Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1525

Search results for: bladder cancer

1525 Diagnostic Evaluation of Urinary Angiogenin (ANG) and Clusterin (CLU) as Biomarker for Bladder Cancer

Authors: Marwa I. Shabayek, Ola A. Said, Hanan A. Attaia, Heba A. Awida

Abstract:

Bladder carcinoma is an important worldwide health problem. Both cystoscopy and urine cytology used in detecting bladder cancer suffer from drawbacks where cystoscopy is an invasive method and urine cytology shows low sensitivity in low grade tumors. This study validates easier and less time-consuming techniques to evaluate the value of combined use of angiogenin and clusterin in comparison and combination with voided urine cytology in the detection of bladder cancer patients. This study includes malignant (bladder cancer patients, n= 50), benign (n=20), and healthy (n=20) groups. The studied groups were subjected to cystoscopic examination, detection of bilharzial antibodies, urine cytology, and estimation of urinary angiogenin and clusterin by ELISA. The overall sensitivity and specifcity were 66% and 75% for angiogenin, 70% and 82.5% for clusterin and 46% and 80% for voided urine cytology. Combined sensitivity of angiogenin and clusterin with urine cytology increased from 82 to 88%.

Keywords: angiogenin, bladder cancer, clusterin, cytology

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1524 Epidemiology of Bladder Malignancy in Patients Treated with Urethral Resection in Kurdistan Province

Authors: Heshmatollah Sofimajidpour, Mohammad Aziz Rasouli

Abstract:

Bladder cancer is the ninth most common cancer in the world and the fourth most common cancer in men in Iran, and the second most common genitourinary cancer after prostate cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the epidemiology of bladder malignancy in patients treated with transurethral resection in Tohid Hospital in Sanandaj. In this cross-sectional study, data was extracted from321 medical records of patients with bladder malignancy treated by urethral resection. Patients 'information, including age, sex, place of residence, occupation, smoking history, histopathology, disease stage, and type of treatment, were extracted from patients' medical records from 2012-2017. The frequency and percentage of each variable were calculated using Stata software Ver. 14 and analyzed. The results of this study showed that the mean ± standard deviation of the age of the subjects was 65.6 ± 14 years. 264 people (82.2%) were men, and 247 people (76.9%) lived in the city. In terms of smoking and family history, 172 patients (53.6%) and 20 patients (6.2%) were reported, respectively. Most people were diagnosed with Transitional Cell carcinoma, and 210 patients (65.4%) were diagnosed with stage 1, and 8 patients (2.5%) were diagnosed with stage 4 of the disease. Regarding the type of treatment, TURBT was reported in 207 patients (64.5%), and TURBT and BCG in the bladder were reported in 74 patients (23%). The incidence of bladder cancer is increasing, although this increase may be due to improved cancer registration systems, as well as the use of new diagnostic methods and increased patient awareness, the risk of bladder cancer is increasing due to lifestyle changes, job encounters, and other risk factors. Therefore planning and identifying the causes of this cancer can be helpful in preventing it.

Keywords: epidemiology, bladder malignancy, transurethral resection, urinary tract, kurdistan, iran

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1523 The Anti-Bladder Cancer Effects Exerted by Hyaluronan Nanoparticles Encapsulated Heteronemin Isolated from Hippospongia Sp.

Authors: Kuan Yin Hsiao, Shyh Ming Kuo, Yi Jhen Wu, Chin Wen Chuang, Chuen-Fu Lin, Wei-qing Yang, Han Hsiang Huang

Abstract:

Anti-tumor effects of natural products, like compounds from marine sponges and soft corals, have been investigated for decades. Polymeric nanoparticles prepared from biodegradable and biocompatible molecules, such as Hyaluronan (HA), Chitosan (CHI) and gelatin have been widely studied. Encapsulation of anti-cancer therapies by the biopolymeric nanoparticles in drug delivery system is potentially capable of improving the therapeutic effects and attenuating their toxicity. In the current study, the anti-bladder cancer effects of heteronemin extracted from the sponge Hippospongia sp. with or without HA and CHI nanoparticle encapsulation were assessed and evaluated in vitro. Results showed that IC50 (half maximal inhibitory concentration) of heteronemin toward T24 human bladder cancer cell viability is approximately 0.18 µg/mL. Both plain and HA nanoparticles-encapsulated heteronemin at 0.2 and 0.4 µg/mL significantly reduced T24 cell viability (P<0.001) while HA nanoparticles-encapsulated heteronemin showed weaker viability-inhibitory effects on L929 fibroblasts compared with plain heteronemin at the identical concentrations. HA and CHI nanoparticles-encapsulated heteronemin exhibited significantly stronger inhibitory effects against migration of T24 human bladder cancer cell than those exerted by plain heteronemin at the same concentrations (P<0.001). The flow cytometric results showed that 0.2 µg/mL HA and CHI nanoparticles-encapsulated heteronemin induced higher early apoptosis rate than that induced by plain heteronemin at the same concentration. These results show that HA and CHI nanoparticle encapsulation is able to elevate anti-migratory and apoptosis-inducing effects exerted by heteronemin against bladder cancer cells in vitro. The in vivo anti-bladder cancer effects of the compound with or without HA/CHI nanoparticle encapsulation will be further investigated and examined using murine tumor models. The data obtained from this study will extensively evaluate of the anti-bladder cancer effects of heteronemin as well as HA/CHI-encapsulated heteronemin and pave a way to develop potential bladder cancer treatment.

