Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 290

Search results for: beef cattle

290 Attitude of Beef Cattle Farmers toward Biosecurity Practices

Authors: Veronica Sri Lestari, Sitti Nurani Sirajuddin, Kasmiyati Kasim

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The purpose of this research was to know the attitude of beef cattle farmers toward bio security practices. This research was conducted in Barru regency, South Sulawesi province, Indonesia, in 2014. Thirty beef cattle farmers were selected through random sampling. Primary and secondary data were collected through report, observation and deep interview by using questionnaire. Bio security practices consisted of 35 questions. Every answer of the question was scored based on three categories: score 1 (not important), score 2 (important) and 3 (very important). The results of this research showed that the attitude of beef cattle farmers toward bio security practices was categorized as important.

Keywords: attitude, beef cattle, biosecurity, farmers

Procedia PDF Downloads 195
289 Beef Cattle Farmers Perception toward Urea Mineral Molasses Block

Authors: Veronica Sri Lestari, Djoni Prawira Rahardja, Tanrigiling Rasyid, Aslina Asnawi, Ikrar Muhammad Saleh, Ilham Rasyid

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Urea Mineral Molasses Block is very important for beef cattle, because it can increase beef production. The purpose of this research was to know beef cattle farmers’ perception towards Urea Mineral Molasses Block (UMMB). This research was conducted in Gowa Regency, South Sulawesi, Indonesia in 2016. The population of this research were all beef cattle farmers. Sample was chosen through purposive sampling. Data were collected through observation and face to face with deep interview using questionnaire. Variables of perception consisted of relative advantage, compatibility, complexity, observability and triability. There were 10 questions. The answer for each question was scored by 1, 2, 3 which refer to disagree, agree enough, strongly agree. The data were analyzed descriptively using frequency distribution. The research revealed that beef cattle farmers’ perception towards UMMB was categorized as strongly agree.

Keywords: beef cattle, farmers, perception, urea mineral molasses block

Procedia PDF Downloads 244
288 Income Analysis of Beef Cattle Breeders for Traditional Profit-Sharing System, Tesang, in South Sulawesi Province

Authors: Sitti Nurani Sirajuddin, Muh. Aminawar, Siti Nurlaelah, Amidah Amrawaty

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This study aimed to determine the income of beef cattle breeders from the traditional profit-sharing system named Tesang. This study was conducted in the province of South Sulawesi start from April to July 2014, used quantitative methods and data analysis is of income. The population is all beef cattle breeders who perform for the traditional profit-sharing system (Tesang) in Barru Regency and Bone Regency, province of South Sulawesi. Samples are beef cattle breeders who breeding the cattle with the traditional profit-sharing system (Tesang) in Barru Regency and Bone Regency using breeding system and cattle enlargement system (expense) by fifty breeders. The results showed beef cattle breeder’s income from the profit-sharing system (Tesang) where enlargement system (expense) at6th month maintenance periods higher than the profit-sharing system (Tesang) with using breeding the cattle.

Keywords: income, beef cattle, profit-sharing system, Teseng

Procedia PDF Downloads 201
287 Local Culture and Ability to Access Funding on Beef Cattle Farmer

Authors: Aslina Asnawi, A. Amidah Amrawaty, Nirwana

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This article examines the relationship of local culture on the ability to access finance on beef cattle farmer. The local culture in this study associated with the values held by the farmer community so far and affect the character of farmers both in his personal life and his relationship with the surrounding environment. The data was collected by using interview and questionnaire instrument. Data were analyzed using descriptive analysis and correlation analysis. The result show that local culture identified in this study include: honesty, cleverness, decency, firmness, hard work, and shame. It’s important result that local culture has been associated with the ability to access financing for beef cattle farmers. The higher values are adopted and maintained by farmers will increase their ability to obtain loans from both informal and formal institutions. Strengthening the local culture is important because it affects the character of farmers who became one of the considerations for lenders other than collateral, capacity and capital is precisely the financing constraints for them.

Keywords: access funding, beef cattle farmers, character, local culture

Procedia PDF Downloads 256
286 Perceptions of Farmers against Liquid Fertilizer Benefits of Beef Cattle Urine

Authors: Sitti Nurani Sirajuddin, Ikrar Moh. Saleh, Kasmiyati Kasim

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The aim of this study was to know the perception of livestock farmers on the use of liquid organic fertilizer from urine of cattle at Sinjai Regency, South Sulawesi Province. The choice of location for a farmer group manufactures and markets liquid organic fertilizer from cattle urine. This research was conducted in May to July 2013.The population were all livestock farmers who use organic liquid fertilizer from cattle urine samples while livestock farmers who are directly involved in the manufacture of liquid organic fertilizer totaled 42 people. Data were collected through observation and interview. Data were analyzed descriptively. The results showed that the perception of livestock farmers of using liquid organic fertilizer from cattle urine provide additional revenue benefits, cost minimization farming, reducing environmental pollution which not contrary to the customs.

Keywords: liquid organic fertilizer, perceptions, farmers, beef cattle

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285 The Effects of Production, Transportation and Storage Conditions on Mold Growth in Compound Feeds

Authors: N. Cetinkaya

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The objective of the present study is to determine the critical control points during the production, transportation and storage conditions of compound feeds to be used in the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) feed safety management system. A total of 40 feed samples were taken after 20 and 40 days of storage periods from the 10 dairy and 10 beef cattle farms following the transportation of the compound feeds from the factory. In addition, before transporting the feeds from factory immediately after production of dairy and beef cattle compound feeds, 10 from each total 20 samples were taken as 0 day. In all feed samples, chemical composition and total aflatoxin levels were determined. The aflatoxin levels in all feed samples with the exception of 2 dairy cattle feeds were below the maximum acceptable level. With the increase in storage period in dairy feeds, the aflatoxin levels were increased to 4.96 ppb only in a BS8 dairy farm. This value is below the maximum permissible level (10 ppb) in beef cattle feed. The aflatoxin levels of dairy feed samples taken after production varied between 0.44 and 2.01 ppb. Aflatoxin levels were found to be between 0.89 and 3.01 ppb in dairy cattle feeds taken on the 20th day of storage at 10 dairy cattle farm. On the 40th day, feed aflatoxin levels in the same dairy cattle farm were found between 1.12 and 7.83 ppb. The aflatoxin levels were increased to 7.83 and 6.31 ppb in 2 dairy farms, after a storage period of 40 days. These obtained aflatoxin values are above the maximum permissible level in dairy cattle feeds. The 40 days storage in pellet form in the HACCP feed safety management system can be considered as a critical control point.

