Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 370

Search results for: susceptibility

370 Measurement of Susceptibility Users Using Email Phishing Attack

Authors: Cindy Sahera, Sarwono Sutikno


Rapid technological developments also have negative impacts, namely the increasing criminal cases based on technology or cybercrime. One technique that can be used to conduct cybercrime attacks are phishing email. The issue is whether the user is aware that email can be misused by others so that it can harm the user's own? This research was conducted to measure the susceptibility of selected targets against email abuse. The objectives of this research are measurement of targets’ susceptibility and find vulnerability in email recipient. There are three steps being taken in this research, (1) the information gathering phase, (2) the design phase, and (3) the execution phase. The first step includes the collection of the information necessary to carry out an attack on a target. The next step is to make the design of an attack against a target. The last step is to send phishing emails to the target. The levels of susceptibility are three: level 1, level 2 and level 3. Level 1 indicates a low level of targets’ susceptibility, level 2 indicates the intermediate level of targets’ susceptibility, and level 3 indicates a high level of targets’ susceptibility. The results showed that users who are on level 1 and level 2 more that level 3, which means the user is not too careless. However, it does not mean the user to be safe. There are still vulnerabilities that may occur, such as automatic location detection when opening emails and automatic downloaded malware as user clicks a link in the email.

Keywords: cybercrime, email phishing, susceptibility, vulnerability

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369 Correlation Results Based on Magnetic Susceptibility Measurements by in-situ and Ex-Situ Measurements as Indicators of Environmental Changes Due to the Fertilizer Industry

Authors: Nurin Amalina Widityani, Adinda Syifa Azhari, Twin Aji Kusumagiani, Eleonora Agustine


Fertilizer industry activities contribute to environmental changes. Changes to the environment became one of a few problems in this era of globalization. Parameters that can be seen as criteria to identify changes in the environment can be seen from the aspects of physics, chemistry, and biology. One aspect that can be assessed quickly and efficiently to describe environmental change is the aspect of physics, one of which is the value of magnetic susceptibility (χ). The rock magnetism method can be used as a proxy indicator of environmental changes, seen from the value of magnetic susceptibility. The rock magnetism method is based on magnetic susceptibility studies to measure and classify the degree of pollutant elements that cause changes in the environment. This research was conducted in the area around the fertilizer plant, with five coring points on each track, each coring point a depth of 15 cm. Magnetic susceptibility measurements were performed by in-situ and ex-situ. In-situ measurements were carried out directly by using the SM30 tool by putting the tools on the soil surface at each measurement point and by that obtaining the value of the magnetic susceptibility. Meanwhile, ex-situ measurements are performed in the laboratory by using the Bartington MS2B tool’s susceptibility, which is done on a coring sample which is taken every 5 cm. In-situ measurement shows results that the value of magnetic susceptibility at the surface varies, with the lowest score on the second and fifth points with the -0.81 value and the highest value at the third point, with the score of 0,345. Ex-situ measurements can find out the variations of magnetic susceptibility values at each depth point of coring. At a depth of 0-5 cm, the value of the highest XLF = 494.8 (x10-8m³/kg) is at the third point, while the value of the lowest XLF = 187.1 (x10-8m³/kg) at first. At a depth of 6-10 cm, the highest value of the XLF was at the second point, which was 832.7 (x10-8m³/kg) while the lowest XLF is at the first point, at 211 (x10-8m³/kg). At a depth of 11-15 cm, the XLF’s highest value = 857.7 (x10-8m³/kg) is at the second point, whereas the value of the lowest XLF = 83.3 (x10-8m³/kg) is at the fifth point. Based on the in situ and exsit measurements, it can be seen that the highest magnetic susceptibility values from the surface samples are at the third point.

Keywords: magnetic susceptibility, fertilizer plant, Bartington MS2B, SM30

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368 Magnetic Susceptibility Measurements of Urban Areas in Denizli City and Showing the Distributions of Heavy Metal Pollution

Authors: Ali Aydin


Three hundred and fifty soil samples were collected around the urban and residential area, for the purpose of a magnetic susceptibility study on pollution in Denizli City, Turkiye. Measurements of volume-specific magnetic susceptibility (к) and mass-specific magnetic susceptibility (χ) show a significant variation range from place to place collected soil samples. In this study, we did a primary magnetic study near the high heavy traffic pollution in a part of Denizli city, Turkiye which was said the most polluted city in Aegean Region of Turkey. The magnetic susceptibility measurements increased from the garden area to residential area and reached the high levels near the industrial areas of the city. Magnetic particle concentration and grain size sourced exhaust gasses, and other pollution sources increase with the increasing distance from a residential area, indicating the high traffic road area.

Keywords: magnetic susceptibility, pollution, magnetic particle, Denizli

Procedia PDF Downloads 197
367 Instability Index Method and Logistic Regression to Assess Landslide Susceptibility in County Route 89, Taiwan

Authors: Y. H. Wu, Ji-Yuan Lin, Yu-Ming Liou


This study aims to set up the landslide susceptibility map of County Route 89 at Ren-Ai Township in Nantou County using the Instability Index Method and Logistic regression. Seven susceptibility factors including Slope Angle, Aspect, Elevation, Distance to fold, Distance to River, Distance to Road and Accumulated Rainfall were obtained by GIS based on the Typhoon Toraji landslide area identified by Industrial Technology Research Institute in 2001. To calculate the landslide percentage of each factor and acquire the weight and grade the grid by means of Instability Index Method. In this study, landslide susceptibility can be classified into four grades: high, medium high, medium low and low, in order to determine the advantages and disadvantages of the two models. The precision of this model is verified by classification error matrix and SRC curve. These results suggest that the logistic regression model is a preferred method than instability index in the assessment of landslide susceptibility. It is suitable for the landslide prediction and precaution in this area in the future.