Keywords: heteronemin, nanoparticles, hyaluronan, chitosan, bladder cancer

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1522 Autophagy Suppresses Bladder Tumor Formation in a Mouse Orthotopic Bladder Tumor Formation Model

Authors: Wan-Ting Kuo, Yi-Wen Liu, Hsiao-Sheng Liu

Abstract:

Annual incidence of bladder cancer increases in the world and occurs frequently in the male. Most common type is transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) which is treated by transurethral resection followed by intravesical administration of agents. In clinical treatment of bladder cancer, chemotherapeutic drugs-induced apoptosis is always used in patients. However, cancers usually develop resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs and often lead to aggressive tumors with worse clinical outcomes. Approximate 70% TCC recurs and 30% recurrent tumors progress to high-grade invasive tumors, indicating that new therapeutic agents are urgently needed to improve the successful rate of overall treatment. Nonapoptotic program cell death may assist to overcome worse clinical outcomes. Autophagy which is one of the nonapoptotic pathways provides another option for bladder cancer patients. Autophagy is reported as a potent anticancer therapy in some cancers. First of all, we established a mouse orthotopic bladder tumor formation model in order to create a similar tumor microenvironment. IVIS system and micro-ultrasound were utilized to noninvasively monitor tumor formation. In addition, we carried out intravesical treatment in our animal model to be consistent with human clinical treatment. In our study, we carried out intravesical instillation of the autophagy inducer in mouse orthotopic bladder tumor to observe tumor formation by noninvasive IVIS system and micro-ultrasound. Our results showed that bladder tumor formation is suppressed by the autophagy inducer, and there are no significant side effects in the physiology of mice. Furthermore, the autophagy inducer upregulated autophagy in bladder tissues of the treated mice was confirmed by Western blot, immunohistochemistry, and immunofluorescence. In conclusion, we reveal that a novel autophagy inducer with low side effects suppresses bladder tumor formation in our mouse orthotopic bladder tumor model, and it provides another therapeutic approach in bladder cancer patients.

Keywords: bladder cancer, transitional cell carcinoma, orthotopic bladder tumor formation model, autophagy

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1521 An Unusual Presentation of Plasmacytoid Urothelial Carcinoma of the Bladder - A Case Report and Literature Review

Authors: Bharti Arora, Michael Chen, Steven Lun

Abstract:

Plasmacytoid urothelial carcinoma (PUC) of the bladder is a rare and aggressive subtype of urothelial carcinoma that usually presents at an advanced clinical stage, has a predilection for early metastatic potential and is associated with poor prognosis. The first reported case of PUC was in 1991 and approximately 100 cases were reported in the literature worldwide. We present a case of a 43 year old female presenting with a 3-month history of urgency and frequency. Failing medical management of her urinary symptoms with anticholinergic medication, she underwent a diagnostic cystoscopy which revealed an erythematous and indurated bladder. Bladder biopsies of these regions revealed plasmacytoid urothelial carcinoma. Pre-operative staging scans were clear of any metastatic disease and the patient subsequently underwent a radical cystectomy and pelvic clearance with the formation of ileal conduit for urinary diversion. Histology confirmed plasmacytoid urothelial carcinoma with involvement of right upper vagina and focally positive margins in soft tissue at right and left sides of bladder. She received adjuvant chemotherapy but passed away within a year from disease progression. PUC can present atypically and our case highlights the role of cystoscopy in patients with persistent urinary symptoms. By reviewing the literature on PUC, we aim to raise awareness and improve understanding of this rare bladder cancer subtype amongst urologists.

Keywords: urology, bladder cancer, plasmacytoid urothelial cancer, literature review

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1520 Effect of Diindolylmethane on BBN-Induced Bladder Carcinogenesis in Rats

Authors: Sundaresan Sivapatham, B. Prabhu

Abstract:

Cancer results from a multistage, multi-mechanism carcinogenesis process that involves mutagenic, cell death and epigenetic mechanisms, during the three distinguishable but closely allied stages: initiation, promotion, and progression. Chemoprevention is promising in the realm of cancer prevention and it has been shown to reduce the risk of development of carcinoma in highly susceptible individuals such as those with known genetic mutations or high level of risk factors. The present study is aimed at the need of early detection of bladder cancer in order to improve performance in the treatment of this disease. Consumption of certain natural products like DIM is associated with a reduction in cancer incidence in humans. The study showed the protective effects of Diindolylmethane in N-Butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl) nitrosamine treated rats. Results of the study had shown the changes in the tumor markers, biomarkers and histopathological alterations in experimental rats when compared to control rats. The protective effects of DIM were shown from the results of cell proliferation, apoptotic markers and histopathological findings when compared with experimental control animals. Hence, our results speculate that the tumor markers, apoptotic markers, histopathological changes and cell proliferation index measured as PCNA serves as an indicator suggestive of protective effects of DIM in BBN induced urinary bladder carcinogenesis.

Keywords: bladder cancer, N-Butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl) nitrosamine, diindolylmethane, histopathology

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1519 A Literature Review on Bladder Management in Individuals with Spinal Cord Injury

Authors: Elif Ates, Naile Bilgili

Abstract:

Background: One of the most important medical complications that individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) face are the neurogenic bladder. Objectives: To review methods used for management of neurogenic bladder and their effects. Methods: The study was conducted by searching CINAHL, Ebscohost, MEDLINE, Science Direct, Ovid, ProQuest, Web of Science, and ULAKBİM National Databases for studies published between 2005 and 2015. Key words used during the search included ‘spinal cord injury’, ‘bladder injury’, ‘nursing care’, ‘catheterization’ and ‘intermittent urinary catheter’. After examination of 551 studies, 21 studies which met inclusion criteria were included in the review. Results: Mean age of individuals in all study samples was 42 years. The most commonly used bladder management method was clean intermittent catheterization (CIC). Compliance with CIC was found to be significantly related to spasticity, maximum cystometric capacity, and the person performing catheterization (p < .05). The main reason for changing the existing bladder management method was urinary tract infections (UTI). Individuals who performed CIC by themselves and who voided spontaneously had better life quality. Patient age, occupation status and whether they performed CIC by themselves or not were found to be significantly associated with depression level (p ≤ .05). Conclusion: As the most commonly used method for bladder management, CIC is a reliable and effective method, and reduces the risk of UTI development. Individuals with neurogenic bladder have a higher prevalence of depression symptoms than the normal population.

