Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1269

Search results for: urinary tract infection

1269 Effectiveness of Cranberry Ingesting for Prevention of Urinary Tract Infection: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

Authors: Yu-Chieh Huang, Pei-Shih Chen, Tao-Hsin Tung

Abstract:

Background: Urinary tract infection is the most common bacterial infection to our best knowledge. Objective: This study is to investigate whether cranberry ingesting could improve the urinary tract infection. Methods: We searched the PubMed and Cochrane Library for relevant randomized controlled trials without language limitations between 9 March 1994 and June 30, 2017, with a priori defined inclusion and exclusion criteria. The search terms included (cranberry OR Vaccinium macrocarpon OR Vaccinium oxy-coccus OR Vaccinium microcarpum OR Vaccinium erythrocarpum OR Vaccinium) AND (urinary tract infection OR bacteriuria OR pyuria) AND (effect OR effective-ness OR efficacy) AND (random OR randomized). Results: There were 26 studies met the selection criteria included among 4709 eligible participants. We analyzed all trials in meta-analysis. The random-effects pooled risk ratio (RR) for the group using cranberry versus using placebo was 0.75; 95%CI[0.63, 0.880]; p-value=0.0002) and heterogeneity was 56%. Furthermore, we divided the subjects into different subgroup to analysis. Ingesting cranberry seemed to be more effective in some subgroups, including the patients with recurrent UTI (RR, 0.71; 95%CI[0.54,0.93]; p-value=0.002) (I²= 65%) and female population (RR, 0.73, 95%CI[0.58,0.92]; p-value=0.002) (I²= 59%). The prevention effect was not different between cranberry and trimethoprim (RR, 1.25, 95%CI[0.67, 2.33]; p-value=0.49) (I²= 68%). No matter the forms of cranberry were capsules or juice, the efficacy was useful. Conclusions: It is showed that cranberry ingesting is usefully associated with prevention UTI. There are more effective in prevention of UTI in some groups.

Keywords: cranberry, effectiveness, prevention, urinary tract infect

Procedia PDF Downloads 294
1268 Prevalence of Uropathogens in Diabetic Patients with Urinary Tract Infection and Antimicrobial Sensitivity Pattern at Bangladesh

Authors: Mohammad Saifuddin, Shahjada Selim

Abstract:

Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) are prone to develop infection, especially urinary tract infection (UTI) in comparison with non-diabetics. Due to the emergence of multidrug resistant (MDR) uropathogenic strains, the choice of antimicrobial agent is sometimes difficult. This study is designed to reveal the distribution of uropathogens in Diabetic patients and corresponding sensitivity patterns and to correlate the microbiological results with various clinical parameters. A nine-month retrospective review of 100 urine culture reports of Diabetic patients from January 2015 to September 2015 from semiurbanmultispeciality hospital of Feni, Bangladesh were analyzed. Only Diabetic patients were included in this study who were clinically diagnosed as UTI patients with a corresponding urine culture showing a bacterial count of ˃105cfu/ml.Out of 100 patients with UTI, 39 (39%) were male, and 61 (61%) were female. Organisms grown in urine culture were Escherichia coli (64) followed by Klebsiella (11), Proteus (7), Staph Aureus (4), Pseudomonas (4), Acinetobacter (3), Sreptococcus(3), Enterococcus (2 ) and one each of Enterobacter and Fungi. Overall sensitivity pattern in decreasing order of various commonly used antibiotics was Meropenem (89%), Nitrofurantoin (86%), Amikacin (81%), Ceftriaxone (68%), Cefuroxime (61%), Cefixime (39%), Quinolones (28%), Amoxicillin (16%). The significance of the study lies in the determination of common pathogens in diabetic patients with UTI and the resistance pattern of antibiotics so that physicians and pharmacists get the proper information rationalizing the rational use of antibiotics.

Keywords: Bangladesh, Diabetes Mellitus, E. coli, urinary tract infection

Procedia PDF Downloads 202
1267 Acute Phase Proteins as Biomarkers of Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) in Dairy Cattle

Authors: Wael El-Deeb

Abstract:

The present study aimed to investigate the diagnostic importance of acute phase proteins in urinary tract infection (UTI) in cattle. We describe the clinical, bacteriological and biochemical findings in 99 lactating cows. Blood and urine samples from diseased (n=84) and control healthy cows (n=15) were submitted to laboratory investigations. The urine analysis revealed hematuria and pyuria in UTI group. The isolated bacteria were E.coli (43/84) Corynebacterium spp, (31/84), Proteus spp. (6/84) and Streptococcus spp (4/84). The concentrations of Haptoglobin (Hp), serum amyloid A (SAA), α1-Acid glycoprotein (AGP), fibrinogen (Fb), total protein, albumen, and globulin were higher in cows with UTI when compared to healthy ones. Fifty-one of 84 cows with UTI were successfully treated. The levels of Hp, SAA, AGP, total protein, and globulin were associated with the odds of treatment failure. Conclusively, acute phase proteins could be used as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers in cows with UTI.

Keywords: cows, urinary, infections, haptoglobin, serum Amyloid A

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1266 Risk Factors for High Resistance of Ciprofloxacin Against Escherichia coli in Complicated Urinary Tract Infection

Authors: Liaqat Ali, Khalid Farooq, Shafieullah Khan, Nasir Orakzai, Qudratullah

Abstract:

Objectives: To determine the risk factors for high resistance of ciprofloxacin in complicated urinary tract infections. Materials and Methods: It is an analytical study that was conducted in the department of Urology (Team ‘C’) at Institute of Kidney Diseases Hayatabad Peshawar from 1st June 2012 till 31st December 2012. Total numbers of 100 patients with complicated UTI was selected in the study. Multivariate analysis and linear regression were performed for the detection of risk factors. All the data was recorded on structured Proforma and was analyzed on SPSS version 17. Results: The mean age of the patient was 55.6 years (Range 3-82 years). 62 patients were male while 38 patients were female. 66 isolates of E-Coli were found sensitive to ciprofloxacin while 34 isolates were found Resistant for ciprofloxacin. Using multivariate analysis and linear regression, an increasing age above 50 (p=0.002) History of urinary catheterization especially for bladder outflow obstruction (p=0.001) and previous multiple use of ciprofloxacin (p=0.001) and poor brand of ciprofloxacin were found to be independent risk factors for high resistance of ciprofloxacin. Conclusion: UTI is common illness across the globe with increasing trend of antimicrobial resistance for ciprofloxacin against E Coli in complicated UTI. The risk factors for emerging resistance are increasing age, urinary catheterization and multiple use and poor brand of ciprofloxacin.

