Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 20

Search results for: fentanyl

20 Intrathecal Fentanyl with 0.5% Bupivacaine Heavy in Chronic Opium Abusers

Authors: Suneet Kathuria, Shikha Gupta, Kapil Dev, Sunil Katyal


Chronic use of opioids in opium abusers can cause poor pain control and increased analgaesic requirement. We compared the duration of spinal anaesthesia in chronic opium abusers and non-abusers. This prospective randomised study included 60 American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) Grade I or II adults undergoing surgery under spinal anaesthesia with 10 mg bupivacaine, and 25 μg fentanyl in non-opium abusers (Group A); and chronic opium abusers (Group B), and 40 μg fentanyl in chronic opium abusers (Group C). Patients were assessed for onset and duration of sensory and motor blockade and duration of effective analgesia. Mean time to onset of adequate analgesia in opium abusers was significantly longer in chronic opium abusers than in opium-naive patients. The duration of sensory block and motor block was significantly less in chronic opium abusers than in non-opium abusers. Duration of effective analgesia in groups A, B and C was 255.55 ± 26.84, 217.85 ± 15.15, and 268.20 ± 18.25 minutes, respectively; this difference was statistically significant. In chronic opium abusers, the duration of spinal anaesthesia is significantly shorter than that in opium nonabusers. The duration of spinal anaesthesia with bupivacaine and fentanyl in chronic opium abusers can be improved by increasing the intrathecal fentanyl dose from 25 μg to 40 μg.

Keywords: bupivacaine, chronic opium abusers, fentanyl, intrathecal

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19 Cross Reactivity of Risperidone in Fentanyl Point of Care Devices

Authors: Barry D. Kyle, Jessica Boyd, Robin Pickersgill, Nicole Squires, Cynthia Balion


Background-Aim: Fentanyl is a highly-potent synthetic μ-opioid receptor agonist used for exceptional pain management. Its main metabolite, norfentanyl, is typically present in urine at significantly high concentrations (i.e. ~20%) representing an effective targeting molecule for immunoassay detection. Here, we evaluated the NCSTM One Step Fentanyl Test Device© and the BTNX Rapid ResponseTM Single Drug Test Strip© point of care (POC) test strips targeting norfentanyl (20 ng/ml) and fentanyl (100 ng/ml) molecules for potential risperidone interference. Methods: POC tests calibrated against norfentanyl (20 ng/ml) used [immunochromatographic] lateral flow devices to provide qualitative results within five minutes of urine sample contact. Results were recorded as negative if lines appeared in the test and control regions according to manufacturer’s instructions. Positive results were recorded if no line appeared in the test region (i.e., control line only visible). Pooled patient urine (n=20), that screened negative for drugs of abuse (using NCS One Step Multi-Line Screen) and fentanyl (using BTNX Rapid Response Strip) was used for spiking studies. Urine was spiked with risperidone alone and with combinations of fentanyl, norfentanyl and/or risperidone to evaluate cross-reactivity in each test device. Results: A positive screen result was obtained when 8,000 ng/mL of risperidone was spiked into drug free urine using the NCS test device. Positive screen results were also obtained in spiked urine samples containing fentanyl and norfentanyl combinations below the cut-off concentrations when 4000 ng/mL risperidone was present using the NCS testing device. There were no screen positive test results using the BTNX test strip with up to 8,000 ng/mL alone or in combination with concentrations of fentanyl and norfentanyl below the cut-off. Both devices screened positive when either fentanyl or norfentanyl exceeded the cut-off threshold in the absence and presence of risperidone. Conclusion: We report that urine samples containing risperidone may give a false positive result using the NCS One Step Fentanyl Test Device.

Keywords: fentanyl, interferences, point of care test, Risperidone

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18 Intrathecal Sufentanil or Fentanyl as Adjuvants to Low Dose Bupivacaine in Endoscopic Urological Procedures

Authors: Shikha Gupta, Suneet Kathuria, Supriya Sampley, Sunil Katyal


Opioids are being increasingly used these days as adjuvants to local anesthetics in spinal anesthesia. The aim of this prospective, randomized, double‑blind study is to compare the effects of adding sufentanil or fentanyl to low dose bupivacaine in spinal anesthesia for endoscopic urological procedures. A total of 90 elective endoscopic urological surgery patients, 40‑80 years old, received spinal anesthesia with 7.5 mg hyperbaric bupivacaine 0.5% (Group A) or by adding sufentanil 10 μg (Group B) or fentanyl 25 μg (Group C) to 5 mg hyperbaric bupivacaine 0.5%. These groups were compared in terms of the quality of spinal anesthesia as well as analgesia. Analysis of variance and Chi‑square test were used for Statistical analysis. The onset of sensory and motor blockade was significantly rapid in Group A as compared with Groups B and C. The maximum upper level of sensory block was higher in Group A patients than Groups B and C patients. Quality of analgesia was significantly better and prolonged in sufentanil group as compared with other two groups. Motor block was more intense and prolonged in Group A as compared with Groups B and C patients. Request for post‑operative analgesic was significantly delayed in Group B patients. Hence in conclusions, spinal anesthesia for endoscopic urological procedures in elderly patients using low dose bupivacaine (5 mg) combined with 10 μg sufentanil is associated with a lower incidence of hemodynamic instability, better quality and prolonged duration as compared to that by adding 25 μg fentanyl.

