival of the AGC in this study population was 16.75 months (1-49). Average hospital stay was 6.8 days (3-31). Conclusion: Laparoscopic dissection is effective feasible and safe in AGC.

Keywords: laparoscopy, advanced gastric cancer, safety, efficacy

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4 Chromosomal Damage in Human Lymphocytes by Ultraviolet Radiation

Authors: Felipe Osorio Ospina, Maria Adelaida Mejia Arango, Esteban Onésimo Vallejo Agudelo, Victoria Lucía Dávila Osorio, Natalia Vargas Grisales, Lina María Martínez Sanchez, Camilo Andrés Agudelo Vélez, Ángela Maria Londoño García, Isabel Cristina Ortiz Trujillo


Excessive exposure to ultraviolet radiation, has shown to be a risk factor for photodamage, alteration of the immune mechanisms to recognize malignant cells and cutaneous pro-inflamatorios States and skin cancers. Objective: Identify the time of exposure to ultraviolet radiation for the production of chromosomal damage in human lymphocytes. Methodology: We conducted an in vitro study serial, in which samples were taken from heparinized blood of healthy people, who do not submit exposure to agents that could induce chromosomal alterations. The samples were cultured in RPMI-1640 medium containing 10% fetal bovine serum, penicillin and streptomycin antibiotic. Subsequently, they were grouped and exposed to ultraviolet light for 1 to 20 seconds. At the end of the treatments, cytology samples were prepared, and it was colored with Giemsa (5%). Reading was carried out in an optical microscope and 100 metaphases analysed by treatment for posting chromosomal alterations. Each treatment was conducted at three separate times and each became two replicas. Results: We only presented chromosomal alterations in lymphocytes exposed to UV for a groups 1 to 3 seconds (p<0.05). Conclusions: Exposure to ultraviolet radiation generates visible damage in chromosomes from human lymphocytes observed in light microscopy, the highest rates of injury was observed between two and three seconds, and above this value, the reduction in the number of mitotic cells was evident.

Keywords: ultraviolet rays, lymphocytes, chromosome breakpoints, photodamage

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3 Ultraviolet Radiation and Chromosomal Damage in Human Lymphocytes

Authors: Felipe Osorio Ospina, Maria Adelaida Mejia Arango, Esteban Onésimo Vallejo Agudelo, Victoria Lucía Dávila Osorio, Natalia Vargas Grisales, Lina María Martínez Sanchez, Camilo Andrés Agudelo Vélez, Ángela Maria Londoño García, Isabel Cristina Ortiz Trujillo


Excessive exposure to ultraviolet radiation, has shown to be a risk factor for photodamage, alteration of the immune mechanisms to recognize malignant cells and cutaneous pro-inflamatorios states and skin cancers. Objective: To identify the time of exposure to ultraviolet radiation for the production of chromosomal damage in human lymphocytes. Methodology: We conducted an in vitro study serial, in which samples were taken from the heparinized blood of healthy people, who do not submit exposure to agents that could induce chromosomal alterations. The samples were cultured in RPMI-1640 medium containing 10% fetal bovine serum, penicillin, and streptomycin antibiotic. Subsequently, they were grouped and exposed to ultraviolet light for 1 to 20 seconds. At the end of the treatments, cytology samples were prepared, and it was colored with Giemsa (5%). Reading was carried out in an optical microscope and 100 metaphases analysed by treatment for posting chromosomal alterations. Each treatment was conducted at three separate times and each became two replicas. Results: We only presented chromosomal alterations in lymphocytes exposed to UV for groups 1 to 3 seconds (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Exposure to ultraviolet radiation generates visible damage in chromosomes from human lymphocytes observed in light microscopy, the highest rates of injury was observed between two and three seconds, and above this value, the reduction in the number of mitotic cells was evident.

Keywords: chromosome breakpoints, lymphocytes, photodamage, ultraviolet rays

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2 Serum MicroRNA and Inflammatory Mediators: Diagnostic Biomarkers for Endometritis in Arabian Mares

Authors: Sally Ibrahim, Mohamed Hedia, Mohamed Taqi, Mohamed Derbala, Karima Mahmoud, Youssef Ahmed, Sayed Ismail, Mohamed El-Belely


