Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 19

Search results for: glioma

19 O-(2-18F-Fluoroethyl)-L-Tyrosine Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography in Patients with Suspicious Recurrent Low and High-Grade Glioma

Authors: Mahkameh Asadi, Habibollah Dadgar

Abstract:

The precise definition margin of high and low-grade glioma is crucial for choosing best treatment approach after surgery and radio-chemotherapy. The aim of the current study was to assess the O-(2-18F-fluoroethyl)-L-tyrosine (18F-FET) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) in patients with low (LGG) and high grade glioma (HGG). We retrospectively analyzed 18F-FET PET/CT of 10 patients (age: 33 ± 12 years) with suspicious for recurrent LGG and HGG. The final decision of recurrence was made by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and registered clinical data. While response to radio-chemotherapy by MRI is often complex and sophisticated due to the edema, necrosis, and inflammation, emerging amino acid PET leading to better interpretations with more specifically differentiate true tumor boundaries from equivocal lesions. Therefore, integrating amino acid PET in the management of glioma to complement MRI will significantly improve early therapy response assessment, treatment planning, and clinical trial design.

Keywords: positron emission tomography, amino acid positron emission tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, low and high grade glioma

Procedia PDF Downloads 46
18 Biophysical Features of Glioma-Derived Extracellular Vesicles as Potential Diagnostic Markers

Authors: Abhimanyu Thakur, Youngjin Lee

Abstract:

Glioma is a lethal brain cancer whose early diagnosis and prognosis are limited due to the dearth of a suitable technique for its early detection. Current approaches, including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT), and invasive biopsy for the diagnosis of this lethal disease, hold several limitations, demanding an alternative method. Recently, extracellular vesicles (EVs) have been used in numerous biomarker studies, majorly exosomes and microvesicles (MVs), which are found in most of the cells and biofluids, including blood, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and urine. Remarkably, glioma cells (GMs) release a high number of EVs, which are found to cross the blood-brain-barrier (BBB) and impersonate the constituents of parent GMs including protein, and lncRNA; however, biophysical properties of EVs have not been explored yet as a biomarker for glioma. We isolated EVs from cell culture conditioned medium of GMs and regular primary culture, blood, and urine of wild-type (WT)- and glioma mouse models, and characterized by nano tracking analyzer, transmission electron microscopy, immunogold-EM, and differential light scanning. Next, we measured the biophysical parameters of GMs-EVs by using atomic force microscopy. Further, the functional constituents of EVs were examined by FTIR and Raman spectroscopy. Exosomes and MVs-derived from GMs, blood, and urine showed distinction biophysical parameters (roughness, adhesion force, and stiffness) and different from that of regular primary glial cells, WT-blood, and -urine, which can be attributed to the characteristic functional constituents. Therefore, biophysical features can be potential diagnostic biomarkers for glioma.

Keywords: glioma, extracellular vesicles, exosomes, microvesicles, biophysical properties

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17 A Simple Finite Element Method for Glioma Tumor Growth Model with Density Dependent Diffusion

Authors: Shangerganesh Lingeshwaran

Abstract:

In this presentation, we have performed numerical simulations for a reaction-diffusion equation with various nonlinear density-dependent diffusion operators and proliferation functions. The mathematical model represented by parabolic partial differential equation is considered to study the invasion of gliomas (the most common type of brain tumors) and to describe the growth of cancer cells and response to their treatment. The unknown quantity of the given reaction-diffusion equation is the density of cancer cells and the mathematical model based on the proliferation and migration of glioma cells. A standard Galerkin finite element method is used to perform the numerical simulations of the given model. Finally, important observations on the each of nonlinear diffusion functions and proliferation functions are presented with the help of computational results.

Keywords: glioma invasion, nonlinear diffusion, reaction-diffusion, finite eleament method

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16 PTOP Expression Correlates with Telomerase Activity and Grades of Malignancy in Human Glioma Tissues

Authors: F. Polito, M. Cucinotta, A. Conti, C. Lo Giudice, C. Tomasello, F. Angileri, D. La Torre, M. Aguennouz

Abstract:

