Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1665

Search results for: determination

1665 Taiwanese Families' Perspectives: Promoting Foundations of Self-Determination Skills for Young Children with Special Needs

Authors: Szu-Yin Chu

Abstract:

Self-determination has been particularly influential in obtaining a better quality of life through successful transition processes for students with disabilities. The development of self-determination through learning has raised attention at an early age. This study used a survey questionnaire to construct the understanding of the self-determination in Taiwan, learn the perspectives about the environmental and situational contexts where the respondents expect children to display self-determination skills in different cultures. Specifically, the research questions are: (a) What are Taiwanese families’ general perspectives about the development of foundations of self-determination for young children with special needs? and (b) how does families’ demographic background (i.e., income level, educational background) and child characteristics (i.e., age, emotional or behavior problems) impact Taiwanese families’ perspectives on the foundations of self-determination across three critical components (i.e., choice-making and problem-solving, self-regulation, and engagement) for young children with special needs? Data from 125 participants were gathered and analyzed. The findings suggested that Taiwanese families showed very positive attitudes toward promoting a foundation of self-determination for young children with special needs. Families’ income level and child’s severity of emotional/behavioral problems were two variables that were found to impact families’ views on their child’s foundational self-determination skills. Implications for future research and practice in supporting families to promote foundations of self-determination for young children with special needs will be provided.

Keywords: disabilities, self-determination, Taiwan, young children

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1664 Translation, Cultural Adaptation and Validation of the Hungarian Version of Self- Determination Scale

Authors: E. E. Marschalko, K. Kalcza-Janosi, I. Kotta, B. Bibok

Abstract:

Cultural moderation aspects have been highlighted in the literature on self-determination behavior in some cultures, including in the Hungarian population. There is a lack of validated instruments in Hungarian for the assessment of self-determination related behaviors. In order to fill in this gap, the aim of this study was the translation, cultural adaptation and validation of Self Determination Scale (Sheldon, 1995) for the Hungarian population. A total of 4335 adults participated in the study. The mean age of the participants was 27.97 (SD=9.60). The sample consisted mostly from females, less than 20% were males. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were performed for adequacy checking. Cronbach’s alpha was used to examine the reliability of the factors. Our results revealed that the Hungarian version of SDS has good psychometric properties and it is a reliable tool for psychologist who would like to study or assess self-determination in their clients. The final, adapted and validated SDS items are presented in this paper.

Keywords: self-determination scale, Hungarian, adaptation, validation, reliability

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1663 About Some Results of the Determination of Alcohol in Moroccan Gasoline-Alcohol Mixtures

Authors: Mahacine Amrani

Abstract:

A simple and rapid method for the determination of alcohol in gasoline-alcohol mixtures using density measurements is described. The method can determine a minimum of 1% of alcohol by volume. The precision of the method is ± 3%.The method is more useful for field test in the quality assessment of alcohol blended fuels.

Keywords: gasoline-alcohol, mixture, alcohol determination, density, measurement, Morocco

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1662 Orbit Determination Modeling with Graphical Demonstration

Authors: Assem M. F. Sallam, Ah. El-S. Makled

Abstract:

In this paper, there is an implementation, verification, and graphical demonstration of a software application, which can be used swiftly over different preliminary orbit determination methods. A passive orbit determination method is used in this study to determine the location of a satellite or a flying body. It is named a passive orbit determination because it depends on observation without the use of any aids (radio and laser) installed on satellite. In order to understand how these methods work and how their output is accurate when compared with available verification data, the built models help in knowing the different inputs used with each method. Output from the different orbit determination methods (Gibbs, Lambert, and Gauss) will be compared with each other and verified by the data obtained from Satellite Tool Kit (STK) application. A modified model including all of the orbit determination methods using the same input will be introduced to investigate different models output (orbital parameters) for the same input (azimuth, elevation, and time). Simulation software is implemented using MATLAB. A Graphical User Interface (GUI) application named OrDet is produced using the GUI of MATLAB. It includes all the available used inputs and it outputs the current Classical Orbital Elements (COE) of satellite under observation. Produced COE are then used to propagate for a complete revolution and plotted on a 3-D view. Modified model which uses an adapter to allow same input parameters, passes these parameters to the preliminary orbit determination methods under study. Result from all orbit determination methods yield exactly the same COE output, which shows the equality of concept in determination of satellite’s location, but with different numerical methods.

