Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 23

Search results for: chemokine

23 Non-Signaling Chemokine Receptor CCRL1 and Its Active Counterpart CCR7 in Prostate Cancer

Authors: Yiding Qu, Svetlana V. Komarova

Abstract:

Chemokines acting through their cognate chemokine receptors guide the directional migration of the cell along the chemokine gradient. Several chemokine receptors were recently identified as non-signaling (decoy), based on their ability to bind the chemokine but produce no measurable signal in the cell. The function of these decoy receptors is not well understood. We examined the expression of a decoy receptor CCRL1 and a signaling receptor that binds to the same ligands, CCR7, in prostate cancer using publically available microarray data (www.oncomine.org). The expression of both CCRL1 and CCR7 increased in an approximately half of prostate carcinoma samples and the majority of metastatic cancer samples compared to normal prostate. Moreover, the expression of CCRL1 positively correlated with the expression of CCR7. These data suggest that CCR7 and CCRL1 can be used as clinical markers for the early detection of transformation from carcinoma to metastatic cancer. In addition, these data support our hypothesis that the non-signaling chemokine receptors actively stimulate cell migration.

Keywords: bioinformatics, cell migration, decoy receptor, meta-analysis, prostate cancer

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22 Determination of the CCR5Δ32 Frequency in Emiratis and Tunisians and Screening of the CCR5 Gene for Novel Alleles in Emiratis

Authors: Sara A. Al-Jaberi, Salma Ben-Salem, Meriam Messedi, Fatma Ayadi, Lihadh Al-Gazali, Bassam R. Ali

Abstract:

Background: The chemokine receptor components play crucial roles in the immune system and some of them serve as co-receptors for the HIV virus. Several studies have documented those variants in chemokine receptors are correlated with susceptibility and resistance to infection with HIV virus. For example, mutations in the chemokine receptor 5 gene (CCR5) resulting in loss-of-function (such as the homozygous CCR5Δ32) confer high degree of resistance to HIV infection. Heterozygotes for these variants exhibit slow progression to AIDS. The prevalence of CCR5 polymorphisms varies among ethnic and geographical groups. For example, the CCR5 Δ32 variant is present in 10–15% of north Europeans but is rarely encountered among Africans. This study aims to identify the prevalence of some CCR5 variants in two geographically distant Arab populations (namely Emiratis and Tunisians). Methodology: The prevalence of CCR5 gene variants including CCR5Δ32, FS299, C101X, A29S and C178R has been determined using PCR and direct DNA sequencing. A total of 403 unrelated healthy individuals (253 Emiratis and 150 Tunisians) were genotyped for the CCR5Δ32 variant using PCR amplification and gel electrophoresis. In addition, 200 Emiratis have been screened for other SNPs using Sanger DNA sequencing. Results: Among Emiratis, the allele frequency of the CCR5Δ32 variant has been found to be 0.002. In addition, two variants L55Q and A159 were found at a frequency of 0.002.Moreover, the prevalence of the CCR5Δ32 variant in Tunisians was estimated to be 0.013 which is relatively higher than its frequency in Emiratis but lower than Europeans. Conclusion: We conclude that the allele frequency of the most critical CCR5 polymorphism (Δ32) is extremely low among Emiratis compared to other Arabs and North Europeans. In addition, very low allele frequencies of other CCR5 polymorphisms have been detected among Emiratis.

Keywords: chemokine receptors, CCR5Δ32, CCR5 polymorphisms, Emiratis, Arab populations

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21 The Role of Chemokine Family, CXCL-10 Urine as a Marker Diagnosis of Active Lung Tuberculosis in HIV/AIDS Patients

Authors: Dwitya Elvira, Raveinal Masri, Rohayat Bilmahdi

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Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) pandemic increased significantly worldwide. The rise in cases of HIV/AIDS was also followed by an increase in the incidence of opportunistic infection, with tuberculosis being the most opportunistic infection found in HIV/AIDS and the main cause of mortality in HIV/AIDS patients. Diagnosis of tuberculosis in HIV/AIDS patients is often difficult because of the uncommon symptom in HIV/AIDS patients compared to those without the disease. Thus, diagnostic tools are required that are more effective and efficient to diagnose tuberculosis in HIV/AIDS. CXCL-10/IP-10 is a chemokine that binds to the CXCR3 receptor found in HIV/AIDS patients with a weakened immune system. Tuberculosis infection in HIV/AIDS activates chemokine IP-10 in urine, which is used as a marker for diagnosis of infection. The aim of this study was to prove whether IP-10 urine can be a biomarker diagnosis of active lung tuberculosis in HIV-AIDS patients. Design of this study is a cross sectional study involving HIV/AIDS patients with lung tuberculosis as the subject of this study. Forty-seven HIV/AIDS patients with tuberculosis based on clinical and biochemical laboratory were asked to collect urine samples and IP-10/CXCL-10 urine being measured using ELISA method with 18 healthy human urine samples as control. Forty-seven patients diagnosed as HIV/AIDS were included as a subject of this study. HIV/AIDS were more common in male than in women with the percentage in male 85.1% vs. 14.5% of women. In this study, most diagnosed patients were aged 31-40 years old, followed by those 21-30 years, and > 40 years old, with one case diagnosed at age less than 20 years of age. From the result of the urine IP-10 using ELISA method, there was significant increase of the mean value of IP-10 urine in patients with TB-HIV/AIDS co-infection compared to the healthy control with mean 61.05 pg/mL ± 78.01 pg/mL vs. mean 17.2 pg/mL. Based on this research, there was significant increase of urine IP-10/CXCL-10 in active lung tuberculosis with HIV/AIDS compared to the healthy control. From this finding, it is necessary to conduct further research into whether urine IP-10/CXCL-10 plays a significant role in TB-HIV/AIDS co-infection, which can also be used as a biomarker in the early diagnosis of TB-HIV.