Keywords: bladder management, catheterization, nursing, spinal cord injury

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1518 Evaluation of the Radiolabelled 68GA-DOTATOC Complex in Adenocarcinoma Breast Cancer

Authors: S. Zolghadri, M. Naderi, H. Yousefnia, B. Alirzapour, A. R. Jalilian, A. Ramazani

Abstract:

Nowadays, 68Ga-DOTATOC has been known as a potential agent for the detection of neuroendocrine tumours and it has indicated higher sensitivity compared with the 111In-Octeroetide. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of this new agent in the diagnosis of adenocarcinoma breast cancer. 68Ga-DOTATOC was prepared with the radiochemical purity of higher than 98% and by the specific activity of 39.6 TBq/mmol. 37 MBq of the complex was injected intravenously into the BULB/c mice with adenocarcinoma breast cancer. PET/CT images were acquired after 30, 60 and 90 min post injection demonstrated significant accumulation in the tumour sites. Also, considerable activity was observed in the kidney and bladder as the main routs of excretion. Generally, the results showed that 68Ga-DOTATOC can be considered as a suitable complex for diagnosis of the adenocarcinoma breast cancer using PET procedure.

Keywords: adenocarcinoma breast cancer, 68Ga, octreotide, imaging

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1517 Gall Bladder Polyp Identified as Solitary RCC Metastasis 4 Years after Nephrectomy: An Unusual Case Report

Authors: Gerard Bray, Arya Bahadori, Sachinka Ranasinghe

Abstract:

Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is among the top 10 most common cancers worldwide, where metastatic disease carries a poor prognosis. Herein, we present a 74-year-old male presenting with asymptomatic solitary metachronous metastasis to the gall bladder 4 years following nephrectomy for clear cell RCC. Solitary RCC metastasis to the gall bladder following nephrectomy is rarely reported in the literature and brings with it a clinical conundrum of whether surgical resection or systemic therapy should be utilized. In this case, surgical excision with cholecystectomy was employed without systemic therapy. We, therefore, contribute a rare and interesting case that highlights that metastasectomy of a solitary metastasis can improve survival according to current literature.

Keywords: renal cell carcinoma, gall bladder metastasis, solitary metastasectomy, metachronous

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1516 The Many Faces of Cancer and Knowing When to Say Stop

Authors: Diwei Lin, Amanda Jh. Tan

Abstract:

We present a very rare case of de novo large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the prostate (LCNEC) in an 84-year-old male on a background of high-grade, muscle-invasive transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. While NE tumours account for 1% to 5% of all cases of prostate cancer and scattered NE cells can be found in 10% to 100% of prostate adenocarcinomas, pure LCNEC of the prostate is extremely rare. Most LCNEC of the prostate is thought to originate by clonal progression under the selection pressure of therapy and refractory to long-term hormonal treatment for adenocarcinoma of the prostate. De novo LCNEC is only described in case reports and is thought to develop via direct malignant transformation. Limited data in the English literature makes it difficult to accurately predict the prognosis of LCNEC of the prostate. However, current evidence suggesting that increasing NE differentiation in prostate adenocarcinoma is associated with a higher stage, high-grade disease, and a worse prognosis.

Keywords: large cell neuroendocrine cancer, prostate cancer, refractory cancer, medical and health sciences

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1515 In-House Fatty Meal Cholescintigraphy as a Screening Tool in Patients Presenting with Dyspepsia

Authors: Avani Jain, S. Shelley, M. Indirani, Shilpa Kalal, Jaykanth Amalachandran

Abstract:

Aim: To evaluate the prevalence of gall bladder dysfunction in patients with dyspepsia using In-House fatty meal cholescintigraphy. Materials & Methods: This study is a prospective cohort study. 59 healthy volunteers with no dyspeptic complaints and negative ultrasound and endoscopy were recruited in study. 61 patients having complaint of dyspepsia for duration of more than 6 months were included. All of them underwent 99mTc-Mebrofenin fatty meal cholescintigraphy following a standard protocol. Dynamic acquisitions were acquired for 120 minutes with an In-House fatty meal being given at 45th minute. Gall bladder emptying kinetics was determined with gall bladder ejection fractions (GBEF) calculated at 30minutes, 45minutes and at 60 minutes (30min, 45min & 60 min). Standardization of fatty meal was done for volunteers. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used assess the diagnostic accuracy of 3 time points (30min, 45min & 60 min) used for measuring gall bladder emptying. On the basis of cut off derived from volunteers, the patients were assessed for gall bladder dysfunction. Results: In volunteers, the GBEF at 30 min was 74.42±8.26 % (mean ±SD), at 45 min was 82.61 ± 6.5 % and at 60 min was 89.37±4.48%, compared to patients where at 30min it was 33.73±22.87%, at 45 min it was 43.03±26.97% and at 60 min it was 51.85±29.60%. The lower limit of GBEF in volunteers at 30 min was 60%, 45 min was 69% and at 60 min was 81%. ROC analysis showed that area under curve was largest for 30 min GBEF (0.952; 95% CI = 0.914-0.989) and that all the 3 measures were statistically significant (p < 0.005). Majority of the volunteers had 74% of gall bladder emptying by 30 minutes; hence it was taken as an optimum cutoff time to assess gall bladder contraction. > 60% GBEF at 30 min post fatty meal was considered as normal and < 60% GBEF as indicative of gall bladder dysfunction. In patients, various causes for dyspepsia were identified: GB dysfunction (63.93%), Peptic ulcer (8.19 %), Gastroesophageal reflux disease (8.19%), Gastritis (4.91%). In 18.03% of cases GB dysfunction coexisted with other gastrointestinal conditions. The diagnosis of functional dyspepsia was made in 14.75% of cases. Conclusions: Gall bladder dysfunction contributes significantly to the causation of dyspepsia. It could coexist with various other gastrointestinal diseases. Fatty meal was well tolerated and devoid of any side effects. Many patients who are labeled as functional dyspeptics could actually have gall bladder dysfunction. Hence as an adjunct to ultrasound and endoscopy, fatty meal cholescintigraphy can also be used as a screening modality in characterization of dyspepsia.