Keywords: orbit determination, STK, Matlab-GUI, satellite tracking

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1661 A Synthetic Strategy to Attach 2,6-Dichlorophenolindophenol onto Multi Walled Carbon Nanotubes and Their Application for Electrocatalytic Determination of Sulfide

Authors: Alireza Mohadesi, Ashraf Salmanipour

Abstract:

A chemically modified glassy carbon electrode for electrocatalytic determination of sulfide was developed using multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) covalently immobilized with 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol (DPIP). The immobilization of 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol with MWCNTs was performed with a new synthetic strategy and characterized by UV–visible absorption spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. The cyclic voltammetric response of DPIP grafted onto MWCNTs indicated that it promotes the low potential, sensitive and stable determination of sulfide. The dependence of response currents on the concentration of sulfide was examined and was linear in the range of 10 - 1100 µM. The detection limit of sulfide was 5 µM and RSD for 100 and 500 µM sulfides were 1.8 and 1.3 %. Many interfering species had little or no effect on the determination of sulfide. The procedure was applied to determination of sulfide in waters samples.

Keywords: functionalized carbon nanotubes, sulfide, biological samples, 2, 6-dichlorophenolindophenol

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1660 Self-Determination among Individuals with Intellectual Disability: An Experiment

Authors: Wasim Ahmad, Bir Singh Chavan, Nazli Ahmad

Abstract:

Objectives: The present investigation is an attempt to find out the efficacy of training the special educators on promoting self-determination among individuals with intellectual disability. Methods: The study equipped the special educators with necessary skills and knowledge to train individuals with the intellectual disability for practicing self-determination. Subjects: Special educators (N=25) were selected for training on self-determination among individuals with intellectual disability. After receiving the training, (N=50) individuals with an intellectual disability were selected and intervened by the trained special educators. Tool: Self-Determination Scale for Adults with Mild Mental Retardation (SDSAMR) developed by Keshwal and Thressiakutty (2010) has been used. It’s a reliable and valid tool used by many researchers. It has 36 items distributed in five domains namely: personal management, community participation, recreation and leisure time, choice making and problem solving. Analysis: The collected data was analyzed using the statistical techniques such as t-test, ANCOVA, and Posthoc Tuckey test. Results: The findings of the study reveal that there is a significant difference at 1% level in the pre and post tests mean scores (t-15.56) of self-determination concepts among the special educators. This indicates that the training enhanced the performance of special educators on the concept of self-determination among individuals with intellectual disability. The study also reveals that the training received on transition planning by the special educators found to be effective because they were able to practice the concept by imparting and training the individuals with intellectual disability to if determined. The results show that there was a significant difference at 1% level in the pre and post tests mean scores (t-16.61) of self-determination among individuals with intellectual disability. Conclusion: To conclude it can be said that the training has a remarkable impact on the performance of the individuals with intellectual disability on self-determination.

Keywords: experiment, individuals with intellectual disability, self-determination, special educators

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1659 Self Determination Theory and Trauma Informed Approach in Women's Shelters: A Common Ground

Authors: Gamze Dogan Birer

Abstract:

Women’s shelters provide service to women who had been subjected to physical, psychological, economical, and sexual violence. It is proposed that adopting a trauma-informed approach in these shelters would contribute to the ‘woman-defined’ success of the service. This includes reshaping the physical qualities of the shelter, contacts, and interventions that women face during their stay in a way that accepts and addresses their traumatic experiences. It is stated in this paper that the trauma-informed approach has commonalities with the basic psychological needs that are proposed by self-determination theory. Therefore, it is proposed that self-determination theory can be used as a theoretical background for trauma-informed approach

Keywords: self determination theory, trauma informed approach, violence against women, women's shelters

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1658 The Lawfulness of the Determination of a Criminal Suspect as a New Pre-Trial's Object

Authors: Muhammad Tanziel Aziezi

Abstract:

In Indonesia, pre-trial (in Indonesia called ‘praperadilan’) is a mechanism that is regulated on Criminal Procedure Code as a form of oversight and check and balance on the process at the stage of inquiry, investigation, and prosecution, so that actions taken by the State (in this case, the police and prosecutor) is carried out in accordance with its authority and not violate human rights. Article 77 of the Criminal Procedure Code has been set that the object may be filed pretrial is just about the lawfulness of the arrest, the lawfulness of the detention, and the legitimacy of stopping investigation and prosecution. However, since the beginning of 2015, there was a further object which is then entered as a pre-trial object, namely the lawfulness of the determination of a criminal suspect. This is because the determination of the suspect is considered as one of the forceful measures that could restrict the rights of a person, so the implementation should have oversight and checks and balances by the courts. This paper will discuss the development of the pre-trial on the lawfulness of the determination of a criminal suspect as a new judicial mechanism as the protection of human rights in Indonesia.

