Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2360

Search results for: fasting blood sugar

2360 Influence of Shift Work on Fasting Blood Sugar in Hospital Workers

Authors: Sheila R. Pai, N. K. Subbalakshmi, C. Vidya

Abstract:

Background: Accumulating evidence from prospective studies suggests an increased risk of type 2 diabetes associated with sleep deprivation and sleep disorders. Shift work by disrupting the circadian rhythm, could possibly cause metabolic disturbances. Objective: To investigate the influence of shift work on fasting blood glucose in hospital workers population. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study including 90 night shift workers (study group) and 90 day workers (controls) drawn from paramedical personnel. Night shift work was on a forward rotation basis, with an average of one night shift every 4 weeks. Each night shift rotation was for a period of 7 days, with a total of 8 hours of shift work per night. In the entire subjects body mass index (BMI) and fasting blood sugar (FBS) was measured. Statistical analysis included unpaired t test, Mann-Whitney ‘U’ test and Chi-square test. P value less than 0.05 was considered significant. Result: The study and control groups were comparable with regard to age, sex distribution and duration of employment. FBS was higher in study group compared to controls (p < 0.0001). There was no significant difference in BMI between control and study group. Conclusion: Shift work may adversely influence glucose metabolism.

Keywords: shift work, fasting blood sugar, sleep disturbances, diabetes

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2359 Cadmium Levels in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Thasala Southern Thailand

Authors: Supabhorn Yimthiang, Wiyada Khanwian

Abstract:

Cadmium is a heavy metal that is important in the environment because it is highly toxic. The incidence and severity of type 2 diabetes mellitus are known to be associated with cadmium. The purpose of this study was to investigate the cadmium levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus at diabetes mellitus clinic, Thasala hospital, Nakhon Si Thummarat, Thailand. The study population was composed of forty five subjects. Among them, twenty two were diabetic patients and twenty three were apparently healthy non-diabetic individual subjects. After an overnight fasting, blood and morning urine samples were collected from each subject to determine fasting blood sugar and cadmium levels in urine, respectively. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure values were measured by aneroid sphygmomanometer. Study approval was taken from the human subject ethics committee of Walailak University. Verbal and written informed consent was taken from all participants. In the study samples, there were 31.8% males and 68.2% females with mean age of 47+10.53 years. The geometric mean of urine cadmium was significantly higher in diabetic patients (1.015 + 0.79 µg/g creatinine) when compared with the healthy subjects (0.395 + 0.53 µg/g creatinine) (P<0.05). This result also showed that urine cadmium excretion in diabetic patients was higher than in healthy subjects by 2.6 times. Moreover, fasting blood sugar (153+47.86 μg/dl) and systolic blood pressure (183.26+17.15 mmHg) of diabetic patients was significantly different when compared with healthy subjects (79+5.38 μg/dl and 112.78+11.32 mmHg, respectively) (P<0.05). Meanwhile, the concentration of cadmium in urine showed positive correlation with fasting plasma glucose (r=0.616) and systolic blood pressure (r=0.487). This preliminary study showed that cadmium might play an important role in the development and pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus in general population. However, these findings require confirmation through additional epidemiological and biological research.

Keywords: blood pressure, cadmium, fasting blood sugar, type 2 diabetes mellitus

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2358 The Impact of Ramadan Fasting on Blood Pressure: Observational Study and a Meta-Analysis

Authors: Rami Al Jafar, Paul Elliott, Konstantinos K. Tsilidis, Abbas Dehghan

Abstract:

Although Ramadan fasting is a ritual that is practiced every year by millions of Muslims, studies on Ramadan fasting are still scarce. To the best of our knowledge, none of the previous studies comprehensively explored the effect on the metabolic profile. In London Ramadan Fasting Study, blood samples were collected from 81 participants before and 10-14 days after Ramadan. Blood samples were analysed using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy which covers 249 metabolites. Mixed-effects models were used to analyse collected data and assess the effect of Ramadan fasting on the metabolic profile. Our observational study involved 85 individuals with a mean age of 45.2 years, and 53.1% of them were males. After Ramadan, forty metabolites were affected significantly by Ramadan fasting. Most of these metabolites were metabolites ratios (24), and the rest were three Glycolysis, three ketone bodies, nine Lipoprotein subclasses and one inflammation marker. This study suggests that Ramadan fasting is significantly associated with changes in the metabolic profile. However, the changes are assumed to be temporary, and the long-term effect of these changes is unknown.

Keywords: metabolic profile, Ramadan fasting, metabolites, intermittent fasting

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2357 The Correlation between Education, Food Intake, Exercise, and Medication Obedience with the Average of Blood Sugar in Indonesia

Authors: Aisyah Rahmatul Laily

Abstract:

Indonesia Ministry of Health is increasing their awareness on non communicable diseases. From the top ten causes of death, two of them are non communicable diseases. Diabetes Mellitus is one of the two non communicable diseases above that have the increasing number of patient from year to year. From that problem, this research is made to determine the correlation between education, food intake, exercise, and the medication obedience with the average of blood sugar. In this research, the researchers used observational and cross-sectional studies. The sample that used in this research were 50 patients in Puskesmas Gamping I Yogyakarta who have suffered from Diabetes Mellitus in long period. The researcher doing anamnesis by using questionnaire to collect the data, then analyzed it with Chi Square to determine the correlation between each variable. The dependent variable in this research is the average of blood sugar, whereas the independent variables are education, food intake, do exercise, and the obedience of medication. The result shows a relation between education and average blood sugar level (p=0.029), a relation between food intake and average blood sugar level (p=0.009), and a relation between exercise and average blood sugar level (p=0.023). There is also a relation between the medication obedience with the average of blood sugar (p=0,002). The conclusion is that the positive correlations exist between education and average blood sugar level, between food intake and average blood sugar level, and between medication obedience and average blood sugar level.