Keywords: urinary tract infection, ciprofloxacin, urethral catheterization, antimicrobial resistance

Procedia PDF Downloads 233
1265 Study on the Relative Factors of Introducing Table Vinegar in Reducing Urinary Tract Infection in Patients with Long-Term Indwelling Catheter

Authors: Yu-Ju Hsieh, Lin-Hung Lin, Wen-Hui Chang

Abstract:

This study was designed as an interventional research and intended to validate whether the introduction of drinking vinegar every day can reduce and even prevent urinary tract infection in Taiwan home stayed disabilities who using indwelling catheter. The data was collected from the subjects who have received home care case at northern Taiwan, according to the questionnaire and a medical records retroactive methodology, the subjects were informed and consent to drink 15ml of table vinegar in a daily diet, and through routine urine testing and culture study. Home care nurses would assist collecting urine at the point of before and after a meal from total 35 studied subjects per month, and total collected 4 times for testing. The results showed that when the average age of study subjects was 65.46 years and catheter indwelling time was 15 years, drinking table vinegar could inhibit the activity of E. coli O157: H7 and reduce its breeding. Before drinking table vinegar daily, the subjects’ urine pH value was 7.0-8.0, and the average was 7.5, and the urine PH value dropped to 6.5 after drinking table vinegar for a month. There were two purple urine cases whose urine were changed from purple to normal color after two weeks of drinking, and the protein and bacteria values of urine gradually improved. Urine smell unpleasant before attending to this study, and the symptom improved significantly only after 1 week, and the urine smell returned to normal ammonia and became clean after 1 month later. None of these subjects received treatment in a hospital due to urinary tract infection, and there were no signs of bleeding in all cases during this study. The subjects of this study are chronic patients with a long-term bedridden catheterization; drinking cranberry juice is an economic burden for them, and also highly prohibited for diabetes patients. By adapting to use cheaper table vinegar to acidified urine and improve its smell and ease Purple Urine Syndrome, to furthermore, proven urinary tract infection, it can also to reduce the financial burden on families, the cost of social resources and the rate of re-admission.

Keywords: table vinegar, urinary tract infection, disability patients, long-term indwelling catheter

Procedia PDF Downloads 162
1264 Effect of Oxidative Stress on Glutathione Reductase Activity of Escherichia coli Clinical Isolates from Patients with Urinary Tract Infection

Authors: Fariha Akhter Chowdhury, Sabrina Mahboob, Anamika Saha, Afrin Jahan, Mohammad Nurul Islam

Abstract:

Urinary tract infection (UTI) is frequently experienced by the female population where the prevalence increases with aging. Escherichia coli, one of the most common UTI causing organisms, retains glutathione defense mechanism that aids the organism to withstand the harsh physiological environment of urinary tract, host oxidative immune response and even to affect antibiotic-mediated cell death and the emergence of resistance. In this study, we aimed to investigate the glutathione reductase activity of uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) by observing the reduced glutathione (GSH) level alteration under stressful condition. Urine samples of 58 patients with UTI were collected. Upon isolation and identification, 88% of the samples presented E. coli as UTI causing organism among which randomly selected isolates (n=9), obtained from urine samples of female patients, were considered for this study. E. coli isolates were grown under normal and stressful conditions where H₂O₂ was used as the stress-inducing agent. GSH level estimation of the isolates in both conditions was carried out based on the colorimetric measurement of 5,5'-dithio-bis (2-nitrobenzoic acid) (DTNB) and GSH reaction product using microplate reader assay. The GSH level of isolated E. coli sampled from adult patients decreased under stress compared to normal condition (p = 0.011). On the other hand, GSH production increased markedly in samples that were collected from elderly subjects (p = 0.024). A significant partial correlation between age and change of GSH level was found as well (p = 0.007). This study may help to reveal ways for better understanding of E. coli pathogenesis of UTI prevalence in elderly patients.

Keywords: Escherichia coli, glutathione reductase activity, oxidative stress, reduced glutathione (GSH), urinary tract infection (UTI)

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1263 The Training Demands of Nursing Assistants on Urinary Incontinence in Nursing Homes: A Mixed Methods Study

Authors: Lulu Liao, Huijing Chen, Yinan Zhao, Hongting Ning, Hui Feng

Abstract:

Urinary tract infection rate is an important index of care quality in nursing homes. The aim of the study is to understand the nursing assistant's current knowledge and attitudes of urinary incontinence and to explore related stakeholders' viewpoint about urinary incontinence training. This explanatory sequential study used Knowledge, Practice, and Attitude Model (KAP) and Adult Learning Theories, as the conceptual framework. The researchers collected data from 509 nursing assistants in sixteen nursing homes in Hunan province in China. The questionnaire survey was to assess the knowledge and attitude of urinary incontinence of nursing assistants. On the basis of quantitative research and combined with focus group, training demands were identified, which nurse managers should adopt to improve nursing assistants’ professional practice ability in urinary incontinence. Most nursing assistants held the poor knowledge (14.0 ± 4.18) but had positive attitudes (35.5 ± 3.19) toward urinary incontinence. There was a significant positive correlation between urinary incontinence knowledge and nursing assistants' year of work and educational level, urinary incontinence attitude, and education level (p < 0.001). Despite a general awareness of the importance of prevention of urinary tract infections, not all nurse managers fully valued the training in urinary incontinence compared with daily care training. And the nursing assistants required simple education resources to equip them with skills to address problem about urinary incontinence. The variety of learning methods also highlighted the need for educational materials, and nursing assistants had shown a strong interest in online learning. Related education material should be developed to meet the learning need of nurse assistants and provide suitable training method for planned quality improvement in urinary incontinence.