Keywords: instability index method, logistic regression, landslide susceptibility, SRC curve

Procedia PDF Downloads 218
366 Flood Susceptibility Assessment of Mandaluyong City Using Analytic Hierarchy Process

Authors: Keigh D. Guinto, Ma. Romina M. Santos


One of the most catastrophic natural disasters in the Philippines is floods. Twelve (12) million people reside in Metro Manila, National Capital Region (NCR), prone to flooding. A flood can cause widespread devastation resulting in damaged properties and infrastructures and loss of life. By using the analytical hierarchy process, six (6) parameters were selected, namely elevation, slope, lithology, distance from the river, river network density, and flow accumulation. Ranking of these parameters demonstrates that distance from the river with 25.31% and river density with 17.30% ranked the highest causative factor to flooding. This is followed by flow accumulation with 16.72%, elevation with 15.33%, slope with 13.53%, and the least flood causative factor is lithology with 11.8%. The generated flood susceptibility map of Mandaluyong has three (3) classes: high susceptibility, moderate susceptibility, and low susceptibility. The flood susceptibility map generated in this study can be used as an aid for planning flood mitigation, land use planning, and general public awareness. This study can also be used for emergency management and can be applied in the disaster risk management of Mandaluyong.

Keywords: analytical hierarchy process, assessment, flood, geographic information system

Procedia PDF Downloads 44
365 Antifungal Susceptibility of Yeasts Isolated from Clinical Samples from a Tertiary Hospital from State of Puebla

Authors: Ricardo Munguia-Perez, Nayeli Remigio-Alvarado, M.Miriam Hernandez-Arroyo, Elsa Castañeda-Roldan


Fungi have emerged as important pathogens causing morbidity and mortality mainly in immunosuppressed, malnourished and elderly patients. It has detected an increase in resistance to azoles primarily to fluconazol. The fungal infections have become a problem of public health for the resistance to antifungal agents, they have developed new antifungals with broad-spectrum. The aim of this study was determine the antifungal susceptibility of yeasts isolated from clinical samples (respiratory secretions, exudates, wounds, blood cultures, urine cultures) obtained from inpatients and outpatients of a tertiary hospital from State of Puebla. The antifungal susceptibility of the yeast from several clinical samples were determined by the CLS M44-A disk diffusion methods. 149 samples of yeast were analyzed. All species were 100% susceptible to nystatin and amphotericin B. Candida albicans showed resistance of 95.5 % to fluconazole, 50.7 % to 5-flurocytosine and 55.2 % intermediate susceptibility to ketoconazole. Candida glabrata 81.3 % was susceptibility to ketoconazole and 75 % to fluconazole, for the case of 5-flurocytosine the 56.3 % was susceptible. Candida krusei 100 % was susceptible to ketoconazole, 50 % to fluconazole and 37.5 % to 5-flurocytosine. The internal medicine have greater diversity of yeast, the samples have susceptibility of 64.7% to ketoconazole, 47.1 % to fluconazole and 27.5 % to 5-flurocytosine. Hospitalized patients are more resistant to fluconazole and nystatin, but in the case of outpatients presents resistance to ketoconazole.

Keywords: antifungal, susceptibility, yeast, clinical samples

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364 Measurements of Environmental Pollution in Chemical Fertilizer Industrial Area Using Magnetic Susceptibility Method

Authors: Ramadhani Yasyfi Cysela, Adinda Syifa Azhari, Eleonora Agustine


The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that about a quarter of the diseases facing mankind today occur due to environmental pollution. The soil is a part of environment that have a widespread problem. The contaminated soil should no longer be used to grow food because the chemicals can leech into the food and harm people who eat it. The chemical fertilizer industry gives specific effect due to soil pollution. To determine ammonia and urea emissions from fertilizer industry, we can use physical characteristic of soil, which is magnetic susceptibility. Rock magnetism is used as a proxy indicator to determine changes in physical properties. Magnetic susceptibilities of samples in low and high frequency have been measured by Bartington MS2B magnetic susceptibility measurement device. The sample was taken from different area which located closer by pollution source and far from the pollution source. The susceptibility values of polluted samples in topsoil were quite low, with range from 187.1- 494.8 [x 10-8 m3 kg-1] when free polluted area’s sample has high values (1188.7- 2237.8 [x 10-8 m3 kg-1 ]). From this studies shows that susceptibility values in areas of the fertilizer industry are lower than the free polluted area.

Keywords: environmental, magnetic susceptibility, rock magnetism, soil pollution

Procedia PDF Downloads 265
363 Analysis of Pollution Caused by the Animal Feed Industry and the Fertilizer Industry Using Rock Magnetic Method

Authors: Kharina Budiman, Adinda Syifa Azhari, Eleonora Agustine


Industrial activities get increase in this globalization era, one of the major impacts of industrial activities is a problem to the environment. This can happen because at the industrial production term will bring out pollutant in the shape of solid, liquid or gas. Normally this pollutant came from some dangerous materials for environment. However not every industry produces the same amount of pollutant, every industry produces different kind of pollution. To compare the pollution impact of industrial activities, soil sample has been taken around the animal feed industry and the fertilizer industry. This study applied the rock magnetic method and used Bartington MS2B to measured magnetic susceptibility (χ) as the physical parameter. This study tested soil samples using the value of susceptibility low frequency (χ lf) and Frequency Dependent (χ FD). Samples only taken in the soil surface with 0-5 cm depth and sampling interval was 20 cm. The animal feed factory has susceptibility low frequency (χ lf) = 111,9 – 325,7 and Frequency Dependent (χ FD) = 0,8 – 3,57 %. And the fertilizer factory has susceptibility low frequency (χ lf) = 187,1 – 494,8 and Frequency Dependent (χ FD) = 1,37 – 2,46 %. Based on the results, the highest value of susceptibility low frequency (χ lf) is the fertilizer factory, but the highest value of Frequency Dependent (FD) is the animal feed factory.