Keywords: chemokine, HIV/AIDS, IP-10 urine, tuberculosis

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20 Role of Lipid-Lowering Treatment in the Monocyte Phenotype and Chemokine Receptor Levels after Acute Myocardial Infarction

Authors: Carolina N. França, Jônatas B. do Amaral, Maria C.O. Izar, Ighor L. Teixeira, Francisco A. Fonseca

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Introduction: Atherosclerosis is a progressive disease, characterized by lipid and fibrotic element deposition in large-caliber arteries. Conditions related to the development of atherosclerosis, as dyslipidemia, hypertension, diabetes, and smoking are associated with endothelial dysfunction. There is a frequent recurrence of cardiovascular outcomes after acute myocardial infarction and, at this sense, cycles of mobilization of monocyte subtypes (classical, intermediate and nonclassical) secondary to myocardial infarction may determine the colonization of atherosclerotic plaques in different stages of the development, contributing to early recurrence of ischemic events. The recruitment of different monocyte subsets during inflammatory process requires the expression of chemokine receptors CCR2, CCR5, and CX3CR1, to promote the migration of monocytes to the inflammatory site. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of lipid-lowering treatment by six months in the monocyte phenotype and chemokine receptor levels of patients after Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI). Methods: This is a PROBE (prospective, randomized, open-label trial with blinded endpoints) study (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02428374). Adult patients (n=147) of both genders, ageing 18-75 years, were randomized in a 2x2 factorial design for treatment with rosuvastatin 20 mg/day or simvastatin 40 mg/day plus ezetimibe 10 mg/day as well as ticagrelor 90 mg 2x/day and clopidogrel 75 mg, in addition to conventional AMI therapy. Blood samples were collected at baseline, after one month and six months of treatment. Monocyte subtypes (classical - inflammatory, intermediate - phagocytic and nonclassical – anti-inflammatory) were identified, quantified and characterized by flow cytometry, as well as the expressions of the chemokine receptors (CCR2, CCR5 and CX3CR1) were also evaluated in the mononuclear cells. Results: After six months of treatment, there was an increase in the percentage of classical monocytes and reduction in the nonclassical monocytes (p=0.038 and p < 0.0001 Friedman Test), without differences for intermediate monocytes. Besides, classical monocytes had higher expressions of CCR5 and CX3CR1 after treatment, without differences related to CCR2 (p < 0.0001 for CCR5 and CX3CR1; p=0.175 for CCR2). Intermediate monocytes had higher expressions of CCR5 and CX3CR1 and lower expression of CCR2 (p = 0.003; p < 0.0001 and p = 0.011, respectively). Nonclassical monocytes had lower expressions of CCR2 and CCR5, without differences for CX3CR1 (p < 0.0001; p = 0.009 and p = 0.138, respectively). There were no differences after the comparison between the four treatment arms. Conclusion: The data suggest a time-dependent modulation of classical and nonclassical monocytes and chemokine receptor levels. The higher percentage of classical monocytes (inflammatory cells) suggest a residual inflammatory risk, even under preconized treatments to AMI. Indeed, these changes do not seem to be affected by choice of the lipid-lowering strategy.

Keywords: acute myocardial infarction, chemokine receptors, lipid-lowering treatment, monocyte subtypes

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19 Homing of B Cells via Afferent Lymphatics

Authors: Sara Pereira-Nogueira, Tim Worbs, Marc Permanyer-Bosser, Reinhold Förster

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While the entry mechanism of lymphocytes into the lymph node via the blood are well described, it is still largely unknown how cells enter lymph nodes that arrive via afferent lymphatics. In order to address this, our group has established a micro-injection technique in mice through which cells are delivered directly into the lymphatic vessel immediately afferent to the popliteal lymph node. Injected cells can then be tracked via multi-colour fluorescence or 2-photon microscopy, and their localization can be analysed within the popliteal or downstream lymph nodes by immunohistology. Since naïve B cells express the chemokine receptor CXCR5 we intra-lymphatically co-injected B cells derived from wildtype and Cxcr5-deficient mice. While CXCR5 does not play a role in guiding B cells out of the subcapsular sinus, it affects their positioning within the lymph node parenchyma, since CXCR5-deficient B cells are impaired in migrating into the B cell follicle. The knowledge obtained by studying B-cell migration may prove beneficial in clinical settings regarding tumor metastasis or autoimmune diseases.