Keywords: criminal procedure law, pre-trial, lawfulness of determination of a criminal suspect, check and balance by the court

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1657 The Implementation of the Human Right of Self-Determination: the Example of Nagorno-Karabakh Republic

Authors: S. Vlasyan

Abstract:

The article deals with the implementation of the right to self-determination of peoples on the example of Nagorno-Karabakh Republic. The problem of correlation of two fundamental principles of international law i. e. territorial integrity and the right to self-determination of peoples is considered to be one of the vital issues in the field of international law for several decades. So, in this article, the author analyzes the decision of the Supreme Court of Canada regarding specific issues of secession of Quebec from Canada, as well as the decision of the International Court of Justice in the case concerning East Timor (Portugal v. Australia), and in the case of Western Sahara. The author formulates legal conditions of Nagorno-Karabakh secession.

Keywords: right of self-determination, territorial integrity, the principles of International Law, Nagorno-Karabakh Republic

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1656 Rapid Method for Low Level 90Sr Determination in Seawater by Liquid Extraction Technique

Authors: S. Visetpotjanakit, N. Nakkaew

Abstract:

Determination of low level 90Sr in seawater has been widely developed for the purpose of environmental monitoring and radiological research because 90Sr is one of the most hazardous radionuclides released from atmospheric during the testing of nuclear weapons, waste discharge from the generation nuclear energy and nuclear accident occurring at power plants. A liquid extraction technique using bis-2-etylhexyl-phosphoric acid to separate and purify yttrium followed by Cherenkov counting using a liquid scintillation counter to determine 90Y in secular equilibrium to 90Sr was developed to monitor 90Sr in the Asia Pacific Ocean. The analytical performance was validated for the accuracy, precision, and trueness criteria. Sr-90 determination in seawater using various low concentrations in a range of 0.01 – 1 Bq/L of 30 liters spiked seawater samples and 0.5 liters of IAEA-RML-2015-01 proficiency test sample was performed for statistical evaluation. The results had a relative bias in the range from 3.41% to 12.28%, which is below accepted relative bias of ± 25% and passed the criteria confirming that our analytical approach for determination of low levels of 90Sr in seawater was acceptable. Moreover, the approach is economical, non-laborious and fast.

Keywords: proficiency test, radiation monitoring, seawater, strontium determination

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1655 Preconcentration and Determination of Lead Ion in Environmental Samples by Poly Urea-Formaldehyde

Authors: Elham Moniri, Parvane Bozorgniya, Hamidreza Shahbazi

Abstract:

In this research, poly urea-formaldehyde was prepared. The poly urea-formaldehyde was characterized by fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy. Then the effects of various parameters on Pb(II) sorption such as pH, contact time were studied. The optimum pH value for sorption of Pb(II) was 5. The sorption capacity of poly urea-formaldehyde for Pb(II) were 40 mg g−1. A Pb(II) removal of 90% was obtained. The profile of Pb(II) uptake on this sorbent reflects good accessibility of the chelating sites in the poly urea-formaldehyde. The developed method was utilized for determination of Pb(II) in environmental water samples by flame atomic absorption spectrometry with satisfactory results.

Keywords: poly urea-formaldehyde, lead Ion, environmental sample, determination

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1654 Analysis of Autonomous Orbit Determination for Lagrangian Navigation Constellation with Different Dynamical Models

Authors: Gao Youtao, Zhao Tanran, Jin Bingyu, Xu Bo

Abstract:

Global navigation satellite system(GNSS) can deliver navigation information for spacecraft orbiting on low-Earth orbits and medium Earth orbits. However, the GNSS cannot navigate the spacecraft on high-Earth orbit or deep space probes effectively. With the deep space exploration becoming a hot spot of aerospace, the demand for a deep space satellite navigation system is becoming increasingly prominent. Many researchers discussed the feasibility and performance of a satellite navigation system on periodic orbits around the Earth-Moon libration points which can be called Lagrangian point satellite navigation system. Autonomous orbit determination (AOD) is an important performance for the Lagrangian point satellite navigation system. With this ability, the Lagrangian point satellite navigation system can reduce the dependency on ground stations. AOD also can greatly reduce total system cost and assure mission continuity. As the elliptical restricted three-body problem can describe the Earth-Moon system more accurately than the circular restricted three-body problem, we study the autonomous orbit determination of Lagrangian navigation constellation using only crosslink range based on elliptical restricted three body problem. Extended Kalman filter is used in the autonomous orbit determination. In order to compare the autonomous orbit determination results based on elliptical restricted three-body problem to the results of autonomous orbit determination based on circular restricted three-body problem, we give the autonomous orbit determination position errors of a navigation constellation include four satellites based on the circular restricted three-body problem. The simulation result shows that the Lagrangian navigation constellation can achieve long-term precise autonomous orbit determination using only crosslink range. In addition, the type of the libration point orbit will influence the autonomous orbit determination accuracy.

Keywords: extended Kalman filter, autonomous orbit determination, quasi-periodic orbit, navigation constellation

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1653 Solvent Extraction and Spectrophotometric Determination of Palladium(II) Using P-Methylphenyl Thiourea as a Complexing Agent

Authors: Shashikant R. Kuchekar, Somnath D. Bhumkar, Haribhau R. Aher, Bhaskar H. Zaware, Ponnadurai Ramasami

Abstract:

A precise, sensitive, rapid and selective method for the solvent extraction, spectrophotometric determination of palladium(II) using para-methylphenyl thiourea (PMPT) as an extractant is developed. Palladium(II) forms yellow colored complex with PMPT which shows an absorption maximum at 300 nm. The colored complex obeys Beer’s law up to 7.0 µg ml-1 of palladium. The molar absorptivity and Sandell’s sensitivity were found to be 8.486 x 103 l mol-1cm-1 and 0.0125 μg cm-2 respectively. The optimum conditions for the extraction and determination of palladium have been established by monitoring the various experimental parameters. The precision of the method has been evaluated and the relative standard deviation has been found to be less than 0.53%. The proposed method is free from interference from large number of foreign ions. The method has been successfully applied for the determination of palladium from alloy, synthetic mixtures corresponding to alloy samples.

Keywords: solvent extraction, PMPT, Palladium (II), spectrophotometry

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1652 Self-Determination Needs, Coping Strategies and Quality of Life Among Chronic Non-Specific Lower Back Pain Patients

Authors: Zubana Afzal, Afsheen Massod

Abstract:

This quantitative study was carried out in order to explore the role of coping strategies as an explanatory mechanism in the relationship between self-determination needs and quality of life. A cross-sectional survey research design was conducted using scales such as the Basic Psychological Needs Scale (Deci&Ryan, 2000) to measure self-determination-based needs, Pain Coping Strategies Questionnaire (Harland &Georgieff, 2003), and Quality of Life Brief (The WHOQOL Group, 1998), in translated form in addition to a demographic information sheet. The sample comprised 120 (Women=63, Men=57), taken from different hospitals in Lahore, Multan, and Gojra. Descriptive and Inferential analyses were executed through SPSS version 23.00. All self-determination needs were found in result to be significantly and positively correlated with diversion and cognitive pain coping strategies, physical, psychological, social, and environmental quality of life, and significantly negatively correlated with catastrophizing and reinterpreting pain coping strategies. Cognitive and diversion pain coping strategies were found to be significantly and positively associated with all physical, psychological, social, and environmental quality of life. The regression analyses revealed that the strongest predictors were autonomy, cognitive and diversion pain coping strategies in predicting quality of life. All coping strategies except reinterpreting played a mediating role between self-determination needs and quality of life. The findings can lead to a better understanding of the role of self-determination needs and pain coping strategies in determining the quality of life among chronic non-specific lower back pain patients.

Keywords: quality of life, chronic lower back pain, coping strategies, self determination needs

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1651 Methods for Preparation of Soil Samples for Determination of Trace Elements

Authors: S. Krustev, V. Angelova, K. Ivanov, P. Zaprjanova

Abstract:

It is generally accepted that only about ten microelements are vitally important to all plants, and approximately ten more elements are proved to be significant for the development of some species. The main methods for their determination in soils are the atomic spectral techniques - AAS and ICP-OAS. Critical stage to obtain correct results for content of heavy metals and nutrients in the soil is the process of mineralization. A comparative study of the most widely spread methods for soil sample preparation for determination of some trace elements was carried out. Three most commonly used methods for sample preparation were used as follows: ISO11466, EPA Method 3051 and BDS ISO 14869-1. Their capabilities were assessed and their bounds of applicability in determining the levels of the most important microelements in agriculture were defined.