Keywords: in-house fatty meal, choescintigraphy, dyspepsia, gall bladder ejection fraction, functional dyspepsia

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1514 Photobleaching Kinetics and Epithelial Distribution of Hexylaminoleuilinate Induced PpIX in Rat Bladder Cancer

Authors: Sami El Khatib, Agnès Leroux, Jean-Louis Merlin, François Guillemin, Marie-Ange D’Hallewin

Abstract:

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a treatment modality based on the cytotoxic effect occurring on the target tissues by interaction of a photosensitizer with light in the presence of oxygen. One of the major advances in PDT can be attributed to the use of topical aminolevulinic (ALA) to induce Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) for the treatment of early stage cancers as well as diagnosis. ALA is a precursor of the heme synthesis pathway. Locally delivered to the target tissue ALA overcomes the negative feedback exerted by heme and promotes the transient formation of PpIX in situ to reach critical effective levels in cells and tissue. Whereas early steps of the heme pathway occur in the cytosol, PpIX synthesis is shown to be held in the mitochondrial membranes and PpIX fluorescence is expected to accumulate in close vicinity of the initial building site and to progressively diffuse to the neighboring cytoplasmic compartment or other lipophylic organelles. PpIX is known to be highly reactive and will be degraded when irradiated with light. PpIX photobleaching is believed to be governed by a singlet oxygen mediated mechanism in the presence of oxidized amino acids and proteins. PpIX photobleaching and subsequent spectral phototransformation were described widely in tumor cells incubated in vitro with ALA solution, or ex vivo in human and porcine mucosa superfused with hexylaminolevulinate (hALA). PpIX photobleaching was also studied in vivo, using animal models such as normal or tumor mice skin and orthotopic rat bladder model. Hexyl aminolevulinate a more potent lipophilic derivative of ALA was proposed as an adjunct to standard cystoscopy in the fluorescence diagnosis of bladder cancer and other malignancies. We have previously reported the effectiveness of hALA mediated PDT of rat bladder cancer. Although normal and tumor bladder epithelium exhibit similar fluorescence intensities after intravesical instillation of two hALA concentrations (8 and 16 mM), the therapeutic response at 8mM and 20J/cm2 was completely different from the one observed at 16mM irradiated with the same light dose. Where the tumor is destroyed, leaving the underlying submucosa and muscle intact after an 8 mM instillation, 16mM sensitization and subsequent illumination results in the complete destruction of the underlying bladder wall but leaves the tumor undamaged. The object of the current study is to try to unravel the underlying mechanism for this apparent contradiction. PpIX extraction showed identical amounts of photosensitizer in tumor bearing bladders at both concentrations. Photobleaching experiments revealed mono-exponential decay curves in both situations but with a two times faster decay constant in case of 16mM bladders. Fluorescence microscopy shows an identical fluorescence pattern for normal bladders at both concentrations and tumor bladders at 8mM with bright spots. Tumor bladders at 16 mM exhibit a more diffuse cytoplasmic fluorescence distribution. The different response to PDT with regard to the initial pro-drug concentration can thus be attributed to the different cellular localization.

Keywords: bladder cancer, hexyl-aminolevulinate, photobleaching, confocal fluorescence microscopy

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1513 Identification of the Target Genes to Increase the Immunotherapy Response in Bladder Cancer Patients using Computational and Experimental Approach

Authors: Sahar Nasr, Lin Li, Edwin Wang

Abstract:

Bladder cancer (BLCA) is known as the 13th cause of death among cancer patients worldwide, and ~575,000 new BLCA cases are diagnosed each year. Urothelial carcinoma (UC) is the most prevalent subtype among BLCA patients, which can be categorized into muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) and non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). Currently, various therapeutic options are available for UC patients, including (1) transurethral resection followed by intravesical instillation of chemotherapeutics or Bacillus Calmette-Guérin for NMIBC patients, (2) neoadjuvant platinum-based chemotherapy (NAC) plus radical cystectomy is the standard of care for localized MIBC patients, and (3) systematic chemotherapy for metastatic UC. However, conventional treatments may lead to several challenges for treating patients. As an illustration, some patients may suffer from recurrence of the disease after the first line of treatment. Recently, immune checkpoint therapy (ICT) has been introduced as an alternative treatment strategy for the first or second line of treatment in advanced or metastatic BLCA patients. Although ICT showed lucrative results for a fraction of BLCA patients, ~80% of patients were not responsive to it. Therefore, novel treatment methods are required to augment the ICI response rate within BLCA patients. It has been shown that the infiltration of T-cells into the tumor microenvironment (TME) is positively correlated with the response to ICT within cancerous patients. Therefore, the goal of this study is to enhance the infiltration of cytotoxic T-cells into TME through the identification of target genes within the tumor that are responsible for the non-T-cell inflamed TME and their inhibition. BLCA bulk RNA-sequencing data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and immune score for TCGA samples were used to determine the Pearson correlation score between the expression of different genes and immune score for each sample. The genes with strong negative correlations were selected (r < -0.2). Thereafter, the correlation between the expression of each gene and survival in BLCA patients was calculated using the TCGA data and Cox regression method. The genes that are common in both selected gene lists were chosen for further analysis. Afterward, BLCA bulk and single-cell RNA-sequencing data were ranked based on the expression of each selected gene and the top and bottom 25% samples were used for pathway enrichment analysis. If the pathways related to the T-cell infiltration (e.g., antigen presentation, interferon, or chemokine pathways) were enriched within the low-expression group, the gene was included for downstream analysis. Finally, the selected genes will be used to calculate the correlation between their expression and the infiltration rate of the activated CD+8 T-cells, natural killer cells and the activated dendric cells. A list of potential target genes has been identified and ranked based on the above-mentioned analysis and criteria. SUN-1 got the highest score within the gene list and other identified genes in the literature as benchmarks. In conclusion, inhibition of SUN1 may increase the tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and the efficacy of ICI in BLCA patients. BLCA tumor cells with and without SUN-1 CRISPR/Cas9 knockout will be injected into the syngeneic mouse model to validate the predicted SUN-1 effect on increasing tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes.