Keywords: afferent lymphatics, B cell migration, chemokine, intra-lymphatic injection

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18 Regulation of the Regeneration of Epidermal Langerhans Cells by Stress Hormone

Authors: Junichi Hosoi

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Epidermal Langerhans cells reside in upper layer of epidermis and play a role in immune surveillance. The finding of the close association of nerve endings to Langerhans cells triggered the research on systemic regulation of Langerhans cells. They disappear from epidermis after exposure to environmental and internal stimuli and reappear about a week later. Myeloid progenitor cells are assumed to be one of the sources of Langerhans cells. We examined the effects of cortisol on the reappearance of Langerhans cells in vitro. Cord-blood derived CD34-positive cells were cultured in the medium supplemented with stem cell factor/Flt3 ligand/granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor/tumor necrosis factor alpha/bone morphologic protein 7/transforming growth factor beta in the presence or absence of cortisol. Cells were analyzed by flow cytometry for CD1a (cluster differentiation 1a), a marker of Langerhans cells and dermal dendritic cells, and CD39 (cluster differentiation factor 39), extracellular adenosine triphosphatase. Both CD1a-positive cells and CD39-positive cells were decreased by treatment with cortisol (suppression by 35% and 22% compared to no stress hormone, respectively). Differentiated Langerhans cells are attracted to epidermis by chemokines that are secreted from keratinocytes. Epidermal keratinocytes were cultured in the presence or absence of cortisol and analyzed for the expression of CCL2 (C-C motif chemokine ligand 2) and CCL20 (C-C motif chemokine ligand 20), which are typical attractants of Langerhans cells, by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. The expression of both chemokines, CCL2 and CCL20, were suppressed by treatment with cortisol (suppression by 38% and 48% compared to no stress hormone, respectively). We examined the possible regulation of the suppression by cortisol with plant extracts. The extracts of Ganoderma lucidum and Iris protected the suppression of the differentiation to CD39-positive cells and also the suppression of the gene expression of LC-chemoattractants. These results suggest that cortisol, which is either systemic or locally produced, blocks the supply of epidermal Langerhans cells at 2 steps, differentiation from the precursor and attraction to epidermis. The suppression is possibly blocked by some plant extracts.

Keywords: Langerhans cell, stress, CD39, chemokine

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17 MiRNA Regulation of CXCL12β during Inflammation

Authors: Raju Ranjha, Surbhi Aggarwal

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Background: Inflammation plays an important role in infectious and non-infectious diseases. MiRNA is also reported to play role in inflammation and associated cancers. Chemokine CXCL12 is also known to play role in inflammation and various cancers. CXCL12/CXCR4 chemokine axis was involved in pathogenesis of IBD specially UC. Supplementation of CXCL12 induces homing of dendritic cells to spleen and enhances control of plasmodium parasite in BALB/c mice. We looked at the regulation of CXCL12β by miRNA in UC colitis. Prolonged inflammation of colon in UC patient increases the risk of developing colorectal cancer. We looked at the expression differences of CXCl12β and its targeting miRNA in cancer susceptible area of colon of UC patients. Aim: Aim of this study was to find out the expression regulation of CXCL12β by miRNA in inflammation. Materials and Methods: Biopsy samples and blood samples were collected from UC patients and non-IBD controls. mRNA expression was analyzed using microarray and real-time PCR. CXCL12β targeting miRNA were looked by using online target prediction tools. Expression of CXCL12β in blood samples and cell line supernatant was analyzed using ELISA. miRNA target was validated using dual luciferase assay. Results and conclusion: We found miR-200a regulate the expression of CXCL12β in UC. Expression of CXCL12β was increased in cancer susceptible part of colon and expression of its targeting miRNA was decreased in the same part of colon. miR-200a regulate CXCL12β expression in inflammation and may be an important therapeutic target in inflammation associated cancer.