Keywords: industrial, pollution, magnetic susceptibility, χlf, χfd, animal feed industry and fertilizer industry

Procedia PDF Downloads 323
362 Determination of Klebsiella Pneumoniae Susceptibility to Antibiotics Using Infrared Spectroscopy and Machine Learning Algorithms

Authors: Manal Suleiman, George Abu-Aqil, Uraib Sharaha, Klaris Riesenberg, Itshak Lapidot, Ahmad Salman, Mahmoud Huleihel


Klebsiella pneumoniae is one of the most aggressive multidrug-resistant bacteria associated with human infections resulting in high mortality and morbidity. Thus, for an effective treatment, it is important to diagnose both the species of infecting bacteria and their susceptibility to antibiotics. Current used methods for diagnosing the bacterial susceptibility to antibiotics are time-consuming (about 24h following the first culture). Thus, there is a clear need for rapid methods to determine the bacterial susceptibility to antibiotics. Infrared spectroscopy is a well-known method that is known as sensitive and simple which is able to detect minor biomolecular changes in biological samples associated with developing abnormalities. The main goal of this study is to evaluate the potential of infrared spectroscopy in tandem with Random Forest and XGBoost machine learning algorithms to diagnose the susceptibility of Klebsiella pneumoniae to antibiotics within approximately 20 minutes following the first culture. In this study, 1190 Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates were obtained from different patients with urinary tract infections. The isolates were measured by the infrared spectrometer, and the spectra were analyzed by machine learning algorithms Random Forest and XGBoost to determine their susceptibility regarding nine specific antibiotics. Our results confirm that it was possible to classify the isolates into sensitive and resistant to specific antibiotics with a success rate range of 80%-85% for the different tested antibiotics. These results prove the promising potential of infrared spectroscopy as a powerful diagnostic method for determining the Klebsiella pneumoniae susceptibility to antibiotics.

Keywords: urinary tract infection (UTI), Klebsiella pneumoniae, bacterial susceptibility, infrared spectroscopy, machine learning

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361 Effect of Pressure and Dissolved Oxygen on Stress Corrosion Cracking Susceptibility of Inconel 617 in Steam and Supercritical Water

Authors: Hasan Izhar Khan, Naiqiang Zhang, Hong Xu, Zhongliang Zhu, Dongfang Jiang


Inconel 617, a nickel-based alloy designed for high-temperature applications, got an excellent amalgamation of strength and oxidation resistance at high temperatures. For a better understanding of its suitability to be used in superheater and reheater tubes in ultra-supercritical power plants, stress corrosion cracking (SCC) susceptibility must be evaluated. In the present study, the effect of medium environment on SCC behavior of Inconel 617, in the form of a round bar tensile specimen, was tested via slow strain rate tensile tests in steam and supercritical water (SCW) at 650 °C. The results showed that SCC susceptibility has a linear relationship with exposed pressure and increases monotonically with an increase in pressure. A severe SCC susceptibility was observed in SCW followed by that in a steam environment. Fracture and gage surface showed apparent characteristics of brittle fracture. Intergranular cracks initiated from the edge region and propagated into the matrix through cross section until ductile rupture. When dissolved oxygen contents were decreased in SCW environment, it showed no noticeable effect on mechanical properties but SCC susceptibility slightly decreased. The research revealed the influence of environment on SCC susceptibility of Inconel 617 in steam and SCW.

Keywords: Inconel 617, steam, supercritical water, stress corrosion cracking

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360 Nonlinear Optical Properties for Three Level Atoms at Resonance and Off-Resonance with Laser Coupled Beams

Authors: Suad M. Abuzariba, Eman O. Mafaa


For three level atom interacts with a laser beam, the effect of changing resonance and off-resonance frequencies has been studied. Furthermore, a clear distortion has been seen in both the real and imaginary parts of the electric susceptibility with increasing the frequency of the coupled laser beams so that reaching the off-resonance interaction. With increasing the Rabi frequency of the laser pulse that in resonance with the lower transition the distortion will produce a new peak in the electric susceptibility parts, in both the real and imaginary ones.

Keywords: electric susceptibility, resonance frequency off-resonance frequency, three level atom, laser

Procedia PDF Downloads 243
359 Landslide Susceptibility Mapping: A Comparison between Logistic Regression and Multivariate Adaptive Regression Spline Models in the Municipality of Oudka, Northern of Morocco

Authors: S. Benchelha, H. C. Aoudjehane, M. Hakdaoui, R. El Hamdouni, H. Mansouri, T. Benchelha, M. Layelmam, M. Alaoui


The logistic regression (LR) and multivariate adaptive regression spline (MarSpline) are applied and verified for analysis of landslide susceptibility map in Oudka, Morocco, using geographical information system. From spatial database containing data such as landslide mapping, topography, soil, hydrology and lithology, the eight factors related to landslides such as elevation, slope, aspect, distance to streams, distance to road, distance to faults, lithology map and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) were calculated or extracted. Using these factors, landslide susceptibility indexes were calculated by the two mentioned methods. Before the calculation, this database was divided into two parts, the first for the formation of the model and the second for the validation. The results of the landslide susceptibility analysis were verified using success and prediction rates to evaluate the quality of these probabilistic models. The result of this verification was that the MarSpline model is the best model with a success rate (AUC = 0.963) and a prediction rate (AUC = 0.951) higher than the LR model (success rate AUC = 0.918, rate prediction AUC = 0.901).