Keywords: aflatoxin, beef cattle feed, compound feed, dairy cattle feed, HACCP

Procedia PDF Downloads 80
284 Ruminal VFA of Beef Fed Different Protein

Authors: P. Paengkoum, S. C. Chen, S. Paengkoum

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Six male growing Thai-indigenous beef cattle with body weight (BW) of 154±13.2 kg were randomly assigned in replicated 3×3 Latin square design, and fed with different levels of crude protein (CP) in total mixed ration (TMR) diets. CP levels in diets were 4.3%, 7.3% and 10.3% base on dry matter (DM). Ruminal ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) concentrations increased (P<0.01) with increasing CP levels. Moreover, there is a positive relationship between BUN and ruminal NH3-N. Rumen pH, total volatile fatty acid (VFA), molar proportions of acetate, propionate and butyrate were not affected by CP levels (P>0.05).

Keywords: Thai-indigenous beef cattle, crude protein, volatile fatty acid (VFA), total mixed ration (TMR) diets

Procedia PDF Downloads 209
283 The Influence of the Types of Smoke Powder and Storage Duration on Sensory Quality of Balinese Beef and Buffalo Meatballs

Authors: E. Abustam, M. I. Said, M. Yusuf, H. M. Ali

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This study aims to examine the sensory quality of meatballs made from Balinese beef and buffalo meat after the addition of smoke powder prior to storage at the temperatures of 2-5°C for 7 days. This study used meat from Longissimus dorsi muscle of male Balinese cattle aged 3 years and of male buffalo aged 5 years as the main raw materials, and smoke powder as a binder and preservative in making meatballs. The study was based on completely randomized design (CRD) of factorial pattern of 2 x 3 x 2 where factors 1, 2 and 3 included the types of meat (cattle and buffalo), types of smoke powder (oven dried, freeze dried and spray dried) with a level of 2% of the weight of the meat (b/b), and storage duration (0 and 7 days) with three replications respectively. The parameters measured were the meatball sensory quality (scores of tenderness, firmness, chewing residue, and intensity of flavor). The results of this study show that each type of meat has produced different sensory characteristics. The meatballs made from buffalo meat have higher tenderness and elasticity scores than the Balinese beef. Meanwhile, the buffalo meatballs have a lower residue mastication score than the Balinese beef. Each type of smoke powders has produced a relatively similar sensory quality of meatballs. It can be concluded that the smoke powder of 2% of the weight of the meat (w/w) could maintain the sensory quality of the meatballs for 7 days of storage.

Keywords: Balinese beef meatballs, buffalo meatballs, sensory quality, smoke powder

Procedia PDF Downloads 257
282 Authentication and Traceability of Meat Products from South Indian Market by Species-Specific Polymerase Chain Reaction

Authors: J. U. Santhosh Kumar, V. Krishna, Sebin Sebastian, G. S. Seethapathy, G. Ravikanth, R. Uma Shaanker

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Food is one of the basic needs of human beings. It requires the normal function of the body part and a healthy growth. Recently, food adulteration increases day by day to increase the quantity and make more benefit. Animal source foods can provide a variety of micronutrients that are difficult to obtain in adequate quantities from plant source foods alone. Particularly in the meat industry, products from animals are susceptible targets for fraudulent labeling due to the economic profit that results from selling cheaper meat as meat from more profitable and desirable species. This work presents an overview of the main PCR-based techniques applied to date to verify the authenticity of beef meat and meat products from beef species. We were analyzed 25 market beef samples in South India. We examined PCR methods based on the sequence of the cytochrome b gene for source species identification. We found all sample were sold as beef meat as Bos Taurus. However, interestingly Male meats are more valuable high price compare to female meat, due to this reason most of the markets samples are susceptible. We were used sex determination gene of cattle like TSPY(Y-encoded, testis-specific protein TSPY is a Y-specific gene). TSPY homologs exist in several mammalian species, including humans, horses, and cattle. This gene is Y coded testis protein genes, which only amplify the male. We used multiple PCR products form species-specific “fingerprints” on gel electrophoresis, which may be useful for meat authentication. Amplicons were obtained only by the Cattle -specific PCR. We found 13 market meat samples sold as female beef samples. These results suggest that the species-specific PCR methods established in this study would be useful for simple and easy detection of adulteration of meat products.

Keywords: authentication, meat products, species-specific, TSPY

Procedia PDF Downloads 299
281 Regulation of Differentiating Intramuscular Stromal Vascular Cells Isolated from Hanwoo Beef Cattle by Retinoic Acid and Calcium