Keywords: inflammation, miRNA, regulation, CXCL12

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16 Clinical and Chemokine Profile in Leprosy Patients During Multidrug Therapy (MDT) and Their Healthy Contacts: A Randomized Control Trial

Authors: Rohit Kothari

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Background: Leprosyis a chronic granulomatous diseasecaused by Mycobacterium leprae (M. Lepra). Reactions may interrupt its usual chronic course.Type-1 (T1R)and type-2 lepra reaction(T2R) are acute events and signifytype-IV and type-III hypersensitivity responses, respectively. Various chemokines like CCL3, 5, 11, and CCL24 may be increased during the course of leprosy or during reactions and may serve as markers of early diagnosis, response to therapy, and prognosis. Objective: To find correlation of CCL3, 5, 11, and CCL24 in leprosy patients on multidrug therapy and their family contacts after ruling out active disease during leprosy treatment and during periods of lepra reactions. Methodology: This randomized control trial was conducted in 50 clinico-histopathologically diagnosed cases of leprosy in a tertiary care hospital in Bengaluru, India. 50 of their family contacts were adequately examined and investigated should the need be to rule out active disease. The two study-groups comprised of leprosy cases, and the age, sex, and area of residence matched healthy contactswho were given single-dose rifampicin prophylaxis, respectively. Blood samples were taken at baseline, six months, and after one yearin both the groups (on completion of MDT in leprosy cases)and also during periods of reaction if occurred in leprosy cases. Results: Our study found that at baseline, CCL5, 11, and 24 were higher in leprosy cases as compared to the healthy contacts, and the difference was statistically significant.CCL3 was also found to be higherat baseline in leprosy cases, however, the difference was not statistically significant. At six months and one year, the levels of CCL 5, 11, and 24 reduced, and the difference was statistically significant in leprosy cases, whereas it remained almost static in all the healthy contacts. Twenty patients of leprosy developed lepra reaction during the course of one year, and during reaction, the increase in CCL11 and 24 was statistically significant from baseline, whereas CCL3 and 5 did not rise significantly. One of the healthy contacts developed signs of leprosy in the form of hypopigmented numb patch and was clinico-histopathologically, and CCL11 and 24 were found to be higher with a statistically significant difference from the baseline values. Conclusion: CCL5, 11, and 24 are sensitive markers of diagnosing leprosy, response to MDT, and prognosis and are not increased in healthy contacts. CCL11 and 24 are sensitive markers of lepra reactions and may serve as one of the early diagnostic modalities for identifying lepra reaction and also leprosy in healthy contacts. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to evaluate these biomarkers in leprosy cases and their healthy contacts with a follow-up of upto one year with one of them developing the disease, and the same was confirmed based on these biomarkers as well.

Keywords: chemokine profile, healthy contacts, leprosy, lepra reactions

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15 Serum Concentration of the CCL7 Chemokine in Diabetic Pregnant Women during Pregnancy until the Postpartum Period

Authors: Fernanda Piculo, Giovana Vesentini, Gabriela Marini, Debora Cristina Damasceno, Angelica Mercia Pascon Barbosa, Marilza Vieira Cunha Rudge

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Introduction: Women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) were significantly more likely to have urinary incontinence (UI) and pelvic floor muscle dysfunction compared to non-diabetic women two years after a cesarean section. Additional results demonstrated that induced diabetes causes detrimental effects on pregnant rat urethral muscle. These results indicate the need for exploration of the mechanistic role of a recovery factor in female UI. Chemokine ligand 7 (CCL7) was significantly over expressed in rat serum, urethral and vaginal tissues immediately following induction of stress UI in a rat model simulating birth trauma. CCL7 over expression has shown potency for stimulating targeted stem cell migration and provide a translational link (clinical measurement) which further provide opportunities for treatment. The aim of this study was to investigate the CCL7 levels profile in diabetic pregnant women with urinary incontinence during pregnancy over the first year postpartum. Methods: This study was conducted in the Perinatal Diabetes Research Center of the Botucatu Medical School/UNESP, and was approved by the Research Ethics Committee of the Institution (CAAE: 20639813.0.0000.5411). The diagnosis of GDM was established between 24th and 28th gestational weeks, by the 75 g-OGTT test according to ADA’s criteria. Urinary incontinence was defined according to the International Continence Society and the CCL7 levels was measured by ELISA (R&D Systems, Catalog Number DCC700). Two hundred twelve women were classified into four study groups: normoglycemic continent (NC), normoglycemic incontinent (NI), diabetic continent (DC) and diabetic incontinent (DI). They were evaluated at six-time-points: 12-18, 24-28 and 34-38 gestational weeks, 24-48 hours, 6 weeks and 6-12 months postpartum. Results: At 12-18 weeks, it was possible to consider only two groups, continent and incontinent, because at this early gestational period has not yet been the diagnosis of GDM. The group with GDM and UI (DI group) showed lower levels of CCL7 in all time points during pregnancy and postpartum, compared to normoglycemic groups (NC and NI), indicating that these women have not recovered from child birth induced UI during the 6-12 months postpartum compared to their controls, and that the progression of UI and/or lack of recovery throughout the first postpartum year can be related with lower levels of CCL7. Instead, serum CCL7 was significantly increased in the NC group. Taken together, these findings of overexpression of CCL7 in the NC group and decreased levels in the DI group, could confirm that diabetes delays the recovery from child birth induced UI, and that CCL7 could potentially be used as a serum marker of injury. Conclusion: This study demonstrates lower levels of CCL7 in the DI group during pregnancy and postpartum and suggests that the progression of UI in diabetic women and/or lack of recovery throughout the first postpartum year can be related with low levels of CCL7. This provides a translational potential where CCL7 measurement could be used as a surrogate for injury after delivery. Successful controlled CCL7 mediated stem cell homing to the lower urinary tract could one day introduce the potential for non-operative treatment or prevention of stress urinary incontinence.