Keywords: average of blood sugar, education, exercise, food intake, medication obedience

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2356 Effect of Blood Sugar Levels on Short Term and Working Memory Status in Type 2 Diabetics

Authors: Mythri G., Manjunath ML, Girish Babu M., Shireen Swaliha Quadri

Abstract:

Background: The increase in diabetes among the elderly is of concern because in addition to the wide range of traditional diabetes complications, evidence has been growing that diabetes is associated with increased risk of cognitive decline. Aims and Objectives: To find out if there is any association between blood sugar levels and short-term and working memory status in patients of type 2 diabetes. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out in 200 individuals aged between 40-65 years consisting of 100 diagnosed cases of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and 100 non-diabetics from OPD of Mc Gann Hospital, Shivamogga. Rye’s Auditory Verbal Learning Test, Verbal Fluency Test and Visual Reproduction Test, Working Digit Span Test and Validation Span Test were used to assess short-term and working memory. Fasting and Post Prandial blood sugar levels were estimated. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS 21. Results: Memory test scores of type 2 diabetics were significantly reduced (p < 0.001) when compared to the memory scores of age and gender matched non-diabetics. Fasting blood sugar levels were found to have a negative correlation with memory scores for all 5 tests: AVLT (r=-0.837), VFT (r=-0.888), VRT(r=-0.787), WDST (r=-0.795) and VST (r=-0.943). Post- Prandial blood sugar levels were found to have a negative correlation with memory scores for all 5 tests: AVLT (r=-0.922), VFT (r=-0.848), VRT(r=-0.707),WDST (r=-0.729) and VST (r=-0.880) Memory scores in all 5 tests were found to be negatively correlated with the FBS and PPBS levels in diabetic patients (p < 0.001). Conclusion: The decreased memory status in diabetic patients may be due to many factors like hyperglycemia, vascular disease, insulin resistance, amyloid deposition and also some of the factor combine to produce additive effects like, type of diabetes, co-morbidities, age of onset, duration of the disease and type of therapy. These observed effects of blood sugar levels of diabetics on memory status are of potential clinical importance because even mild cognitive impairment could interfere with todays’ activities.

Keywords: diabetes, cognition, diabetes, HRV, respiratory medicine

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2355 Effect of Nutrition Education on the Control and Function of Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Patients

Authors: Rahil Sahragard, Mahmoud Hatami, Rostam Bahadori Khalili

Abstract:

Diabetes is one of the most important health problems in the world and a chronic disease requiring continuous care and therefore, it is necessary for patients to undergo self-care and nutrition education. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of nutrition education on the metabolic control of diabetic patients in Tehran in 2015. An experimental study was conducted on 100 patients who had previously been approved by a specialist physician for diabetes and at least one year after their onset. At first, patients without any knowledge of the educational program were selected as sample and from them a checklist containing demographic and specific information about diabetes was filled and were taken three fasting blood glucose and three times fasting blood glucose (5 p.m.) Then, the patients received face-to-face training in the same conditions for 2 weeks in a Mehregan hospital of Tehran, and received 3 months of training, while they were fully monitored and during this time, samples that had a cold or blood pressure-related disease or were admitted to the hospital were excluded from the study. After the end of the study, the checklist was filled again and 3 fasting blood glucose and 3 fasting blood glucose samples were taken, the results were statistically analyzed by MC Nemar's statistical test. The research findings were performed on 100 patients 41.7% male and 58.3% women, the range of age was between 22 and 60 years old, with a duration of diabetes ranging from 1 to 15 years. Abnormal fasting blood glucose from 95% to 48.3% (P <0.0001) and non-fasting blood glucose decreased from 91.6% to 71.2% (P <0.001). Research has shown that training on blood glucose control has been successful, therefore, it is recommended that more research is done in the field of education to help patients with diabetes more comfortable.

Keywords: nutrition education, diabetes, function, insulin, chronic, metabolic control

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2354 Prevalence, Awareness, and Risk Factors of Diabetes in Ahvaz: South West of Iran

Authors: Leila Yazdanpanah, Hajieh Shahbazian, Seyed Mahmoud Latifi, Armaghan Moravej Aleali, Saeed Ghanbari

Abstract:

Introduction: This study was designed to determine the prevalence of diabetes in people aged over 20 years in Ahvaz, Iran. Material and Methods: The study population selected by cluster sampling. Fasting blood sugar (FBS) assessed after minimum 8 hours night fasting. A questionnaire included: age, sex, weight, height, blood pressure, waist circumference and previous history of diabetes were completed for each patient. FBS≥126mg/dl and/or oral hypoglycemic treatment and/or insulin was defined as diabetes, FBS=100-125 mg/dl as impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and FBS<100mg/dl as normal. Results: Study population was 936 persons (47.2 % male and 52.8% female). The mean age of a population was 42.2±14 years. Diabetes was detected in 15.1 % of population. Only 57cases(6.1%) were aware of their disease and 9% had unknown diabetes. Diabetes was detected in 14.5% of male (11.3% unknown and 3.2 % known diabetes) and in 11.7% of female (7% unknown and 4.7% known diabetes). Prevalence of diabetes had no significant difference (P=0.21) in male and female but unknown diabetes was significantly higher in male (P=0.025). Prevalence of diabetes was increased with rising of age between 20-60 years old but decreasing after 60 years old. Diabetes was related to age, waist circumference and systolic and diastolic blood pressure, TG level and BMI in both sex (P=0.0001). Conclusion: More than half of female and three-fourth of male diabetic patients are unaware of their disease in South of Iran. Diabetes screening should be intensified in this population.

Keywords: diabetes, prevalence, risk factor, awareness

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2353 A Study of the Effect of Early and Late Meal Time on Anthropometric and Biochemical Parameters in Patients of Type 2 Diabetes

Authors: Smriti Rastogi, Narsingh Verma

Abstract:

Background: A vast body of research exists on the use of oral hypoglycaemic drugs, insulin injections and the like in managing diabetes but no such research exists that has taken into consideration the parameter of time restricted meal intake and its positive effects in managing diabetes. The utility of this project is immense as it offers a solution to the woes of diabetics based on circadian rhythm and normal physiology of the human body. Method: 80 Diabetics, enrolled from the Out Patient Department of Endocrinology, KGMU (King George's Medical University) were randomly divided based on consent to early dinner TRM(time restricted meal) group or not (control group). Follow up was done at six months and 12 months for anthropometric measurement, height, weight, waist-hip ratio, neck size, fasting, postprandial blood sugar, HbA1c, serum urea, serum creatinine, and lipid profile. The patient was given a clear understanding of chronomedicine and how it affects their health. A single intervention was done - the timing of dinner was at or around 7 pm for TRM group. Result: 65% of TRM group and 40 %(non- TRM) had normal HbA1c after 12 months. HbA1c in TRM Group (first visit to second follow up) had a significant p value=0.017. A p value of <0.0001 was observed on comparing the values of blood sugar (fasting) in TRM Group from the first visit and second follow up. The values of blood sugar (postprandial) in TRM Group (first visit and second follow up) showed a p-value <0.0001 (highly significant). Values of the three parameters were non- significant in the control group. Hip size(First Visit to Second Follow Up) TRM Group showed a p-value = 0.0344 (Significant) (Difference between means=2.762 ± 1.261)Detailed results of the above parameters and a few newer ones will be presented at the conference. Conclusion: Time restricted meal intake in diabetics shows promise and is worth exploring further. Time Restricted Meal intake in Type 2 diabetics has a significant effect in controlling and maintaining HbA1c as the reduction in HbA1c value was very significant in the TRM group vs. the control group. Similar highly significant results were obtained in the case of fasting and postprandial values of blood sugar in the TRM group when compared to the control group. The effects of time restricted meal intake in diabetics show promise and are worth exploring further. It is one of the first studies which have been undertaken in Indian diabetics, although the initial data obtained is encouraging yet further research and study are required to corroborate results.

Keywords: chronomedicine, diabetes, endocrinology, time restricted meal intake

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2352 Correlation of Stress and Blood Glucose Level in Working Women from Tribal Region of Navapur, Dist-Nandurbar

Authors: Surekha B. Bansode, Shakeela K. Shareef

Abstract:

Working women have to face complex issues of family life and professional life. Stress is the condition that results from person’s response to physical, emotional or environmental factors. The stress response can cause problems when it overreacts or fails to turn off and reset itself properly. In the present investigation correlation between stress and blood glucose level in working women group and non working women group was studied. Working women when compared with non working women, experienced more physical and psychological stress. An additional increase in fasting blood glucose levels could be attributed to stress and anxiety they undergo at the workplace. This may lead to increase their susceptibility to develop type II Diabetes Mellitus in coming future.

Keywords: blood sugar, nutrition, stress, working women

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2351 Determination of Some Biochemical Values for the Liza klunzingeri in Coastal Water of Persian Gulf

Authors: Majid Afkhami, Maryam Ehsanpour

Abstract:

Serum biochemical can be used for monitoring any changes in the physiological condition of fish and quality of waters. The aim of this paper was to determine of plasma sugar, triglycerides, cholesterol, iron, ALP (alkaline phosphatase) and LDH (lactate dehydrogenase) levels of Liza klunzingeri in Persian Gulf. Blood sample was collected from the caudal vessel with syringes coated with sodium heparin. Biochemical values were: sugar 110.37±28.46 mg/di, triglycerides 96.82±23.40 mg/di, cholesterol 177.28 ±40.75 mg/di, iron 104.74± 19.08 mg/di, ALP 117.62±34.49 u/l, LDH 1613.00±345.34 u/l. A significant positive correlation (P<0.01) was found between triglycerides and sugar. Triglycerides had a significant and positive relationship with cholesterol (P<0.01). ALP also had a significant and positive relationship with sugar (P<0.01) and triglycerides (P<0.05). LDH correlated positively with sugar, cholesterol, triglycerides (P<0.01) and ALP (P<0.05). The results revealed reverse correlation between iron with cholesterol, sugar, triglycerides, ALP, and LDH (P<0.01). This study represents a contribution to the referential biochemical values of the L. klunzingeri. In further studies, the established reference ranges might be useful for the health assessment of this species.

Keywords: Liza klunzingeri, blood, ALP, LDH

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2350 Comparing of Hypogonadism Frequency between Metabolic Syndrome Men with Normal Men

Authors: Armaghan Moravej Aleali, Seyed Bahman Ghaderian, Homeira Rashidi, Mahmoud Mapar

Abstract:

Background and Objective The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is considered the most important public health threat of the 21st century. This syndrome is characterized by a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors including increased central abdominal obesity, elevated triglycerides, reduced high-density lipoprotein, high blood pressure, increased fasting glucose, and hyperinsulinemia. MetS has been associated with hypogonadism and erectile dysfunction (ED), and MetS may be considered a risk factor for ED. The aim of this study was finding an association between metabolic syndrome and hypogonadism in Khouzestan, Iran. Subjects and Methods: In this study, 60 patients divided into two groups consisted of 30 cases (with metabolic syndrome) and 30 controls. Total and free Serum Testosterone and FBS in all of them were measured. Data was analyzed with SPSS20 program. Results: There was a significant difference between two groups about free Testosterone (P=0.01), FBS (P=0.002) and LH (P=0.03). Conclusion: According to this finding, it is thought the prevalence of hypogonadism in men with metabolic syndrome is more than the general population.

Keywords: metabolic syndrome, fasting blood sugar, hypogonadism, testosterone

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2349 Prevalence and Risk Factors of Metabolic Syndrome in Adults of Terai Region of Nepal

Authors: Birendra Kumar Jha, Mingma L. Sherpa, Binod Kumar Dahal

Abstract:

Background: The metabolic syndrome is emerging as a major public health concern in the world. Urbanization, surplus energy uptake, compounded by decreased physical activities, and increasing obesity are the major factors contributing to the epidemic of metabolic syndrome worldwide. However, prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its risk factors are little studied in Terai region of Nepal. The objectives of this research were to estimate the prevalence and to identify the risk factors of metabolic syndrome among adults in Terai region of Nepal. Method: We used a community based cross sectional study design. A total of 225 adults (age: 18 to 80 years) were selected from three district of Terai region of Nepal using cluster sampling by camp approach. IDF criteria (central obesity with any two of following four factors: triglycerides ≥ 150 mg/dl or specific treatment for lipid abnormality, reduced HDL, raised blood pressure and raised fasting plasma glucose or previously diagnosed type 2 diabetes) were used to assess metabolic syndrome. Interview, physical and clinical examination, measurement of fasting blood glucose and lipid profile were conducted for all participants. Chi-square test and multivariable logistic regression were employed to explore the risk factors of metabolic syndrome. Result: The overall prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 70.7%. Hypertension, increased fasting blood sugar, increased triglycerides and decreased HDL were observed in 50.7%, 32.4%, 41.8% and 79.1% of the subjects respectively. Socio-economic and behavioral risk factors significantly associated with metabolic syndrome were gender male (OR=2.56, 955 CI: 1.42-4.63; p=0.002), in service or retired from service (OR=3.72, 95% CI: 1.72-8.03; p=0.001) and smoking (OR= 4.10, 95% CI: 1.19-14.07; p=0.016). Conclusion: Higher prevalence of Metabolic syndrome along with presence of behavioral risk factors in Terai region of Nepal likely suggest lack of awareness and health promotion activities for metabolic syndrome and indicate the need to promote public health programs in this region to maintain quality of life.