Keywords: analysis, copper, methods, zinc

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1650 Poly Urea-Formaldehyde for Preconcentration and Determination of Cadmium Ion in Environmental Samples

Authors: Homayon Ahmad Panahi, Samira Tajik, Mohamad Hadi Dehghani, Mostafa Khezri, Elham Moniri

Abstract:

In this research, poly urea-formaldehyde was prepared. The poly urea-formaldehyde was characterized by fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy. Then the effects of various parameters on Cd (II) sorption such as pH, contact time were studied. The optimum pH value for sorption of Cd(II) was 5.5. The sorption capacity of poly urea-formaldehyde for Cd (II) were 76.3 mg g−1. A Cd (II) removal of 55% was obtained. The profile of Cd (II) uptake on this sorbent reflects good accessibility of the chelating sites in the poly urea-formaldehyde. The developed method was utilized for determination of Cd (II) in environmental water samples by flame atomic absorption spectrometry with satisfactory results.

Keywords: poly urea-formaldehyde, cadmium ion, environmental sample, determination

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1649 Determination and Preconcentration of Chromium Ion in Environmental Samples by Clinoptilolite Zeolite

Authors: Elham Moniri, Homayon Ahmad Panahi, Mitra Hoseini

Abstract:

In this research, clinoptilolite zeolite was prepared. The zeolite was characterized by fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy. Then the effects of various parameters on Cr(III) sorption such as pH, contact time were studied. The optimum pH value for sorption of Cr(III) was 6 respectively. The sorption capacity of zeolite for Cr(III) were 7.9 mg g−1. A recovery of 89% was obtained for the metal ions with 0.5 M nitric acid as the eluting agent. The effects of interfering ions on Cr(III) sorption was also investigated. The profile of Cr(III) uptake on this sorbent reflects a good accessibility of the chelating sites in the clinoptilolite zeolite. The developed method was utilized for the determination of Cr(III) in environmental water samples by flame atomic absorption spectrometry with satisfactory results.

Keywords: clinoptilolite zeolite, chromium, environmental sample, determination

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1648 Comparison of Due Date Assignment Rules in a Dynamic Job Shop

Authors: Mumtaz Ipek, Burak Erkayman

Abstract:

Due date is assigned as an input for scheduling problems. At the same time, due date is selected as a decision variable for real time scheduling applications. Correct determination of due dates increases shop floor performance and number of jobs completed on time. This subject has been mentioned widely in the literature. Moreover rules for due date determination have been developed from analytical analysis. When a job arrives to the shop floor, a due date is assigned for delivery. Various due date determination methods are used in the literature. In this study six different due date methods are implemented for a hypothetical dynamic job shop and the performances of the due date methods are compared.

Keywords: scheduling, dynamic job shop, due date assignment, management engineering

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1647 Near-Infrared Spectrometry as an Alternative Method for Determination of Oxidation Stability for Biodiesel

Authors: R. Velvarska, A. Vrablik, M. Fiedlerova, R. Cerny

Abstract:

Near-infrared spectrometry (NIR) was tested as a rapid and alternative tool for determination of biodiesel oxidation stability. A PetroOxy method is standardly used for the determination, but this method is hazardous due to the possibility of explosion and ignition of flammable fuels. The second disadvantage is time consuming. The near-infrared spectrometry served for the development of the calibration model which was composed of 133 real samples (calibration standards). The reference values of these standards were obtained by PetroOxy method. Many chemometric diagnostics were used for the development of the final NIR model with the aim to have accurate prediction of the oxidation stability. The final NIR model was validated by 30 validation standards. The repeatability was determined as well with the acceptable residual standard deviation (8.59 %). The NIR spectrometry has proved to be an accurate alternative method for the determination of biodiesel oxidation stability with advantages as the time and cost saving, non-destructive character of analyzing and the possibility of online monitoring in safe mode.