The identification and quantification of serum microRNA (miRNA) from mares with endometritis might serve as useful and implementable clinical biomarkers for the early diagnosis of endometiritis. Aims of the current study were (I) to study the expression pattern of eca-miR-155, eca-miR-223, eca-miR-17, eca-miR-200a, and eca-miR-205, and (II) to determine the levels of interleukin 6 (IL-6), prostaglandins (PGF₂α and PGE₂), in the serum of Arabian mares with healthy and abnormal uterine status (endometritis). This study was conducted on 80 Arabian mares (4-14 years old). Mares were divided into 48 sub-fertile mares suspected of endometritis and 32 fertile at stud farms. The criteria for mares to be enrolled in the endometritis group were that they had been bred three or more times unsuccessfully in the breeding season or had a history of more than one year of reproductive failure. In addition, two or more of the following criteria on a checklist were present: abnormal clinical findings, transrectal ultrasonographic uterine examination showed abnormal fluid in the uterus (echogenic or ≥2 cm in diameter), positive endometrial cytology; and bacterial and/or fungal growth. Serum samples were collected for measuring IL-6, PGF₂α, and PGE₂ concentrations, as well as serum miRNA isolation and quantitative real-time PCR. Serum concentrations of IL-6, PGE₂, and PGF₂α were higher (P ≤ 0.001) in mares with endometritis compared to the control healthy ones. The expression profile of eca-miR-155, eca-miR-223, eca-miR-17, eca-miR-200a, and eca-miR-205 increased (P≤0.001) in mares with endometritis compared to the control ones. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that revealed that serum miRNA and serum inflammatory mediators (IL-6, PGE₂, and PGF₂α) could be used as non-invasive gold standard biomarkers, and therefore might be served as an important additional diagnostic tool for endometritis in Arabian mares. Moreover, estimation of the serum concentrations of serum miRNA, IL-6, PGE₂, and PGF₂α is a promising recommended tool during the breeding soundness examination in mares.

Keywords: Arabian Mares, endometritis, inflammatory mediators, serum miRNA

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1 Endometrial Biopsy Curettage vs Endometrial Aspiration: Better Modality in Female Genital Tuberculosis

Authors: Rupali Bhatia, Deepthi Nair, Geetika Khanna, Seema Singhal


Introduction: Genital tract tuberculosis is a chronic disease (caused by reactivation of organisms from systemic distribution of Mycobacterium tuberculosis) that often presents with low grade symptoms and non-specific complaints. Patients with genital tuberculosis are usually young women seeking workup and treatment for infertility. Infertility is the commonest presentation due to involvement of the fallopian tubes, endometrium and ovarian damage with poor ovarian volume and reserve. The diagnosis of genital tuberculosis is difficult because of the fact that it is a silent invader of genital tract. Since tissue cannot be obtained from fallopian tubes, the diagnosis is made by isolation of bacilli from endometrial tissue obtained by endometrial biopsy curettage and/or aspiration. Problems are associated with sampling technique as well as diagnostic modality due to lack of adequate sample volumes and the segregation of the sample for various diagnostic tests resulting in non-uniform distribution of microorganisms. Moreover, lack of an efficient sampling technique universally applicable for all specific diagnostic tests contributes to the diagnostic challenges. Endometrial sampling plays a key role in accurate diagnosis of female genital tuberculosis. It may be done by 2 methods viz. endometrial curettage and endometrial aspiration. Both endometrial curettage and aspirate have their own limitations as curettage picks up strip of the endometrium from one of the walls of the uterine cavity including tubal osteal areas whereas aspirate obtains total tissue with exfoliated cells present in the secretory fluid of the endometrial cavity. Further, sparse and uneven distribution of the bacilli remains a major factor contributing to the limitations of the techniques. The sample that is obtained by either technique is subjected to histopathological examination, AFB staining, culture and PCR. Aim: Comparison of the sampling techniques viz. endometrial biopsy curettage and endometrial aspiration using different laboratory methods of histopathology, cytology, microbiology and molecular biology. Method: In a hospital based observational study, 75 Indian females suspected of genital tuberculosis were selected on the basis of inclusion criteria. The women underwent endometrial tissue sampling using Novaks biopsy curette and Karmans cannula. One part of the specimen obtained was sent in formalin solution for histopathological testing and another part was sent in normal saline for acid fast bacilli smear, culture and polymerase chain reaction. The results so obtained were correlated using coefficient of correlation and chi square test. Result: Concordance of results showed moderate agreement between both the sampling techniques. Among HPE, AFB and PCR, maximum sensitivity was observed for PCR, though the specificity was not as high as other techniques. Conclusion: Statistically no significant difference was observed between the results obtained by the two sampling techniques. Therefore, one may use either EA or EB to obtain endometrial samples and avoid multiple sampling as both the techniques are equally efficient in diagnosing genital tuberculosis by HPE, AFB, culture or PCR.

Keywords: acid fast bacilli (AFB), histopatholgy examination (HPE), polymerase chain reaction (PCR), endometrial biopsy curettage

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