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most aggressive form of brain tumors, with an extremely poor prognosis. Telomeres lenght is associated with tumor progression in several type of human cancers and telomere elongation is a common molecular feature of advanced malignancies. Among the telomeric shelterin proteins PTOP is required for telomeric protein complex assembly, telomerase recruitment and activity, and telomere length regulation through a PTOP-telomerase interaction. Previous studies suggest that PTOP upregulation is involved in radioresistance and telomere lengthening in colorectal cancer cells. Moreover, in human osteosarcoma cells PTOP deletion led to telomere shortening, increased apoptosis and radiation sensitivity enhancement. However, to date, little is known about the role of PTOP in progression of glioma cancers. In light of this background aim of the study is to investigate the expression of PTOP in different grades of human glioma and its correlation with the pathological grade of gliomas, grades of malignancy, proliferative activity and apoptosis. Fifteen Low Grade Astrocytomas (LGA), 18 Anaplastic Astrocytomas (AA) and 26 Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) samples were analyzed. Three samples of normal brain tissue (NBT) were used as controls. The expression levels of PTOP, h-TERT, BIRC1 and cyclin D1 were determined by real time PCR and/or western blot. Results obtained shows that PTOP expression in glioma tissues is tightly correlated with clinical grade ( p < 0.01 ). No correlation was found between PTOP expression and other clinicopathologic parameters. The expression of PTOP was positively correlated with the expression of hTERT and TERF1. Furthermore PTOP positively correlates with cyclin D1 and negatively correlates with the expression of BIRC1. Our findings indicate that PTOP might play key role in the progression of glioma regulating telomerase activity and likely through regulation of cell cycle and apoptosis. In conclusion results obtained prompted us to speculate that PTOP might represents a potential molecular bio marker and a therapeutic target for the treatment of glioblastoma tumors.

Keywords: glioblastoma, PTOP, telomere, brain tumors

Procedia PDF Downloads 276
15 LGG Architecture for Brain Tumor Segmentation Using Convolutional Neural Network

Authors: Sajeeha Ansar, Asad Ali Safi, Sheikh Ziauddin, Ahmad R. Shahid, Faraz Ahsan

Abstract:

The most aggressive form of brain tumor is called glioma. Glioma is kind of tumor that arises from glial tissue of the brain and occurs quite often. A fully automatic 2D-CNN model for brain tumor segmentation is presented in this paper. We performed pre-processing steps to remove noise and intensity variances using N4ITK and standard intensity correction, respectively. We used Keras open-source library with Theano as backend for fast implementation of CNN model. In addition, we used BRATS 2015 MRI dataset to evaluate our proposed model. Furthermore, we have used SimpleITK open-source library in our proposed model to analyze images. Moreover, we have extracted random 2D patches for proposed 2D-CNN model for efficient brain segmentation. Extracting 2D patched instead of 3D due to less dimensional information present in 2D which helps us in reducing computational time. Dice Similarity Coefficient (DSC) is used as performance measure for the evaluation of the proposed method. Our method achieved DSC score of 0.77 for complete, 0.76 for core, 0.77 for enhanced tumor regions. However, these results are comparable with methods already implemented 2D CNN architecture.

Keywords: brain tumor segmentation, convolutional neural networks, deep learning, LGG

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14 In-Vivo Association of Multivalent 11 Zinc Fingers Transcriptional Factors CTCF and Boris to YB-1 in Multiforme Glioma-RGBM Cell Line

Authors: Daruliza Kernain, Shaharum Shamsuddin, See Too Wei Cun

Abstract:

CTCF is a unique, highly conserved and ubiquitously expressed 11 zinc finger (ZF) transcriptional factor with multiple target sites. It is able to bind to various target sequences to perform different regulatory roles including promoter activation or repression, creating hormone-responsive gene silencing element, and functional block of enhancer-promoter interactions. The binding of CTCF to the essential binding site is through the combination of different ZF domain. On the other hand, BORIS for brother of the regulator of imprinted sites, which expressed only in the testis and certain cancer cell line is homology to CTCF 11 ZF domains. Since both transcriptional factors share the same ZF domains hence there is a possibility for both to bind to the same target sequences. In this study, the interaction of these two proteins to multi-functional Y-box DNA/RNA-binding factor, YB-1 was determined. The protein-protein interaction between CTCF/YB-1 and BORIS/YB-1 were discovered by Co-immuno-precipitation (CO-IP) technique through reciprocal experiment from RGBM total cell lysate. The results showed that both CTCF and BORIS were able to interact with YB-1 in Glioma RGBM cell line. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first findings demonstrating the ability of BORIS and YB-1 to form a complex in vivo.