Keywords: data analysis, gene expression analysis, gene identification, immunoinformatic, functional genomics, transcriptomics

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1512 The Dose to Organs in Lumbar-Abdominal Computed Tomography Imaging Using TLD

Authors: M. Zehtabian, Z. Molaiemanesh, Z. Shafahi, M. Papie, M. Zahraie Moghaddam, M. Mehralizadeh, M. R. Vahidi, S. Sina

Abstract:

The introduction of CT scans has been a great improvement in diagnosis of different diseases. However, this imaging modality can expose the patients to cumulative radiation doses which may increase the risks of some health problems like cancer. In this study, the dose delivered to different organs in lumbar-abdominal imaging was measured by putting the TLD-100, and TLD-100H chips inside the Alderson Rando phantom. The lumbar-abdominal image of the phantom was obtained, while TLD chips were inside the holes of the phantom. According to the results obtained in this study using TLD-100 chips, the average dose received by liver, bladder, rectum, kidneys, and uterus were found to be 12.9 mSv, 8.9 mSv, 10.1 mSv, 11.0 mSv, 11.2 mSv, and 10.5 mSv respectively, while the measurements performed by TLD-100H show that the average dose to liver, bladder, rectum, kidneys, and uterus were found to be 12.4 mSv, 9.2 mSv, 9.5 mSv, 10.5 mSv, 10.7 mSv, and 9.9 mSv respectively. The results of this study indicates that the dose measured by the TLD-100H chips are in close agreement with those obtained by TLD-100.

Keywords: CT scan, dose, TLD-100, diagnosis

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1511 Assessment of the Effect of Orally Administered Itopride on Gall Bladder Ejection Fraction by a Fatty Meal Cholescintigraphy in Patients with Diabetes

Authors: Avani Jain, Hasmukh Jain, S. Shelley, M. Indirani, Shilpa Kalal, Jayakanth Amalachandran

Abstract:

Aim of the Study: To assess the effect of orally administered Itopride on gall bladder ejection fraction by fatty meal cholescintigraphy in patients with diabetes. Materials and Methods: Thirty patients (20 males, 10 females, mean age 46+10 yrs) with history of diabetes mellitus (mean duration 4.8+4.1 yrs, fasting blood glucose level 130+35 mg/dl and 2-hours post-prandial blood glucose level 196+76 mg/dl) and found to have gall bladder dysfunction on fatty-meal stimulated cholescintigraphy were selected for this study. These patients underwent a repeat cholescintigraphy similar to baseline study, with 50 mg of Itopride orally along with fatty meal. Pre- and post-Itopride GBEF were then compared to assess the effect of Itopride on gall bladder contraction. Results: Out of these 30 patients, 2 had dyskinetic, 4 had akinetic, 22 had moderately hypokinetic and the remaining 2 had hypokinetic gall bladder function in the baseline study with > 60% GBEF being taken as the normal value. Mean percentage of GBEF in the baseline study was 32%+13% and the mean percentage of GBEF in the post-Itopride study was 57%+17% with change in mean percentage of GBEF being 24%+21%. GBEF of the “baseline study” was significantly lower as compared to GBEF in the “post-Itopride study” (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Diabetic patients with biliary-type pain often tend to have impaired gallbladder function. Cholescintigraphy with fatty meal-stimulation is a simple, cheap and useful investigation for assessment of gallbladder dysfunction in these patients, before any structural changes occur within the lumen or wall of the gall bladder. Improvement in gallbladder ejection fraction after oral administration of a single dose of Itopride, a newer prokinetic drug with fewer side effects, as assessed by cholescintigraphy, provides enough evidence of future therapeutic response. Administration of Itopride, in therapeutic dosage, therefore may be expected to cause significant improvement in gallbladder ejection fraction and hence prolong stone formation within the gall bladder and also prevent the associated long term complications. Hence, based on scintigraphic evidence, Itopride may be recommended, by clinicians, for management of symptomatic diabetic patients having gallbladder dysfunction.

Keywords: itopride, gall bladder ejection fraction, fatty meal, cholescintigraphy, diabetes

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1510 Origin Variability of Superior Vesical Artery

Authors: Waseem Al-Talalwah

Abstract:

The superior vesical artery usually arises directly from the anterior division of the internal iliac artery. It may arise from the umbilical artery as three or four branches to supply the upper and middle parts of bladder. Current study focuses on the different origins of the superior vesical artery to provide a sufficient data for surgeons to disease iatrogenic fault. The superior vesical artery arises directly from the anterior division of the internal iliac artery in 24.5% whereas it arises indirectly as from umbilical artery in 83.7%. Further, it may arise from any branch of the anterior division as from the utrine and obturator arteries in 6.1% and in 6.3% respectively. It also shares the origin of the internal pudendal and inferior glutyeal artery as it arises from the gluteopudendal trunk in 4.1%. The superior vesical artery arises as a single, double, triple and quadruple in 69.4%, 20.4%, 8.2% and 2% respectively. In case of cystectomy for bladder cancer, surgeons have to be aware of the origin variability of superior vesical artery to prevent post-surgical complication such as intra-pelvic bleeding. Also, the as intra-pelvic bleeding has to be expected in case of hysterectomy therefore a great caution of the vesical branches arising from uterine artery has to be considered. In case of aneurysm resection of inferior gluteal artery arising from the gluteopudendal trunk, the surgeons have to be careful of the vascular supply of urinary bladder coming from above and below this common trunk as from superior and inferior vesical arteries respectively. Therefore, present study increases the awareness of clinical significance of superior vesical artery origin for surgeons to minimise the iatroginc errors.

Keywords: superior vesical artery, anterior division, internal iliac, internal pudendal, inferior glutyeal, intra-pelvic bleeding, hysterectomy, cystectomy

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1509 Dosimetric Comparison of Conventional Plans versus Three Dimensional Conformal Simultaneously Integrated Boost Plans

Authors: Shoukat Ali, Amjad Hussain, Latif-ur-Rehman, Sehrish Inam

Abstract:

Radiotherapy plays an important role in the management of cancer patients. Approximately 50% of the cancer patients receive radiotherapy at one point or another during the course of treatment. The entire radiotherapy treatment of curative intent is divided into different phases, depending on the histology of the tumor. The established protocols are useful in deciding the total dose, fraction size, and numbers of phases. The objective of this study was to evaluate the dosimetric differences between the conventional treatment protocols and the three-dimensional conformal simultaneously integrated boost (SIB) plans for three different tumors sites (i.e. bladder, breast, and brain). A total of 30 patients with brain, breast and bladder cancers were selected in this retrospective study. All the patients were CT simulated initially. The primary physician contoured PTV1 and PTV2 in the axial slices. The conventional doses prescribed for brain and breast is 60Gy/30 fractions, and 64.8Gy/36 fractions for bladder treatment. For the SIB plans biological effective doses (BED) were calculated for 25 fractions. The two conventional (Phase I and Phase II) and a single SIB plan for each patient were generated on Eclipse™ treatment planning system. Treatment plans were compared and analyzed for coverage index, conformity index, homogeneity index, dose gradient and organs at risk doses.In both plans 95% of PTV volume received a minimum of 95% of the prescribe dose. Dose deviation in the optic chiasm was found to be less than 0.5%. There is no significant difference in lung V20 and heart V30 in the breast plans. In the rectum plans V75%, V50% and V25% were found to be less than 1.2% different. Deviation in the tumor coverage, conformity and homogeneity indices were found to be less than 1%. SIB plans with three dimensional conformal radiotherapy technique reduce the overall treatment time without compromising the target coverage and without increasing dose to the organs at risk. The higher dose per fraction may increase the late effects to some extent. Further studies are required to evaluate the late effects with the intention of standardizing the SIB technique for practical implementation.

Keywords: coverage index, conformity index, dose gradient, homogeneity index, simultaneously integrated boost

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1508 Slope Effect in Emission Evaluation to Assess Real Pollutant Factors

Authors: G. Meccariello, L. Della Ragione

Abstract:

The exposure to outdoor air pollution causes lung cancer and increases the risk of bladder cancer. Because air pollution in urban areas is mainly caused by transportation, it is necessary to evaluate pollutant exhaust emissions from vehicles during their real-world use. Nevertheless their evaluation and reduction is a key problem, especially in the cities, that account for more than 50% of world population. A particular attention was given to the slope variability along the streets during each journey performed by the instrumented vehicle. In this paper we dealt with the problem of describing a quantitatively approach for the reconstruction of GPS coordinates and altitude, in the context of correlation study between driving cycles / emission / geographical location, during an experimental campaign realized with some instrumented cars. Finally the slope analysis can be correlated to the emission and consumption values in a specific road position, and it could be evaluated its influence on their behaviour.

Keywords: air pollution, driving cycles, GPS signal, slope, emission factor, fuel consumption

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1507 Random Variation of Treated Volumes in Fractionated 2D Image Based HDR Brachytherapy for Cervical Cancer

Authors: R. Tudugala, B. M. A. I. Balasooriya, W. M. Ediri Arachchi, R. W. M. W. K. Rathnayake, T. D. Premaratna

Abstract:

Brachytherapy involves placing a source of radiation near the cancer site which gives promising prognosis for cervical cancer treatments. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of random variation of treated volumes in between fractions in the 2D image based fractionated high dose rate brachytherapy for cervical cancer at National Cancer Institute Maharagama, Sri Lanka. Dose plans were analyzed for 150 cervical cancer patients with orthogonal radiographs (2D) based brachytherapy. ICRU treated volumes was modeled by translating the applicators with the help of “Multisource HDR plus software”. The difference of treated volumes with respect to the applicator geometry was analyzed by using SPSS 18 software; to derived patient population based estimates of delivered treated volumes relative to ideally treated volumes. Packing was evaluated according to bladder dose, rectum dose and geometry of the dose distribution by three consultant radiation oncologist. The difference of treated volumes depends on types of the applicators, which was used in fractionated brachytherapy. The means of the “Difference of Treated Volume” (DTV) for “Evenly activated tandem (ET)” length” group was ((X_1)) -0.48 cm3 and ((X_2)) 11.85 cm3 for “Unevenly activated tandem length (UET) group. The range of the DTV for ET group was 35.80 cm3 whereas UET group 104.80 cm3. One sample T test was performed to compare the DTV with “Ideal treatment volume difference (0.00cm3)”. It is evident that P value was 0.732 for ET group and for UET it was 0.00 moreover independent two sample T test was performed to compare ET and UET groups and calculated P value was 0.005. Packing was evaluated under three categories 59.38% used “Convenient Packing Technique”, 33.33% used “Fairly Packing Technique” and 7.29% used “Not Convenient Packing” in their fractionated brachytherapy treatments. Random variation of treated volume in ET group is much lower than UET group and there is a significant difference (p<0.05) in between ET and UET groups which affects the dose distribution of the treatment. Furthermore, it can be concluded nearly 92.71% patient’s packing were used acceptable packing technique at NCIM, Sri Lanka.

Keywords: brachytherapy, cervical cancer, high dose rate, tandem, treated volumes

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1506 Evaluation of Systemic Immune-Inflammation Index in Obese Children

Authors: Mustafa M. Donma, Orkide Donma

Abstract:

A growing list of cancers might be influenced by obesity. Obesity is associated with an increased risk for the occurrence and development of some cancers. Inflammation can lead to cancer. It is one of the characteristic features of cancer and plays a critical role in cancer development. C-reactive protein (CRP) is under evaluation related to the new and simple prognostic factors in patients with metastatic renal cell cancer. Obesity can predict and promote systemic inflammation in healthy adults. BMI is correlated with hs-CRP. In this study, SII index and CRP values were evaluated in children with normal BMI and those within the range of different obesity grades to detect the tendency towards cancer in pediatric obesity. A total of one hundred and ninety-four children; thirty-five children with normal BMI, twenty overweight (OW), forty-seven obese (OB) and ninety-two morbid obese (MO) participated in the study. Age- and sex-matched groups were constituted using BMI-for age percentiles. Informed consent was obtained. Ethical Committee approval was taken. Weight, height, waist circumference (C), hip C, head C and neck C of the children were measured. The complete blood count test was performed. C-reactive protein analysis was performed. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS. The degree for statistical significance was p≤0.05. SII index values were progressively increasing starting from normal weight (NW) to MO children. There is a statistically significant difference between NW and OB as well as MO children. No significant difference was observed between NW and OW children, however, a correlation was observed between NW and OW children. MO constitutes the only group, which exhibited a statistically significant correlation between SII index and CRP. Obesity-related bladder, kidney, cervical, liver, colorectal, endometrial cancers are still being investigated. Obesity, characterized as a chronic low-grade inflammation, is a crucial risk factor for colon cancer. Elevated childhood BMI values may be indicative of processes leading to cancer, initiated early in life. Prevention of childhood adiposity may decrease the cancer incidence in adults. To authors’ best knowledge, this study is the first to introduce SII index values during obesity of varying degrees of severity. It is suggested that this index seems to affect all stages of obesity with an increasing tendency and may point out the concomitant status of obesity and cancer starting from very early periods of life.