Keywords: metabolic syndrome, Nepal, prevalence, risk factors, Terai

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2348 Circulating Oxidized LDL and Insulin Resistance among Obese School Students

Authors: Nayera E. Hassan, Sahar A. El-Masry, Mones M. Abu Shady, Rokia A. El Banna, Muhammad Al-Tohamy, Mehrevan M. Abd El-Moniem, Mona Anwar

Abstract:

Circulating oxidized LDL (ox-LDL) is associated with obesity, insulin resistance (HOMA), metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease in adults. Little is known about relations in children. Aim: To assess association of ox-LDL with fat distribution and insulin resistance in a group of obese Egyptian children. Methods: Study is cross-sectional consisting of 68 obese children, with a mean age of 9.96 ± 1.32. Each underwent a complete physical examination; blood pressure (SBP, DBP) and anthropometric measurements (weight, height, BMI; waist, hip circumferences, waist/hip ratio), biochemical tests of fasting blood glucose (FBS), insulin levels; lipid profile (TC, LDL,HDL, TG) and ox-LDL; calculated HOMA. Sample was classified according to waist/hip ratio into: group I with and group II without central obesity. Results: ox-LDL showed significant positive correlation with LDL and TC in all groups of obesity. After adjustment for age and sex, significant positive correlation was detected between ox-LDL with SBP, DBP, TC, LDL, insulin, and HOMA in group II and with TC and FBS in group I. Insignificant association was detected between ox-LDL and other anthropometric parameters including BMI in any group of obese children (p > 0.05). Conclusions: ox-LDL, as a marker of oxidative stress is not correlated with BMI among all studied obese children (aged 6-12 years). Increased oxidative stress has causal effects on insulin resistance in obese children without central obesity and on fasting blood sugar in those with central obesity. These findings emphasize the importance of obesity during childhood and suggest that the metabolic complications of obesity and body fat distribution are detectable early in life.

Keywords: ox-LDL, obesity, insulin resistance, children

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2347 Study of the Anti-Diabetic Activity of the Common Fig in the Region of the El Amra (Ain Defla), Algeria

Authors: Meliani Samiha, Hassaine Sarah

Abstract:

Figs are so much consumed in the Mediterranean region; they present a high nutritional value and also multiple therapeutic virtues. Our work contributes to the study of the antidiabetic activity of the common fig of the region of El Amra (AinDefla) Algeria. To do this, 20 Wistar rats female, divided into 4 lots, were used: Lot 1: 5 normal controls; Lot 2: 5 normal controls treated with dry fig juice at 20%; Lot 3: 5 diabetic controls; Lot 4: 5 diabetic controls treated with dry fig juice at 20%. The rats are rendered diabetic by intra-peritoneal injection of a streptozotocin solution. The blood glucose is measured after 1 hour, 2 hours, 3 hours and after 4 hours of the administration of the fig juice; it’s measured also on the 5th day, 8th day and 9th day of the beginning of the experiment. The determination of cholesterol and triglycerides blood is carried out at the beginning and the end of the study. On the 9th day, we recorded a very significant decrease of the blood sugar level of diabetic rats treated with dry fig juice. This blood glucose level normalized for 3 rats/5rats, we also recorded a decrease, but not significant, of cholesterol and triglycerides blood levels. In the short term (for 4 hours), an increase of blood sugar level, one hour after administration, for normal and diabetic rats. This increase is probably due to the high level of sugar content in the preparation. The blood glucose level is then corrected, four hours later. This may be the result of anti hyperglycemic effect of the active ingredients contained in the figs.

Keywords: antidiabetic, figs, hypoglycemia, streptozotocin

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2346 Effects of Length of Time of Fasting upon Subjective and Objective Variables When Controlling Sleep, Food and Fluid Intakes

Authors: H. Alabed, K. Abuzayan. L. Fgie, K. Zarug

Abstract:

Ramadan requires individuals to abstain from food and fluid intake between sunrise and sunset; physiological considerations predict that poorer mood, physical performance and mental performance will result. In addition, any difficulties will be worsened because preparations for fasting and recovery from it often mean that nocturnal sleep is decreased in length, and this independently affects mood and performance. A difficulty of interpretation in many studies is that the observed changes could be due to fasting but also to the decreased length of sleep and altered food and fluid intakes before and after the daytime fasting. These factors were separated in this study, which took place over three separate days and compared the effects of different durations of fasting (4, 8 or 16h) upon a wide variety of measures (including subjective and objective assessments of performance, body composition, dehydration and responses to a short bout of exercise) - but with an unchanged amount of nocturnal sleep, controlled supper the previous evening, controlled intakes at breakfast and daytime naps not being allowed. Many of the negative effects of fasting observed in previous studies were present in this experiment also. These findings indicate that fasting was responsible for many of the changes previously observed, though some effect of sleep loss, particularly if occurring on successive days (as would occur in Ramadan) cannot be excluded.

Keywords: drinking, eating, mental performance, physical performance, social activity, blood, sleepiness

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2345 Effects of Length of Time of Fasting Upon Subjective and Objective Variables When Prior Sleep and Food and Fluid Intakes Have Been Controlled

Authors: H. Alabed, K. Abuzayan, J. Ezarrugh, S. Ali, M. Touba

Abstract:

Ramadan requires individuals to abstain from food and fluid intake between sunrise and sunset, Physiological considerations predict that poorer mood, Physical performance and mental performance will result. In addition, Any difficulties will be worsened because preparations for fasting and recovery from it often mean that nocturnal sleep is decreased in length and this independently affects mood and performance. A difficulty of interpretation in many studies is that the observed changes could be due to fasting but also to the decreased length of sleep and altered food and fluid intakes before and after the daytime fasting. These factors were separated in this study, Which took place over three separate days and compared the effects of different durations of fasting (4, 8 or 16 h) upon a wide variety of measures (including subjective and objective assessments of performance, body composition, Dehydration and responses to a short bout of exercise) but with an unchanged amount of nocturnal sleep, Controlled supper the previous evening, Controlled intakes at breakfast and daytime naps not being allowed. Many of the negative effects of fasting observed in previous studies were present in this experiment also. These findings indicate that fasting was responsible for many of the changes previously observed, Though some effect of sleep loss, Particularly if occurring on successive days (as would occur in Ramadan) cannot be excluded.