Keywords: adjuvants, bupivacaine, fentanyl, intrathecal, low dose spinal, sufentanil

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17 A Randomised Controlled Study to Compare Efficacy and Safety of Bupivacaine plus Dexamethasone Versus Bupivacaine plus Fentanyl for Caudal Block in Children

Authors: Ashwini Patil


Caudal block is one of the most commonly used regional anesthetic techniques in children. Currently, fentanyl is used as an adjuvant to bupivacaine to prolong analgesia but fentanyl is a narcotic. Dexamethasone, a glucocorticoid with strong anti-inflammatory effects provides improvement in post-operative analgesia and post-operative side effects. However, its analgesic efficacy and safety in comparison with fentanyl has not been extensively studied. So the objective of this randomized controlled study is to compare dexamethasone with fentanyl as an adjuvant to bupivacaine for caudal block in children in relation to the duration of caudal analgesia, post-operative analgesic requirement and incidence of post-operative nausea and vomiting. This study included 100 children, aged 1–6 years, undergoing lower abdominal surgeries. Patients were randomized into two groups, 50 each to receive a combination of dexamethasone 0.2 mg/kg along with 1 ml/kg bupivacaine 0.25% (group A) or combination of fentanyl (1 ug/kg) along with 1ml/kg bupivacaine 0.25% (group B). In the post-operative period, pain was assessed using a Modified Objective Pain Scale (MOPS) until 12 hr after surgery and rescue analgesia is administered when MOPS score 4 or more is recorded. Residual motor block, number of analgesic doses required within 24 hr after surgery, sedation scores, intra-operative and post-operative hemodynamic variables, post-operative nausea and vomiting (PONV), and other adverse effects were recorded. Data is analysed using unpaired t test and Significance level of P< 0.05 is considered statistically significant. Group A showed a significantly longer time to first analgesic requirement than group B (p<0.05). The number of rescue analgesic doses required in the first 24 h was significantly less in group A (p<0.05). Group A showed significantly lower MOPS scores than group B(p<0.05). Intra-operative and post-operative hemodynamic variables, Modified Bromage Scale scores, and sedation scores were comparable in both the groups. Group A showed significantly fewer incidences of PONV compared with group B(p<0.05). This study reveals that adding dexamethasone to bupivacaine prolongs the duration of postoperative analgesia and decreases the incidence of PONV as compared to combination of fentanyl to bupivacaine after a caudal block in pediatric patients.

Keywords: bupivacaine, caudal analgesia, dexamethasone, pediatric

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16 Comparison of the Efficacy of Ketamine-Propofol versus Thiopental Sodium-Fentanyl in Procedural Sedation in the Emergency Department: A Randomized Double-Blind Clinical Trial

Authors: Maryam Bahreini, Mostafa Talebi Garekani, Fatemeh Rasooli, Atefeh Abdollahi


Introduction: Procedural sedation and analgesia have been desirable to handle painful procedures. The trend to find the agent with more efficacy and less complications is still controversial; thus, many sedative regimens have been studied. This study tried to assess the effectiveness and adverse effects of thiopental sodium-fentanyl with the known medication, ketamine-propofol for procedural sedation in the emergency department. Methods: Consenting patients were enrolled in this randomized double-blind trial to receive either 1:1 ketamine-propofol (KP) or thiopental-fentanyl (TF) 1:1 mg: Mg proportion on a weight-based dosing basis to reach the sedation level of American Society of Anesthesiologist class III/IV. The respiratory and hemodynamic complications, nausea and vomiting, recovery agitation, patient recall and satisfaction, provider satisfaction and recovery time were compared. The study was registered in Iranian randomized Control Trial Registry (Code: IRCT2015111325025N1). Results: 96 adult patients were included and randomized, 47 in the KP group and 49 in the TF group. 2.1% in the KP group and 8.1 % in the TF group experienced transient hypoxia leading to performing 4.2 % versus 8.1 % airway maneuvers for 2 groups, respectively; however, no statistically significant difference was observed between 2 combinations, and there was no report of endotracheal placement or further admission. Patient and physician satisfaction were significantly higher in the KP group. There was no difference in respiratory, gastrointestinal, cardiovascular and psychiatric adverse events, recovery time and patient recall of the procedure between groups. The efficacy and complications were not related to the type of procedure or patients’ smoking or addiction trends. Conclusion: Ketamine-propofol and thiopental-fentanyl combinations were effectively comparable although KP resulted in higher patient and provider satisfaction. It is estimated that thiopental fentanyl combination can be as potent and efficacious as ketofol with relatively similar incidence of adverse events in procedural sedation.

Keywords: adverse effects, conscious sedation, fentanyl, propofol, ketamine, safety, thiopental

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15 Comparative Study of Analgesic Efficacy of Ultrasound Guided Femoral Nerve Block Versus Intravenous Fentanyl Injection in Fracture Femur Patients at Emergency Department

Authors: Asmaa Hamdy, Israa Nassar, Tarek Aly


Introduction: Femoral fractures are the most common presentation in the Emergency Department (ED), and they can present as isolated injuries or as part of a polytrauma situation. To provide optimum pain management care to these patients, practitioners must be well prepared and current with utilizing modern evidence-based knowledge and practices. Management of pain associated with fracture femur in the emergency department has a critical role in the satisfaction of patients and preventing further complications. This study aimed to evaluate the analgesic efficacy of ultrasound-guided femoral nerve block compared with intravenous fentanyl in fractures of the femur in patients presented to the Emergency Department. Patients and Methods: Fifty patients with femur fractures were divided into two groups: Group A: In this group (twenty-five patients) were given intravenous fentanyl 2 micro-grams/kg and re-assessed for pain by Visual Analogue Score (VAS). Group B: In this group (twenty-five patients) underwent ultrasonography-guided femoral nerve block and were re-assessed for pain by VAS. Results: VAS score on the movement of the fractured limb between group A and group B at a 10-minute post-intervention period shows P= 0.043, and hence the difference is significant. VAS score on the movement of the fractured limb between group A and group B during a 10-minute post-intervention period showed a significant difference. Seventeen patients in group A had major PID with a percentage of 63% VS 10 patients in group B with a percentage of 37%. conclusion: both femoral nerve block and intravenous fentanyl are effective in relieving pain in patients with femur fractures. But femoral nerve block provides better and more intense analgesia and major pain intensity difference in less time. Moreover, the use of FNB had fewer side effects and more Hemodynamics stability compared to opioids.