Keywords: children, C-reactive protein, systemic immune-inflammation index, obesity

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1505 Upconversion Nanomaterials for Applications in Life Sciences and Medicine

Authors: Yong Zhang

Abstract:

Light has proven to be useful in a wide range of biomedical applications such as fluorescence imaging, photoacoustic imaging, optogenetics, photodynamic therapy, photothermal therapy, and light controlled drug/gene delivery. Taking photodynamic therapy (PDT) as an example, PDT has been proven clinically effective in early lung cancer, bladder cancer, head, and neck cancer and is the primary treatment for skin cancer as well. However, clinical use of PDT is severely constrained by the low penetration depth of visible light through thick tissue, limiting its use to target regions only a few millimeters deep. One way to enhance the range is to use invisible near-infrared (NIR) light within the optical window (700–1100nm) for biological tissues, extending the depth up to 1cm with no observable damage to the intervening tissue. We have demonstrated use of NIR-to-visible upconversion fluorescent nanoparticles (UCNPs), emitting visible fluorescence when excited by a NIR light at 980nm, as a nanotransducer for PDT to convert deep tissue-penetrating NIR light to visible light suitable for activating photosensitizers. The unique optical properties of UCNPs enable the upconversion wavelength to be tuned and matched to the activation absorption wavelength of the photosensitizer. At depths beyond 1cm, however, tissue remains inaccessible to light even within the NIR window, and this critical depth limitation renders existing phototherapy ineffective against most deep-seated cancers. We have demonstrated some new treatment modalities for deep-seated cancers based on UCNP hydrogel implants and miniaturized, wirelessly powered optoelectronic devices for light delivery to deep tissues.

Keywords: upconversion, fluorescent, nanoparticle, bioimaging, photodynamic therapy

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1504 Myeloid Zinc Finger 1/Ets-Like Protein-1/Protein Kinase C Alpha Associated with Poor Prognosis in Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma

Authors: Jer-Yuh Liu, Je-Chiuan Ye, Jin-Ming Hwang

Abstract:

Protein kinase C alpha (PKCα) is a key signaling molecule in human cancer development. As a therapeutic strategy, targeting PKCα is difficult because the molecule is ubiquitously expressed in non-malignant cells. PKCα is regulated by the cooperative interaction of the transcription factors myeloid zinc finger 1 (MZF-1) and Ets-like protein-1 (Elk-1) in human cancer cells. By conducting tissue array analysis, herein, we determined the protein expression of MZF-1/Elk-1/PKCα in various cancers. The data show that the expression of MZF-1/Elk-1 is correlated with that of PKCα in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but not in bladder and lung cancers. In addition, the PKCα down-regulation by shRNA Elk-1 was only observed in the HCC SK-Hep-1 cells. Blocking the interaction between MZF-1 and Elk-1 through the transfection of their binding domain MZF-160–72 decreased PKCα expression. This step ultimately depressed the epithelial-mesenchymal transition potential of the HCC cells. These findings could be used to develop an alternative therapeutic strategy for patients with the PKCα-derived HCC.

Keywords: protein kinase C alpha, myeloid zinc finger 1, ets-like protein-1, hepatocellular carcinoma

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1503 Mobile Health Approaches in the Management of Breast Cancer: A Qualitative Content Analysis

Authors: Hyekyung Woo, Gwihyun Kim

Abstract:

mHealth, which encompasses mobile health technologies and interventions, is rapidly evolving in various medical specialties, and its impact is evident in oncology. This review describes current trends in research addressing the integration of mHealth into the management of breast cancer by examining evaluations of mHealth and its contributions across the cancer care continuum. Mobile technologies are perceived as effective in prevention and as feasible for managing breast cancer, but the diagnostic accuracy of these tools remains in doubt. Not all phases of breast cancer treatment involve mHealth, and not all have been addressed by research. These drawbacks in the application of mHealth to breast cancer management call for intensified research to strengthen its role in breast cancer care.

Keywords: mobile application, breast cancer, content analysis, mHealth

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1502 Association of Overweight and Obesity with Breast Cancer

Authors: Amir Ghasemlouei, Alireza Khalaj

Abstract:

In women, cancer of the breast is one of the most common incident cancer and cause of death from cancer .we reviewed the prevalence of obesity and its association with breast cancer. In this study, a total of 25 articles regarding the subject matter of the article have been presented in which 640 patients were examined that 320 patients with breast cancer and 320 were controls. The distribution of breast cancer patients and controls with respect to their anthropometric indices in patients with higher weight, which was statistically significant (60.2 ± 10.2 kg) compared with control group (56.1 ± 11.3 kg). The body mass index of patients was (26.06+/-3.42) and significantly higher than the control group (24.1+/-1.7). Obesity leads to increased levels of adipose tissue in the body that can be stored toxins and carcinogens to produce a continuous supply. Due to the high level of fat and the role of estrogen in a woman is endogenous estrogen of the tumor and regulate the activities of growth steroids, obesity is a risk factor for breast cancer is confirmed. Our study and other studies show that obesity is a risk factor for breast cancer. And with a weight loss intervention for breast cancer can be prevented in the future.

Keywords: breast cancer, review study, obesity, overweight

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1501 Magnetic Nanoparticles for Cancer Therapy

Authors: Sachinkumar Patil, Sonali Patil, Shitalkumar Patil

Abstract:

Nanoparticles played important role in the biomedicine. New advanced methods having great potential apllication in the diagnosis and therapy of cancer. Now a day’s magnetic nanoparticles used in cancer therapy. Cancer is the major disease causes death. Magnetic nanoparticles show response to the magnetic field on the basis of this property they are used in cancer therapy. Cancer treated with hyperthermia by using magnetic nanoparticles it is unconventional but more safe and effective method. Magnetic nanoparticles prepared by using different innovative techniques that makes particles in uniform size and desired effect. Magnetic nanoparticles already used as contrast media in magnetic resonance imaging. A magnetic nanoparticle has been great potential application in cancer diagnosis and treatment as well as in gene therapy. In this review we will discuss the progress in cancer therapy based on magnetic nanoparticles, mainly including magnetic hyperthermia, synthesis and characterization of magnetic nanoparticles, mechanism of magnetic nanoparticles and application of magnetic nanoparticles.