Keywords: mixed methods, nursing assistants, nursing homes, urinary incontinence

Procedia PDF Downloads 41
1262 Evaluation of Antimicrobial Efficacy of Nanofluid Containing Carbon Nanotubes Functionalized with Antibiotic on Urinary Tract Infection

Authors: Erfan Rahimi, Hadi Bahari Far, Mojgan Shikhpour

Abstract:

Background: Urinary tract infection is one of the most common nosocomial infections, especially among women. E. coli is one of the main causes of urinary tract infections and one of the most common antibiotics to fight this bacterium is ampicillin. As conventional antibiotics led to bacterial antibiotic resistance, modification of the pure drugs can address this issue. The aim of this study was to prepare nanofluids containing carbon nanotubes conjugated with ampicillin to improve drug performance and reduce antibiotic resistance. Methods: Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were activated with thionyl chloride by reflux system and nanofluids containing antibiotics were prepared by ultrasonic method. The properties of the prepared nano-drug were investigated by general element analysis, infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. After the treatment of the desired strain with nanofluid, microbial studies were performed to evaluate the antibacterial effects and molecular studies were carried out to measure the expression of the resistance gene AcrAB. Result: We have shown that the antimicrobial effect of ampicillin-functionalized MWCNTs at low concentrations performed better than that of the conventional drug in both resistant and ATCC strains. Also, a decrease in antibiotic resistance of bacteria treated with ampicillin-functionalized MWCNTs compared to the pure drug was observed. Also, ampicillin-functionalized MWCNTs downregulated the expression of AcrAB in treated bacteria. Conclusion: Because carbon nanotubes are capable of destroying the bacterial wall, which provides antibiotic resistance features in bacteria, their usage in the form of nanofluids can make lower dosages (about three times less) than that of the pure drug more effective. Additionally, the expression of the bacterial resistance gene AcrAB decreased, thereby reducing antibiotic resistance and improving drug performance against bacteria.

Keywords: urinary tract infection, antibiotic resistance, carbon nanotube, nanofluid

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1261 A Retrospective Study on the Spectrum of Infection and Emerging Antimicrobial Resistance in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Authors: Pampita Chakraborty, Sukumar Mukherjee

Abstract:

People with diabetes mellitus are more susceptible to developing infections, as high blood sugar levels can weaken the patient's immune system defences. People with diabetes are more adversely affected when they get an infection than someone without the disease, because you have weakened immune defences in diabetes. People who have minimally elevated blood sugar levels experience worse outcomes with infections. Diabetic patients in hospitals do not necessarily have a higher mortality rate due to infections, but they do face longer hospitalisation and recovery times. A study was done in a tertiary care unit in eastern India. Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus infection were recruited in the study. A total of 520 cases of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus were recorded out of which 200 infectious cases was included in the study. All subjects underwent detailed history & clinical examination. Microbiological samples were collected from respective site of the infection for microbial culture and antibiotic sensitivity test. Out of the 200 infectious cases urinary tract infection(UTI) was found in majority of the cases followed by diabetic foot ulcer (DFU), respiratory tract infection(RTI) and sepsis. It was observed that Escherichia coli was the most commonest pathogen isolated from UTI cases and Staphylococcus aureus was predominant in foot ulcers followed by other organisms. Klebsiella pneumonia was the major organism isolated from RTI and Enterobacter aerogenes was commonly observed in patients with sepsis. Isolated bacteria showed differential sensitivity pattern against commonly used antibiotics. The majority of the isolates were resistant to several antibiotics that are usually prescribed on an empirical basis. These observations are important, especially for patient management and the development of antibiotic treatment guidelines. It is recommended that diabetic patients receive pneumococcal and influenza vaccine annually to reduce morbidity and mortality. Appropriate usage of antibiotics based on local antibiogram pattern can certainly help the clinician in reducing the burden of infections.

Keywords: antimicrobial resistance, diabetic foot ulcer, respiratory tract infection, urinary tract infection

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1260 PhenoScreen: Development of a Systems Biology Tool for Decision Making in Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections

Authors: Jonathan Josephs-Spaulding, Hannah Rettig, Simon Graspeunter, Jan Rupp, Christoph Kaleta

Abstract:

Background: Recurrent urinary tract infections (rUTIs) are a global cause of emergency room visits and represent a significant burden for public health systems. Therefore, metatranscriptomic approaches to investigate metabolic exchange and crosstalk between uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC), which is responsible for 90% of UTIs, and collaborating pathogens of the urogenital microbiome is necessary to better understand the pathogenetic processes underlying rUTIs. Objectives: This study aims to determine the level in which uropathogens optimize the host urinary metabolic environment to succeed during invasion. By developing patient-specific metabolic models of infection, these observations can be taken advantage of for the precision treatment of human disease. Methods: To date, we have set up an rUTI patient cohort and observed various urine-associated pathogens. From this cohort, we developed patient-specific metabolic models to predict bladder microbiome metabolism during rUTIs. This was done by creating an in silico metabolomic urine environment, which is representative of human urine. Metabolic models of uptake and cross-feeding of rUTI pathogens were created from genomes in relation to the artificial urine environment. Finally, microbial interactions were constrained by metatranscriptomics to indicate patient-specific metabolic requirements of pathogenic communities. Results: Metabolite uptake and cross-feeding are essential for strain growth; therefore, we plan to design patient-specific treatments by adjusting urinary metabolites through nutritional regimens to counteract uropathogens by depleting essential growth metabolites. These methods will provide mechanistic insights into the metabolic components of rUTI pathogenesis to provide an evidence-based tool for infection treatment.

Keywords: recurrent urinary tract infections, human microbiome, uropathogenic Escherichia coli, UPEC, microbial ecology

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1259 Role of Interleukin-36 in Response to Pseudomonas aeruginosa Infection

Authors: Muslim Idan Mohsin, Mohammed Jasim Al-Shamarti, Rusul Idan Mohsin, Ali A. Majeed

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One of the causative agents of the lower respiratory tract (LRT) is Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which can lead to severe infection associated with a lung infection. There are many cytokines that are secreted in response to bacterial infection, in particular interleukin IL-36 cytokine in response to P. aeruginosa infection. The involvement of IL-36 in the P. aeruginosa infection could be a clue to find a specific way for treatments of different inflammatory and degenerative lung diseases. IL36 promotes primary immune response via binding to the IL-36 receptor (IL-36R). Indeed, an overactivity of IL-36 might be an initiating factor for many immunopathologic sceneries in pneumonia. Here we demonstrate if the IL-36 cytokine increases in response P. aeruginosa infection that is isolated from lower respiratory tract infection (LRT). We demonstrated that IL-36 expression significantly unregulated in human lung epithelial (A549) cells after infected by P. aeruginosa at mRNA level.