Keywords: femur fracture, nerve block, fentanyl, ultrasound guided

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14 Clinical Comparative Study Comparing Efficacy of Intrathecal Fentanyl and Magnesium as an Adjuvant to Hyperbaric Bupivacaine in Mild Pre-Eclamptic Patients Undergoing Caesarean Section

Authors: Sanchita B. Sarma, M. P. Nath


Adequate analgesia following caesarean section decreases morbidity, hastens ambulation, improves patient outcome and facilitates care of the newborn. Intrathecal magnesium, an NMDA antagonist, has been shown to prolong analgesia without significant side effects in healthy parturients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the onset and duration of sensory and motor block, hemodynamic effect, postoperative analgesia, and adverse effects of magnesium or fentanyl given intrathecally with hyperbaric 0.5% bupivacaine in patients with mild preeclampsia undergoing caesarean section. Sixty women with mild preeclampsia undergoing elective caesarean section were included in a prospective, double blind, controlled trial. Patients were randomly assigned to receive spinal anesthesia with 2 mL 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine with 12.5 µg fentanyl (group F) or 0.1 ml of 50% magnesium sulphate (50 mg) (group M) with 0.15ml preservative free distilled water. Onset, duration and recovery of sensory and motor block, time to maximum sensory block, duration of spinal anaesthesia and postoperative analgesic requirements were studied. Statistical comparison was carried out using the Chi-square or Fisher’s exact tests and Independent Student’s t-test where appropriate. The onset of both sensory and motor block was slower in the magnesium group. The duration of spinal anaesthesia (246 vs. 284) and motor block (186.3 vs. 210) were significantly longer in the magnesium group. Total analgesic top up requirement was less in group M. Hemodynamic parameters were similar in both the groups. Intrathecal magnesium caused minimal side effects. Since Fentanyl and other opioid congeners are not available throughout the country easily, magnesium with its easy availability and less side effect profile can be a cost effective alternative to fentanyl in managing pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH) patients given along with Bupivacaine intrathecally in caesarean section.

Keywords: analgesia, magnesium, pre eclampsia, spinal anaesthesia

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13 Thiopental-Fentanyl versus Midazolam-Fentanyl for Emergency Department Procedural Sedation and Analgesia in Patients with Shoulder Dislocation and Distal Radial Fracture-Dislocation: A Randomized Double-Blind Controlled Trial

Authors: D. Farsi, G. Dokhtvasi, S. Abbasi, S. Shafiee Ardestani, E. Payani


Background and aim:It has not been well studied whether fentanyl-thiopental (FT) is effective and safe for PSA in orthopedic procedures in Emergency Department (ED). The aim of this trial was to evaluate the effectiveness of intravenous FTversusfentanyl-midazolam (FM)in patients who suffered from shoulder dislocation or distal radial fracture-dislocation. Methods:In this randomized double-blinded study, Seventy-six eligible patients were entered the study and randomly received intravenous FT or FM. The success rate, onset of action and recovery time, pain score, physicians’ satisfaction and adverse events were assessed and recorded by treating emergency physicians. The statistical analysis was intention to treat. Results: The success rate after administrating loading dose in FT group was significantly higher than FM group (71.7% vs. 48.9%, p=0.04); however, the ultimate unsuccess rate after 3 doses of drugs in the FT group was higher than the FM group (3 to 1) but it did not reach to significant level (p=0.61). Despite near equal onset of action time in two study group (P=0.464), the recovery period in patients receiving FT was markedly shorter than FM group (P<0.001). The occurrence of adverse effects was low in both groups (p=0.31). Conclusion: PSA using FT is effective and appears to be safe for orthopedic procedures in the ED. Therefore, regarding the prompt onset of action, short recovery period of thiopental, it seems that this combination can be considered more for performing PSA in orthopedic procedures in ED.

Keywords: procedural sedation and analgesia, thiopental, fentanyl, midazolam, orthopedic procedure, emergency department, pain

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12 The Addition of Opioids to Bupivacaine in Bilateral Infraorbital Nerve Block for Postoperative Pain Relief in Paediatric Patients for Cleft Lip Repair-Comparative Effects of Pethidine and Fentanyl: A Prospective Randomized Double Blind Study

Authors: Mrudula Kudtarkar, Rajesh Mane


Introduction: Cleft lip repair is one of the common surgeries performed in India and the usual method used for post-operative analgesia is perioperative opioids and NSAIDs. There has been an increase in use of regional techniques and Opioids are the common adjuvants but their efficacy and safety have not been studied extensively in children. Aim: A prospective, randomized, double-blind study was done to compare the efficacy, duration and safety of intraoral infraorbital nerve block on post-operative pain relief using bupivacaine alone or in combination with fentanyl or pethidine in paediatric cleft lip repair. Methodology: 45 children between the age group 5 – 60 months undergoing cleft lip surgery randomly allocated into 3 groups of 15 each received bilateral intraoral infraorbital nerve block with 0.75ml of solution. Group B received 0.25% bupivacaine; group P received 0.25% bupivacaine with 0.25mg/kg pethidine, group F received 0.25% bupivacaine with 0.25microgm/kg fentanyl. Sedation after recovery, post-operative pain intensity and duration of post-operative analgesia were assessed using Modified Hannallah Pain Score. Results: The mean duration of analgesia was 17.8 hrs in Group B, 23.53 hrs in Group F and 35.13 hrs in Group P. There was statistically significant difference between the means of the three groups- ANOVA (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Thus we conclude that addition of fentanyl or pethidine to bupivacaine for Bilateral Intraoral Infraorbital Nerve Block prolong the duration of analgesia with no complications and can be used safely in paediatric patients.