Keywords: CCL7, gestational diabetes, pregnancy, urinary incontinence

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14 Network Based Molecular Profiling of Intracranial Ependymoma over Spinal Ependymoma

Authors: Hyeon Su Kim, Sungjin Park, Hae Ryung Chang, Hae Rim Jung, Young Zoo Ahn, Yon Hui Kim, Seungyoon Nam

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Ependymoma, one of the most common parenchymal spinal cord tumor, represents 3-6% of all CNS tumor. Especially intracranial ependymomas, which are more frequent in childhood, have a more poor prognosis and more malignant than spinal ependymomas. Although there are growing needs to understand pathogenesis, detailed molecular understanding of pathogenesis remains to be explored. A cancer cell is composed of complex signaling pathway networks, and identifying interaction between genes and/or proteins are crucial for understanding these pathways. Therefore, we explored each ependymoma in terms of differential expressed genes and signaling networks. We used Microsoft Excel™ to manipulate microarray data gathered from NCBI’s GEO Database. To analyze and visualize signaling network, we used web-based PATHOME algorithm and Cytoscape. We show HOX family and NEFL are down-regulated but SCL family is up-regulated in cerebrum and posterior fossa cancers over a spinal cancer, and JAK/STAT signaling pathway and Chemokine signaling pathway are significantly different in the both intracranial ependymoma comparing to spinal ependymoma. We are considering there may be an age-dependent mechanism under different histological pathogenesis. We annotated mutation data of each gene subsequently in order to find potential target genes.

Keywords: systems biology, ependymoma, deg, network analysis

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13 Lipoic Acid Accelerates Wound Healing by Diminishing Pro-Inflammatory Markers and Chemokine Expression in Rheumatoid Arthritis Mouse Model

Authors: Khairy M. A. Zoheir

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One of the most severe complications of Rheumatoid arthritis is delayed recovery. lipoic acid possesses antioxidant, hypoglycemic, and anti-inflammatory activity. In the present study, the effects of lipoic acid was investigated on the key mediators of Rheumatoid arthritis, namely, CD4+CD25+ T cell subsets, GITR expressing cells, CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells, T-helper-17 (Th17) cells, and pro-inflammatory cytokines Interleukin-1β (IL-1β), Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and Tumor Necrosis Factor- α (TNF-α)] through flow-cytometry and qPCR analyses. Lipoic acid treated mice showed a significant decrease in the Rheumatoid arthritis, the frequency of GITR-expressing cells, and Th1 cytokines (IL-17A, TNF-αand Interferon- γ (IFN-γ) compared with positive and negative controlled mice. Lipoic acid treatment also down regulated the mRNA expression of the inflammatory mediators compared with the Rheumatoid arthritis mouse model and untreated mice. The number of Tregs also found to be significantly upregulated in lipoic acid treated mice. Our results were confirmed by the histopathological examination. This study showed the beneficial role of lipoic acid in promoting a well-balanced tool for therapy Rheumatoid arthritis.

Keywords: lipoic acid, chemokines, inflammatory, rheumatoid arthritis

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12 Synthesis of a Library of Substituted Isoquinolines Based on a Triazolization Strategy, and Their Anti-HIV and C-X-C Chemokine Receptor Type 4 Antagonist Activity

Authors: Mastaneh Safarnejad Shad, Wim Dehaen, Steven De Jonghe

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Since CXCR4 is the main coreceptor of HIV-1 and plays an important role in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) entry, numerous efforts were directed towards the discovery of new classes of small molecules that act as CXCR4 antagonists. In addition, CXCR4 antagonists are potentially useful in the treatment of several other disorders, such as cancer cell metastasis, leukemia cell proliferation, rheumatoid arthritis, and pulmonary fibrosis. Since AMD3100 (plerixafor) is the only CXCR4 antagonist which obtained approval by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), we were motivated to investigate a new category of molecules as CXCR4 antagonists. Most of the scaffolds which have been studied so far as CXCR4 antagonists are based on the tetrahydroquinoline (THQ) moiety in which AMD11070 (mavorixafor), GSK-812394, and TIQ15 displayed the most potent CXCR4 antagonism. Due to the high potency of these scaffolds, two different series of compounds were prepared in this work. In the first set, the THQ moiety is coupled to an amine chain and various isoquinoline derivatives (prepared by an in-house developed triazolization strategy), of which the upper part of molecules is identical to AMD11070 and TIQ15. In the second category of compounds, the THQ moiety was simplified by the synthesis of a substituted pyridine moiety. In order to investigate if CXCR4 antagonism requires the presence of an isoquinoline moiety, the corresponding pyridine analogues were also prepared. In both series of compounds, potent CXCR4 antagonism was noticed.