Keywords: IL36, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, LRT infection, A549 cells

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1258 Prevalence of Urinary Tract Infections and Risk Factors among Pregnant Women Attending Ante Natal Clinics in Government Primary Health Care Centres in Akure

Authors: Adepeju Simon-Oke, Olatunji Odeyemi, Mobolanle Oniya

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Urinary tract infection has become the most common bacterial infections in humans, both at the community and hospital settings; it has been reported in all age groups and in both sexes. This study was carried out in order to determine and evaluate the prevalence, current drug susceptibility pattern of the isolated organisms and identify the associated risk factors of UTIs among the pregnant women in Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria. A cross-sectional study was conducted on the urine of pregnant women, and socio-demographic information of the women was collected. A total of 300 clean midstream urine samples were collected, and a general urine microscopic examination and culture were carried out, the Microbact identification system was used to identify gram-negative bacteria. Out of the 300 urine samples cultured, 183(61.0%) yielded significant growth of urinary pathogens while 117(39.0%) yielded either insignificant growth or no growth of any urinary pathogen. Prevalence of UTI was significantly associated with the type of toilet used, symptoms of UTI, and previous history of urinary tract infection (p<0.05). Escherichia coli 58(31.7%) was the dominant pathogen isolated, and the least isolated uropathogens were Citrobacter freudii and Providencia retgerri 2(1.1%) respectively. Gram-negative bacteria showed 77.6%, 67.9%, and 61.2% susceptibility to ciprofloxacin, augmentin, and chloramphenicol, respectively. Resistance against septrin, chloramphenicol, sparfloxacin, amoxicillin, augmentin, gentamycin, pefloxacin, trivid, and streptomycin was observed in the range of 23.1 to 70.1%. Gram-positive uropathogens isolated showed high resistance to amoxicillin (68.4%) and high susceptibility to the remaining nine antibiotics in the range 65.8% to 89.5%. This study justifies that pregnant women are at high risk of UTI. Therefore screening of pregnant women during antenatal clinics should be considered very important to avoid complications. Health education with regular antenatal and personal hygiene is recommended as precautionary measures to UTI.

Keywords: pregnant women, prevalence, risk factor, UTIs

Procedia PDF Downloads 37
1257 A Study on the Microbilogical Profile and Antibiotic Sensitivity Pattern of Bacterial Isolates Causing Urinary Tract Infection in Intensive Care Unit Patients in a Tertiary Care Hospital in Eastern India

Authors: Pampita Chakraborty, Sukumar Mukherjee

Abstract:

The study was done to determine the microbiological profile and changing pattern of the pathogens causing UTI in the ICU patients. All the patients admitted to the ICU with urinary catheter insertion for more than 48hours were included in the study. Urine samples were collected in a sterile container with aseptic precaution using disposable syringe and was processed as per standards. Antimicrobial susceptibility test was done by Disc Diffusion method as per CLSI guidelines. A total of 100 urine samples were collected from ICU patients, out of which 30% showed significant bacterial growth and 7% showed growth of candida spp. Prevalence of UTI was more in female (73%) than male (27.%). Gram-negative bacilli 26(86.67%) were more common in our study followed by gram-positive cocci 4(13.33%). The most common uropathogens isolated were Escherichia coli 14 (46.67%), followed by Klebsiella spp 7(23.33%), Staphylococcus aureus 4(13.33%), Acinetobacter spp 3(10%), Enterococcus faecalis 1(3.33%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa 1(3.33%). Most of the Gram-negative bacilli were sensitive to amikacin (80%) and nitrofurantoin (80%), where as all gram-positive organisms were sensitive to Vancomycin. A large number ESBL producers were also observed in this study. The study finding showed that E.coli is the predominant pathogen and has increasing resistance pattern to the commonly used antibiotics. The study proposes that the adherence to antibiotic policy is the key ingredients for successful outcome in ICU patients and also emphasizes that repeated evaluation of microbial characteristics and continuous surveillance of resistant bacteria is required for selection of appropriate antibiotic therapy.

Keywords: antimicrobial sensitivity, intensive care unit, nosocomial infection, urinary tract infection

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1256 Parallel among Urinary Tract Infection in Diabetic and Non-Diabetic Patients: A Case Study

Authors: Khaled Khleifat

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This study detects the bacterial species that responsible for UTI in both diabetic patients and non-diabetic patients, Jordan. 116 urine samples were investigated in order to determine UTI-causing bacteria. These samples distributed unequally between diabetic male (12) and diabetic female (25) and also non-diabetic male (13) and non-diabetic female (66). The results represent that E.coli is responsible for UTI in both diabetic and non-diabetic patients (15.5% and 29.3% respectively) with large proportion (44.8%). This study showed that not all bacterial species that isolated from the non-diabetic sample could be isolated from diabetic samples. E. coli (15.5%), P. aeruginosa (4.3%), K. pneumonia (1.7%), P. mirabilis (2.6%), S. marcescens (0.9%), S. aureus (1.7%), S. pyogenes (1.7%), E. faecalis (0.9%), S. epidermidis (1.7%) and S. saprophyticus (0.9%). But E. aerogenes, E. cloacae, C. freundii, A. baumannii and B. subtilis are five bacterial species that can’t isolate from all diabetic samples. This study shows that for the treatment of UTI in both diabetic and non-diabetic patients, Chloramphenicol (30 μg), Ciprofloxacin (5 μg) and Vancomycin (30 μg) are more favorable than other antibiotics. In the same time, Cephalothin (30μg) is not recommended.

Keywords: urinary tract infections, diabetes mellitus, bacterial species, infections

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1255 Exploring the Safety of Sodium Glucose Co-Transporter-2 Inhibitors at the Imperial College London Diabetes Centre, UAE

Authors: Raad Nari, Maura Moriaty, Maha T. Barakat

Abstract:

Introduction: Sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are a new class of oral anti-diabetic drugs with a unique mechanism of action. They are used to improve glycaemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes by enhancing urinary glucose excretion. In the UAE, there has been certainly an increased use of these medications. As with any new medication, there are safety considerations related to their use in patients with type two diabetes. A retrospective study was conducted at the three main centres of the Imperial College London Diabetes Centre. Methodology: All patients in electronic database (Diamond) from October 2014 to October 2017 were included with a minimum of six months usage of sodium glucose co-transporter inhibitors that comprise canagliflozin, dapagliflozin and empagliflozin. There were 15 paired sample biochemical and clinical correlations. The analysis was done at the start of the study, three months and six months apart. SPSS version 24 was used for this study. Conclusion: This study of sodium glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors used showed significant reductions in weight, glycated haemoglobin A1C, systolic and diastolic blood pressures. As the case with systematic reviews, there were similar changes in liver enzymes, raised total cholesterol, low density lipopoptein and high density lipoprotein. There was slight improvement in estimated glomerular filtration rate too. Our analysis also showed that they increased in the incidence of urinary tract symptoms and incidence of urinary tract infections.