Keywords: cleft lip, infraorbital block, NSAIDS, Opiods

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11 Modulation of Receptor-Activation Due to Hydrogen Bond Formation

Authors: Sourav Ray, Christoph Stein, Marcus Weber


A new class of drug candidates, initially derived from mathematical modeling of ligand-receptor interactions, activate the μ-opioid receptor (MOR) preferentially at acidic extracellular pH-levels, as present in injured tissues. This is of commercial interest because it may preclude the adverse effects of conventional MOR agonists like fentanyl, which include but are not limited to addiction, constipation, sedation, and apnea. Animal studies indicate the importance of taking the pH value of the chemical environment of MOR into account when designing new drugs. Hydrogen bonds (HBs) play a crucial role in stabilizing protein secondary structure and molecular interaction, such as ligand-protein interaction. These bonds may depend on the pH value of the chemical environment. For the MOR, antagonist naloxone and agonist [D-Ala2,N-Me-Phe4,Gly5-ol]-enkephalin (DAMGO) form HBs with ionizable residue HIS 297 at physiological pH to modulate signaling. However, such interactions were markedly reduced at acidic pH. Although fentanyl-induced signaling is also diminished at acidic pH, HBs with HIS 297 residue are not observed at either acidic or physiological pH for this strong agonist of the MOR. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations can provide greater insight into the interaction between the ligand of interest and the HIS 297 residue. Amino acid protonation states are adjusted to the model difference in system acidity. Unbiased and unrestrained MD simulations were performed, with the ligand in the proximity of the HIS 297 residue. Ligand-receptor complexes were embedded in 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine (POPC) bilayer to mimic the membrane environment. The occurrence of HBs between the different ligands and the HIS 297 residue of MOR at acidic and physiological pH values were tracked across the various simulation trajectories. No HB formation was observed between fentanyl and HIS 297 residue at either acidic or physiological pH. Naloxone formed some HBs with HIS 297 at pH 5, but no such HBs were noted at pH 7. Interestingly, DAMGO displayed an opposite yet more pronounced HB formation trend compared to naloxone. Whereas a marginal number of HBs could be observed at even pH 5, HBs with HIS 297 were more stable and widely present at pH 7. The HB formation plays no and marginal role in the interaction of fentanyl and naloxone, respectively, with the HIS 297 residue of MOR. However, HBs play a significant role in the DAMGO and HIS 297 interaction. Post DAMGO administration, these HBs might be crucial for the remediation of opioid tolerance and restoration of opioid sensitivity. Although experimental studies concur with our observations regarding the influence of HB formation on the fentanyl and DAMGO interaction with HIS 297, the same could not be conclusively stated for naloxone. Therefore, some other supplementary interactions might be responsible for the modulation of the MOR activity by naloxone binding at pH 7 but not at pH 5. Further elucidation of the mechanism of naloxone action on the MOR could assist in the formulation of cost-effective naloxone-based treatment of opioid overdose or opioid-induced side effects.

Keywords: effect of system acidity, hydrogen bond formation, opioid action, receptor activation

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10 Risk Factors for Post-Induction Hypotension Among Elderly Patients Undergoing Elective Non-Cardiac Surgery Under General Anesthesia

Authors: Karuna Sutthibenjakul, Sunisa Chatmongkolchart


Background: Postinduction hypotension is common and occurs more often in elderly patients. We aimed to determine risk factors for hypotension after induction among elderly patients (aged 65 years and older) who underwent elective non-cardiac surgery under general anesthesia. Methods: This cohort study analyzed from 580 data between December 2017 and July 2018 at a tertiary university hospital in south of Thailand. Hypotension is defined as more than 30% decrease mean arterial pressure from baseline after induction within 20 minutes or the use of vasopressive agent to treat low blood pressure. Intraoperative parameters were blood pressure and heart rate at T0, TEI, T5, T10, T15 and T20 (immediately after arrival at operating room, time after intubation, 5, 10, 15 and 20 minutes after intubation) respectively. Results: The median age was 72.5 (68, 78) years. A prevalence of post-induction hypotension was 64.8%. The highest prevalence (39.7%) was at 15 minutes after intubation. The association of post-induction hypotension is rising with diuretic drug as preoperative medication (P-value=0.016), hematocrit level (P-value=0.031) and the degree of hypertension immediately after arrival at operating room (P-value<0.001). Increasing fentanyl dosage during induction was associated with hypotension at intubation time (P-value<0.01) and 5 minutes after intubation (P-value<0.001). There was no statistically significant difference in the increasing propofol dosage. Conclusion: The degree of hypertension immediately after arrival at operating room and increasing fentanyl dosage were a significant risk factors for postinduction hypotension in elderly patients.