Authors: Seong Gu Hwang, Young Kyoon Oh, Joseph F. dela Cruz

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Marbling, or intramuscular fat, has been consistently identified as one of the top beef quality problems. Intramuscular adipocytes distribute throughout the perimysial connective tissue of skeletal muscle and are the major site for the deposition of intramuscular fat, which is essential for the eating quality of meat. The stromal vascular fraction of the skeletal muscle contains progenitor cells that can be enhanced to differentiate to adipocytes and increase intramuscular fat. Primary cultures of bovine intramuscular stromal vascular cells were used in this study to elucidate the effects of extracellular calcium and retinoic acid concentration on adipocyte differentiation. Cell viability assay revealed that even at different concentrations of calcium and retinoic acid, there was no significant difference on cell viability. Monitoring of the adipocyte differentiation showed that bovine intramuscular stromal vascular cells cultured in a low concentration of extracellular calcium and retinoic acid had a better degree of fat accumulation. The mRNA and protein expressions of PPARγ, C/EBPα, SREBP-1c and aP2 were analyzed and showed a significant upregulation upon the reduction in the level of extracellular calcium and retinoic acid. The upregulation of these adipogenic related genes means that the decreasing concentration of calcium and retinoic acid is able to stimulate the adipogenic differentiation of bovine intramuscular stromal vascular cells. To further elucidate the effect of calcium, the expression level of calreticulin was measured. Calreticulin which is known to be an inhibitor of PPARγ was down regulated by the decreased level of calcium and retinoic acid in the culture media. The same tendency was observed on retinoic acid receptors RARα and CRABP-II. These receptors are recognized as adipogenic inhibitors, and the downregulation of their expression allowed a better level of differentiation in bovine intramuscular stromal vascular cells. In conclusion, data show that decreasing the level of extracellular calcium and retinoic acid can significantly promote adipogenesis in intramuscular stromal vascular cells of Hanwoo beef cattle. These findings may provide new insights in enhancing intramuscular adipogenesis and marbling in beef cattle.

Keywords: calcium, calreticulin, hanwoo beef, retinoic acid

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280 Microbial Quality of Beef and Mutton in Bauchi Metropolis

Authors: Abdullahi Mohammed

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The microbial quality of beef and mutton sold in four major markets of Bauchi metropolis was assessed in order to assist in ascertaining safety. Shops were selected from 'Muda Lawal', 'Yelwa', 'Wunti', and 'Gwallameji' markets. The total bacterial count was used as index of quality. A total of thirty two (32) samples were collected in two successive visits. The samples were packed and labelled in a sterile polythene bags for transportation to the laboratory. Microbial analysis was carried out immediately upon arrival under a septic condition, where aerobic plate was used in determining the microbial load. Result showed that beef and mutton from Gwallameji had the highest bacterial count of 9.065 X 105 cfu/ml and 8.325 X 105 cfu/ml for beef and mutton respectively followed by Wunti market (6.95 X 105 beef and 4.838 X 105 motton) and Muda Lawal (4.86 X 105 cfu/ml beef and 5.998 X 105 cfu/ml mutton). Yelwa had 5.175 X 105 and 5.30 X 105 for beef and mutton respectively. Bacterial species isolated from the samples were Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp, Streptococcus species and Staphylococcus species. However, results obtained from all markets showed that there was no significant differences between beef and mutton in terms of microbial quality.

Keywords: beef, mutton, salmonella, sterile

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279 Comparison of Process Slaughtered on Beef Cattle Based on Level of Cortisol and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR)

Authors: Pudji Astuti, C. P. C. Putro, C. M. Airin, L. Sjahfirdi, S. Widiyanto, H. Maheshwari

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Stress of slaughter animals starting long before until at the time of process of slaughtering which cause misery and decrease of meat quality. Meanwhile, determination of animal stress using hormonal such as cortisol is expensive and less practical so that portable stress indicator for cows based on Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) must be provided. The aims of this research are to find out the comparison process of slaughter between Rope Casting Local (RCL) and Restraining Box Method (RBM) by measuring of cortisol and wavelength in FTIR methods. Thirty two of male Ongole crossbred cattle were used in this experiment. Blood sampling was taken from jugular vein when they were rested and repeated when slaughtered. All of blood samples were centrifuged at 3000 rpm for 20 minutes to get serum, and then divided into two parts for cortisol assayed using ELISA and for measuring the wavelength using FTIR. The serum then measured at the wavelength between 4000-400 cm-1 using MB3000 FTIR. Band data absorption in wavelength of FTIR is analyzed descriptively by using FTIR Horizon MBTM. For RCL, average of serum cortisol when the animals rested were 11.47 ± 4.88 ng/mL, when the time of slaughter were 23.27 ± 7.84 ng/mL. For RBM, level of cortisol when rested animals were 13.67 ± 3.41 ng/mL and 53.47 ± 20.25 ng/mL during the slaughter. Based on student t-Test, there were significantly different between RBM and RCL methods when beef cattle were slaughtered (P < 0.05), but no significantly different when animals were rested (P > 0.05). Result of FTIR with the various of wavelength such as methyl group (=CH3) 2986cm-1, methylene (=CH2) 2827 cm-1, hydroxyl (-OH) 3371 cm-1, carbonyl (ketones) (C=O) 1636 cm-1, carboxyl (COO-1) 1408 cm-1, glucosa 1057 cm-1, urea 1011 cm-1have been obtained. It can be concluded that the RCL slaughtered method is better than the RBM method based on the increase of cortisol as an indicator of stress in beef cattle (P<0.05). FTIR is really possible to be used as stub of stress tool due to differentiate of resting and slaughter condition by recognizing the increase of absorption and the separation of component group at the wavelength.

Keywords: cows, cortisol, FTIR, RBM, RCL, stress indicator

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278 Effect of Different By-Products on Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics and Serum Parameters of Growing Simmental Crossbred Cattle