Keywords: CXCR4 coreceptor, CXCR4 antagonists, HIV inhibitor, tetrahydroquinoline

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11 Cytokine Changes of Auricular Point Acupressure to Manage Aromatase Inhibitor-Induced Arthralgia in Postmenopausal Breast Cancer Survivors

Authors: Chao Hsing Yeh, Wei Chun Lin

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Background: Current management of aromatase inhibitor-induced arthralgia (AIA) in postmenopausal breast cancer survivors (PBCS) has limited effect. Method: In this prospective randomized clinical trial (RCT), a 4-week APA treatment was used to manage AIA. Twenty PBCS participated. After baseline data was collected, participants were waited for a month before they receive APA at a convenient time once a week for 4 weeks. Blood samples from participants in both groups were collected at baseline and after 4 weeks of treatment. The primary outcomes included: pain intensity, pain interference, stiffness, and physical function. Results: After the 4-week APA treatment, the pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines display a trend of mean percentage reduction (i.e., -22% in IL-1α, -4% in IL-1β, -1% in IL-2, -3% in IL-6, -19% in IL-12, -9% in Eotaxin, and -2% in MCP-1). The anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 and IL-13 (i.e., 5% in IL-10 and 29% in IL-13) increased from pre- to post-APA treatment. Significant positive correlation of percentage mean change was observed between symptom severity and eotaxin (ρ = 0.56; p < 0.01) & MCP-1 (ρ = 0.65; p < 0.01). Interference and chemokines (eotaxin & MIP-1) also shows positive correlation (ρ = 0.48; p < 0.01 & ρ = 0.39; p < 0.05). Another positive correlation was found between worst pain and chemokines (eotaxin, ρ = 0.48; p < 0.01 & MIP-1, ρ = 0.39; p < 0.05). Additionally, interference also shows positive correlation among IL-1α (ρ = 0.36; p < 0.05) and IL-β (ρ = 0.33; p < 0.05). Conclusion: These findings suggest that APA intervention may inhibit inflammation of AIA patients and chemokine could be one of the key factors of AIA symptom improvement.

Keywords: acupressure, cytokine, pain management, breast cancer survivors

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10 Uncovering Anti-Hypertensive Obesity Targets and Mechanisms of Metformin, an Anti-Diabetic Medication

Authors: Lu Yang, Keng Po Lai

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Metformin, a well-known clinical drug against diabetes, is found with potential anti-diabetic and anti-obese benefits, as reported in increasing evidences. However, the current clinical and experimental investigations are not to reveal the detailed mechanisms of metformin-anti-obesity/hypertension. We have used the bioinformatics strategy, including network pharmacology and molecular docking methodology, to uncover the key targets and pathways of bioactive compounds against clinical disorders, such as cancers, coronavirus disease. Thus, in this report, the in-silico approach was utilized to identify the hug targets, pharmacological function, and mechanism of metformin against obesity and hypertension. The networking analysis identified 154 differentially expressed genes of obesity and hypertension, 21 interaction genes, and 6 hug genes of metformin treating hypertensive obesity. As a result, the molecular docking findings indicated the potent binding capability of metformin with the key proteins, including interleukin 6 (IL-6) and chemokine (C-C motif) Ligand 2 (CCL2), in hypertensive obesity. The metformin-exerted anti-hypertensive obesity action involved in metabolic regulation, inflammatory reaction. And the anti-hypertensive obesity mechanisms of metformin were revealed, including regulation of inflammatory and immunological signaling pathways for metabolic homeostasis in tissue and microenvironmental melioration in blood pressure. In conclusion, our identified findings with bioinformatics analysis have demonstrated the detailed hug and pharmacological targets, biological functions, and signaling pathways of metformin treating hypertensive obesity.