Keywords: Drinking, eating, mental performance, physical performance, social activity, blood, sleepiness

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2344 Antidiabetic Effect of Aqueous Extract of Cedrus deodara Roxb. Heartwood in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats

Authors: Sourabh Jain, Vikas Jain, Dharmendar Kumar

Abstract:

The present study investigated the antidiabetic potential of Cedrus deodara heart wood aqueous extract. Aqueous extract of Cedrus deodara was found to reduce blood sugar level in alloxan induced diabetic rats. Reduction in blood sugar could be seen from 5th day after continuous administration of the extract and on 21st day sugar levels were found to be reduced by 40.20%. Oxidative stress produced by alloxan was found to be significantly lowered by the administration of Cedrus deodara aqueous extract (500 mg/kg). This was evident from a significant decrease in lipid per oxidation level in liver induced by alloxan. The level of Glutathione, Catalase, Superoxide dismutase and Glutathione-S-Transferase in liver, kidney and pancreas tissue were found to be increased significantly after drug administration. The results obtained in the present study suggest that the Cedrus deodara aqueous extract effectively and significantly reduced the oxidative stress induced by alloxan and produced a reduction in blood sugar level.

Keywords: Cedrus deodara, heartwood, antioxidant, anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory

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2343 Antidiabetic Activity of Cedrus deodara Aqueous Extract and Its Relationship with Its Antioxidant Properties

Authors: Sourabh Jain, Vikas Jain, Dharmendra Kumnar

Abstract:

The present study investigated the antidiabetic potential of Cedrus deodara heart wood aqueous extract and its relationship in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Aqueous extract of Cedrus deodara was found to reduce blood sugar level in alloxan induced diabetic rats. Reduction in blood sugar could be seen from 5th day after continuous administration of the extract and on 21st day sugar levels were found to be reduced by 40.20%. Oxidative stress produced by alloxan was found to be significantly lowered by the administration of Cedrus deodara aqueous extract (500 mg/kg). This was evident from a significant decrease in lipid per oxidation level in liver induced by alloxan. The level of Glutathione, Catalase, Superoxide dismutase and Glutathione-S-Transferase in liver, kidney and pancreas tissue were found to be increased significantly after drug administration. The results obtained in the present study suggest that the Cedrus deodara aqueous extract effectively and significantly reduced the oxidative stress induced by alloxan and produced a reduction in blood sugar level.

Keywords: Cedrus deodara, heartwood, antioxidant, anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory

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2342 Anti-Diabetic Effect of Withania somnifera in Alloxan Induced Diabetic Rabbits

Authors: Farah Ali, Tehreem Fiayyaz, Laeeq Akbar Lodhi, Imran Mirza

Abstract:

The present work was undertaken to investigate effects of various extracts of W. somnifera (WS) for anti-diabetic activity in alloxan induced diabetic rabbits. Animals were divided into nine groups of six rabbits each. The animals of group 1 and 2 were given lactose (250 mg/kg, p.o) and WS root powder (100 mg/kg, p.o) respectively daily from day 1-20. Animals of group 3 were given alloxan (100 mg/kg, i.v) as a single dose on day 1. Powdered root of WS in the doses of 100, 150, 200 mg/kg and its aqueous (AWS) and ethanol extracts (EWS) (equivalent to 200 mg/kg of crude drug) were given to the treated animals (groups 4-8), respectively orally for three weeks (day 1-20 o.d), along with alloxan (100 mg/kg, i.v) as a single dose on day 1. Group 9 was given metformin (200 mg/kg) daily from day 1-20, along with a single dose of alloxan (100 mg/ kg, i.v) on day 1. Fasting serum glucose concentration in groups 3-9 was increased significantly (p<0.05) on day 3 as compared to normal control (NC) group (1). WS (100, 150, 200 mg/kg, p.o) decreased the fasting serum glucose concentration, with a maximum decrease (88.3 mg/dl) in group 2 (treated control) on day 21 of the experiment. These results indicate that metformin (reference control), (AWS) and (EWS) significantly antagonized the diabetic effects of alloxan.

Keywords: diabetes, serum, glucose, blood, sugar, rabbits

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2341 Whey Protein in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Authors: Zyrah Lou R. Samar, Genecarlo Liwanag

Abstract:

Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus is the more prevalent type, caused by a combination of insulin resistance and inadequate insulin response to hyperglycemia1. Aside from pharmacologic interventions, medical nutrition therapy is an integral part of the management of patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Whey protein, which is one of the best protein sources, has been investigated for its applicability in improving glycemic control in patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. This systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to measure the magnitude of the effect of whey protein on glycemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus. The aim of this review is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of whey protein in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods: A systematic electronic search for studies in the PubMed and Cochrane Collaboration database was done. Included in this review were randomized controlled trials of whey protein enrolling patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Three reviewers independently searched, assessed, and extracted data from the individual studies. Results: A systematic literature search on online databases such as Cochrane Central Registry, PubMed, and Herdin Plus was conducted in April to September 2021 to identify eligible studies. The search yielded 21 randomized controlled trials after removing duplicates. Only 5 articles were included after reviewing the full text, which met the criteria for selection. Conclusion: Whey protein supplementation significantly reduced fasting blood glucose. However, it did not reduce post-prandial blood glucose, HbA1c level, and weight when compared with the placebo. There has been a considerate heterogeneity across all studies, which may have contributed/confounded its effects. A larger sample size and better inclusion, and a more specific study may be included in the future reviews.