Keywords: landslide susceptibility mapping, regression logistic, multivariate adaptive regression spline, Oudka, Taounate

Procedia PDF Downloads 103
358 The Association of Slope Failure and Lineament Density along the Ranau-Tambunan Road, Sabah, Malaysia

Authors: Norbert Simon, Rodeano Roslee, Abdul Ghani Rafek, Goh Thian Lai, Azimah Hussein, Lee Khai Ern


The 54 km stretch of Ranau-Tambunan (RTM) road in Sabah is subjected to slope failures almost every year. This study is focusing on identifying section of roads that are susceptible to failure based on temporal landslide density and lineament density analyses. In addition to the analyses, the rock slopes in several sections of the road were assessed using the geological strength index (GSI) technique. The analysis involved 148 landslides that were obtained in 1978, 1994, 2009 and 2011. The landslides were digitized as points and the point density was calculated based on every 1km2 of the road. The lineaments of the area was interpreted from Landsat 7 15m panchromatic band. The lineament density was later calculated based on every 1km2 of the area using similar technique with the slope failure density calculation. The landslide and lineament densities were classified into three different classes that indicate the level of susceptibility (low, moderate, high). Subsequently, the two density maps were overlap to produce the final susceptibility map. The combination of both high susceptibility classes from these maps signifies the high potential of slope failure in those locations in the future. The final susceptibility map indicates that there are 22 sections of the road that are highly susceptible. Seven rock slopes were assessed along the RTM road using the GSI technique. It was found from the assessment that rock slopes along this road are highly fractured, weathered and can be classified into fair to poor categories. The poor condition of the rock slope can be attributed to the high lineament density that presence in the study area. Six of the rock slopes are located in the high susceptibility zones. A detailed investigation on the 22 high susceptibility sections of the RTM road should be conducted due to their higher susceptibility to failure, in order to prevent untoward incident to road users in the future.

Keywords: GSI, landslide, landslide density, landslide susceptibility, lineament density

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357 The Use of Piezocone Penetration Test Data for the Assessment of Iron Ore Tailings Liquefaction Susceptibility

Authors: Breno M. Castilho


The Iron Ore Quadrangle, located in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil is responsible for most of the country’s iron ore production. As a result, some of the biggest tailings dams in the country are located in this area. In recent years, several major failure events have happened in Tailings Storage Facilities (TSF) located in the Iron Ore Quadrangle. Some of these failures were found to be caused by liquefaction flowslides. This paper presents Piezocone Penetration Test (CPTu) data that was used, by applying Olson and Peterson methods, for the liquefaction susceptibility assessment of the iron ore tailings that are typically found in most TSF in the area. Piezocone data was also used to determine the steady-state strength of the tailings so as to allow for comparison with its drained strength. Results have shown great susceptibility for liquefaction to occur in the studied tailings and, more importantly, a large reduction in its strength. These results are key to understanding the failures that took place over the last few years.

Keywords: Piezocone Penetration Test CPTu, iron ore tailings, mining, liquefaction susceptibility assessment

Procedia PDF Downloads 161
356 Effect of Fines on Liquefaction Susceptibility of Sandy Soil

Authors: Ayad Salih Sabbar, Amin Chegenizadeh, Hamid Nikraz


Investigation of liquefaction susceptibility of materials that have been used in embankments, slopes, dams, and foundations is very essential. Many catastrophic geo-hazards such as flow slides, declination of foundations, and damage to earth structure are associated with static liquefaction that may occur during abrupt shearing of these materials. Many artificial backfill materials are mixtures of sand with fines and other composition. In order to provide some clarifications and evaluations on the role of fines in static liquefaction behaviour of sand sandy soils, the effect of fines on the liquefaction susceptibility of sand was experimentally examined in the present work over a range of fines content, relative density, and initial confining pressure. The results of an experimental study on various sand-fines mixtures are presented. Undrained static triaxial compression tests were conducted on saturated Perth sand containing 5% bentonite at three different relative densities (10, 50, and 90%), and saturated Perth sand containing both 5% bentonite and slag (2%, 4%, and 6%) at single relative density 10%. Undrained static triaxial tests were performed at three different initial confining pressures (100, 150, and 200 kPa). The brittleness index was used to quantify the liquefaction potential of sand-bentonite-slag mixtures. The results demonstrated that the liquefaction susceptibility of sand-5% bentonite mixture was more than liquefaction susceptibility of clean sandy soil. However, liquefaction potential decreased when both of two fines (bentonite and slag) were used. Liquefaction susceptibility of all mixtures decreased with increasing relative density and initial confining pressure.  

Keywords: liquefaction, bentonite, slag, brittleness index

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355 Aptian Ramp Sedimentation of the Jebel Serdj Massif, North-Central Tunisia, and Sea Level Variations Recorded in Magnetic Susceptibility

Authors: Houda Khaled, Fredj Chaabani, Frederic Boulvain


The Aptian series in north-central Tunisia was studied in detail regarding to lithology, microfacies, and magnetic susceptibility to provide new insights into the paleoenvironmental evolution and sea level changes in the carbonate platform. The study series is about 350 meters thick, and it consists of fives sequences of limestones, separated by four levels of marlstones and marly limestones. Petrographic study leads to the definition of 11 microfacies which are successively recorded along the Serdj section into the outer ramp, mid-ramp, inner ramp and coastal facies associations. The magnetic susceptibility of all samples was measured and compared with the facies and microfacies. There is a clear link between facies and magnetic susceptibility; the distal facies show high values while the proximal areas show lower values. The magnetic susceptibility profile reflects stratigraphic variations in response to relative changes in sea level and input of detrital materials. During the Aptian, kaolinite/illite intensity ratios show high values possibly indicating a warming trend followed then by decreasing values that may indicate a cooling trend. During the Albian, this cooling trend is reverted into humid/warming.