Authors: Fei Wang, Jie Meng, Qingxiang Meng

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China is rich in straw and by-product resources, whose utilization has always been a hot topic. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of feeding soybean straw and wine distiller’s grain as a replacement for corn stover on performance of beef cattle. Sixty Simmental×local crossbred bulls averaging 12 months old and 335.7 ± 39.1 kg of body weight (BW) were randomly assigned into four groups (15 animals per group) and allocated to a diet with 40% maize stover (MSD), a diet with 40% wrapping package maize silage (PMSD), a diet with 12% soybean straw plus 28% maize stover (SSD) and a diet with 12% wine distiller’s grain plus 28% maize stover (WDD). Bulls were fed ad libitum an TMR consisting of 36.0% maize, 12.5% of DDGS, 5.0% of cottonseed meal, 4.0% of soybean meal and 40.0% of by-product as described above. Treatment period lasted for 22 weeks, consisting of 1 week of dietary adaptation. The results showed that dry matter intake (DMI) was significantly higher (P < 0.01) for PMSD group than MSD and SSD groups during 0-7 week and 8-14week, and PMSD and WDD groups had higher (P < 0.05) DMI values than MSD and SSD groups during the whole period. Average daily gain (ADG) values were 1.56, 1.72, 1.68 and 1.58 kg for MSD, PMSD, SSD and WDD groups respectively, although the differences were not significant (P > 0.05). The value of blood sugar concentration was significantly higher (P < 0.01) for MSD group than WDD group, and the blood urea nitrogen concentration of SSD group was lower (P < 0.05) than MSD and WDD groups. No significant difference (P > 0.05) of serum total cholesterol, triglycerides or total protein content was observed among the different groups. Ten bulls with similar body weight were selected at the end of feeding trial and slaughtered for measurement of slaughtering performance, carcass quality and meat chemical composition. SSD group had significantly lower (P < 0.05) shear force value and cooking loss than MSD and PMSD groups. The pH values of MSD and SSD groups were lower (P < 0.05) than PMSD and WDD groups. WDD group had a higher fat color brightness (L*) value than PMSD and SSD groups. There were no significant differences in dressing percentage, meat percentage, top grade meat weight, ribeye area, marbling score, meat color and meat chemical compositions among different dietary treatments. Based on these results, the packed maize stover silage showed a potential of improving the average daily gain and feed intake of beef cattle. Soybean straw had a significant effect on improving the tenderness and reducing cooking loss of beef. In general, soybean straw and packed maize stover silage would be beneficial to nitrogen deposition and showed a potential to substitute maize stover in beef cattle diets.

Keywords: beef cattle, by-products, carcass quality, growth performance

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277 The Mapping of Pastoral Area as a Basis of Ecological for Beef Cattle in Pinrang Regency, South Sulawesi, Indonesia

Authors: Jasmal A. Syamsu, Muhammad Yusuf, Hikmah M. Ali, Mawardi A. Asja, Zulkharnaim

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This study was conducted and aimed in identifying and mapping the pasture as an ecological base of beef cattle. A survey was carried out during a period of April to June 2016, in Suppa, Mattirobulu, the district of Pinrang, South Sulawesi province. The mapping process of grazing area was conducted in several stages; inputting and tracking of data points into Google Earth Pro (version 7.1.4.1529), affirmation and confirmation of tracking line visualized by satellite with a variety of records at the point, a certain point and tracking input data into ArcMap Application (ArcGIS version 10.1), data processing DEM/SRTM (S04E119) with respect to the location of the grazing areas, creation of a contour map (a distance of 5 m) and mapping tilt (slope) of land and land cover map-making. Analysis of land cover, particularly the state of the vegetation was done through the identification procedure NDVI (Normalized Differences Vegetation Index). This procedure was performed by making use of the Landsat-8. The results showed that the topography of the grazing areas of hills and some sloping surfaces and flat with elevation vary from 74 to 145 above sea level (asl), while the requirements for growing superior grass and legume is an altitude of up to 143-159 asl. Slope varied between 0 - > 40% and was dominated by a slope of 0-15%, according to the slope/topography pasture maximum of 15%. The range of NDVI values for pasture image analysis results was between 0.1 and 0.27. Characteristics of vegetation cover of pasture land in the category of vegetation density were low, 70% of the land was the land for cattle grazing, while the remaining approximately 30% was a grove and forest included plant water where the place for shelter of the cattle during the heat and drinking water supply. There are seven types of graminae and 5 types of legume that was dominant in the region. Proportionally, graminae class dominated up 75.6% and legume crops up to 22.1% and the remaining 2.3% was another plant trees that grow in the region. The dominant weed species in the region were Cromolaenaodorata and Lantana camara, besides that there were 6 types of floor plant that did not include as forage fodder.

Keywords: pastoral, ecology, mapping, beef cattle

Procedia PDF Downloads 219
276 Drying Kinetics of Vacuum Dried Beef Meat Slices

Authors: Elif Aykin Dincer, Mustafa Erbas

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The vacuum drying behavior of beef slices (10 x 4 x 0.2 cm3) was experimentally investigated at the temperature of 60, 70, and 80°C under 25 mbar ultimate vacuum pressure and the mathematical models (Lewis, Page, Midilli, Two-term, Wangh and Singh and Modified Henderson and Pabis) were used to fit the vacuum drying of beef slices. The increase in drying air temperature resulted in a decrease in drying time. It took approximately 206, 180 and 157 min to dry beef slices from an initial moisture content to a final moisture content of 0.05 kg water/kg dry matter at 60, 70 and 80 °C of vacuum drying, respectively. It is also observed that the drying rate increased with increasing drying temperature. The coefficients (R2), the reduced chi-square (x²) and root mean square error (RMSE) values were obtained by application of six models to the experimental drying data. The best model with the highest R2 and, the lowest x² and RMSE values was selected to describe the drying characteristics of beef slices. The Page model has shown a better fit to the experimental drying data as compared to other models. In addition, the effective moisture diffusivities of beef slices in the vacuum drying at 60 - 80 °C varied in the range of 1.05 – 1.09 x 10-10 m2/s. Consequently, this results can be used to simulate vacuum drying process of beef slices and improve efficiency of the drying process.

Keywords: beef slice, drying models, effective diffusivity, vacuum

Procedia PDF Downloads 212
275 Duplex Real-Time Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Assay for Simultaneous Detection of Beef and Pork

Authors: Mi-Ju Kim, Hae-Yeong Kim

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Product mislabeling and adulteration have been increasing the concerns in processed meat products. Relatively inexpensive pork meat compared to meat such as beef was adulterated for economic benefit. These food fraud incidents related to pork were concerned due to economic, religious and health reasons. In this study, a rapid on-site detection method using loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) was developed for the simultaneous identification of beef and pork. Each specific LAMP primer for beef and pork was designed targeting on mitochondrial D-loop region. The LAMP assay reaction was performed at 65 ℃ for 40 min. The specificity of each primer for beef and pork was evaluated using DNAs extracted from 13 animal species including beef and pork. The sensitivity of duplex LAMP assay was examined by serial dilution of beef and pork DNAs, and reference binary mixtures. This assay was applied to processed meat products including beef and pork meat for monitoring. Each set of primers amplified only the targeted species with no cross-reactivity with animal species. The limit of detection of duplex real-time LAMP was 1 pg for each DNA of beef and pork and 1% pork in a beef-meat mixture. Commercial meat products that declared the presence of beef and/or pork meat on the label showed positive results for those species. This method was successfully applied to detect simultaneous beef and pork meats in processed meat products. The optimized duplex LAMP assay can identify simultaneously beef and pork meat within less than 40 min. A portable real-time fluorescence device used in this study is applicable for on-site detection of beef and pork in processed meat products. Thus, this developed assay was considered to be an efficient tool for monitoring meat products.