Keywords: SGLT2 inhibitors dapagliflozin empagliflozin canagliflozin, adverse effects, amputation diabetic ketoacidosis DKA, urinary tract infection

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1254 Clinical Profile of Renal Diseases in Children in Tertiary Care Centre

Authors: Jyoti Agrawal

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Introduction: Renal diseases in children and young adult can be difficult to diagnose early as it may present only with few symptoms, tends to have different course than adult and respond variously to different treatment. The pattern of renal disease in children is different from developing countries as compared to developed countries. Methods: This study was a hospital based prospective observational study carried from March, 2014 to February 2015 at BP Koirala institute of health sciences. Patients with renal disease, both inpatient and outpatient from birth to 14 years of age were enrolled in the study. The diagnosis of renal disease was be made on clinical and laboratory criteria. Results: Total of 120 patients were enrolled in our study which contributed to 3.74% % of total admission. The commonest feature of presentation was edema (75%), followed by fever (65%), hypertension (60%), decreased urine output (45%) and hematuria (25%). Most common diagnosis was acute glomerulonephritis (40%) followed by Nephrotic syndrome (25%) and urinary tract infection (25%). Renal biopsy was done for 10% of cases and most of them were steroid dependent nephrotic syndrome. 5% of our cases expired because of multiorgan dysfunction syndrome, sepsis and acute kidney injury. Conclusion: Renal disease contributes to a large part of hospital pediatric admission as well as mortality and morbidity to the children.

Keywords: glomerulonephritis, nephrotic syndrome, renal disease, urinary tract infection

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1253 Inhibitory Effect of Lactic Acid Bacteria on Uropathogenic Escherichia coli-Induced Urinary Tract Infections

Authors: Cheng-Chih Tsai, Yu-Hsuan Liu, Cheng-Ying Ho, Chun-Chin Huang

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The aim of this study evaluated the in vitro and in vivo antimicrobial activity of selected lactic acid bacteria (LAB) against Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) for prevention and amelioration of UTIs. We screened LAB strains with antimicrobial effects on UPEC using a well-diffusion assay, bacterial adherence to the uroepithelium cell line SV-HUC-1 (BCRC 60358), and a coculture inhibition assay. The results showed that the 7 LAB strains (Lactobacillus paracasei, L. salivarius, two Pediococcus pentosaceus strains, two L. plantarum strains, and L. crispatus) and the fermented probiotic products produced by these multi-LAB strains exhibited potent zones of inhibition against UPEC. Moreover, the LAB strains and probiotic products adhered strongly to the uroepithelium SV-HUC-1 cell line. The growth of UPEC strains was also markedly inhibited after co-culture with the LAB strains and probiotic products in human urine. In addition, the enhanced levels of IL-6, IL-8 and lactic acid dehydrogenase were significantly decreased by treatments with the LAB strains and probiotic products in UPEC-induced SV-HUC-1 cells. Furthermore, oral administration of probiotic products reduced the number of viable UPEC in the urine of UPEC-challenged BALB/c mice. Taken together, this study demonstrates that probiotic supplementation may be useful as an adjuvant therapy for the treatment of bacterial-induced urinary tract infections.

Keywords: lactic acid bacterium, SV-HUC-1 uroepithelium, urinary tract infection, uropathogenic Escherichia coli, BALB/c mice

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1252 Risk Factors for Postoperative Fever in Patients Undergoing Lumbar Fusion

Authors: Bang Haeyong

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Purpose: The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence, incidence, and risk factors for postoperative fever after lumbar fusion. Methods: This study was a retrospective chart review of 291 patients who underwent lumbar fusion between March 2015 and February 2016 at the Asan Medical Center. Information was extracted from electronic medical records. Postoperative fever was measured at Tmax > 37.7 ℃ and Tmax > 38.3 ℃. The presence of postoperative fever, blood culture, urinary excretion, and/or chest x-ray were evaluated. Patients were evaluated for infection after lumbar fusion. Results: We found 222 patients (76.3%) had a postoperative temperature of 37.7 ℃, and 162 patients (55.7%) had a postoperative temperature of 38.3 ℃ or higher. The percentage of febrile patients trended down following the mean 1.8days (from the first postoperative day to seventh postoperative day). Infection rate was 9 patients (3.1%), respiratory virus (1.7%), urinary tract infection (0.3%), phlebitis (0.3%), and surgical site infection (1.4%). There was no correlation between Tmax > 37.7℃ or Tmax > 38.3℃, and timing of fever, positive blood or urine cultures, pneumonia, or surgical site infection. Risk factors for increased postoperative fever following surgery were confirmed to be delay of defecation (OR=1.37, p=.046), and shorten of remove drainage (OR=0.66, p=.037). Conclusions: The incidence of fever was 76.3% after lumbar fusion and the drainage time was faster in the case of fever. It was thought that the bleeding was absorbed at the operation site and fever occurred. The prevalence of febrile septicemia was higher in patients with long bowel movements before surgery than after surgery. Clinical symptoms should be considered because postoperative fever cannot be determined by fever alone because fever and infection are not significant.

Keywords: lumbar surgery, fever, postoperative, risk factor

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1251 Detection of Respiratory Syncytial Virus (hRSV) by PCR Technique in Lower Respiratory Tract Infection (LRTI) in Babylon City

Authors: Amal Raqib Shameran, Ghanim Aboud Al-Mola

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Respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) is the major pathogens of respiratory tract infections (RTI) among infants and children in the world. They are classified in family Paramyxoviridae and sub-family Pneumovirinae. The current work aimed to detect the role of RSV in the lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) in Hilla, Iraq. The samples were collected from 50 children who were admitted to hospital suffering from lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI). 50 nasal and pharyngeal swabs were taken from patients at the period from January 2010 till April 2011, hospitalized in Hilla Maternity and Children Hospital. The results showed that the proportion of children infected with hRSV accounted for 24% 12/50 with lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) when they tested by polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).

Keywords: respiratory syncytial virus, respiratory tract infections, infants, polymerase chain reaction (PCR)

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1250 Purification, Extraction and Visualization of Lipopolysaccharide of Escherichia coli from Urine Samples of Patients with Urinary Tract Infection

Authors: Fariha Akhter Chowdhury, Mohammad Nurul Islam, Anamika Saha, Sabrina Mahboob, Abu Syed Md. Mosaddek, Md. Omar Faruque, Most. Fahmida Begum, Rajib Bhattacharjee

Abstract:

Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common infectious diseases in Bangladesh where Escherichia coli is the prevalent organism and responsible for most of the infections. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is known to act as a major virulence factor of E. coli. The present study aimed to purify, extract and visualize LPS of E. coli clinical isolates from urine samples of patients with UTI. The E. coli strain was isolated from the urine samples of 10 patients with UTI and then the antibiotic sensitivity pattern of the isolates was determined. The purification of LPS was carried out using the hot aqueous-phenol method and separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, which was directly stained using the modified silver staining method and Coomassie blue. The silver-stained gel demonstrated both smooth and rough type LPS by showing trail-like band patterns with the presence and lacking O-antigen region, respectively. Coomassie blue staining showed no band assuring the absence of any contaminating protein. Our successful extraction of purified LPS from E. coli isolates of UTI patients’ urine samples can be an important step to understand the UTI disease conditions.