Keywords: immunoprecipitation, CTCF/BORIS/YB-1, transcription factor, molecular medicine

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13 Cell Line Screens Identify Biomarkers of Drug Sensitivity in GLIOMA Cancer

Authors: Noora Al Muftah, Reda Rawi, Richard Thompson, Halima Bensmail

Abstract:

Clinical responses to anticancer therapies are often restricted to a subset of patients. In some cases, mutated cancer genes are potent biomarkers of response to targeted agents. There is an urgent need to identify biomarkers that predict which patients with are most likely to respond to treatment. Systematic efforts to correlate tumor mutational data with biologic dependencies may facilitate the translation of somatic mutation catalogs into meaningful biomarkers for patient stratification. To identify genomic features associated with drug sensitivity and uncover new biomarkers of sensitivity and resistance to cancer therapeutics, we have screened and integrated a panel of several hundred cancer cell lines from different databases, mutation, DNA copy number, and gene expression data for hundreds of cell lines with their responses to targeted and cytotoxic therapies with drugs under clinical and preclinical investigation. We found mutated cancer genes were associated with cellular response to most currently available Glioma cancer drugs and some frequently mutated genes were associated with sensitivity to a broad range of therapeutic agents. By linking drug activity to the functional complexity of cancer genomes, systematic pharmacogenomic profiling in cancer cell lines provides a powerful biomarker discovery platform to guide rational cancer therapeutic strategies.

Keywords: cancer, gene network, Lasso, penalized regression, P-values, unbiased estimator

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12 Characterization of WNK2 Role on Glioma Cells Vesicular Traffic

Authors: Viviane A. O. Silva, Angela M. Costa, Glaucia N. M. Hajj, Ana Preto, Aline Tansini, Martin Roffé, Peter Jordan, Rui M. Reis

Abstract:

Autophagy is a recycling and degradative system suggested to be a major cell death pathway in cancer cells. Autophagy pathway is interconnected with the endocytosis pathways sharing the same ultimate lysosomal destination. Lysosomes are crucial regulators of cell homeostasis, responsible to downregulate receptor signalling and turnover. It seems highly likely that derailed endocytosis can make major contributions to several hallmarks of cancer. WNK2, a member of the WNK (with-no-lysine [K]) subfamily of protein kinases, had been found downregulated by its promoter hypermethylation, and has been proposed to act as a specific tumour-suppressor gene in brain tumors. Although some contradictory studies indicated WNK2 as an autophagy modulator, its role in cancer cell death is largely unknown. There is also growing evidence for additional roles of WNK kinases in vesicular traffic. Aim: To evaluate the role of WNK2 in autophagy and endocytosis on glioma context. Methods: Wild-type (wt) A172 cells (WNK2 promoter-methylated), and A172 transfected either with an empty vector (Ev) or with a WNK2 expression vector, were used to assess the cellular basal capacities to promote autophagy, through western blot and flow-cytometry analysis. Additionally, we evaluated the effect of WNK2 on general endocytosis trafficking routes by immunofluorescence. Results: The re-expression of ectopic WNK2 did not interfere with autophagy-related protein light chain 3 (LC3-II) expression levels as well as did not promote mTOR signaling pathway alteration when compared with Ev or wt A172 cells. However, the restoration of WNK2 resulted in a marked increase (8 to 92,4%) of Acidic Vesicular Organelles formation (AVOs). Moreover, our results also suggest that WNK2 cells promotes delay in uptake and internalization rate of cholera toxin B and transferrin ligands. Conclusions: The restoration of WNK2 interferes in vesicular traffic during endocytosis pathway and increase AVOs formation. This results also suggest the role of WNK2 in growth factor receptor turnover related to cell growth and homeostasis and associates one more time, WNK2 silencing contribution in genesis of gliomas.

Keywords: autophagy, endocytosis, glioma, WNK2

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11 Dexamethasone Treatment Deregulates Proteoglycans Expression in Normal Brain Tissue

Authors: A. Y. Tsidulko, T. M. Pankova, E. V. Grigorieva

Abstract:

High-grade gliomas are the most frequent and most aggressive brain tumors which are characterized by active invasion of tumor cells into the surrounding brain tissue, where the extracellular matrix (ECM) plays a crucial role. Disruption of ECM can be involved in anticancer drugs effectiveness, side-effects and also in tumor relapses. The anti-inflammatory agent dexamethasone is a common drug used during high-grade glioma treatment for alleviating cerebral edema. Although dexamethasone is widely used in the clinic, its effects on normal brain tissue ECM remain poorly investigated. It is known that proteoglycans (PGs) are a major component of the extracellular matrix in the central nervous system. In our work, we studied the effects of dexamethasone on the ECM proteoglycans (syndecan-1, glypican-1, perlecan, versican, brevican, NG2, decorin, biglican, lumican) using RT-PCR in the experimental animal model. It was shown that proteoglycans in rat brain have age-specific expression patterns. In early post-natal rat brain (8 days old rat pups) overall PGs expression was quite high and mainly expressed PGs were biglycan, decorin, and syndecan-1. The overall transcriptional activity of PGs in adult rat brain is 1.5-fold decreased compared to post-natal brain. The expression pattern was changed as well with biglycan, decorin, syndecan-1, glypican-1 and brevican becoming almost equally expressed. PGs expression patterns create a specific tissue microenvironment that differs in developing and adult brain. Dexamethasone regimen close to the one used in the clinic during high-grade glioma treatment significantly affects proteoglycans expression. It was shown that overall PGs transcription activity is 1.5-2-folds increased after dexamethasone treatment. The most up-regulated PGs were biglycan, decorin, and lumican. The PGs expression pattern in adult brain changed after treatment becoming quite close to the expression pattern in developing brain. It is known that microenvironment in developing tissues promotes cells proliferation while in adult tissues proliferation is usually suppressed. The changes occurring in the adult brain after dexamethasone treatment may lead to re-activation of cell proliferation due to signals from changed microenvironment. Taken together obtained data show that dexamethasone treatment significantly affects the normal brain ECM, creating the appropriate microenvironment for tumor cells proliferation and thus can reduce the effectiveness of anticancer treatment and promote tumor relapses. This work has been supported by a Russian Science Foundation (RSF Grant 16-15-10243)

Keywords: dexamthasone, extracellular matrix, glioma, proteoglycan

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10 Evaluation of Mito-Uncoupler Induced Hyper Metabolic and Aggressive Phenotype in Glioma Cells

Authors: Yogesh Rai, Saurabh Singh, Sanjay Pandey, Dhananjay K. Sah, B. G. Roy, B. S. Dwarakanath, Anant N. Bhatt

Abstract:

One of the most common signatures of highly malignant gliomas is their capacity to metabolize more glucose to lactic acid than normal brain tissues, even under normoxic conditions (Warburg effect), indicating that aerobic glycolysis is constitutively upregulated through stable genetic or epigenetic changes. However, oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos) is also required to maintain the mitochondrial membrane potential for tumor cell survival. In the process of tumorigenesis, tumor cells during fastest growth rate exhibit both high glycolytic and high OxPhos. Therefore, metabolically reprogrammed cancer cells with combination of both aerobic glycolysis and altered OxPhos develop a robust metabolic phenotype, which confers a selective growth advantage. In our study, we grew the high glycolytic BMG-1 (glioma) cells with continuous exposure of mitochondrial uncoupler 2, 4, dinitro phenol (DNP) for 10 passages to obtain a phenotype of high glycolysis with enhanced altered OxPhos. We found that OxPhos modified BMG (OPMBMG) cells has similar growth rate and cell cycle distribution but high mitochondrial mass and functional enzymatic activity than parental cells. In in-vitro studies, OPMBMG cells showed enhanced invasion, proliferation and migration properties. Moreover, it also showed enhanced angiogenesis in matrigel plug assay. Xenografted tumors from OPMBMG cells showed reduced latent period, faster growth rate and nearly five folds reduction in the tumor take in nude mice compared to BMG-1 cells, suggesting that robust metabolic phenotype facilitates tumor formation and growth. OPMBMG cells which were found radio-resistant, showed enhanced radio-sensitization by 2-DG as compared to the parental BMG-1 cells. This study suggests that metabolic reprogramming in cancer cells enhances the potential of migration, invasion and proliferation. It also strengthens the cancer cells to escape the death processes, conferring resistance to therapeutic modalities. Our data also suggest that combining metabolic inhibitors like 2-DG with conventional therapeutic modalities can sensitize such metabolically aggressive cancer cells more than the therapies alone.

Keywords: 2-DG, BMG, DNP, OPM-BMG

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9 Connecting MRI Physics to Glioma Microenvironment: Comparing Simulated T2-Weighted MRI Models of Fixed and Expanding Extracellular Space

Authors: Pamela R. Jackson, Andrea Hawkins-Daarud, Cassandra R. Rickertsen, Kamala Clark-Swanson, Scott A. Whitmire, Kristin R. Swanson

Abstract:

Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM), the most common primary brain tumor, often presents with hyperintensity on T2-weighted or T2-weighted fluid attenuated inversion recovery (T2/FLAIR) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This hyperintensity corresponds with vasogenic edema, however there are likely many infiltrating tumor cells within the hyperintensity as well. While MRIs do not directly indicate tumor cells, MRIs do reflect the microenvironmental water abnormalities caused by the presence of tumor cells and edema. The inherent heterogeneity and resulting MRI features of GBMs complicate assessing disease response. To understand how hyperintensity on T2/FLAIR MRI may correlate with edema in the extracellular space (ECS), a multi-compartmental MRI signal equation which takes into account tissue compartments and their associated volumes with input coming from a mathematical model of glioma growth that incorporates edema formation was explored. The reasonableness of two possible extracellular space schema was evaluated by varying the T2 of the edema compartment and calculating the possible resulting T2s in tumor and peripheral edema. In the mathematical model, gliomas were comprised of vasculature and three tumor cellular phenotypes: normoxic, hypoxic, and necrotic. Edema was characterized as fluid leaking from abnormal tumor vessels. Spatial maps of tumor cell density and edema for virtual tumors were simulated with different rates of proliferation and invasion and various ECS expansion schemes. These spatial maps were then passed into a multi-compartmental MRI signal model for generating simulated T2/FLAIR MR images. Individual compartments’ T2 values in the signal equation were either from literature or estimated and the T2 for edema specifically was varied over a wide range (200 ms – 9200 ms). T2 maps were calculated from simulated images. T2 values based on simulated images were evaluated for regions of interest (ROIs) in normal appearing white matter, tumor, and peripheral edema. The ROI T2 values were compared to T2 values reported in literature. The expanding scheme of extracellular space is had T2 values similar to the literature calculated values. The static scheme of extracellular space had a much lower T2 values and no matter what T2 was associated with edema, the intensities did not come close to literature values. Expanding the extracellular space is necessary to achieve simulated edema intensities commiserate with acquired MRIs.

Keywords: extracellular space, glioblastoma multiforme, magnetic resonance imaging, mathematical modeling

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8 Use of Machine Learning Algorithms to Pediatric MR Images for Tumor Classification

Authors: I. Stathopoulos, V. Syrgiamiotis, E. Karavasilis, A. Ploussi, I. Nikas, C. Hatzigiorgi, K. Platoni, E. P. Efstathopoulos

Abstract:

Introduction: Brain and central nervous system (CNS) tumors form the second most common group of cancer in children, accounting for 30% of all childhood cancers. MRI is the key imaging technique used for the visualization and management of pediatric brain tumors. Initial characterization of tumors from MRI scans is usually performed via a radiologist’s visual assessment. However, different brain tumor types do not always demonstrate clear differences in visual appearance. Using only conventional MRI to provide a definite diagnosis could potentially lead to inaccurate results, and so histopathological examination of biopsy samples is currently considered to be the gold standard for obtaining definite diagnoses. Machine learning is defined as the study of computational algorithms that can use, complex or not, mathematical relationships and patterns from empirical and scientific data to make reliable decisions. Concerning the above, machine learning techniques could provide effective and accurate ways to automate and speed up the analysis and diagnosis for medical images. Machine learning applications in radiology are or could potentially be useful in practice for medical image segmentation and registration, computer-aided detection and diagnosis systems for CT, MR or radiography images and functional MR (fMRI) images for brain activity analysis and neurological disease diagnosis. Purpose: The objective of this study is to provide an automated tool, which may assist in the imaging evaluation and classification of brain neoplasms in pediatric patients by determining the glioma type, grade and differentiating between different brain tissue types. Moreover, a future purpose is to present an alternative way of quick and accurate diagnosis in order to save time and resources in the daily medical workflow. Materials and Methods: A cohort, of 80 pediatric patients with a diagnosis of posterior fossa tumor, was used: 20 ependymomas, 20 astrocytomas, 20 medulloblastomas and 20 healthy children. The MR sequences used, for every single patient, were the following: axial T1-weighted (T1), axial T2-weighted (T2), FluidAttenuated Inversion Recovery (FLAIR), axial diffusion weighted images (DWI), axial contrast-enhanced T1-weighted (T1ce). From every sequence only a principal slice was used that manually traced by two expert radiologists. Image acquisition was carried out on a GE HDxt 1.5-T scanner. The images were preprocessed following a number of steps including noise reduction, bias-field correction, thresholding, coregistration of all sequences (T1, T2, T1ce, FLAIR, DWI), skull stripping, and histogram matching. A large number of features for investigation were chosen, which included age, tumor shape characteristics, image intensity characteristics and texture features. After selecting the features for achieving the highest accuracy using the least number of variables, four machine learning classification algorithms were used: k-Nearest Neighbour, Support-Vector Machines, C4.5 Decision Tree and Convolutional Neural Network. The machine learning schemes and the image analysis are implemented in the WEKA platform and MatLab platform respectively. Results-Conclusions: The results and the accuracy of images classification for each type of glioma by the four different algorithms are still on process.