Keywords: risk factors, post-induction, hypotension, elderly

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9 Opioid Administration on Patients Hospitalized in the Emergency Department

Authors: Mani Mofidi, Neda Valizadeh, Ali Hashemaghaee, Mona Hashemaghaee, Soudabeh Shafiee Ardestani


Background: Acute pain and its management remained the most complaint of emergency service admission. Diagnostic and therapeutic procedures add to patients’ pain. Diminishing the pain increases the quality of patient’s feeling and improves the patient-physician relationship. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcomes and side effects of opioid administration in emergency patients. Material and Methods: patients admitted to ward II emergency service of Imam Khomeini hospital, who received one of the opioids: morphine, pethidine, methadone or fentanyl as an analgesic were evaluated. Their vital signs and general condition were examined before and after drug injection. Also, patient’s pain experience were recorded as numerical rating score (NRS) before and after analgesic administration. Results: 268 patients were studied. 34 patients were addicted to opioid drugs. Morphine had the highest rate of prescription (86.2%), followed by pethidine (8.5%), methadone (3.3%) and fentanyl (1.68). While initial NRS did not show significant difference between addicted patients and non-addicted ones, NRS decline and its score after drug injection were significantly lower in addicted patients. All patients had slight but statistically significant lower respiratory rate, heart rate, blood pressure and O2 saturation. There was no significant difference between different kind of opioid prescription and its outcomes or side effects. Conclusion: Pain management should be always in physicians’ mind during emergency admissions. It should not be assumed that an addicted patient complaining of pain is malingering to receive drug. Titration of drug and close monitoring must be in the curriculum to prevent any hazardous side effects.

Keywords: numerical rating score, opioid, pain, emergency department

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8 Case Report: Opioid Sparing Anaesthesia with Dexmedetomidine in General Surgery

Authors: Shang Yee Chong


Perioperative pain is a complex mechanism activated by various nociceptive, neuropathic, and inflammatory pathways. Opioids have long been a mainstay for analgesia in this period, even as we are continuously moving towards a multimodal model to improve pain control while minimising side effects. Dexmedetomidine, a potent alpha-2 agonist, is a useful sedative and hypnotic agent. Its use in the intensive care unit has been well described, and it is increasingly an adjunct intraoperatively for its opioid sparing effects and to decrease pain scores. We describe a case of a general surgical patient in whom minimal opioids was required with dexmedetomidine use. The patient was a 61-year-old Indian gentleman with a history of hyperlipidaemia and type 2 diabetes mellitus, presenting with rectal adenocarcinoma detected on colonoscopy. He was scheduled for a robotic ultra-low anterior resection. The patient was induced with intravenous fentanyl 75mcg, propofol 160mg and atracurium 40mg. He was intubated conventionally and mechanically ventilated. Anaesthesia was maintained with inhalational desflurane and anaesthetic depth was measured with the Masimo EEG Sedline brain function monitor. An initial intravenous dexmedetomidine dose (bolus) of 1ug/kg for 10 minutes was given prior to anaesthetic induction and thereafter, an infusion of 0.2-0.4ug/kg/hr to the end of surgery. In addition, a bolus dose of intravenous lignocaine 1.5mg/kg followed by an infusion at 1mg/kg/hr throughout the surgery was administered. A total of 10mmol of magnesium sulphate and intravenous paracetamol 1000mg were also given for analgesia. There were no significant episodes of bradycardia or hypotension. A total of intravenous phenylephrine 650mcg was given throughout to maintain the patient’s mean arterial pressure within 10-15mmHg of baseline. The surgical time lasted for 5 hours and 40minutes. Postoperatively the patient was reversed and extubated successfully. He was alert and comfortable and pain scores were minimal in the immediate post op period in the postoperative recovery unit. Time to first analgesia was 4 hours postoperatively – with paracetamol 1g administered. This was given at 6 hourly intervals strictly for 5 days post surgery, along with celecoxib 200mg BD as prescribed by the surgeon regardless of pain scores. Oral oxycodone was prescribed as a rescue analgesic for pain scores > 3/10, but the patient did not require any dose. Neither was there nausea or vomiting. The patient was discharged on postoperative day 5. This case has reinforced the use of dexmedetomidine as an adjunct in general surgery cases, highlighting its excellent opioid-sparing effects. In the entire patient’s hospital stay, the only dose of opioid he received was 75mcg of fentanyl at the time of anaesthetic induction. The patient suffered no opioid adverse effects such as nausea, vomiting or postoperative ileus, and pain scores varied from 0-2/10. However, intravenous lignocaine infusion was also used in this instance, which would have helped improve pain scores. Paracetamol, lignocaine, and dexmedetomidine is thus an effective, opioid-sparing combination of multi-modal analgesia for major abdominal surgery cases.

Keywords: analgesia, dexmedetomidine, general surgery, opioid sparing

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7 Anaesthetic Management of Congenitally Corrected Transposition of Great Arteries with Complete Heart Block in a Parturient for Emergency Caesarean Section

Authors: Lokvendra S. Budania, Yogesh K Gaude, Vamsidhar Chamala


Introduction: Congenitally corrected transposition of great arteries (CCTGA) is a complex congenital heart disease where there are both atrioventricular and ventriculoarterial discordances, usually accompanied by other cardiovascular malformations. Case Report: A 24-year-old primigravida known case of CCTGA at 37 weeks of gestation was referred to our hospital for safe delivery. Her electrocardiogram showed HR-40/pm, echocardiography showed Ejection Fraction of 65% and CCTGA. Temporary pacemaker was inserted by cardiologist in catheterization laboratory, before giving trial of labour in view of complete heart block. She was planned for normal delivery, but emergency Caesarean section was planned due to non-reassuring foetal Cardiotocography Pre-op vitals showed PR-50 bpm with temporary pacemaker, Blood pressure-110/70 mmHg, SpO2-99% on room air. Nil per oral was inadequate. Patency of two peripheral IV cannula checked and left radial arterial line secured. Epidural Anaesthesia was planned, and catheter was placed at L2-L3. Test dose was given, Anaesthesia was provided with 5ml + 5ml of 2% Lignocaine with 25 mcg Fentanyl and further 2.5Ml of 0.5% Bupivacaine was given to achieve a sensory level of T6. Cesarean section was performed and baby was delivered. Cautery was avoided during this procedure. IV Oxytocin (15U) was added to 500 mL of ringer’s lactate. Hypotension was treated with phenylephrine boluses. Patient was shifted to post-operative care unit and later to high dependency unit for monitoring. Post op vitals remained stable. Temporary pacemaker was removed after 24 hours of surgery. Her post-operative period was uneventful and discharged from hospital. Conclusion: Rare congenital cardiac disorders require detail knowledge of pathophysiology and associated comorbidities with the disease. Meticulously planned and carefully titrated neuraxial techniques will be beneficial for such cases.