Keywords: magnetic nanoparticles, synthesis, characterization, cancer therapy, hyperthermia, application

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1500 An Extraction of Cancer Region from MR Images Using Fuzzy Clustering Means and Morphological Operations

Authors: Ramandeep Kaur, Gurjit Singh Bhathal

Abstract:

Cancer diagnosis is very difficult task. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan is used to produce image of any part of the body and provides an efficient way for diagnosis of cancer or tumor. In existing method, fuzzy clustering mean (FCM) is used for the diagnosis of the tumor. In the proposed method FCM is used to diagnose the cancer of the foot. FCM finds the centroids of the clusters of the foot cancer obtained from MRI images. FCM thresholding result shows the extract region of the cancer. Morphological operations are applied to get extracted region of cancer.

Keywords: magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), fuzzy C mean clustering, segmentation, morphological operations

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1499 Lived Experience of Breast Cancer for Arab Muslim Women

Authors: Nesreen M. Alqaissi

Abstract:

Little is known about the lived experiences of breast cancer among Arab Muslim women. The researcher used a qualitative interpretive phenomenological research design to explore the lived experiences of breast cancer as described by Jordanian Muslim women. A purposive sample of 20 women with breast cancer was recruited. Data were collected utilizing individual semi-structured interviews, and analyzed using Heideggerian Hermeneutical methodology. Results: Five related themes and one constitutive pattern: (a) breast cancer means death; (b) matriarchal family members as important source of support; (c) spirituality as a way to live and survive breast cancer; (d) concealing cancer experiences to protect self and families; (e) physicians as protectors and treatment decision makers; (f) the constitutive pattern: culture influencing Jordanian women experiences with breast cancer. In conclusion, researchers and healthcare providers should consider the influence of culture, spirituality, and families, when caring for women with breast cancer from Jordan.

Keywords: breast cancer, Arab Muslim, Jordan, lived experiences, spirituality, culture

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1498 Enquiry into Psychological and Psychosocial Aspects in Cancer Care: Cancer Diseases Hospital, Zambia

Authors: Mubita Namuyamba

Abstract:

Despite an increase in the number of cancer programs and partnerships in cancer care provision, the burden of cancer in Zambia is increasingly having a significant impact on morbidity and mortality rates. The increase in cancer morbidity and mortality rates has given rise to psychological and psycho social implications (PPsI) in cancer care. Cancer patients, care givers and health care providers are faced with a multitude of PPsIs in cancer care that mainly impact negatively on the management of cancer patients. The study adopted a case study design and was purposively conducted at the Cancer Diseases Hospital in Lusaka (Zambia) after obtaining ethical clearance from the Ethics committee. The sample for this study included 70 cancer patients, 20 care givers and 5 hospital staff (4 nurses and 1 doctor). Data was collected using interviews guides, focus group discussion guides and questionnaires respectively. The qualitative data was analysed thematically. The various psychological and psychosocial challenges that conspire to deter the provision of effective cancer care nursing and improved methods of minimizing the psychological and psychosocial implications in cancer care are the products of this study.

Keywords: case study, enquiry, psychological and psycho social aspects, Zambia

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1497 Targeted Nano Anti-Cancer Drugs for Curing Cancers

Authors: Imran Ali

Abstract:

General chemotherapy for cancer treatment has many side and toxic effects. A new approach of targeting nano anti-cancer drug is under development stage and only few drugs are available in the market today. The unique features of these drugs are targeted action on cancer cells only without any side effect. Sometimes, these are called magic drugs. The important molecules used for nano anti-cancer drugs are cisplatin, carboplatin, bleomycin, 5-fluorouracil, doxorubicin, dactinomycin, 6-mercaptopurine, paclitaxel, topotecan, vinblastin and etoposide etc. The most commonly used materials for preparing nano particles carriers are dendrimers, polymeric, liposomal, micelles inorganic, organic etc. The proposed lecture will comprise the-of-art of nano drugs in cancer chemo-therapy including preparation, types of drugs, mechanism, future perspectives etc.

Keywords: cancer, nano-anti-cancer drugs, chemo-therapy, mechanism of action, future perspectives

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1496 The Impact of Breast Cancer Diagnosis on Omani Women

Authors: H. Al-Awaisi, M. H. Al-Azri, S. Al-Rasbi, M. Al-Moundhri

Abstract:

Breast cancer is the most common cancer among females worldwide. It is also the most common cancer among females in Oman with 100 new breast cancer cases diagnosed every year. It has been found that breast cancer have a devastating effect on women’s life. Women diagnosed with breast cancer might develop negative attitudes towards the illness and their bodies. They might also suffer from psychological ailments such as depression. Despite the evidence on the impact of breast cancer diagnosis on women, there was no study found to explore the impact of breast cancer diagnosis among women in Oman. A phenomenological qualitative study was conducted to explore the impact of breast cancer diagnosis on Omani women. Data was collected through semi-structured individual interviews with 11 Omani women diagnosed with breast cancer. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and data were analyzed thematically. From the data, there are four main themes identified in relation to the impact of cancer diagnosis on Omani women. These are 'shock and disbelieve', 'a death sentence', “uncertain future” and “social stigma”. At the time of interviews, all participants had advanced breast cancer with some participants having metastatic disease. The impact of the word “cancer” had a profound and catastrophic effect on the women and their close relatives. In conclusion, breast cancer diagnosis was shocking and mainly perceived as a death sentence by Omani women with uncertain future and social stigma. Regardless of age, maternal status and education level, it is evident that Omani women participated in this study lacked awareness about breast cancer diagnosis, treatment and prognosis.

Keywords: breast cancer, coping, diagnosis, Oman, women

Procedia PDF Downloads 350