Keywords: image classification, machine learning algorithms, pediatric MRI, pediatric oncology

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7 An Accurate Brain Tumor Segmentation for High Graded Glioma Using Deep Learning

Authors: Sajeeha Ansar, Asad Ali Safi, Sheikh Ziauddin, Ahmad R. Shahid, Faraz Ahsan

Abstract:

Gliomas are most challenging and aggressive type of tumors which appear in different sizes, locations, and scattered boundaries. CNN is most efficient deep learning approach with outstanding capability of solving image analysis problems. A fully automatic deep learning based 2D-CNN model for brain tumor segmentation is presented in this paper. We used small convolution filters (3 x 3) to make architecture deeper. We increased convolutional layers for efficient learning of complex features from large dataset. We achieved better results by pushing convolutional layers up to 16 layers for HGG model. We achieved reliable and accurate results through fine-tuning among dataset and hyper-parameters. Pre-processing of this model includes generation of brain pipeline, intensity normalization, bias correction and data augmentation. We used the BRATS-2015, and Dice Similarity Coefficient (DSC) is used as performance measure for the evaluation of the proposed method. Our method achieved DSC score of 0.81 for complete, 0.79 for core, 0.80 for enhanced tumor regions. However, these results are comparable with methods already implemented 2D CNN architecture.

Keywords: brain tumor segmentation, convolutional neural networks, deep learning, HGG

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6 18F-Fluoro-Ethyl-Tyrosine-Positron Emission Tomography in Gliomas: Comparison with Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Computed Tomography

Authors: Habib Alah Dadgar, Nasim Norouzbeigi

Abstract:

The precise definition margin of high and low-grade gliomas is crucial for treatment. We aimed to assess the feasibility of assessment of the resection legions with post-operative positron emission tomography (PET) using [18F]O-(2-[18F]-fluoroethyl)-L-tyrosine ([18F]FET). Four patients with the suspicion of high and low-grade were enrolled. Patients underwent post-operative [18F]FET-PET, pre-operative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and CT for clinical evaluations. In our study, three patients had negative response to recurrence and progression and one patient indicated positive response after surgery. [18F]FET-PET revealed a legion of increased radiotracer uptake in the dura in the craniotomy site for patient 1. Corresponding to the patient history, the study was negative for recurrence of brain tumor. For patient 2, there was a lesion in the right parieto-temporal with slightly increased uptake in its posterior part with SUVmax = 3.79, so the study was negative for recurrence evaluation. In patient 3 there was no abnormal uptake with negative result for recurrence of brain tumor. Intense radiotracer uptake in the left parietal lobe where in the MRI there was a lesion with no change in enhancement in the post-contrast image is indicated in patient 4. Assessment of the resection legions in high and low-grade gliomas with [18F]FET-PET seems to be useful.

Keywords: FET-PET, CT, glioma, MRI

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5 Anticancer Activity of Edible Coprinus Mushroom (Coprinus comatus) on Human Glioblastoma Cell Lines and Interaction with Temozolomide

Authors: Maria Borawska, Patryk Nowakowski, Sylwia K. Naliwajko, Renata Markiewicz-Zukowska, Anna Puscion-Jakubik, Krystyna Gromkowska-Kepka, Justyna Moskwa

Abstract:

Coprinus comatus (O. F. Müll.) Pers.) should not be confused with the common Ink Cap, which contains coprine and can induce coprine poisoning. We study the possibility of applying coprinus mushroom (Coprinus comatus), available in Poland, as food product supporting the treatment of human glioblastoma cells. The U87MG and T98 glioblastoma cell lines were exposed to water (CW) or ethanol 95° (CE) Cantharellus extracts (50-500 μg/ml), with or without temozolomide (TMZ) during 24, 48 or 72 hours. The cell division was examined by the H³-thymidine incorporation. The statistical analysis was performed using Statistica v. 13.0 software. Significant differences were assumed for p < 0.05. We found that both, CW and CE, administrated alone, had inhibitory effect on cell lines growth, but the CE extract had a higher degree of growth inhibition. The anti-tumor effect of TMZ (50 μM) on U87MG was enhanced by mushroom extracts, and the effect was lower to the effect after using Coprinus comatus extracts (CW and CE) alone. A significant decrease (p < 0.05) in pro-MMP2 (82.61 ± 6.3% of control) secretion in U87MG cells was observed after treated with CE (250 μg/ml). We conclude that extracts of Coprinus comatus, edible mushroom, present cytotoxic properties on U87MG and T98 cell lines and may cooperate with TMZ synergistically enhancing its growth inhibiting activity against glioblastoma U87MG cell line.