Keywords: whey protein, diabetes, nutrition, fasting blood sugar, postprandial glucose, HbA1c, weight reduction

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2340 Metabolic Syndrome among Some Originates of Mbo Ethnic Group Living in Yaounde-Cameroon

Authors: Mandob Enyegue Damaris, Oko Ndjollo Viviane

Abstract:

The prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome is increasing throughout the world. The etiology of the metabolic syndrome is dependent on different factors such as ethnic group. This study aimed to evaluate the metabolic syndrome among Mbo ethnic group people leaving in Yaounde, Cameroon. The study conducted on the hundred and thirty two people 40 men and 92 women aged between 18-60 years who were referred to the Andre Fouda Medical Fundation in Yaounde. Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed using Adult Treatment Panel-III (A.T.P-III) 2001 guidelines. The mean of age, high fasting blood glucose, triglycerides levels and total cholesterol levels were significantly (P<0.05) higher in women with metabolic syndrome. High blood pressure level (56.80%), high fasting glucose (20.45%) and high waist circumference (10.60%) were respectively the most frequent characteristics in comparison to others metabolic components. The overall prevalence of MetS was (4.55%) and higher in women (3.03%) than in men (1.52%). The prevalence of MetS is low in originates of Mbo ethnic group of Yaounde. High blood pressure is the most common abnormality.

Keywords: individual components, metabolic syndrome, Mbo ethnic group, Yaounde-Cameroon

Procedia PDF Downloads 387
2339 Dietary Modification and Its Effects in Overweight or Obese Saudi Women with or without Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Authors: Nasiruddin Khan, Nasser M. Al-Daghri, Dara A. Al-Disi, Asim Al-Fadda, Mohamed Al-Seif, Gyanendra Tripathi, A. L. Harte, Philip G. Mcternan

Abstract:

For the last few decades, the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) is increasing alarmingly high and is unprecedented at 31.6 %. Preventive measures should be taken to curb down the increasing incidence. In this prospective, 3-month study, we aimed to determine whether dietary modification program would confer favorable affects among overweight and obese adult Saudi women with or without T2DM. A total of 92 Saudi women [18 healthy controls, 24 overweight subjects and 50 overweight or obese patients with early onset T2DM were included in this prospective study. Baseline anthropometrics and fasting blood samples were taken at baseline and after 3 months. Fasting blood sugar and lipid profile were measured routinely. A 500 Kcal deficit energy diet less than their daily recommended dietary allowances were prescribed to all participants. After 3 months of follow-up visit, significant improvements were observed in both the overweight and DMT2 group as compared to baseline with decreased mean BMI [Overweight Group 28.54±1.49 versus 27.95±2.25, p<0.05; DMT2 group 35.24±7.67 versus 35.04±8.07, p<0.05] and hip circumference [Overweight group 109.67±5.01 versus 108.07±4.07, p<0.05; DMT2 group 112.3±13.43 versus 109.21±12.71, p<0.01]. Moreover, in the overweight group, baseline HDL-cholesterol was significantly associated with protein intake and inversely associated with carbohydrate intake in controls. In the DMT2 group, carbohydrate intake at baseline was significantly associated with BMI. A 3-month 500kcal/day deficit dietary modification alone is probably effective among adult overweight or obese Saudi females without or with T2DM. Longer prospective studies are to determine whether the dietary intervention alone can reduce progression of T2DM among high-risk adult Arabs.

Keywords: diet, lipid, obesity, T2DM

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2338 The Assessment of the Diabetes Mellitus Complications on Oral Health: A Longitudinal Study

Authors: Mimoza Canga, Irene Malagnino, Gresa Baboci, Edit Xhajanka, Vito Antonio Malagnino

Abstract:

Background: Diabetes mellitus is regarded as a very problematic chronic disease that has an effect on a considerable number of people around the world and it is straightforwardly associated with the oral health condition of the patients. Objective: The objective of this study is to analyze and evaluate the impact of diabetes mellitus on oral health. Materials and methods: In the present research were taken into consideration 300 patients with an age range of 11 to 80 years old. The study sample was composed of 191 males, respectively 63.7% of them and 109 females 36.3% of the participants. We divided them into seven age groups: 11-20, 21-30, 31-40, 41-50, 51-60, 61-70, and 71-80 years.This descriptive and analytical research was designed as a longitudinal study. Statistical analysis was performed using IBM SPSS 23.0 statistics. Results: The majority of patients participating in the study belonged to the age range from 41 to 50 years old, precisely 20.7% of them, while 27% of the patients were from 51 to 60 years old. Based on the present research, it resulted that 24.4% of the participant had high blood sugar values 250-300 mg/dl, whereas 19 % of the patients had very high blood sugar values 300-350 mg/dl. Based on the results of the current study, it was observed that 83.7% of patients were affected by gingivitis. In the current study, the significant finding is that 22% of patients had more than 7 teeth with dental caries and 21% of them had 5-7 teeth with dental caries, whereas 29% of the patients had 4-5 dental caries and the remaining 28% of them had 1-3 dental caries. The present study showed that most of the patients, 27% of them had lost more than 7 teeth and 22% of the participants had lost 5-7 teeth, whereas 31% of the patients had lost 4-5 teeth and only 20 % of them had lost 1-3 teeth. This study proved that high blood sugar values had a direct impact on the manifestation of gingivitis and there it was a strong correlation between them with P-value = .001. A strong correlation was found out between dental caries and high blood sugar values with P-value ˂.001. Males with diabetes mellitus were more affected by dental caries and this was proved by the P-value= .02, in comparison to females P-value=.03. The impact of high blood sugar values affects missing teeth and the correlation between them was statistically significant with P-value ˂ .001. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that diabetes mellitus is a possible risk factor in oral health for the reason that Albanian patients over 51 years old, respectively 43% of them have over 5 teeth with dental caries as compared with 49% of the patients who had over 5 missing teeth, whereas the majority 83.7% of them suffered from gingivitis. This study asserts that patients who do not have periodical check-ups of diabetes mellitus are at significant risk of oral diseases.