Keywords: congenitally corrected transposition of great arteries, complete heart block, emergency LSCS, epidural anaesthesia

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6 Effect of Preoperative Single Dose Dexamethasone and Lignocaine on Post-Operative Quality of Recovery and Pain Relief after Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy

Authors: Gurjeet Khurana, Surender Singh, Poonam Arora, Praveendra K. Sachan


Introduction: Post-operative quality of recovery is the key outcome in the perspective of anesthesiologist. It is directly related to patient satisfaction. This is unsurprising, considering most aspects of a poor quality recovery after surgery will impair satisfaction with care. This study was thus undertaken to evaluate effects of Dexamethasone and Lignocaine on Quality of Recovery using QoR- 40 questionnaire and compare their effects. Material and methods: After obtaining the ethical committee approval and written informed consent, 67 patients of 18-60 years, ASA grade I and II scheduled for elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy were randomly allocated into two groups. Group I of 34 patients received 2mg/kg lignocaine diluted to 10ml with normal saline. Group 2 of 33 patients received 0.1 mg/kg I/V Dexamethasone diluted to 10ml with normal saline. QoR-40 was assessed on pre-operative day, and again QoR-40 was assessed at 24 hr post-operative day-1. Postoperative pain scores, nausea and vomiting and shoulder pain were secondary outcomes. Results: The Global QoR-40 was more than 180 at 24 hr in both the groups. The Dexamethasone group had higher Global QoR-40 than lignocaine group 187.94 v/s 182.85. Amongst dimensions of QoR-40 Dexamethasone had statistically better physical comfort, physical independence, and pain relief as compared to Lignocaine. Positive items had excellent responses in Dexamethasone group. Headache, backache and sore throat were also less severe in Dexamethasone group as compared to Lignocaine group. Dexamethasone group had lower VAS compared to lignocaine group. Similarly, there was less fentanyl consumption in dexamethasone group (364.08 ± 127.31) in postoperative period when compared to the lignocaine group (412.31 ± 147.8). Group receiving dexamethasone had 36% increase in appetite compared to lignocaine group (17.6%), which facilitated early oral feeding. Frequency of PONV was less in group-2 at different time interval as compared to group 1. Total episode of PONV were 18 in group 1 and 7 in group 2. Statistically significant difference was seen among two groups (p value= 0.007). Use of antiemetic was more in group 1 as compared to group 2 at all the times, though it was not statistically significant at different time intervals. Antiemetics were administered to 18 patients in group 1 as compared to 5 patients in group 2 postoperatively. Statistically significant difference (p value= 0.011) was seen in total antiemetic consumption. Conclusion: Our study demonstrated that pre-operative administration of a single dose of dexamethasone enhanced the quality of recovery after laparoscopic cholecystectomy as compared to Lignocaine bolus dose.

Keywords: dexamethasone, lignocaine, QoR-40 questionnaire, quality of recovery

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5 A Case Report on Anesthetic Considerations in a Neonate with Isolated Oesophageal Atresia with Radiological Fallacy

Authors: T. Rakhi, Thrivikram Shenoy


Esophageal atresia is a disorder of maldevelopment of esophagus with or without a connection to the trachea. Radiological reviews are needed in consultation with the pediatric surgeon and neonatologist and we report a rare case of esophageal atresia associated with atrial septal defect-patent ductus arteriosus complex. A 2-day old female baby born at term, weighing 3.010kg, admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit with respiratory distress and excessive oral secretions. On examination, continuous murmur and cyanosis were seen. Esophageal atresia was suspected, after a failed attempt to pass a nasogastric tube. Chest radiograph showed coiling of the nasogastric tube and absent gas shadow in the abdomen. Echocardiography confirmed Patent Ductus Arteriosus with Atrial Septal Defect not in failure and was diagnosed with esophageal atresia with suspected fistula posted for surgical repair. After preliminary management with oxygenation, suctioning in prone position and antibiotics, investigations revealed Hb 17gms serum biochemistry, coagulation profile and C-Reactive Protein Test normal. The baby was premedicated with 5mcg of fentanyl and 100 mcg of midazolam and a rapid awake laryngoscopy was done to rule out difficult airway followed by induction with o2 air, sevo and atracurium 2 mg. Placement of a 3.5 tube was uneventful at first attempt and after confirming bilateral air entry positioned in the lateral position for Right thoracotomy. A pulse oximeter, Echocardiogram, Non-invasive Blood Pressure, temperature and a precordial stethoscope in left axilla were essential monitors. During thoracotomy, both the ends of the esophagus and the fistula could not be located after thorough search suggesting an on table finding of type A esophageal atresia. The baby was repositioned for gastrostomy, and cervical esophagostomy ventilated overnight and extubated uneventful. Absent gas shadow was overlooked and the purpose of this presentation is to create an awareness between the neonatologist, pediatric surgeons and anesthesiologist regarding variation of typing of Tracheoesophageal fistula pre and intraoperatively. A need for imaging modalities warranted for a definitive diagnosis in the presence of a gasless stomach.