Keywords: beef, duplex real-time LAMP, meat identification, pork

Procedia PDF Downloads 154
274 Haematological Alterations in Anaemic Bali Cattle Raised in Semi-Intensive System

Authors: Jully Handoko

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Screening for anaemia in Bali cattle of Bangkinang Seberang subdistrict, kampar regency, Riau, Indonesia, had been conducted. The aim of the study was to analyse hematological alterations in the anaemic Bali cattle. A number of 75 Bali cattle were screened for anaemia on the basis of Haemoglobin (Hb) concentration. The other haematological parameters that were measured including packed cell volume (PCV), total erythrocyte count (TEC), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC). The screening showed that 18 (24.00%) of Bali cattle were anaemic. Haematological values of Hb, PCV, TEC, MCV, MCH, and MCHC were significantly (p<0.05) lower in anaemic Bali cattle compared to non-anaemic Bali cattle.

Keywords: anaemia, Bali cattle, alteration, semi-intensive system

Procedia PDF Downloads 421
273 Using Plant Oils in Total Mixed Ration on Voluntary Feed Intake and Blood Metabolize of Crossbred Thai Native X American Brahman Cattle

Authors: Wantanee Polviset, N. Prakobsaeng, N. Wetchakama, C. Yuangklang

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The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of soybean oil, palm oil and sunflower oil supplementations in total mixed ration on voluntary feed intake, dry matter (DM) digestibility and blood metabolize in crossbred Thai native x American Brahman Cattle. Three Thai native x American Brahman cattle, one-year-old with liveweight of 116±22.59 kg, were randomly assigned according to a 3 x 3 latin square design. Each period of feeding lasted for 21 days to receive three dietary treatments were soybean oil, palm oil and sunflower oil supplementation at 5%. During the experimental periods, all cattle were fed a diet with total mixed ration containing roughage to concentrate ratio of 40:60 and rice straw was used as a roughage source. Based on the present study, the results revealed that voluntary feed intake (kgDM/head/day) and %BW DM intake were not affected (P>0.05), whereas percentage of dry matter digestibility was greater with the soybean oil supplementation (P<0.01). It was also found that blood glucose, blood urea nitrogen, cholesterol, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein and low density lipoprotein in plasma were similar among treatments. Based on this study, supplementing 5% soybean oil in total mixed ration (TMR) diets was suitable in beef cattle without any effect dry matter digestibility and blood metabolites.

Keywords: plant oils, feed intake, blood metabolize, crossbred Thai native x Brahman cattle

Procedia PDF Downloads 237
272 Variation in pH Values and Tenderness of Meat of Cattle Fed Different Levels of Lipids

Authors: Erico Da Silva Lima, Tiago Neves Pereira Valente, Roberto De Oliveira Roça

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Introduction: Over the last few years the market has increased its demand for high quality meat. Based on this premise some producers have continuously improved their efficiency in breeding beef cattle with the purpose to support this demand. It is well recognized that final quality of beef is intimately linked to animal’s diet. The key objective of this study is to evaluate the influence of feeding animals with cottonseed and its lipids and the final results in terms of pH and shear forces of the meat. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out in the Chapéu de Couro Farm in Aguaí/SP, Brazil. A group of 39 uncastrated Nellore cattle. Mean age of the animals was 36 months and initial mean live weight was 494.1 ± 10.1. Animals were randomly assigned to one of three treatments, based on dry matter: feed with control diet 2.50% cottonseed, feed with 11.50% cottonseed, and feed with 3.13% cottonseed added of 1.77% protected lipid. Forage:concentrate ratio was 50:50 on a dry matter basis. Sugar cane chopped was used as forage. After slaughter, carcasses were identified and divided into two halves that were kept in a cold chamber for 24 h at 2°C. Using pH meter was determined post-mortem pH in Longissimus thoracis muscle between the 12th and 13th rib of the left half carcass. After, part of each animal was removed, and divided in three samples (steaks). Steaks were 2.5 cm thick and were identified and stored individually in plastic bags under vacuum. Samples were frozen in a freezer at -18°C. The same samples cooked were refrigerated by 12 h the 4°C, and then cut into cylinders 1.10 Øcm with the support of a drill press avoiding fats and nerves. Shear force was calculated in these samples cut into cylinders through the Brookfield texture CT3 Texture Analyzer 25 k equipped with a set of blade Warner-Bratzler. Results and Discussion: No differences (P > 0.05) in pH 24 h after slaughter were observed in the meat of Nellore cattle fed different sources of fat, and mean value for this variable was 5.59. However, for the shear force differences (P < 0.05) were founded. For diet with 2,50% cottonseed the lowest value found 5.10 (kg) while for the treatment with 11.50% cottonseed the great value found was 6.30 (kg). High shear force values mean greater texture of meat that indicates less tenderness. The texture of the meat can be influenced by age, weight to the slaughter of animals. For cattle breed Nellore Bos taurus indicus more high value of shear force. Conclusions: The add the cottonseed or protected lipid in diet is not affected pH values in meat. The whole cottonseed does not contribute to the improvement of tenderness of the meat. Acknowledgments: IFGoiano, FAPEG and CNPq (Brazil).