Keywords: Aptian, mineralogy, petrology, Serdj massif

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354 Comparison of FASTMAP and B0 Field Map Shimming for 4T MRI

Authors: Mohan L. Jayatiake, Judd Storrs, Jing-Huei Lee


The optimal MRI resolution relies on a homogeneous magnetic field. However, local susceptibility variations can lead to field inhomogeneities that cause artifacts such as image distortion and signal loss. The effects of local susceptibility variation notoriously increase with magnetic field strength. Active shimming improves homogeneity by applying corrective fields generated from shim coils, but requires calculation of optimal current for each shim coil. FASTMAP (fast automatic shimming technique by mapping along projections) is an effective technique for finding optimal currents works well at high-field, but is restricted to shimming spherical regions of interest. The 3D gradient-echo pulse sequence was modified to reduce sensitivity to eddy currents and used to obtain susceptibility field maps at 4T. Measured fields were projected onto first-and second-order spherical harmonic functions corresponding to shim hardware. A spherical phantom was used to calibrate the shim currents. Susceptibility maps of a volunteer’s brain with and without FASTMAP shimming were obtained. Simulations indicate that optimal shim currents derived from the field map may provide better overall shimming of the human brain.

Keywords: shimming, high-field, active, passive

Procedia PDF Downloads 395
353 Lack of Association between IL-10 Promoter Gene Polymorphisms and Tuberculosis Susceptibility in Thai Population

Authors: Manaphol Kulpraneet, Anirut Limtrakul, Surangrat Srisurapanon, Piyatida Tangteerawatana


Tuberculosis (TB) remains a global health care disease world-wide. Control of the global TB epidemic has been impaired by the lack of an effective vaccine, by the emergence of drug resistant forms of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and by lack of sensitive and rapid diagnostics. Cytokines play a major role in defense against M. tuberculosis infection. Polymorphisms in the genes encoding various cytokines have been associated with tuberculosis susceptibility. Polymorphisms of the regulatory cytokine gene, the interleukin (IL)-10 is associated with the risk of tuberculosis (TB) in different populations. However, IL-10 gene polymorphism and susceptibility to TB in Thai is still unknown. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the common IL-10 promoter gene polymorphisms are associated with TB in Thai population. Forty eight patients with newly diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis were studied. DNA samples were extracted from leukocytes and used to investigate -1087A/G, -819C/T, -252C/A (rs1800896, rs1800871, rs1800872) in IL-10 gene using restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) methods. In this study, the genotype and allele frequencies of IL-10-1087A/G, -819C/T, -252C/A polymorphism did not significantly different between TB patients and healthy controls ((genotype: p=0.38, p=0.92, p=1; allele: p=0.57, p=0.77, p=0.89, respectively). The lack of association between common IL-10 promoter polymorphisms and TB susceptibility in this study may provide clue for better understanding of IL-10-1087A/G, -819C/T, -252C/A polymorphism and TB susceptibility in Thai population, which might facilitate the rationale design of vaccines. However, further studies in large scales population are required for confirmation.

Keywords: IL-10, cytokines, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), tuberculosis

Procedia PDF Downloads 217
352 Exploration for Magnetic Minerals Using Geophysical Logging Techniques in the Northwestern Part of Bangladesh

Authors: Md. Selim Reza, Mohammad Zohir Uddin


Geophysical logging technique was conducted in a borehole in the north-western part of Bangladesh. The main objectives of this study were to identify the subsurface lithology and the presence of magnetic minerals within the basement complex. In this survey, full waveform sonic, magnetic susceptibility and natural gamma logs were conducted up to the depth of 660 m. From sonic log, three distinct velocity zones were observed at depths ranging from 20 m to 81 m, 81m to 360 m and 420 m to 660 m having the average velocity of 1600 m/s indicating unconsolidated sediment, 2500 m/s indicating hard, compact and matured sediments and 6300 m/s indicating basement complex respectively. Some low-velocity zones within the basement were identified as fractures/fissures. Natural gamma log was carried out only in the basement complex. According to magnetic susceptibility log, broadly three important zones were identified which had good agreement with the natural gamma, sonic as well as geological logs. The zone at the depth from 460 m to 470 m had the average susceptibility value of 3445 cgs unit. The average natural gamma value and sonic velocity in this zone are 150 cps and 3000 m/s respectively. The zone at the depth from 571 m to 598 m had the average susceptibility value of 5158 cgs unit with the average natural gamma value and sonic velocity are 160 cps and 6000 m/s respectively. On the other hand, the zone at the depth from 598 m to 620 m had the average susceptibility value of 1998 cgs unit with the average natural gamma value and sonic velocity show 200 cps and 3000 m/s respectively. From the interpretation of geophysical logs the 1st and 3rd zones within the basement complex are considered to be less significant whereas the 2nd zone is described as the most significant for magnetic minerals. Therefore, more drill holes are recommended on the anomalous body to delineate the extent, thickness and reserve of the magnetic body and further research are needed to determine the quality of mineral resources.