Keywords: anesthetic, atrial septal defects, esophageal atresia, patent ductus arteriosus, perioperative, chest x-ray

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4 Tracheal Stenting to Relieve Respiratory Distress in Patient with Advanced Esophageal Malignancy and Its Anaesthetic Management

Authors: Aarti Agarwal, Ajmal Khan


Background and Objective: Breathing difficulty is most distressing symptom for the patient and their caregivers providing palliative care to individuals with advanced malignancy. It needs to be tackled effectively and sometimes preemptively to provide relief from respiratory obstruction. Interventional procedures like tracheal stenting are becoming increasingly popular as a part of palliation for respiratory symptoms. We present a case of esophageal tumor earlier stented by Gastroenterologist to maintain esophageal patency, but the tumor outgrew to produce tracheal infiltration and thereby causing airway obstruction. Method and Result: 62-year-old man presented with unresectable Carcinoma oesophagus with inability to swallow. A metallic stent was placed by the gastroenterologist, to maintain esophageal patency and enable patient to swallow. Two months later, the patient returned to hospital in emergency with respiratory distress. CT neck and thorax revealed tumor infiltration through posterior tracheal wall. Lower extent of the tumor was till 1 cm above the carina. Airway stenting with Tracheo bronchial stent with Y configuration was planned under general anaesthesia with airway blocks. Superior Laryngeal Nerve Block, Glossopharyngeal block and Trans tracheal infiltration of local anaesthetics were performed. The patient was sedated with Fentanyl, Midazolam and propofol infusion but was breathing spontaneously. Once the rigid bronchoscope was placed inside trachea, breathing was supported with oxygen and sevoflurane. Initially, the trachea was cleared of tumor by coring. After creating space, tracheal stent was positioned and deployed. After stent placement patient was awakened, suctioned and nebulized. His respiratory stridor relieved instantaneously and was shifted to recovery. Conclusion: Airway blocks help in decreasing the incidence and severity of coughing during airway instrumentation thereby help in proper stent placement. They also reduce the requirement of general anaesthetics and hasten the post stenting recovery. Airway stent provided immediate relief to patient from symptoms of respiratory difficulty. Decision for early tracheal stenting may be taken for a select group of patients with high propensity for local spread, thereby avoiding respiratory complications and providing better quality of life in patients with inoperable malignancy.

Keywords: tracheal stent, respiratory difficulty, esophageal tumor, anaesthetic management

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3 A Comparative Study to Evaluate Changes in Intraocular Pressure with Thiopentone Sodium and Etomidate in Patients Undergoing Surgery for Traumatic Brain Injury

Authors: Vasudha Govil, Prashant Kumar, Ishwar Singh, Kiranpreet Kaur


Traumatic brain injury leads to elevated intracranial pressure. Intraocular pressure (IOP) may also be affected by intracranial pressure. Increased venous pressure in the cavernous sinus is transmitted to the episcleral veins, resulting in an increase in IOP. All drugs used in anesthesia induction can change IOP. Irritation of the gag reflex after usage of the endotracheal tube can also increase IOP; therefore, the administration of anesthetic drugs, which make the lowest change in IOP, is important, while cardiovascular depression must also be avoided. Thiopentone decreases IOP by 40%, whereas etomidate decreases IOP by 30-60% for up to 5 minutes. Hundred patients (age 18-55 years) who underwent emergency craniotomy for TBI are selected for the study. Patients are randomly assigned to two groups of 50 patients each accord¬ing to the drugs used for induction: group T was given thiopentone sodium (5mg kg-1) and group E was given etomi¬date (0.3mg kg-1). Preanaesthesia intraocular pressure (IOP) was measured using Schiotz tonometer. Induction of anesthesia was achieved with etomidate (0.3mg kg-1) or thiopentone (5mg kg-1) along with fentanyl (2 mcg kg-1). Intravenous rocuronium (0.9mg kg-1) was given to facilitate intubation. Intraocular pressure was measured after 1 minute of induction agent administration and 5 minutes after intubation. Maintainance of anesthesia was done with isoflurane in 50% nitrous oxide with fresh gas flow of 5 litres. At the end of the surgery, the residual neuromuscular block was reversed and the patient was shifted to ward/ICU. Patients in both groups were comparable in terms of demographic profile. There was no significant difference between the groups for the hemody¬namic and respiratory variables prior to thiopentone or etomidate administration. Intraocular pressure in thiopentone group in left eye and right eye before induction was 14.97±3.94 mmHg and 14.72±3.75 mmHg respectively and for etomidate group was 15.28±3.69 mmHg and 15.54±4.46 mmHg respectively. After induction IOP decreased significantly in both the eyes (p<0.001) in both the groups. After 5 min of intubation IOP was significantly less than the baseline in both the eyes but it was more than the IOP after induction with the drug. It was found that there was no statistically significant difference in IOP between the two groups at any point of time. Both the drugs caused a significant decrease in IOP after induction and after 5 minutes of endotracheal intubation. The mechanism of decrease in IOP by intravenous induction agents is debatable. Systemic hypotension after the induction of anaesthesia has been shown to cause a decrease in intra-ocular pressure. A decrease in the tone of the extra-ocular muscles can also result in a decrease in intra-ocular pressure. We observed that it is appropriate to use etomidate as an induction agent when elevation of intra-ocular pressure is undesirable owing to the cardiovascular stability it confers in the patients.