Keywords: Escherichia coli, electrophoresis, polyacrylamide gel, silver staining, sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE)

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1249 A Study on the Prevalence and Microbiological Profile of Nosocomial Infections in the ICU of a Tertiary Care Hospital in Eastern India

Authors: Pampita Chakraborty, Sukumar Mukherjee

Abstract:

This study was done to determine the prevalence of nosocomial infections in the ICU and to identify the common microorganisms causing these infections and their antimicrobial sensitivity pattern. Nosocomial infection or hospital-acquired infection is a localized or a systemic condition resulting from an adverse reaction to the presence of infectious agents. Nosocomial infections are not present or incubating when the patient is admitted to hospital or other health care facility. They are caused by pathogens that easily spread through the body. Many hospitalized patients have compromised immune systems, so they are less able to fight off infections. These infections occur worldwide, both in the developed and developing the world. They are a significant burden to patients and public health. They are a major cause of death and increased morbidity in hospitalized patients, which is a matter of serious concern today. This study was done during the period of one year (2012-2013) in the ICU of the tertiary care hospital in eastern India. Prevalence of nosocomial infection was determined; site of infection and the pattern of microorganisms were identified along with the assessment of antibiotic susceptibility profile. Patients who developed an infection after 48 hours of admission to the ICU were included in the study. A total of 324 ICU patients were analyzed, of these 79 patients were found to have developed a nosocomial infection (24.3% prevalence). Urinary tract infection was found to be more predominant followed by respiratory tract infection and soft tissue infection. The most frequently isolated microorganism was E. coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae followed by other organisms respectively. Antibiotic susceptibility test of these isolates was done against commonly used antibiotics. Patients admitted to the ICU are especially susceptible to nosocomial infections. Despite adequate antimicrobial treatment, nosocomial ICU infections can significantly affect ICU stay and can cause an increase in patient’s morbidity and mortality. Adherence to infection protocol, proper monitoring and the judicious use of antibiotics are important in preventing such infections on a regular basis.

Keywords: antibiotic susceptibility, intensive care unit, nosocomial infection, nosocomial pathogen

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1248 Flexible Ureterorenoscopy as a New Possibility of Treating Nephrolithiasis in Children – Preliminary Reports

Authors: Adam Haliński, Andrzej Haliński

Abstract:

Introduction: Flexible ureterorenoscopy is a surgery technique used for the treatment of the upper urinary tract. It is very often used in adult patients; however, due to the advancing miniaturization of the equipment as well as its precision, this technique has also become possible in the treatment process in children. Material and method: We would like to present 26 cases of flexible ureterorenoscopy carried out in children with nephrolithiasis of the upper urinary tract aged 6 to 17 years. The average age was 9.5 years and the children were treated in our department from June 2013 to January 2015. The first surgery in Poland took place in our Department on 06.06.2013. Because of nephrolithiasis all the children had been subjected earlier to ESWL treatment, which was unsuccessful. Results: 14 children had deposits in the lower calyx, 9 children had deposits in the middle and lower calyx and in 3 children a stone was located in the initial ureter. An efficiency of 88 % was achieved. Conclusions: Flexible ureterorenoscopy is effective and minimally invasive tool both for the diagnosis and treatment of upper urinary tract. We believe that the advancing miniaturization of the equipment and gaining experience will enable carrying out of this procedure in smaller children with high efficiency.

Keywords: flexible ureterorenoscopy, urolithisis, endourology, nephrolithiasis

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1247 Microbiological Profile of UTI along with Their Antibiotic Sensitivity Pattern with Special Reference to Nitrofurantoin

Authors: Rupinder Bakshi, Geeta Walia, Anita Gupta

Abstract:

Introduction: Urinary tract infections (UTI) are considered to be one of the most common bacterial infections with an estimated annual global incidence of 150 million. Antimicrobial drug resistance is one of the major threats due to widespread usage of uncontrolled antibiotics. Materials and Methods: A total number of 9149 urine samples were collected from R.H Patiala and processed in the Department of Microbiology G.M.C Patiala. Urine samples were inoculated on MacConkey’s and blood agar plates by using calibrated loop delivering 0.001 ml of sample and incubated at 37 °C for 24 hrs. The organisms were identified by colony characters, gram’s staining and biochemical reactions. Antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolates was determined against various antimicrobial agents (Hi – Media Mumbai India) by Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method on Muller Hinton agar plates. Results: Maximum patients were in the age group of 21-30 yrs followed by 31-40 yrs. Males (34%) are less prone to urinary tract infections than females (66%). Out of 9149 urine sample, the culture was positive in 25% (2290) samples. Esch. coli was the most common isolate 60.3% (n = 1378) followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae 13.5% (n = 310), Proteus spp. 9% (n = 209), Staphylococcus aureus 7.6 % (n = 173), Pseudomonas aeruginosa 3.7% (n = 84), Citrobacter spp. 3.1 % (70), Staphylococcus saprophyticus 1.8 % (n = 142), Enterococcus faecalis 0.8%(n=19) and Acinetobacter spp. 0.2%(n=5). Gram negative isolates showed higher sensitivity towards, Piperacillin +Tazobactum (67%), Amikacin (80%), Nitrofurantoin (82%), Aztreonam (100%), Imipenem (100%) and Meropenam (100%) while gram positive showed good response towards Netilmicin (69%), Nitrofurantoin (79%), Linezolid (98%), Vancomycin (100%) and Teicoplanin (100%). 465 (23%) isolates were resistant to Penicillins, 1st generation and 2nd generation Cehalosporins which were further tested by double disk approximation test and combined disk method for ESBL production. Out of 465 isolates, 375 were ESBLs consisting of n 264 (70.6%) Esch.coli and 111 (29.4%) Klebsiella pneumoniae. Susceptibility of ESBL producers to Imipenem, Nitrofurantoin and Amikacin were found to be 100%, 76%, and 75% respectively. Conclusion: Uropathogens are increasingly showing resistance to many antibiotics making empiric management of outpatients UTIs challenging. Ampicillin, Cotrimoxazole, and Ciprofloxacin should not be used in empiric treatment. Nitrofurantoin could be used in lower urinary tract infection. Knowledge of uropathogens and their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern in a geographical region will help inappropriate and judicious antibiotic usage in a health care setup.