Keywords: metformin, obesity, hypertension, bioinformatics findings

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9 Rapid Weight Loss in Athletes: A Look at Suppressive Effects on Immune System

Authors: Nazari Maryam, Gorji Saman

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For most competitions, athletes usually engage in a process called rapid weight loss (RWL) and subsequent rapid weight gain (RWG) in the days preceding the event. Besides the perfection of performance, weight regulation mediates a self-image of being “a real athlete” which is mentally important as a part of the pre-competition preparation. This feeling enhances the focus and commitment of the athlete. There is a large body of evidence that weight loss, particularly in combat sports, results in several health benefits. However, intentional weight loss beyond normal levels might have unknown negative special effects on the immune system. As the results show, a high prevalence (50%) of RWL is happening among combat athletes. It seems that energy deprivation and intense exercise to reach RWL results in altered blood cell distribution through modification of body composition that, in turn, changes B and T-Lymphocyte and/or CD4 T-Helper response. Moreover, it may diminish IgG antibody levels and modulate IgG glycosylation after this course. On the other hand, some studies show suppression of signaling and regulation of IgE antibody and chemokine production are responsible for immunodeficiency following a period of low-energy availability. Some researchers hypothesize that severe glutamine depletion, which occurs during exercise and calorie restriction, is responsible for this immune system weakness. However, supplementation by this amino acid is not prescribed yet. Therefore, weight loss is achieved not only through chronic strategies (body fat losses) but also through acute manipulations prior to competition should be supervised by a sports nutritionist to minimize side effects on the immune system and other body systems.

Keywords: athletes, immune system, rapid weight loss, weight loss strategies

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8 CCR5 as an Ideal Candidate for Immune Gene Therapy and Modification for the Induced Resistance to HIV-1 Infection

Authors: Alieh Farshbaf, Tayyeb Bahrami

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Introduction: Cc-chemokine receptor-5 (CCR5) is known as a main co-receptor in human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) infection. Many studies showed 32bp deletion (Δ32) in CCR5 gene, provide natural resistance to HIV-1 infection in homozygous individuals. Inducing the resistance mechanism by CCR5 in HIV-1 infected patients eliminated many problems of highly-active-anti retroviral therapy (HAART) drugs like as low safety, side-effects and virus rebounding from latent reservoirs. New treatments solved some restrictions that are based on gene modification and cell therapy. Literature review: The stories of the “Berlin and Boston patients” showed autologous hematopoietic stem cells transplantation (HSCT) could provide effective cure of HIV-1 infected patients. Furthermore, gene modification by zinc finger nuclease (ZFN) demonstrated another successful result again. Despite the other studies for gene therapy by ∆32 genotype, there is another mutation -CCR5 ∆32/m303- that provides HIV-1 resistant. It is a heterozygote genotype for ∆32 and T→A point mutation at nucleotide 303. These results approved the key role of CCR5 gene. Conclusion: Recent studies showed immune gene therapy and cell therapy could provide effective cure for refractory disease like as HIV. Eradication of HIV-1 from immune system was not observed by HAART, because of reloading virus genome from latent reservoirs after stopping them. It is showed that CCR5 could induce natural resistant to HIV-1 infection by the new approaches based on stem cell transplantation and gene modifying.

Keywords: CCR5, HIV-1, stem cell, immune gene therapy, gene modification

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7 Induction of HIV-1 Resistance: The New Approaches Based on Gene Modification and Stem Cell Engineering

Authors: Alieh Farshbaf

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Introduction: Current anti-retroviral drugs have some restrictions for treatment of HIV-1 infection. The efficacy of retroviral drugs is not same in different infected patients and the virus rebound from latent reservoirs after stopping them. Recently, the engineering of stem cells and gene therapy provide new approaches to eliminate some drug problems by induction of resistance to HIV-1. Literature review: Up to now, AIDS-restriction genes (ARGs) were suitable candidate for gene and cell therapies, such as cc-chemokine receptor-5 (CCR5). In this manner, CCR5 provide effective cure in Berlin and Boston patients by inducing of HIV-1 resistance with allogeneic stem cell transplantation. It is showed that Zinc Finger Nuclease (ZFN) could induce HIV-1 resistance in stem cells of infected patients by homologous recombination or non-end joining mechanism and eliminate virus loading after returning the modified cells. Then, gene modification by HIV restriction factors, as TRIM5, introduced another gene candidate for HIV by interfering in infection process. These gene modifications/editing provided by stem cell futures that improve treatment in refractory disease such as HIV-1. Conclusion: Although stem cell transplantation has some complications, but in compare to retro-viral drugs demonstrated effective cure by elimination of virus loading. On the other hand, gene therapy is cost-effective for an infected patient than retroviral drugs payment in a person life-long. The results of umbilical cord blood stem cell transplantation showed that gene and cell therapy will be applied easier than previous treatment of AIDS with high efficacy.