Keywords: dental caries, diabetes mellitus, gingivitis, missing teeth

Procedia PDF Downloads 103
2337 Effect of Nigella Sativa Seeds and Ajwa Date on Blood Glucose Level in Saudi Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Authors: Reham Algheshairy, Khaled Tayeb, Christopher Smith, Rebecca Gregg, Haruna Musa

Abstract:

Background: Diabetes is a medical condition that refers to the pancreas’ inability to secrete sufficient insulin levels, a hormone responsible for controlling glucose levels in the body. Any surplus glucose in the blood stream is excreted through the urinary system. Insulin resistance in blood cells can also cause this condition despite the fact that the pancreas is producing the required amount of insulin A number of researchers claim that the prevalence of diabetes in Saudi Arabia has reached epidemic proportions, although one study did observe one positive in the rise in the awareness of diabetes, possibly indicative of Saudi Arabia’s improving healthcare system. While a number of factors can cause diabetes, the ever-increasing incidence of the disease in Saudi Arabia has been blamed primarily on low levels of physical activity and high levels of obesity. Objectives: The project has two aims. The first aim of the project is to investigate the regulatory effects of consumption of Nigella seeds and Ajwah dates on blood glucose levels in diabetic patients with type 2 diabetes. The second aim of the project is to investigate whether these dietary factors may have potentially beneficial effects in controlling the complications that associated with type 2 diabetes. Methods: This use a random-cross intervention trail of 75 Saudi male and female with type 2 diabetes in Al-Noor hospital in Makkah ( KSA) aged between 18 and 70 years were divided into 3 groups. Group 1 will consume 2g of Nigella Sativa seeds daily along with a modified diet for 12 weeks, group 2 will be given Ajwah dates daily with a modified diet for 12 weeks and group 3 will follow a modified diet for 12 weeks. Anthropometric measurements were taken at baseline, along with bloods for HbA1c, fasting blood sugar and at the end of 12 weeks. Results: This study found significant decrease in blood level (FBG & 2PPBG) and HbA1c in the groups with diet and Nigella seeds) compared to Ajwa date. However, there is no significant change were found in HbA1c, FBG and 2hrpp regarding Ajwa group. Conclusion: This study illustrated a significant improvement in some markers of glycaemia following 2 g of Ns and diet for 12 weeks. The dose of 2g/day of consumed Nigella seeds was found to be more effective in controlling BGL and HbA1c than control and Ajwa groups. This suggests that Nigella seeds and following a diet may have a potential effect (a role in controlling outcomes for type 2 diabetes and controlling the disease). Further research is needed on a large scale to determine the optimum dose and duration of Nigella and Ajwa in order to achieve the desired results.

Keywords: type 2 diabetes, Nigella seeds, Ajwa dates, fasting blood glucose, control

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2336 Relationship Between Insulin Resistance and Some Coagulation and Fibrinolytic Parameters in Subjects With Metabolic Syndrome

Authors: Amany Ragab, Nashwa Khairat Abousamra, Omayma Saleh, Asmaa Higazy

Abstract:

Insulin resistance syndrome has been shown to be associated with many coagulation and fibrinolytic proteins and these associations suggest that some coagulation and fibrinolytic proteins have a role in atherothrombotic disorders. This study was conducted to determine the levels of some of the haemostatic parameters in subjects having metabolic syndrome and to correlate these values with the anthropometric and metabolic variables associated with this syndrome. The study included 46 obese non diabetic subjects of whom 28 subjects(group1) fulfilled the ATP III criteria of the metabolic syndrome and 18 subjects (group2) did not have metabolic syndrome as well as 14 lean subjects (group 3) of matched age and sex as a control group. Clinical and laboratory evaluation of the study groups stressed on anthropometric measurements (weight, height, body mass index, waist circumference, and sagittal abdominal diameter), blood pressure, and laboratory measurements of fasting plasma glucose, fasting insulin, serum lipids, tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA), antithrombin III activity (ATIII), protein C and von Willebrand factor (vWf) antigen. There was significant increase in the concentrations of t-PA and vWf antigens in subjects having metabolic syndrome (group 1) in comparison to the other groups while there were non-significant changes in the levels of protein C antigen and AT III activity. Both t-PA and vWf showed significant correlation with HOMA-IR as a measure of insulin sensitivity. The t-PA showed also significant correlation with most of the variables of metabolic syndrome including waist circumference, BMI, systolic blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, fasting insulin, and HDL cholesterol. On the other hand, vWf showed significant correlations with fasting plasma glucose, fasting insulin and sagital abdominal diameter, with non-significant correlations with the other variables. Haemostatic and fibrinolytic parameters should be included in the features and characterization of the insulin resistance syndrome. t-PA and vWf antigens concentrations were increased in subjects with metabolic syndrome and correlated with the HOMA-IR measure of insulin sensitivity. Taking into consideration that both t-PA and vWf are mainly released from vascular endothelium, these findings could be an indicator of endothelial dysfunction in that group of subjects.

Keywords: insulin resistance, obesity, metabolic syndrome, coagulation

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2335 Development and Validation of a Coronary Heart Disease Risk Score in Indian Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients

Authors: Faiz N. K. Yusufi, Aquil Ahmed, Jamal Ahmad

Abstract:

Diabetes in India is growing at an alarming rate and the complications caused by it need to be controlled. Coronary heart disease (CHD) is one of the complications that will be discussed for prediction in this study. India has the second most number of diabetes patients in the world. To the best of our knowledge, there is no CHD risk score for Indian type 2 diabetes patients. Any form of CHD has been taken as the event of interest. A sample of 750 was determined and randomly collected from the Rajiv Gandhi Centre for Diabetes and Endocrinology, J.N.M.C., A.M.U., Aligarh, India. Collected variables include patients data such as sex, age, height, weight, body mass index (BMI), blood sugar fasting (BSF), post prandial sugar (PP), glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), systolic blood pressure (SBP), smoking, alcohol habits, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high density lipoprotein (HDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), physical activity, duration of diabetes, diet control, history of antihypertensive drug treatment, family history of diabetes, waist circumference, hip circumference, medications, central obesity and history of CHD. Predictive risk scores of CHD events are designed by cox proportional hazard regression. Model calibration and discrimination is assessed from Hosmer Lemeshow and area under receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Overfitting and underfitting of the model is checked by applying regularization techniques and best method is selected between ridge, lasso and elastic net regression. Youden’s index is used to choose the optimal cut off point from the scores. Five year probability of CHD is predicted by both survival function and Markov chain two state model and the better technique is concluded. The risk scores for CHD developed can be calculated by doctors and patients for self-control of diabetes. Furthermore, the five-year probabilities can be implemented as well to forecast and maintain the condition of patients.