Keywords: Urinary Tract Infection, UTI, antibiotic susceptibility pattern, ESBL

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1246 A Review on Future of Plant Based Medicine in Treatment of Urolithiatic Disorder

Authors: Gopal Lamichhane, Biswash Sapkota, Grinsun Sharma, Mahendra Adhikari

Abstract:

Urolithiasis is a condition in which insoluble or less soluble salts like oxalate, phosphate etc. precipitate in urinary tract and causes obstruction in ureter resulting renal colic or sometimes haematuria. It is the third most common disorder of urinary tract affecting nearly 2% of world’s population. Poor urinary drainage, microbial infection, oxalate and calcium containing diet, calciferol, hyperparathyroidism, cysteine in urine, gout, dysfunction of intestine, drought environment, lifestyle, exercise, stress etc. are risk factors for urolithiasis. Wide ranges of treatments are available in allopathic system of medicine but reoccurrence is unpreventable even with the surgical removal of stone or lithotripsy. So, people prefer alternative medicinal systems such as Unani, homeopathic, ayurvedic etc. systems of medicine due to their fewer side effects over allopathic counterpart. Different plants based ethnomedicines are being well established by their continuous effective use in human since long time in treatment of urinary problem. Many studies have scientifically proved those ethnomedicines for antiurolithiatic effect in animal and in vitro model. Plant-based remedies were found to be therapeutically effective for both prevention as well as cure of calcium oxalate urolithiasis. Plants were known to show these effects through a combination of many effects such as antioxidant, diuretic, hypocalciuric, urine alkalinizing effect in them. Berberine, triterpenoids, lupeol are the phytochemicals established for antiurolithiatic effect. Hence, plant-based medicine can be the effective herbal alternative as well as means of discovery of novel drug molecule for curing urolithiatic disorder and should be focused on further research to discover their value in coming future.

Keywords: urolithiasis, herbal medicine, ethnomedicine, kidney stone, calcium oxalate

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1245 Effect of Lemongrass Oil Containing Polycaprolactone Nanofibers on Biofilm Formation of Proteus mirabilis

Authors: Gulcan Sahal, Behzad Nasseri, Ali Akbar Ebrahimi, Isil Seyis Bilkay

Abstract:

Proteus mirabilis strains which are natural colonizers of healthy individuals’ gastrointestinal tract are also known as common causes of catheter-associated urinary tract infections. Nowadays, as a result of an increased resistance to various antimicrobial drugs, there has been a growing interest in natural products. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate biofilm formation of P. mirabilis strains on lemongrass oil containing polycaprolactone nanofibers. Polycaprolactone nanofibers with different lemongrass oil concentrations were successfully prepared by electrospinning and biofilm formation of P. mirabilis on these nanofibers were determined by ‘Crystal Violet Staining Assay’. According to our results, polycaprolactone nanofibers with some lemongrass oil concentrations, decreased biofilm formation of P. mirabilis and this effect increased in parallel with the increase in lemongrass oil concentration. Our results indicate that, polycaprolactone nanofibers with some concentrations of lemongrass oil may provide a treatment against catheter-associated urinary tract infections by means of causing an inhibition on biofilm formation of P. mirabilis.

Keywords: anti-biofilm, biofilm formation, essential oils, nanofibers, proteus mirabilis

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1244 Plasmodium falciparum and Scistosoma haematobium Co-infection in School Aged Children in Jinduut, Shendam Local Government Area of Plateau State, North Central Nigeria

Authors: D. A. Dakul, T. M. Akindigh, B. J. Dogonyaro, O. J. Abba, K. T. Tangtur, N. Sambo, J. A. E. Okopi, J. A. Yohanna, G. E. Imade, G. S. Mwansat, S. Oguche

Abstract:

Malaria and urinary Schistosomaisis are both endemic in Nigeria and pose a serious health challenge in rural areas where co-infections are common. This descriptive cross sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence of co-infection and the impact of concurrent infection on haemoglobin concentration, Eosinophil and CD4+ T-lymphocyte counts. Plasmodium falciparum and Schistosoma haematobium infection were determined by Malaria Rapid Diagnostic Test (MRDT) kits and the presence of visible haematuria respectively and confirmed by conventional Polymerase Chain Reaction (cPCR). P values < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Of the 110 children examined, 13 (11.8%) had concurrent infection with Schistosoma haematobium falciparum, 46(41.8%) had Plasmodium falciparum infection while 16(14.5%) had Schistosoma haematobium infection. A strong association between co-infection and the ages of 10-15 years with a 36.4% prevalence of anaemia was observed. Malaria was significantly associated with anaemia than with concurrent infections or schistomiasis alone. Co-infection with both pathogens and a high prevalence of anaemia was observed in Jinduut community. Although the causes of anaemia are multi-factorial, further investigation into the extent to which malaria and urinary schistosomiasis contribute to anaemia is needed. Also, integrated control efforts must be strengthened to mitigate the impact of concurrent infection in this group of vulnerable members in the community. The results can be applied to other communities during control.

Keywords: co-Infection, plasmodium falciparum and scistosoma haematobium, Jinduut, Nigeria

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1243 Predicting Resistance of Commonly Used Antimicrobials in Urinary Tract Infections: A Decision Tree Analysis

Authors: Meera Tandan, Mohan Timilsina, Martin Cormican, Akke Vellinga

Abstract:

Background: In general practice, many infections are treated empirically without microbiological confirmation. Understanding susceptibility of antimicrobials during empirical prescribing can be helpful to reduce inappropriate prescribing. This study aims to apply a prediction model using a decision tree approach to predict the antimicrobial resistance (AMR) of urinary tract infections (UTI) based on non-clinical features of patients over 65 years. Decision tree models are a novel idea to predict the outcome of AMR at an initial stage. Method: Data was extracted from the database of the microbiological laboratory of the University Hospitals Galway on all antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) of urine specimens from patients over the age of 65 from January 2011 to December 2014. The primary endpoint was resistance to common antimicrobials (Nitrofurantoin, trimethoprim, ciprofloxacin, co-amoxiclav and amoxicillin) used to treat UTI. A classification and regression tree (CART) model was generated with the outcome ‘resistant infection’. The importance of each predictor (the number of previous samples, age, gender, location (nursing home, hospital, community) and causative agent) on antimicrobial resistance was estimated. Sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive (NPV) and positive predictive (PPV) values were used to evaluate the performance of the model. Seventy-five percent (75%) of the data were used as a training set and validation of the model was performed with the remaining 25% of the dataset. Results: A total of 9805 UTI patients over 65 years had their urine sample submitted for AST at least once over the four years. E.coli, Klebsiella, Proteus species were the most commonly identified pathogens among the UTI patients without catheter whereas Sertia, Staphylococcus aureus; Enterobacter was common with the catheter. The validated CART model shows slight differences in the sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV in between the models with and without the causative organisms. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV for the model with non-clinical predictors was between 74% and 88% depending on the antimicrobial. Conclusion: The CART models developed using non-clinical predictors have good performance when predicting antimicrobial resistance. These models predict which antimicrobial may be the most appropriate based on non-clinical factors. Other CART models, prospective data collection and validation and an increasing number of non-clinical factors will improve model performance. The presented model provides an alternative approach to decision making on antimicrobial prescribing for UTIs in older patients.

Keywords: antimicrobial resistance, urinary tract infection, prediction, decision tree

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1242 Urinary Schistosomiasis among Pre-School and School Aged Children in Two Peri-Urban Communities in Southwest Nigeria

Authors: Isiaka Akinwale, Tolulope Babatunde, Oladepo Sowemimo

Abstract:

A cross-sectional study was conducted between March and April, 2016 among pre-school and school-aged children in two peri-urban communities in Osun State, Southwest Nigeria. Urine samples were collected from the pre-school and school-aged children, tested for microhaematuria using reagent strips, processed and examined for Schistosoma haematobium ova. Out of 274 pupils examined, 132 (48.2%) had infection, with no statistically significant difference (P > 0.05) in infection between male (48.6%) and female pupils (47.6%). The prevalence of infection increases significantly with age (P < 0.05), with the peak (93.3%) of infection recorded in pupils aged 15 to 16 years and the lowest infection (10.0%) in pupils aged 3 to 4 years. There was no statistically significant association (P > 0.05) between intensity in male pupils (156.0 ± 34.5/10 ml) and female pupils (141.7 ± 29.5/10 ml). The prevalence of pupils with microhaematuria was 65.0% and it increased significantly with age (P < 0.001). The conclusion drawn from the study is that to reduce the transmission of S. haematobium in endemic communities, health education and provision of potable water are advocated.

Keywords: Schistosoma haematobium, microhaeamturia, prevalence, urinary schistosomiasis, school aged children, Nigeria

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1241 The Association between Prior Antibiotic Use and Subsequent Risk of Infectious Disease: A Systematic Review

Authors: Umer Malik, David Armstrong, Mark Ashworth, Alex Dregan, Veline L'Esperance, Lucy McDonnell, Mariam Molokhia, Patrick White

Abstract:

Introduction: The microbiota lining epithelial surfaces is thought to play an important role in many human physiological functions including defense against pathogens and modulation of immune response. The microbiota is susceptible to disruption from external influences such as exposure to antibiotic medication. It is thought that antibiotic-induced disruption of the microbiota could predispose to pathogen overgrowth and invasion. We hypothesized that antibiotic use would be associated with increased risk of future infections. We carried out a systematic review of evidence of associations between antibiotic use and subsequent risk of community-acquired infections. Methods: We conducted a review of the literature for observational studies assessing the association between antibiotic use and subsequent community-acquired infection. Eligible studies were published before April 29th, 2016. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Web of Science and screened titles and abstracts using a predefined search strategy. Infections caused by Clostridium difficile, drug-resistant organisms and fungal organisms were excluded as their association with prior antibiotic use has been examined in previous systematic reviews. Results: Eighteen out of 21,518 retrieved studies met the inclusion criteria. The association between past antibiotic exposure and subsequent increased risk of infection was reported in 16 studies, including one study on Campylobacter jejuni infection (Odds Ratio [OR] 3.3), two on typhoid fever (ORs 5.7 and 12.2), one on Staphylococcus aureus skin infection (OR 2.9), one on invasive pneumococcal disease (OR 1.57), one on recurrent furunculosis (OR 16.6), one on recurrent boils and abscesses (Risk ratio 1.4), one on upper respiratory tract infection (OR 2.3) and urinary tract infection (OR 1.1), one on invasive Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) infection (OR 1.51), one on infectious mastitis (OR 5.38), one on meningitis (OR 2.04) and five on Salmonella enteric infection (ORs 1.4, 1.59, 1.9, 2.3 and 3.8). The effect size in three studies on Salmonella enteric infection was of marginal statistical significance. A further two studies on Salmonella infection did not demonstrate a statistically significant association between prior antibiotic exposure and subsequent infection. Conclusion: We have found an association between past antibiotic exposure and subsequent risk of a diverse range of infections in the community setting. Our findings provide evidence to support the hypothesis that prior antibiotic usage may predispose to future infection risk, possibly through antibiotic-induced alteration of the microbiota. The findings add further weight to calls to minimize inappropriate antibiotic prescriptions.

Keywords: antibiotic, infection, risk factor, side effect

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1240 Inhibition of Crystallization Lithiasis Phosphate (Struvite) by Extracts Zea mays

Authors: N. Benahmed, A. Cheriti

Abstract:

Kidney stones of infectious origin, in particular, the phosphate amoniaco-magnesian hexahydrate or struvite are one of the risk factors that most often leads of renal insufficiency. Many plants species, described in pharmacopoeias of several countries is used as a remedy for urinary stones, the latter is a disease resulting from the presence of stones in the kidneys or urinary tract. Our research is based on the existing relationship between the effect of extracts of medicinal plant used for the cure of urinary tract diseases in the region of Algeria south-west on urolithiasis especially Ammonium-Magnesium Phosphate Hexahydrate (Struvite). We have selected Zea mays L. (POACEAE) for this study. On the first stage, we have studied the crystallisation of struvite 'in vitro' without inhibitors, after we have compared to crystallization with inhibitors. Most of The organic and aqueous extracts of this plant give an effect on the crystal size of struvite. It is a very significant reduction in the size of the crystals of struvite in the presence of hexane and ethanol extract (12 to 5-6 μm). We’ve observed a decrease in the size of the aggregates in the presence of all the extracts. This reduction is important for the aqueous, acetone and chloroform extract (45 to 10-16μm). Finally, a deep study was conducted on the effective extract of Zea mays L.; for determine the influence of inhibitory phytochemical compounds.

Keywords: medicinal plants, struvite, urolithiasis, zea mays

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