Keywords: biodiesel, fatty acid methyl ester, NIR, oxidation stability

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1646 Phytochemical Screening, Anti-Microbial and Mineral Determination of Stachtarpheta indica Extract

Authors: Ibrahim Isah Lakan, Nasiru Ibrahim

Abstract:

These Phytochemical screening, Antimicrobial activities and mineral Determination of aqueous extract of Stachtarpheta indica were assessed. The result reveals the presence of flavonoids, tannins, saponins, alkaloids, glycosides and anthraquinones. The disc diffusion of aqueous extract showed Escherichia coli, 13 and antibiotic, 19 mm; Bacillus subtilis, 10 and anti –biotic, 17 mm; Klebsiller pnemuoniae , 14 and antibiotic, 24mm and Pseudmonas aeruginosa, 24 and antibiotic, 36 mm which are all comparable with the standard antibiotic cyprotomycin. The mineral content determination by flame photometer revealed that 1.25 (Na+), 0.85 (K +), 1.75 (Ca 2+) % which is a clear indication of the safety of the extract for the hypertensive patients and could be used to lower blood pressure.

Keywords: microbials, mineral, phytochemicals, stachtarpheta indica extracts

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1645 Spectrophotometric Determination of 5-Aminosalicylic Acid in Pharmaceutical Samples

Authors: Chand Pasha

Abstract:

A Simple, accurate and precise spectrophotometric method for the quantitative analysis of determination of 5-aminosalicylic acid is described. This method is based on the reaction of 5-aminosalicylic acid with nitrite in acid medium to form diazonium ion, which is coupled with acetylacetone in basic medium to form azo dyes, which shows absorption maxima at 470 nm. The method obeys Beer’s law in the concentration range of 0.5-11.2 gml-1 of 5-aminosalicylic acid with acetylacetone. The molar absorptivity and Sandell’s sensitivity of 5-aminosalicylic acid -acetylacetone azo dye is 2.672 ×104 lmol-1cm-1, 5.731 × 10-3 gcm-2 respectively. The dye formed is stable for 10 hrs. The optimum reaction conditions and other analytical parameters are evaluated. Interference due to foreign organic compounds have been investigated. The method has been successfully applied to the determination of 5-aminosalicylic acid in pharmaceutical samples.

Keywords: spectrophotometry, diazotization, mesalazine, nitrite, acetylacetone

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1644 Determination of Benzatropine in Hair by GC/MS after Liquid-Liquid Extraction (LLE)

Authors: Abdulsallam A. Bakdash, Aiyshah M. Alshehri, Hind M. Alenzi

Abstract:

Benzatropine (benztropine) is used to treat symptoms of Parkinson's disease or involuntary movements due to the side effects of certain psychiatric drugs. We report in this study, results of a procedure for the determination of benzatropine in hair using LLE, once with methanol and second with phosphate buffer (pH 6.0), followed by filtration and then re-extraction with dichloromethane. A GC/MS method was developed and validated for this determination using selected ion monitoring (SIM) detection without derivatization. Linearity established over the concentration range 0.1-20.0 ng/mg hair, and the correlation coefficients were greater than 0.99. Recoveries were 52.2% and 21.1% using methanol and phosphate buffer extraction, respectively. Detection limits of benzatropine in hair were between 0.65 and 3.0 ng/mg hair, while the accuracy were 10.4% and 18.5% (RSD), respectively. We also applied this method to the analysis of soaked hair samples and demonstrated that the LLE using methanol meets the requirement for the analysis of benzatropine in hair.

Keywords: hair analysis, benzatropine, liquid-liquid extraction, GC/MS

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1643 EU Policies in Determining Refugee Status

Authors: Adriano Mortada

Abstract:

Human history is rife with conflict, and the question of refugee status determination and their rehabilitation has been up for debate since. Refugee Status Determination is the administrative or legal process by which UNHCR or governments determine whether a person seeking international protection or asylum can be identified as a refugee under international, regional, or national law. Refugee Status Determination is considered to be a vital process in aiding refugees’ realization of their rights under international law. One of the major reasons why the refugee status determination is considered an “issue”, and is one that is much debated upon annually, is the fact that the national bureaucratic systems are rigid and unbending. This is particularly concerning in the 21st century despite human advancement in policy and diplomacy, working in tandem with the United Nations and their charters and resolutions on human rights and dignity. The paper seeks to criticize the European member states' response to the refugee crisis and their inflexible and prejudiced bureaucratic systems when it comes to refugee status determination. The paper looks at multiple case studies as primary evidence and the alternate case studies where the system helped refugees, like those in Jordan, Pakistan, Turkey, and Lebanon. The main concern of the paper is to highlight the bias in the selected European systems, which do not stem from the Human Rights Charter but rather on the basis of geographical backgrounds, cultural and religious affiliations of those seeking refugee status or asylum in their respective countries. The paper hopes to not only create awareness about this issue but also provide a research background to advocacy programs to bring a change in the systems.