Keywords: coronary heart disease, cox proportional hazard regression, ROC curve, type 2 diabetes Mellitus

Procedia PDF Downloads 153
2334 The Importance of the Fluctuation in Blood Sugar and Blood Pressure of Insulin-Dependent Diabetic Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease

Authors: Hitoshi Minakuchi, Izumi Takei, Shu Wakino, Koichi Hayashi, Hiroshi Itoh

Abstract:

Objectives: Among type 2 diabetics, patients with CKD(chronic kidney disease), insulin resistance, impaired glyconeogenesis in kidney and reduced degradation of insulin are recognized, and we observed different fluctuational patterns of blood sugar between CKD patients and non-CKD patients. On the other hand, non-dipper type blood pressure change is the risk of organ damage and mortality. We performed cross-sectional study to elucidate the characteristic of the fluctuation of blood glucose and blood pressure at insulin-treated diabetic patients with chronic kidney disease. Methods: From March 2011 to April 2013, at the Ichikawa General Hospital of Tokyo Dental College, we recruited 20 outpatients. All participants are insulin-treated type 2 diabetes with CKD. We collected serum samples, urine samples for several hormone measurements, and performed CGMS(Continuous glucose measurement system), ABPM (ambulatory blood pressure monitoring), brain computed tomography, carotid artery thickness, ankle brachial index, PWV, CVR-R, and analyzed these data statistically. Results: Among all 20 participants, hypoglycemia was decided blood glucose 70mg/dl by CGMS of 9 participants (45.0%). The event of hypoglycemia was recognized lower eGFR (29.8±6.2ml/min:41.3±8.5ml/min, P<0.05), lower HbA1c (6.44±0.57%:7.53±0.49%), higher PWV (1858±97.3cm/s:1665±109.2cm/s), higher serum glucagon (194.2±34.8pg/ml:117.0±37.1pg/ml), higher free cortisol of urine (53.8±12.8μg/day:34.8±7.1μg/day), and higher metanephrin of urine (0.162±0.031mg/day:0.076±0.029mg/day). Non-dipper type blood pressure change in ABPM was detected 8 among 9 participants with hypoglycemia (88.9%), 4 among 11 participants (36.4%) without hypoglycemia. Multiplex logistic-regression analysis revealed that the event of hypoglycemia is the independent factor of non-dipper type blood pressure change. Conclusions: Among insulin-treated type 2 diabetic patients with CKD, the events of hypoglycemia were frequently detected, and can associate with the organ derangements through the medium of non-dipper type blood pressure change.

Keywords: chronic kidney disease, hypoglycemia, non-dipper type blood pressure change, diabetic patients

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2333 A Comparison of Three Protocols Weight-Loss Interventions for Obese Females

Authors: Nayera E. Hassan, Sahar A. El-Masry, Rokia El-Banna, Mohamed S. El Hussieny

Abstract:

There are several different modalities for treatment of obesity. Common intervention methods for obesity include low-calorie diet, exercise. Also acupuncture has shown good therapeutic results in the treatment of obesity. A recent clinical observation showed that laser acupuncture could reduce body weight and body mass index in obese persons. So, the aim of this research is focused on body composition changes as related to type of intervention, before and after intentional weight loss in overweight and obesity. 76 subjects were included in the study analysis. The present study recommended that every obese female must do lipid profile and fasting blood sugar analysis before weight-loss intervention to take the decision of which method should be used.

Keywords: obesity, weight-loss, body composition, modalities

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2332 Analysis of Cardiovascular Diseases Using Artificial Neural Network

Authors: Jyotismita Talukdar

Abstract:

In this paper, a study has been made on the possibility and accuracy of early prediction of several Heart Disease using Artificial Neural Network. (ANN). The study has been made in both noise free environment and noisy environment. The data collected for this analysis are from five Hospitals. Around 1500 heart patient’s data has been collected and studied. The data is analysed and the results have been compared with the Doctor’s diagnosis. It is found that, in noise free environment, the accuracy varies from 74% to 92%and in noisy environment (2dB), the results of accuracy varies from 62% to 82%. In the present study, four basic attributes considered are Blood Pressure (BP), Fasting Blood Sugar (FBS), Thalach (THAL) and Cholesterol (CHOL.). It has been found that highest accuracy(93%), has been achieved in case of PPI( Post-Permanent-Pacemaker Implementation ), around 79% in case of CAD(Coronary Artery disease), 87% in DCM (Dilated Cardiomyopathy), 89% in case of RHD&MS(Rheumatic heart disease with Mitral Stenosis), 75 % in case of RBBB +LAFB (Right Bundle Branch Block + Left Anterior Fascicular Block), 72% for CHB(Complete Heart Block) etc. The lowest accuracy has been obtained in case of ICMP (Ischemic Cardiomyopathy), about 38% and AF( Atrial Fibrillation), about 60 to 62%.

Keywords: coronary heart disease, chronic stable angina, sick sinus syndrome, cardiovascular disease, cholesterol, Thalach

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2331 Identifying Diabetic Retinopathy Complication by Predictive Techniques in Indian Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients

Authors: Faiz N. K. Yusufi, Aquil Ahmed, Jamal Ahmad

Abstract:

Predicting the risk of diabetic retinopathy (DR) in Indian type 2 diabetes patients is immensely necessary. India, being the second largest country after China in terms of a number of diabetic patients, to the best of our knowledge not a single risk score for complications has ever been investigated. Diabetic retinopathy is a serious complication and is the topmost reason for visual impairment across countries. Any type or form of DR has been taken as the event of interest, be it mild, back, grade I, II, III, and IV DR. A sample was determined and randomly collected from the Rajiv Gandhi Centre for Diabetes and Endocrinology, J.N.M.C., A.M.U., Aligarh, India. Collected variables include patients data such as sex, age, height, weight, body mass index (BMI), blood sugar fasting (BSF), post prandial sugar (PP), glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), systolic blood pressure (SBP), smoking, alcohol habits, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high density lipoprotein (HDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), physical activity, duration of diabetes, diet control, history of antihypertensive drug treatment, family history of diabetes, waist circumference, hip circumference, medications, central obesity and history of DR. Cox proportional hazard regression is used to design risk scores for the prediction of retinopathy. Model calibration and discrimination are assessed from Hosmer Lemeshow and area under receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC). Overfitting and underfitting of the model are checked by applying regularization techniques and best method is selected between ridge, lasso and elastic net regression. Optimal cut off point is chosen by Youden’s index. Five-year probability of DR is predicted by both survival function, and Markov chain two state model and the better technique is concluded. The risk scores developed can be applied by doctors and patients themselves for self evaluation. Furthermore, the five-year probabilities can be applied as well to forecast and maintain the condition of patients. This provides immense benefit in real application of DR prediction in T2DM.

Keywords: Cox proportional hazard regression, diabetic retinopathy, ROC curve, type 2 diabetes mellitus

Procedia PDF Downloads 112