Keywords: beef quality, cottonseed, protected fat, shear force

Procedia PDF Downloads 161
271 Welfare and Sustainability in Beef Cattle Production on Tropical Pasture

Authors: Andre Pastori D'Aurea, Lauriston Bertelli Feranades, Luis Eduardo Ferreira, Leandro Dias Pinto, Fabiana Ayumi Shiozaki

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to improve the production of beef cattle on tropical pasture without harming this environment. On tropical pastures, cattle's live weight gain is lower than feedlot, and forage production is seasonable, changing from season to season. Thus, concerned with sustainable livestock production, the Premix Company has developed strategies to improve the production of beef cattle on tropical pasture to ensure sustainability of welfare and production. There are two important principles in this productivity system: 1) increase individual gains with use of better supplementation and 2) increase the productivity units with better forage quality like corn silage or other forms of forage conservations, actually used only in winter, and adding natural additives in the diet. This production system was applied from June 2017 to May 2018 in the Research Center of Premix Company, Patrocínio Paulista, São Paulo State, Brazil. The area used had 9 hectares of pasture of Brachiaria brizantha. 36 steers Nellore were evaluated for one year. The initial weight was 253 kg. The parameters used were daily average gain and gain per area. This indicated the corrections to be made and helped design future fertilization. In this case, we fertilized the pasture with 30 kg of nitrogen per animal divided into two parts. The diet was pasture and protein-energy supplements (0.4% of live weight). The supplement used was added with natural additive Fator P® – Premix Company). Fator P® is an additive composed by amino acids (lysine, methionine and tyrosine, 16400, 2980 and 3000 mg.kg-1 respectively), minerals, probiotics (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, 7 x 10E8 CFU.kg-1) and essential fatty acids (linoleic and oleic acids, 108.9 and 99g.kg-1 respectively). Due to seasonal changes, in the winter we supplemented the diet by increasing the offer of forage, supplementing with maize silage. It was offered 1% of live weight in silage corn and 0.4% of the live weight in protein-energetic supplements with additive Fator P ®. At the end of the period, the productivity was calculated by summing the individual gains for the area used. The average daily gain of the animals were 693 grams per day and was produced 1.005 kg /hectare/year. This production is about 8 times higher than the average of Brazilian meat national production. To succeed in this project, it is necessary to increase the gains per area, so it is necessary to increase the capacity per area. Pasture management is very important to the project's success because the dietary decisions were taken from the quantity and quality of the forage. We, therefore, recommend the use of animals in the growth phase because the response to supplementation is greater in that phase and we can allocate more animals per area. This system's carbon footprint reduces emissions by 61.2 percent compared to the Brazilian average. This beef cattle production system can be efficient and environmentally friendly to the natural. Another point is that bovines will benefit from their natural environment without competing or having an impact on human food production.

Keywords: cattle production, environment, pasture, sustainability

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270 Prevalence of Eimeria spp in Cattle in Anatolia Region, Turkey

Authors: Nermin Isik, Onur Ceylan

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Bovine coccidiosis is a protozoan infection caused by coccidia parasites of the genus Eimeria which develops in the small and the large intestine. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Eimeria spp. in cattle. This study was conducted between March 2014 and April 2015, involved 624 fecal samples of cattle. Cattle were grouped according to their age as follows: 6-12, 12-24 and >24 months. In a retrospective study from these faecal samples of cattle submitted to the University of Selcuk, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Laboratory of Parasitology were evaluated regarding the prevalence of Eimeria spp. In the laboratory, faecal samples were examined by Fulleborn saturated salt flotation technique and examined under a microscope for the presence of protozoan oocysts. Eimeria oocysts were found in 4.8% of all the samples. Eimeria infection was detected in 11.8%, 5.3% and 0.4% of the cattle in the age groups, respectively. This study showed that Eimeria infection was commonly seen in 6-24-month-old cattle. Further epidemiological investigation on economic significance and species composition of bovine coccidiosis needs to be pursued.

Keywords: cattle, diarrhea, Eimeria spp, Turkey

Procedia PDF Downloads 263
269 Haematological Alterations in Anemic Bali Cattle Raised in Semi-Intensive Husbandry System

Authors: Jully Handoko, B. Kuntoro, E. Saleh, Sadarman

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Most farmers in Bangkinang Seberang sub district raise Bali cattle in semi-intensive husbandry system. The farmers believe that raising such a way is economical and quite effective. The farmers do not need to provide forage and plant feed crops. Furthermore, the raising method is considered not to interfere with the main job. Screening for anemia in Bali cattle of Bangkinang Seberang subdistrict, Kampar regency, Riau, Indonesia, had been conducted. The aim of the study was to analyze hematological alterations in the anemic Bali cattle. A number of 75 Bali cattle were screened for anemia on the basis of Hemoglobin (Hb) concentration. The other hematological parameters that were measured including packed cell volume (PCV), total erythrocyte count (TEC), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC). The screening showed that 18 (24.00%) of Bali cattle were anemic. Levels of Hb, PCV, TEC, MCV, MCH and MCHC in anemic Bali cattle were 7.15±1.61 g/dl, 21.15±4.16%, 3.72±1.10x106/µl, 52.75±4.13 fl, 17.31±1.86 pg and 32.77±1.69 g/dl respectively. Hematological values of Hb, PCV, TEC, MCV, MCH and MCHC were significantly (p < 0.05) lower in anemic Bali cattle compared to non-anemic Bali cattle.

Keywords: anemia, Bali cattle, alterations, hematology

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268 Performance of High Density Genotyping in Sahiwal Cattle Breed

Authors: Hamid Mustafa, Huson J. Heather, Kim Eiusoo, Adeela Ajmal, Tad S. Sonstegard

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The objective of this study was to evaluate the informativeness of Bovine high density SNPs genotyping in Sahiwal cattle population. This is a first attempt to assess the Bovine HD SNP genotyping array in any Pakistani indigenous cattle population. To evaluate these SNPs on genome wide scale, we considered 777,962 SNPs spanning the whole autosomal and X chromosomes in Sahiwal cattle population. Fifteen (15) non related gDNA samples were genotyped with the bovine HD infinium. Approximately 500,939 SNPs were found polymorphic (MAF > 0.05) in Sahiwal cattle population. The results of this study indicate potential application of Bovine High Density SNP genotyping in Pakistani indigenous cattle population. The information generated from this array can be applied in genetic prediction, characterization and genome wide association studies of Pakistani Sahiwal cattle population.