Keywords: etomidate, intraocular pressure, thiopentone, traumatic

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2 Utilization of Informatics to Transform Clinical Data into a Simplified Reporting System to Examine the Analgesic Prescribing Practices of a Single Urban Hospital’s Emergency Department

Authors: Rubaiat S. Ahmed, Jemer Garrido, Sergey M. Motov


Clinical informatics (CI) enables the transformation of data into a systematic organization that improves the quality of care and the generation of positive health outcomes.Innovative technology through informatics that compiles accurate data on analgesic utilization in the emergency department can enhance pain management in this important clinical setting. We aim to establish a simplified reporting system through CI to examine and assess the analgesic prescribing practices in the EDthrough executing a U.S. federal grant project on opioid reduction initiatives. Queried data points of interest from a level-one trauma ED’s electronic medical records were used to create data sets and develop informational/visual reporting dashboards (on Microsoft Excel and Google Sheets) concerning analgesic usage across several pre-defined parameters and performance metrics using CI. The data was then qualitatively analyzed to evaluate ED analgesic prescribing trends by departmental clinicians and leadership. During a 12-month reporting period (Dec. 1, 2020 – Nov. 30, 2021) for the ongoing project, about 41% of all ED patient visits (N = 91,747) were for pain conditions, of which 81.6% received analgesics in the ED and at discharge (D/C). Of those treated with analgesics, 24.3% received opioids compared to 75.7% receiving opioid alternatives in the ED and at D/C, including non-pharmacological modalities. Demographics showed among patients receiving analgesics, 56.7% were aged between 18-64, 51.8% were male, 51.7% were white, and 66.2% had government funded health insurance. Ninety-one percent of all opioids prescribed were in the ED, with intravenous (IV) morphine, IV fentanyl, and morphine sulfate immediate release (MSIR) tablets accounting for 88.0% of ED dispensed opioids. With 9.3% of all opioids prescribed at D/C, MSIR was dispensed 72.1% of the time. Hydrocodone, oxycodone, and tramadol usage to only 10-15% of the time, and hydromorphone at 0%. Of opioid alternatives, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs were utilized 60.3% of the time, 23.5% with local anesthetics and ultrasound-guided nerve blocks, and 7.9% with acetaminophen as the primary non-opioid drug categories prescribed by ED providers. Non-pharmacological analgesia included virtual reality and other modalities. An average of 18.5 ED opioid orders and 1.9 opioid D/C prescriptions per 102.4 daily ED patient visits was observed for the period. Compared to other specialties within our institution, 2.0% of opioid D/C prescriptions are given by ED providers, compared to the national average of 4.8%. Opioid alternatives accounted for 69.7% and 30.3% usage, versus 90.7% and 9.3% for opioids in the ED and D/C, respectively.There is a pressing need for concise, relevant, and reliable clinical data on analgesic utilization for ED providers and leadership to evaluate prescribing practices and make data-driven decisions. Basic computer software can be used to create effective visual reporting dashboards with indicators that convey relevant and timely information in an easy-to-digest manner. We accurately examined our ED's analgesic prescribing practices using CI through dashboard reporting. Such reporting tools can quickly identify key performance indicators and prioritize data to enhance pain management and promote safe prescribing practices in the emergency setting.

Keywords: clinical informatics, dashboards, emergency department, health informatics, healthcare informatics, medical informatics, opioids, pain management, technology

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1 The Procedural Sedation Checklist Manifesto, Emergency Department, Jersey General Hospital

Authors: Jerome Dalphinis, Vishal Patel


The Bailiwick of Jersey is an island British crown dependency situated off the coast of France. Jersey General Hospital’s emergency department sees approximately 40,000 patients a year. It’s outside the NHS, with secondary care being free at the point of care. Sedation is a continuum which extends from a normal conscious level to being fully unresponsive. Procedural sedation produces a minimally depressed level of consciousness in which the patient retains the ability to maintain an airway, and they respond appropriately to physical stimulation. The goals of it are to improve patient comfort and tolerance of the procedure and alleviate associated anxiety. Indications can be stratified by acuity, emergency (cardioversion for life-threatening dysrhythmia), and urgency (joint reduction). In the emergency department, this is most often achieved using a combination of opioids and benzodiazepines. Some departments also use ketamine to produce dissociative sedation, a cataleptic state of profound analgesia and amnesia. The response to pharmacological agents is highly individual, and the drugs used occasionally have unpredictable pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, which can always result in progression between levels of sedation irrespective of the intention. Therefore, practitioners must be able to ‘rescue’ patients from deeper sedation. These practitioners need to be senior clinicians with advanced airway skills (AAS) training. It can lead to adverse effects such as dangerous hypoxia and unintended loss of consciousness if incorrectly undertaken; studies by the National Confidential Enquiry into Patient Outcome and Death (NCEPOD) have reported avoidable deaths. The Royal College of Emergency Medicine, UK (RCEM) released an updated ‘Safe Sedation of Adults in the Emergency Department’ guidance in 2017 detailing a series of standards for staff competencies, and the required environment and equipment, which are required for each target sedation depth. The emergency department in Jersey undertook audit research in 2018 to assess their current practice. It showed gaps in clinical competency, the need for uniform care, and improved documentation. This spurred the development of a checklist incorporating the above RCEM standards, including contraindication for procedural sedation and difficult airway assessment. This was approved following discussion with the relevant heads of departments and the patient safety directorates. Following this, a second audit research was carried out in 2019 with 17 completed checklists (11 relocation of joints, 6 cardioversions). Data was obtained from looking at the controlled resuscitation drugs book containing documented use of ketamine, alfentanil, and fentanyl. TrakCare, which is the patient electronic record system, was then referenced to obtain further information. The results showed dramatic improvement compared to 2018, and they have been subdivided into six categories; pre-procedure assessment recording of significant medical history and ASA grade (2 fold increase), informed consent (100% documentation), pre-oxygenation (88%), staff (90% were AAS practitioners) and monitoring (92% use of non-invasive blood pressure, pulse oximetry, capnography, and cardiac rhythm monitoring) during procedure, and discharge instructions including the documented return of normal vitals and consciousness (82%). This procedural sedation checklist is a safe intervention that identifies pertinent information about the patient and provides a standardised checklist for the delivery of gold standard of care.

Keywords: advanced airway skills, checklist, procedural sedation, resuscitation

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