Keywords: refugee status determination, human rights, bureaucracy, United Nations, European Union

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1642 Application of Scanning Electron Microscopy and X-Ray Evaluation of the Main Digestion Methods for Determination of Macroelements in Plant Tissue

Authors: Krasimir I. Ivanov, Penka S. Zapryanova, Stefan V. Krustev, Violina R. Angelova

Abstract:

Three commonly used digestion methods (dry ashing, acid digestion, and microwave digestion) in different variants were compared for digestion of tobacco leaves. Three main macroelements (K, Ca and Mg) were analysed using AAS Spectrometer Spectra АА 220, Varian, Australia. The accuracy and precision of the measurements were evaluated by using Polish reference material CTR-VTL-2 (Virginia tobacco leaves). To elucidate the problems with elemental recovery X-Ray and SEM–EDS analysis of all residues after digestion were performed. The X-ray investigation showed a formation of KClO4 when HClO4 was used as a part of the acids mixture. The use of HF at Ca and Mg determination led to the formation of CaF2 and MgF2. The results were confirmed by energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis. SPSS program for Windows was used for statistical data processing.

Keywords: digestion methods, plant tissue, determination of macroelements, K, Ca, Mg

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1641 Self-Determination and Mental Disorders: Phenomenological Approach

Authors: Neringa Bagdonaite

Abstract:

Background: The main focus of this paper is to explore how self-determination interplays in suicidal and addictive context leading one to autonomously choose self-destructive addictive behaviour or suicidal intentions. Methods: Phenomenological descriptions of the experiential structure of self-determination in addiction and suicidal mental life are used. The phenomenological method describes structures of mental life from the first-person-perspective, with a focus on how an experienced object is given in a subject’s conscious experience. Results: A sense of self-determination in the context of suicidal and addictive behaviour is possibly impaired. In the context of suicide, it's proposed that suicide is always experienced at least minimally self-determined, as it's the last freely discovered self-efficient behaviour, in terms of radically changing one's desperate mental state. Suicide can never be experienced as fully self-determined because no future retrospective re-evaluation of behaviour is possible. Understanding self-determination in addiction is challenging because addicts perceive themselves and experience situations differently depending on: (I) their level of intoxication; (II) whether the situation is in the moment or in retrospect; and (III) the goals set out in that situation. Furthermore, within phenomenology addiction is described as an embodied custom, which‘s acquired and established while performing 'psychotropic technique'. The main goal of performing such a technique is to continue 'floating in an indifference state' or being 'comfortably numb'. Conclusions: Based on rich phenomenological descriptions of the studied phenomenon, this paper draws on the premise that to experience self-determination in both suicide and addiction, underlying desperate or negative emotional states are needed. Such underlying desperate or negative mental life experiences are required for one to pre-reflectively evaluate suicide or addictive behaviours as positive, relieving or effective in terms of changing one's emotional states. Such pre-reflective positive evaluations serve as the base for the continuation of behaviour and later are identified reflectively.

Keywords: addiction, phenomenology, self-determination, self-effectivity, suicide

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1640 A Comparison between Reagents Extracted from Tree Leaves for Spectrophotometric Determination of Hafnium(IV)

Authors: A. Boveiri Monji, H. Yousefnia, S. Zolghadri, B. Salimi

Abstract:

The main goal of this paper was to make use of green reagents as a substitute of perilous synthetic reagents and organic solvents for spectrophotometric determination of hafnium(IV). The extracts taken from six different kinds of tree leaves including Acer negundo, Ficus carica, Cerasus avium, Chimonanthus, Salix babylonica and Pinus brutia, were applied as green reagents for the experiments. In 6-M hydrochloric acid, hafnium reacted with the reagent to form a yellow product and showed maximum absorbance at 421 nm. Among tree leaves, Chimonanthus showed satisfactory results with a molar absorptivity value of 0.61 × 104 l mol-1 cm-1 and the method was linear in the 0.3-9 µg mL -1 concentration range. The detection limit value was 0.064 µg mL-1. The proposed method was simple, low cost, clean, and selective.