Keywords: basement complex, fractures/fissures, geophysical logging, lithology, magnetic susceptibility

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351 Infrared Spectroscopy in Tandem with Machine Learning for Simultaneous Rapid Identification of Bacteria Isolated Directly from Patients' Urine Samples and Determination of Their Susceptibility to Antibiotics

Authors: Mahmoud Huleihel, George Abu-Aqil, Manal Suleiman, Klaris Riesenberg, Itshak Lapidot, Ahmad Salman


Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are considered to be the most common bacterial infections worldwide, which are caused mainly by Escherichia (E.) coli (about 80%). Klebsiella pneumoniae (about 10%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (about 6%). Although antibiotics are considered as the most effective treatment for bacterial infectious diseases, unfortunately, most of the bacteria already have developed resistance to the majority of the commonly available antibiotics. Therefore, it is crucial to identify the infecting bacteria and to determine its susceptibility to antibiotics for prescribing effective treatment. Classical methods are time consuming, require ~48 hours for determining bacterial susceptibility. Thus, it is highly urgent to develop a new method that can significantly reduce the time required for determining both infecting bacterium at the species level and diagnose its susceptibility to antibiotics. Fourier-Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy is well known as a sensitive and rapid method, which can detect minor molecular changes in bacterial genome associated with the development of resistance to antibiotics. The main goal of this study is to examine the potential of FTIR spectroscopy, in tandem with machine learning algorithms, to identify the infected bacteria at the species level and to determine E. coli susceptibility to different antibiotics directly from patients' urine in about 30minutes. For this goal, 1600 different E. coli isolates were isolated for different patients' urine sample, measured by FTIR, and analyzed using different machine learning algorithm like Random Forest, XGBoost, and CNN. We achieved 98% success in isolate level identification and 89% accuracy in susceptibility determination.

Keywords: urinary tract infections (UTIs), E. coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, bacterial, susceptibility to antibiotics, infrared microscopy, machine learning

Procedia PDF Downloads 58
350 Circuit Models for Conducted Susceptibility Analyses of Multiconductor Shielded Cables

Authors: Saih Mohamed, Rouijaa Hicham, Ghammaz Abdelilah


This paper presents circuit models to analyze the conducted susceptibility of multiconductor shielded cables in frequency domains using Branin’s method, which is referred to as the method of characteristics. These models, Which can be used directly in the time and frequency domains, take into account the presence of both the transfer impedance and admittance. The conducted susceptibility is studied by using an injection current on the cable shield as the source. Two examples are studied, a coaxial shielded cable and shielded cables with two parallel wires (i.e., twinax cables). This shield has an asymmetry (one slot on the side). Results obtained by these models are in good agreement with those obtained by other methods.

Keywords: circuit models, multiconductor shielded cables, Branin’s method, coaxial shielded cable, twinax cables

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349 Insecticide Resistance Detection on Filarial Vector, Simulium (Simulium) nobile (Diptera: Simuliidae) in Malaysia

Authors: Chee Dhang Chen, Hiroyuki Takaoka, Koon Weng Lau, Poh Ruey Tan, Ai Chdon Chin, Van Lun Low, Abdul Aziz Azidah, Mohd Sofian-Azirun


Susceptibility status of Simulium (Simulium) nobile (Diptera: Simuliidae) adults obtained from Pahang, Malaysia was evaluated against 11 adulticides representing four major insecticide classes: organochlorines (DDT, dieldrin), organophosphates (malathion, fenitrothion), carbamates (bendiocarb, propoxur) and pyrethroids (etofenprox, deltamethrin, lambdacyhalothrin, permethrin, cyfluthrin). The adult bioassay was conducted according to WHO standard protocol to determine the insecticide susceptibility. Mortality at 24 h post treatment was used as indicator for susceptibility status. The results revealed that S. nobile obtained was susceptible to propoxur, cyfluthrin and bendiocarb with 100% mortality. S. nobile was resistant or exhibited some tolerant against lambdacyhalothrin and deltamethrin with mortality ranged ≥ 90% but < 98%. S. nobile populations in Pahang exhibited different level of resistant against 11 adulticides with mortality ranged from 60.00 ± 10.00 to 100.00 ± 0.00. In conclusion, S. nobile populations in Pahang were susceptible to propoxur, cyfluthrin and bendiocarb. The susceptibility status of S. nobile in descending order was propoxur, cyfluthrin > bendicarb > deltamethrin > lambdacyhalothrin > permethrin > etofenprox > DDT > malathion > fenitrothion > dieldrin. Regular surveys should be conducted to monitor the susceptibility status of this insect vector in order to prevent further development of resistance.

Keywords: black fly, adult bioassay, insecticide resistance, Malaysia

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348 Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) Polymorphism and Disease Resistance

Authors: Oya Bulut, Oguzhan Avci, Zafer Bulut, Atilla Simsek


Livestock breeders have focused on the improvement of production traits with little or no attention for improvement of disease resistance traits. In order to determine the association between the genetic structure of the individual gene loci with possibility of the occurrence and the development of diseases, MHC (major histocompatibility complex) are frequently used. Because of their importance in the immune system, MHC locus is considered as candidate genes for resistance/susceptibility against to different diseases. Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules play a critical role in both innate and adaptive immunity and have been considered candidate molecular markers of an association between polymorphisms and resistance/susceptibility to diseases. The purpose of this study is to give some information about MHC genes become an important area of study in recent years in terms of animal husbandry and determine the relation between MHC genes and resistance/susceptibility to disease.