Keywords: anticancer, glioma, mushroom, temozolomide

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4 The Activity of Polish Propolis and Cannabidiol Oil Extracts on Glioblastoma Cell Lines

Authors: Sylwia K. Naliwajko, Renata Markiewicz-Zukowska, Justyna Moskwa, Krystyna Gromkowska-Kepka, Konrad Mielcarek, Patryk Nowakowski, Katarzyna Socha, Anna Puscion-Jakubik, Maria H. Borawska

Abstract:

Glioblastoma (grade IV WHO) is a rapidly progressive brain tumor with very high morbidity and mortality. The vast malignant gliomas are not curable despite the therapy (surgical, radiotherapy, chemotherapy) and patients seek alternative or complementary treatments. Patients often use cannabidiol (CBD) oil as an alternative therapy of glioblastoma. CBD is one of the cannabinoids, an active component of Cannabis sativa. THC (Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol) can be addictive, and in many countries CBD oil without THC ( < 0,2%) is available. Propolis produced by bees from the resin collected from trees has antiglioma properties in vitro and can be used as a supplement in complementary therapy of gliomas. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of extract from CBD oil in combination with propolis extract on two glioblastoma cell lines. The MTT (Thiazolyl Blue Tetrazolium Bromide) test was used to determine the influence of CBD oil extract and polish propolis extract (PPE) on the viability of glioblastoma cell lines – U87MG and LN18. The cells were incubated (24, 48 and 72 h) with CBD oil extract and PPE. CBD extract was used in concentration 1, 1.5 and 3 µM and PPE in 30 µg/mL. The data were presented compared to the control. The statistical analysis was performed using Statistica v. 13.0 software. CBD oil extract in concentrations 1, 1.5 and 3 µM did not inhibit the viability of U87MG and LN18 cells (viability more than 90% cells compared to the control). There was no dose-response viability, and IC50 value was not recognized. PPE in the concentration of 30 µg/mL time-dependently inhibited the viability of U87MG and LN18 cell line (after 48 h the viability as a percent of the control was 59,7±6% and 57,8±7%, respectively). In a combination of CBD with PPE, the viability of the treated cells was similar to PPE used alone (58,2±7% and 56,5±9%, respectively). CBD oil extract did not show anti-glioma activity and in combination with PPE did not change the activity of PPE.

Keywords: anticancer, cannabidiol, cell line, glioblastoma

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3 Bionaut™: A Microrobotic Drug-Device Platform for the Local Treatment of Brainstem Gliomas

Authors: Alex Kiselyov, Suehyun Cho, Darrell Harrington; Florent Cros, Olin Palmer, John Caputo, Michael Kardosh, Eran Oren, William Loudon, Michael Shpigelmacher

Abstract:

Despite the most aggressive surgical and adjuvant therapeutic strategies, treatment of both pediatric and adult brainstem tumors remains problematic. Novel strategies, including targeted biologics, immunotherapy, and specialized delivery systems such as convection-enhanced delivery (CED), have been proposed. While some of these novel treatments are entering phase I trials, the field is still in need of treatment(s) that exhibits dramatically enhanced potency with optimal therapeutic ratio. Bionaut Labs has developed a modular microrobotic platform for performing localized delivery of diverse therapeutics in vivo. Our biocompatible particles (Bionauts™) are externally propelled and visualized in real-time. Bionauts™ are specifically designed to enhance the effect of radiation therapy via anatomically precise delivery of a radiosensitizing agent, as exemplified by temozolomide (TMZ) and Avastin™ to the brainstem gliomas of diverse origin. The treatment protocol is designed to furnish a better therapeutic outcome due to the localized (vs systemic) delivery of the drug to the neoplastic lesion(s) for use as a synergistic combination of radiation and radiosensitizing agent. In addition, the procedure is minimally invasive and is expected to be appropriate for both adult and pediatric patients. Current progress, including platform optimization, selection of the lead radiosensitizer as well as in vivo safety studies of the Bionauts™ in large animals, specifically the spine and the brain of porcine and ovine models, will be discussed.