Keywords: hafnium, spectrophotometric determination, synthetic reagents, tree leaves

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1639 Sensitive Determination of Copper(II) by Square Wave Anodic Stripping Voltammetry with Tetracarbonylmolybdenum(0) Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube Paste Electrode

Authors: Illyas Md Isa, Mohamad Idris Saidin, Mustaffa Ahmad, Norhayati Hashim

Abstract:

A highly selective and sensitive carbon paste electrode modified with multiwall carbon nanotubes and 2,6–diacetylpyridine-di-(1R)–(-)–fenchone diazine tetracarbonylmolybdenum(0) complex was used for determination of trace amounts of Cu(II) using square wave anodic stripping voltammetry (SWASV). The influences of experimental variables on the proposed electrode such as pH, supporting electrolyte, preconcentration potential and time, and square wave parameters were investigated. Under optimal conditions, the proposed electrode showed a linear relationship with concentration in the range of 1.0 × 10–10 to 1.0 × 10– 6 M Cu(II) with a limit of detection 8.0 × 10–11 M. The relative standard deviation (n = 5) for a solution containing 1.0 × 10– 6 M of Cu(II) was 0.036. The presence of various cations (in 10 and 100-folds concentration) did not interfere. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) showed that the charge transfer at the electrode-solution interface was favourable. The proposed electrode was applied for the determination of Cu(II) in several water samples. Results agreed very well with those obtained by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry. The modified electrode was then proposed as an alternative for determination of Cu(II).

Keywords: chemically modified electrode, Cu(II), square wave anodic stripping voltammetry, tetracarbonylmolybdenum(0)

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1638 Use of Digital Forensics for Sex Determination by Nasal Index

Authors: Ashwini Kumar, Vinod Nayak, Shankar M. Bakkannavar

Abstract:

The identification of humans is important in forensic investigations not only in living but also in dead, especially in cases of mass disorders. The procedure followed in dead known as post-mortem identification is a challenging task for the forensic pathologist. However, it is mandatory in terms of the law to fulfill the social norms. Many times, due to mutilation of body parts, the normal methods of identification using skeletal remains cannot be used in the process of identification. In such cases, the intact components of the skeletal remains or bony parts play an important role in identification. In these situations, digital forensics can come to our rescue. The authors hereby made a study for determination of sex based on nasal index by using (Big Bore 16 Slice) Multidetector Computed Tomography 2D Scans. The results are represented as a poster.

Keywords: sex determination, multidetector computed tomography, nasal index, digital forensic

Procedia PDF Downloads 314
1637 Tomato Fruit Color Changes during Ripening of Vine

Authors: A.Radzevičius, P. Viškelis, J. Viškelis, R. Karklelienė, D. Juškevičienė

Abstract:

Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) hybrid 'Brooklyn' was investigated at the LRCAF Institute of Horticulture. For investigation, five green tomatoes, which were grown on vine, were selected. Color measurements were made in the greenhouse with the same selected tomato fruits (fruits were not harvested and were growing and ripening on tomato vine through all experiment) in every two days while tomatoes fruits became fully ripen. Study showed that color index L has tendency to decline and established determination coefficient (R2) was 0.9504. Also, hue angle has tendency to decline during tomato fruit ripening on vine and it’s coefficient of determination (R2) reached–0.9739. Opposite tendency was determined with color index a, which has tendency to increase during tomato ripening and that was expressed by polynomial trendline where coefficient of determination (R2) reached–0.9592.

Keywords: color, color index, ripening, tomato

Procedia PDF Downloads 407
1636 A Green Method for Selective Spectrophotometric Determination of Hafnium(IV) with Aqueous Extract of Ficus carica Tree Leaves

Authors: A. Boveiri Monji, H. Yousefnia, M. Haji Hosseini, S. Zolghadri

Abstract:

A clean spectrophotometric method for the determination of hafnium by using a green reagent, acidic extract of Ficus carica tree leaves is developed. In 6-M hydrochloric acid, hafnium reacts with this reagent to form a yellow product. The formed product shows maximum absorbance at 421 nm with a molar absorptivity value of 0.28 × 104 l mol⁻¹ cm⁻¹, and the method was linear in the 2-11 µg ml⁻¹ concentration range. The detection limit value was found to be 0.312 µg ml⁻¹. Except zirconium and iron, the selectivity was good, and most of the ions did not show any significant spectral interference at concentrations up to several hundred times. The proposed method was green, simple, low cost, and selective.

Keywords: spectrophotometric determination, Ficus caricatree leaves, synthetic reagents, hafnium

Procedia PDF Downloads 129