Keywords: MHC, polymorphism, disease, resistance

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347 Comparing Stability Index MAPping (SINMAP) Landslide Susceptibility Models in the Río La Carbonera, Southeast Flank of Pico de Orizaba Volcano, Mexico

Authors: Gabriel Legorreta Paulin, Marcus I. Bursik, Lilia Arana Salinas, Fernando Aceves Quesada


In volcanic environments, landslides and debris flows occur continually along stream systems of large stratovolcanoes. This is the case on Pico de Orizaba volcano, the highest mountain in Mexico. The volcano has a great potential to impact and damage human settlements and economic activities by landslides. People living along the lower valleys of Pico de Orizaba volcano are in continuous hazard by the coalescence of upstream landslide sediments that increased the destructive power of debris flows. These debris flows not only produce floods, but also cause the loss of lives and property. Although the importance of assessing such process, there is few landslide inventory maps and landslide susceptibility assessment. As a result in México, no landslide susceptibility models assessment has been conducted to evaluate advantage and disadvantage of models. In this study, a comprehensive study of landslide susceptibility models assessment using GIS technology is carried out on the SE flank of Pico de Orizaba volcano. A detailed multi-temporal landslide inventory map in the watershed is used as framework for the quantitative comparison of two landslide susceptibility maps. The maps are created based on 1) the Stability Index MAPping (SINMAP) model by using default geotechnical parameters and 2) by using findings of volcanic soils geotechnical proprieties obtained in the field. SINMAP combines the factor of safety derived from the infinite slope stability model with the theory of a hydrologic model to produce the susceptibility map. It has been claimed that SINMAP analysis is reasonably successful in defining areas that intuitively appear to be susceptible to landsliding in regions with sparse information. The validations of the resulting susceptibility maps are performed by comparing them with the inventory map under LOGISNET system which provides tools to compare by using a histogram and a contingency table. Results of the experiment allow for establishing how the individual models predict the landslide location, advantages, and limitations. The results also show that although the model tends to improve with the use of calibrated field data, the landslide susceptibility map does not perfectly represent existing landslides.

Keywords: GIS, landslide, modeling, LOGISNET, SINMAP

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346 Liquefaction Susceptibility of Tailing Storage Facility-Comparison of National Centre for Earthquake Engineering Research and Finite Element Methods

Authors: Mehdi Ghatei, Masoomeh Lorestani


Upstream Tailings Storage Facilities (TSFs) may experience slope instabilities due to soil liquefaction, especially in regions known to be seismically active. In this study, liquefaction susceptibility of an upstream-raised TSF in Western Australia was assessed using two different approaches. The first approach assessed liquefaction susceptibility using Cone Penetration Tests with pore pressure measurement (CPTu) as described by the National Centre for Earthquake Engineering Research (NCEER). This assessment was based on the four CPTu tests that were conducted on the perimeter embankment of the TSF. The second approach used the Finite Element (FE) method with application of an equivalent linear model to predict the undrained cyclic behavior, the pore water pressure and the liquefaction of the materials. The tailings parameters were estimated from the CPTu profiles and from the laboratory tests. The cyclic parameters were estimated from the literature where test results of similar material were available. The results showed that there was a good agreement, in the liquefaction susceptibility of the tailings material, between the NCEER and FE methods with equivalent linear model.

Keywords: liquefaction , CPTU, NCEER, finite element method, equivalent linear model

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345 The Impact of P108L Genetic Variant on Calcium Release and Malignant Hyperthermia Susceptibility

Authors: Mohammed Althobiti, Patrick Booms, Dorota Fiszer, Philip Hopkins


Malignant hyperthermia (MH) is a pharmacogenetic disorder of skeletal muscle. MH results from anaesthetics induced breakdown of calcium homeostasis. RYR1 and CACN1AS mutations represent the aetiology in ~70% of the MH population. Previous studies indicate that up to 25% of MH patients carry no variants in these genes. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate the relationships between MH susceptibility and genes encoding skeletal muscle Ca2+ channels as well as accessory proteins. The JSRP, encoding JP-45, was previously sequenced and novel genetic variants were identified. The variant p.P108L (c.323C > T) was identified in exon 4 and encodes a change from a proline at amino acid 108 to leucine residue. The variant P108L was detected in two patients out of 50 with 4% frequency in the sample population. The alignment of DNA sequences in different species indicates highly conserved proline sequences involved in the substitution of the P108L variant. In this study, the variant P108L co-segregates with the SNP p.V92A (c.275T > C) at the same exon, both variants being inherited in the same two patients only. This indicates that the two variants may represent a haplotype. Therefore, a set of single nucleotide polymorphisms and statistical analysis will be used to investigate the effects of haplotypes on MH susceptibility. Furthermore, investigating the effect of the P108L variant in combination with RYR1 mutations or other genetic variants in other genes as a combination of two or more genetic variants, haplotypes may then provide stronger genetic evidence indicating that JSRP1 is associated with MH susceptibility. In conclusion, these preliminary results lend a potential modifier role of the variant P108L in JSRP1 in MH susceptibility and further investigations are suggested to confirm these results.

Keywords: JSRP1, malignant hyperthermia, RyR1, skeletal muscle

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344 The Reconstruction of Paleoenvironment Aptian Sediments of the Massive Serdj, North Central Tunisia

Authors: H. Khaled, F. Chaabani, F. Boulvain


This paper focuses on the studied of Aptian series that crops out at the Jebel Serdj in the north central Tunisia. The study series is about 590 meters thick and it is consisting of limestones, marly limestones associated with some levels of siltstones and marls. Two sections are studied in detail regarding lithology, microfacies, magnetic susceptibility and mineralogical composition to provide new insights into the paleoenvironmental evolution and paleoclimatological implications during this period. The following facies associations representing different ramp palaeoenvironments have been identified: mudstone–wackestone outer ramp facies; skeletal grainstone- packstone mid-ramp facies, packstone-grainstone inner-ramp facies which include a variety of organisms such as rudists and ooids and mudstone–wackestone coastal facies rich with miliolidea and orbitolines. The magnetic susceptibility (Xᵢₙ) of all samples was compared with the lithological and microfacies variation. We show that high values of magnetic susceptibility are correlated with the distal facies.