Keywords: Bionaut, brainstem, glioma, local delivery, micro-robot, radiosensitizer

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2 Nanoscale Mapping of the Mechanical Modifications Occurring in the Brain Tumour Microenvironment by Atomic Force Microscopy: The Case of the Highly Aggressive Glioblastoma and the Slowly Growing Meningioma

Authors: Gabriele Ciasca, Tanya E. Sassun, Eleonora Minelli, Manila Antonelli, Massimiliano Papi, Antonio Santoro, Felice Giangaspero, Roberto Delfini, Marco De Spirito

Abstract:

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is an extremely aggressive brain tumor, characterized by a diffuse infiltration of neoplastic cells into the brain parenchyma. Although rarely considered, mechanical cues play a key role in the infiltration process that is extensively mediated by the tumor microenvironment stiffness and, more in general, by the occurrence of aberrant interactions between neoplastic cells and the extracellular matrix (ECM). Here we provide a nano-mechanical characterization of the viscoelastic response of human GBM tissues by indentation-type atomic force microscopy. High-resolution elasticity maps show a large difference between the biomechanics of GBM tissues and the healthy peritumoral regions, opening possibilities to optimize the tumor resection area. Moreover, we unveil the nanomechanical signature of necrotic regions and anomalous vasculature, that are two major hallmarks useful for glioma staging. Actually, the morphological grading of GBM relies mainly on histopathological findings that make extensive use of qualitative parameters. Our findings have the potential to positively impact on the development of novel quantitative methods to assess the tumor grade, which can be used in combination with conventional histopathological examinations. In order to provide a more in-depth description of the role of mechanical cues in tumor progression, we compared the nano-mechanical fingerprint of GBM tissues with that of grade-I (WHO) meningioma, a benign lesion characterized by a completely different growth pathway with the respect to GBM, that, in turn hints at a completely different role of the biomechanical interactions.

Keywords: AFM, nano-mechanics, nanomedicine, brain tumors, glioblastoma

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1 Oncolytic H-1 Parvovirus Entry in Cancer Cells through Clathrin-Mediated Endocytosis

Authors: T. Ferreira, A. Kulkarni, C. Bretscher, K. Richter, M. Ehrlich, A. Marchini

Abstract:

H-1 protoparvovirus (H-1PV) is a virus with inherent oncolytic and oncosuppressive activities while remaining non-pathogenic in humans. H-1PV was the first oncolytic parvovirus to undergo clinical testing. Results from trials in patients with glioblastoma or pancreatic carcinoma showed an excellent safety profile and first signs of efficacy. H-1PV infection is vastly dependent on cellular factors, from cell attachment and entry to viral replication and egress. Hence, we believe that the characterisation of the parvovirus life cycle would ultimately help further improve H-1PV clinical outcome. In the present study, we explored the entry pathway of H-1PV in cervical HeLa and glioma NCH125 cancer cell lines. Electron and confocal microscopy showed viral particles associated with clathrin-coated pits and vesicles, providing the first evidence that H-1PV cell entry occurs through clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Accordingly, we observed that by blocking clathrin-mediated endocytosis with hypertonic sucrose, chlorpromazine, or pitstop 2, H-1PV transduction was markedly decreased. Accordingly, siRNA-mediated knockdown of AP2M1, which retains a crucial role in clathrin-mediated endocytosis, verified the reliance of H-1PV on this route to enter HeLa and NCH125 cancer cells. By contrast, we found no evidence of viral entry through caveolae-mediated endocytosis. Indeed, pre-treatment of cells with nystatin or methyl-β-cyclodextrin, both inhibitors of caveolae-mediated endocytosis, did not affect viral transduction levels. Unexpectedly, siRNA-mediated knockdown of caveolin-1, the main driver of caveolae-mediated endocytosis, increased H-1PV transduction, suggesting caveolin-1 is a negative modulator of H-1PV infection. We also show that H-1PV entry is dependent on dynamin, a protein responsible for mediating the scission of vesicle neck and promoting further internalisation. Furthermore, since dynamin inhibition almost completely abolished H-1PV infection, makes it unlikely that H-1PV uses macropinocytosis as an alternative pathway to enter cells. After viral internalisation, H-1PV passes through early to late endosomes as observed by confocal microscopy. Inside these endocytic compartments, the acidic environment proved to be crucial for a productive infection. Inhibition of acidification of pH dramatically reduced H-1PV transduction. Besides, a fraction of H-1PV particles was observed inside LAMP1-positive lysosomes, most likely following a non-infectious route. To the author's best knowledge, this is the first study to characterise the cell entry pathways of H-1PV. Along these lines, this work will further contribute to understand H-1PV oncolytic properties as well as to improve its clinical potential in cancer virotherapy.

Keywords: clathrin-mediated endocytosis, H-1 parvovirus, oncolytic virus, virus entry

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