Keywords: Sahiwal cattle, polymorphic SNPs, genotyping, Pakistan

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267 Economic Impacts of Nitrogen Fertilizer Use into Tropical Pastures for Beef Cattle in Brazil

Authors: Elieder P. Romanzini, Lutti M. Delevatti, Rhaony G. Leite, Ricardo A. Reis, Euclides B. Malheiros

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Brazilian beef cattle production systems are an important profitability source for the national gross domestic product. The main characteristic of these systems is forage utilization as the exclusive feed source. Forage utilization had been causing on owners the false feeling of low production costs. However, this low cost is followed to low profit causing a lot times worst animal index what can result in activities changes or until land sold. Aiming to evaluate economic impacts into Brazilian beef cattle systems were evaluated four nitrogen fertilizer (N) application levels (0, 90, 180 and 270 kg per hectare [kg.ha-1]). Research was developed during 2015 into Forage Crops and Grasslands section of São Paulo State University, “Júlio de Mesquita Filho” (Unesp) (Jaboticabal, São Paulo, Brazil). Pastures were seeded with Brachiaria brizantha Stapf. ‘Marandu’ (Palisade grass) handled using continuous grazing system, with variable stocking rate, sward height maintained at 25 cm. The economic evaluation was developed in rearing e finishing phases. We evaluated the cash flows inside each phase on different N levels. Economic valuations were considering: cost-effective operating (CEO), cost-total operating (CTO), gross revenue (GR), operating profit (OP) and net income (NI), every measured in US$. Complementary analyses were developed, profitability was calculated by [OP/GR]. Pay back (measured in years) was calculated considering average capital stocktaking pondered by area in use (ACS) divided by [GR-CEO]. And the internal rate of return (IRR) was calculated by 100/(pay back). Input prices were prices during 2015 and were obtained from Anuário Brasileiro da Pecuária, Centro de Estudos Avançados em Economia Aplicada and quotation in the same region of animal production (northeast São Paulo State) during the period above mentioned. Values were calculated in US$ according exchange rate US$1.00 equal R$3.34. The CEO, CTO, GR, OP and NI per hectare for each N level were respectively US$1,919.66; US$2,048.47; US$2,905.72; US$857.25 and US$986.06 to 0 kg.ha-1; US$2,403.20; US$2,551.80; US$3,530.19; US$978.39 and US$1,126.99 to 90 kg.ha-1; US$3,180.42; US$3,364.81; US$4,985.03; US$1,620.23 and US$1,804.62 to 180 kg.ha-1andUS$3,709.14; US$3,915.15; US$5,554.95; US$1,639.80 and US$1,845.81 to 270 kg.ha-1. Relationship to another economic indexes, profitability, pay back and IRR, the results were respectively 29.50%, 6.44 and 15.54% to 0 kg.ha-1; 27.72%, 6.88 and 14.54% to 90 kg.ha-1; 32.50%, 4.08 and 24.50% to 180 kg.ha-1 and 29.52%, 3.42 and 29.27% to 270 kg.ha-1. Values previously presented in this evaluation allowing to affirm that the best result was obtained to N level 270 kg.ha-1. These results among all N levels evaluated could be explained by improve occurred on stocking rate caused by increase on N level. However, a crucial information about high N level application into pastures is the efficiency of N utilization (associated to environmental impacts) that normally decrease with the increase on N level. Hence, considering all situations (efficiency of N utilization and economic results) into tropical pastures used to beef cattle production could be recommended N level equal to 180kg.ha-1, which had better profitability and cause lesser environmental impacts, proved by other studies developed in the same area.

Keywords: Brachiaria brizantha, cost-total operating, gross revenue, profitability

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266 Probiotics’ Antibacterial Activity on Beef and Camel Minced Meat at Altered Ranges of Temperature

Authors: Rania Samir Zaki

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Because of their inhibitory effects, selected probiotic Lactobacilli may be used as antimicrobial against some hazardous microorganisms responsible for spoilage of fresh minced beef (cattle) minced meat and camel minced meat. Lactic acid bacteria were isolated from camel meat. These included 10 isolates; 1 Lactobacillus fermenti, 4 Lactobacillus plantarum, 4 Lactobacillus pulgaricus, 3 Lactobacillus acidophilus and 1 Lactobacillus brevis. The most efficient inhibitory organism was Lactobacillus plantarum which can be used as a propiotic with antibacterial activity. All microbiological analyses were made at the time 0, first day and the second day at altered ranges of temperature [4±2 ⁰C (chilling temperature), 25±2 ⁰C, and 38±2 ⁰C]. Results showed a significant decrease of pH 6.2 to 5.1 within variant types of meat, in addition to reduction of Total Bacterial Count, Enterococci, Bacillus cereus and Escherichia coli together with the stability of Coliforms and absence of Staphylococcus aureus.

Keywords: antibacterial, camel meat, inhibition, probiotics

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265 Prediction of Bodyweight of Cattle by Artificial Neural Networks Using Digital Images

Authors: Yalçın Bozkurt

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Prediction models were developed for accurate prediction of bodyweight (BW) by using Digital Images of beef cattle body dimensions by Artificial Neural Networks (ANN). For this purpose, the animal data were collected at a private slaughter house and the digital images and the weights of each live animal were taken just before they were slaughtered and the body dimensions such as digital wither height (DJWH), digital body length (DJBL), digital body depth (DJBD), digital hip width (DJHW), digital hip height (DJHH) and digital pin bone length (DJPL) were determined from the images, using the data with 1069 observations for each traits. Then, prediction models were developed by ANN. Digital body measurements were analysed by ANN for body prediction and R2 values of DJBL, DJWH, DJHW, DJBD, DJHH and DJPL were approximately 94.32, 91.31, 80.70, 83.61, 89.45 and 70.56 % respectively. It can be concluded that in management situations where BW cannot be measured it can be predicted accurately by measuring DJBL and DJWH alone or both DJBD and even DJHH and different models may be needed to predict BW in different feeding and environmental conditions and breeds