Keywords: Aptian, Serdj Formation, geochemical, mineralogy

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343 Liquefaction Assessment of Marine Soil in Western Yemen Region Based on Laboratory and Field Tests

Authors: Monalisha Nayak, T. G. Sitharam


Liquefaction is a major threat for sites consists of or on sandy soil. But this present study concentrates on the behavior of fine soil under cyclic loading. This paper presents the study of liquefaction susceptibility of marine silty clay to clayey silt for an offshore site near western Yemen. The submerged and loose sediment condition of marine soil of an offshore site can favour liquefaction during earthquakes. In this regard, the liquefaction susceptibility of the site was carried out based on both field test results and laboratory test results. From field test results of seismic cone penetration test (SCPT), liquefaction susceptibility was assessed considering normalized cone tip resistance, and normalized friction ratio and results give an idea regarding both cyclic mobility and flow liquefaction. Laboratory cyclic triaxial tests were also conducted on saturated undisturbed and remoulded sample to study the effect of cyclic loading on strength and strain characteristics. Liquefaction susceptibility of the marine soft soil was also carried out based on index properties like grain size distribution, natural moisture content and liquid limit of soil.

Keywords: index properties, liquefaction, marine soil, seismic cone penetration test (SCPT)

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342 Different Data-Driven Bivariate Statistical Approaches to Landslide Susceptibility Mapping (Uzundere, Erzurum, Turkey)

Authors: Azimollah Aleshzadeh, Enver Vural Yavuz


The main goal of this study is to produce landslide susceptibility maps using different data-driven bivariate statistical approaches; namely, entropy weight method (EWM), evidence belief function (EBF), and information content model (ICM), at Uzundere county, Erzurum province, in the north-eastern part of Turkey. Past landslide occurrences were identified and mapped from an interpretation of high-resolution satellite images, and earlier reports as well as by carrying out field surveys. In total, 42 landslide incidence polygons were mapped using ArcGIS 10.4.1 software and randomly split into a construction dataset 70 % (30 landslide incidences) for building the EWM, EBF, and ICM models and the remaining 30 % (12 landslides incidences) were used for verification purposes. Twelve layers of landslide-predisposing parameters were prepared, including total surface radiation, maximum relief, soil groups, standard curvature, distance to stream/river sites, distance to the road network, surface roughness, land use pattern, engineering geological rock group, topographical elevation, the orientation of slope, and terrain slope gradient. The relationships between the landslide-predisposing parameters and the landslide inventory map were determined using different statistical models (EWM, EBF, and ICM). The model results were validated with landslide incidences, which were not used during the model construction. In addition, receiver operating characteristic curves were applied, and the area under the curve (AUC) was determined for the different susceptibility maps using the success (construction data) and prediction (verification data) rate curves. The results revealed that the AUC for success rates are 0.7055, 0.7221, and 0.7368, while the prediction rates are 0.6811, 0.6997, and 0.7105 for EWM, EBF, and ICM models, respectively. Consequently, landslide susceptibility maps were classified into five susceptibility classes, including very low, low, moderate, high, and very high. Additionally, the portion of construction and verification landslides incidences in high and very high landslide susceptibility classes in each map was determined. The results showed that the EWM, EBF, and ICM models produced satisfactory accuracy. The obtained landslide susceptibility maps may be useful for future natural hazard mitigation studies and planning purposes for environmental protection.

Keywords: entropy weight method, evidence belief function, information content model, landslide susceptibility mapping

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341 Evaluation of the Microscopic-Observation Drug-Susceptibility Assay Drugs Concentration for Detection of Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis

Authors: Anita, Sari Septiani Tangke, Rusdina Bte Ladju, Nasrum Massi


New diagnostic tools are urgently needed to interrupt the transmission of tuberculosis and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. The microscopic-observation drug-susceptibility (MODS) assay is a rapid, accurate and simple liquid culture method to detect multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). MODS were evaluated to determine a lower and same concentration of isoniazid and rifampin for detection of MDR-TB. Direct drug-susceptibility testing was performed with the use of the MODS assay. Drug-sensitive control strains were tested daily. The drug concentrations that used for both isoniazid and rifampin were at the same concentration: 0.16, 0.08 and 0.04μg per milliliter. We tested 56 M. tuberculosis clinical isolates and the control strains M. tuberculosis H37RV. All concentration showed same result. Of 53 M. tuberculosis clinical isolates, 14 were MDR-TB, 38 were susceptible with isoniazid and rifampin, 1 was resistant with isoniazid only. Drug-susceptibility testing was performed with the use of the proportion method using Mycobacteria Growth Indicator Tube (MGIT) system as reference. The result of MODS assay using lower concentration was significance (P<0.001) compare with the reference methods. A lower and same concentration of isoniazid and rifampin can be used to detect MDR-TB. Operational cost and application can be more efficient and easier in resource-limited environments. However, additional studies evaluating the MODS using lower and same concentration of isoniazid and rifampin must be conducted with a larger number of clinical isolates.

Keywords: isoniazid, MODS assay, MDR-TB, rifampin

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