Keywords: artificial neural networks, bodyweight, cattle, digital body measurements

Procedia PDF Downloads 285
264 Volatile Composition of Sucuks: A Traditional Dry-Fermented Sausage Affected by Meat and Fat Types

Authors: Mina Kargozari, Isabel Revilla Martin, Ángel A. Carbonell-Barrachina, Antoni Szumny

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The profiles of volatile compounds of differently formulated sausages including CH (camel meat-hump), CB (camel meat-beef fat), BH (beef-hump) and BB (beef-beef fat) were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) using a solid phase micro-extraction (SPME) in order to investigate the role of meat and fat type in aroma compounds release. A total of 47 compounds identified, were consisted of 3 acids, 1 ester, 3 alcohols, 7 aldehydes, 5 sulphur compounds, and 27 terpenes. The significant differences were observed in the aroma compounds among four batches. The CH sucuk samples containing the highest (p<0.05) fat amount among the others showed higher amounts of volatiles in consequence. The sausages prepared with hump showed higher amounts of aldehydes and lower amounts of terpenes compared to the sausages made with beef fat (p<0.05). It seemed that meat type had an inconsiderable effect on the volatile profile of the sausages.

Keywords: aromatic compounds, camel meat, hump, SPME

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263 Characterization of Shiga Toxin Escherichia coli Recovered from a Beef Processing Facility within Southern Ontario and Comparative Performance of Molecular Diagnostic Platforms

Authors: Jessica C. Bannon, Cleso M. Jordao Jr., Mohammad Melebari, Carlos Leon-Velarde, Roger Johnson, Keith Warriner

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There has been an increased incidence of non-O157 Shiga Toxin Escherichia coli (STEC) with six serotypes (Top 6) being implicated in causing haemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). Beef has been suggested to be a significant vehicle for non-O157 STEC although conclusive evidence has yet to be obtained. The following aimed to determine the prevalence of the Top 6 non-O157 STEC in beef processing using three different diagnostic platforms then characterize the recovered isolates. Hide, carcass and environmental swab samples (n = 60) were collected from a beef processing facility over a 12 month period. Enriched samples were screened using Biocontrol GDS, BAX or PALLgene molecular diagnostic tests. Presumptive non-O157 STEC positive samples were confirmed using conventional PCR and serology. STEC was detected by GDS (55% positive), BAX (85% positive), and PALLgene (93%). However, during confirmation testing only 8 of the 60 samples (13%) were found to harbour STEC. Interestingly, the presence of virulence factors in the recovered isolates was unstable and readily lost during subsequent sub-culturing. There is a low prevalence of Top 6 non-O157 STEC associated with beef although other serotypes are encountered. Yet, the instability of the virulence factors in recovered strains would question their clinical relevance.

Keywords: beef, food microbiology, shiga toxin, STEC

Procedia PDF Downloads 395
262 Assesment of SNP Variation and Distribution in Pakistani Cattle Breeds using High Density SNP Genotyping

Authors: Hamid Mustafa, Heather J. Huson, Adeela Ajmal, Kim Euisoo, Tad S. Sonstegard

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In this study, 67 animals, representing six different cattle breeds of Pakistan, were genotyped with the Bovine high density (777K) SNP Beadchip. These include 13 Sahiwal, 09 Red Sindhi, 13 Tharparkar, 08 Achi, 13 Cholistani and 10 Dhanni cattle breeds. Analysis of 500, 939 SNP markers revealed that the mean minor allele frequency (MAF) was 0.21, 0.22, 0.18, 0.23, 0.22 and 0.22 for Sahiwal, Red Sindhi, Tharparkar, Achi, Cholistani and Dhanni respectively. Significant differences of minor allele frequency (MAF) were observed between the indigenous Pakistani cattle population (P<0.001). Across these Pakistani cattle breeds, a common variant MAF (≥0.10 and ≤0.5) accounted for an overall estimated 75.71 % of the 500,939 SNPs and on the average 19.58 % of the markers were monomorphic. Mean observed (HO) and expected (HE) heterozygosities were 0.656 and 0.638, respectively. This primarily study of Pakistani indigenous cattle breeds indicate that this level of SNPs variation can potentially be used for genomic studies for future breeding plans and for farm animal conservation strategies.

Keywords: Pakistan, cattle, minor allele frequency, SNP, variation

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261 The Bacteriocin Produced by Lactic Acid Bacteria as an Antibacterial of Sub Clinic Mastitis on Dairy Cows

Authors: Nenny Harijani, Dhandy Koesoemo Wardhana

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The aim of this study is to know the bacteriocin as antimicrobial activity produced by Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) as Antibacterial of Sub Clinic Mastitis on Dairy Cows. The antimicrobial is produced by LAB which isolates from cattle intestine can inhibit the growth Staphylococcus aureus, Steptocococcus agalactiae an Escherichia coli which were caused by dairy cattle subclinical mastitis. The failure of this bacteria growth was indicated by the formation of a clear zone surrounding the colonies on Brain Heart Infusion Agar plate. The bacteriocin was produced by Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) as antimicrobial, which could inhibit the growth of indicator bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, S.aglactiae and E.coli. This study was also developed bacteriocin to be used as a therapeutic of subclinical mastitis on dairy cows. The method used in this study was isolation, selection and identification of LAB using Mann Rogosa Sharp Medium, followed by characterization of the bacteriocin produced by LAB. The result of the study showed that bacteriocin isolated from beef cattle’s intestine could inhibit the growth Staphylococcus aureus, S. agalactiae, an Escherichia coli, which was indicated by clear zone surrounding the colonies on Brain Heart Infusion Agar plate. Characteristics of bacteriocin were heat-stable exposed to 80 0C for 30 minutes and 100 ⁰C for 15 minutes and inactivated by proteolytic enzymes such as trypsin. This approach has suggested the development of bacteriocin as a therapeutic agent for subclinical mastitis in dairy cattle.

Keywords: lactic acid bacteria, bacteriocin, staphylococcus aureus, S. agalactiae, E. coli, sub

Procedia PDF Downloads 54