Keywords: stem cell, AIDS, gene modification, cell engineering

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6 Structural Protein-Protein Interactions Network of Breast Cancer Lung and Brain Metastasis Corroborates Conformational Changes of Proteins Lead to Different Signaling

Authors: Farideh Halakou, Emel Sen, Attila Gursoy, Ozlem Keskin

Abstract:

Protein–Protein Interactions (PPIs) mediate major biological processes in living cells. The study of PPIs as networks and analyze the network properties contribute to the identification of genes and proteins associated with diseases. In this study, we have created the sub-networks of brain and lung metastasis from primary tumor in breast cancer. To do so, we used seed genes known to cause metastasis, and produced their interactions through a network-topology based prioritization method named GUILDify. In order to have the experimental support for the sub-networks, we further curated them using STRING database. We proceeded by modeling structures for the interactions lacking complex forms in Protein Data Bank (PDB). The functional enrichment analysis shows that KEGG pathways associated with the immune system and infectious diseases, particularly the chemokine signaling pathway, are important for lung metastasis. On the other hand, pathways related to genetic information processing are more involved in brain metastasis. The structural analyses of the sub-networks vividly demonstrated their difference in terms of using specific interfaces in lung and brain metastasis. Furthermore, the topological analysis identified genes such as RPL5, MMP2, CCR5 and DPP4, which are already known to be associated with lung or brain metastasis. Additionally, we found 6 and 9 putative genes that are specific for lung and brain metastasis, respectively. Our analysis suggests that variations in genes and pathways contributing to these different breast metastasis types may arise due to change in tissue microenvironment. To show the benefits of using structural PPI networks instead of traditional node and edge presentation, we inspect two case studies showing the mutual exclusiveness of interactions and effects of mutations on protein conformation which lead to different signaling.

Keywords: breast cancer, metastasis, PPI networks, protein conformational changes

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5 The Effect of Metformin in Combination with Dexamethasone on the CXCR4 Level in Multiple Myeloma Cell Line

Authors: Seyede Sanaz Seyedebrahimi, Shima Rahimi, Shohreh Fakhari, Ali Jalili

Abstract:

Background: CXCR4, as a chemokine receptor, plays well-known roles in various types of cancers. Several studies have been conducted to overcome CXCR4 axis acts in multiple myeloma (MM) pathogenesis and progression. Dexamethasone, a standard treatment for multiple myeloma, has been shown to increase CXCR4 levels in multiple myeloma cell lines. Herein, we focused on the effects of metformin and dexamethasone on CXCR4 at the cellular level and the migration rate of cell lines after exposure to a combination compared to single-agent models. Materials and Method: Multiple myeloma cell lines (U266 and RPMI8226) were cultured with different metformin and dexamethasone concentrations in single-agent and combination models. The simultaneous combination doses were calculated by CompuSyn software. Cell surface and mRNA expression of CXCR4 were determined using flow cytometry and the quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assay, respectively. The Transwell cell migration assay evaluated the migration ability. Results: In concurred with previous studies, our results showed a dexamethasone up-regulation effect on CXCR4 in a dose-dependent manner. Although, the metformin single-agent model could reduce CXCR4 expression of U266 and RPMI8226 in cell surface and mRNA expression level. Moreover, the administration of metformin and dexamethasone simultaneously exerted a higher suppression effect on CXCR4 expression than the metformin single-agent model. The migration rate through the combination model's matrigel membrane was remarkably lower than the metformin and dexamethasone single-agent model. Discussion: According to our findings, the combination of metformin and dexamethasone effectively inhibited dexamethasone-induced CXCR4 expression in multiple myeloma cell lines. As a result, metformin may be counted as an alternative medicine combined with other chemotherapies to combat multiple myeloma. However, more research is required.

Keywords: CXCR4, dexamethasone, metformin, migration, multiple myeloma

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4 Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG Increases the Re-Epithelialization Rate of Model Wounds by Stimulating Keratinocyte Migration in Ex-Vivo

Authors: W. Mohammedsaeed, A. J. Mcbain, S. M. Cruickshank, C. A. O’Neill

Abstract:

Many studies have demonstrated the importance of probiotics and their potential therapeutic effects within the gut. Recently, the possible therapeutic effects of probiotics in other tissues have also begun to be investigated. Comparatively few studies have evaluated the use of topical probiotics in relation to the skin. In this study, we have conducted preliminary investigations into whether a well-known probiotic, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG), can increase the rate of re-epithelialization in a model wound. Full-thickness skin was obtained from individuals undergoing elective cosmetic surgery. This skin was wounded using excisional punch and cultured using a serum-free medium, either in the presence or absence of L. rhamnosus GG lysate. Histological staining of the sections was performed with Haematoxylin& Eosin E to quantify “epithelial tongue length”. This is the length of the new epithelial ‘tongue’ that grows and covers the exposed dermis at the inner wound edges. The length of the new epithelial ‘tongue’ was compared in untreated section and section treated with and L. rhamnosus GG made using108CFU/ml bacterial cells. L. rhamnosus GG lysate enhanced significantly the re-epithelialisation of treated wounds compared with that of untreated wounds (P=0.005, n=3). Tongue length, at day 1 was 7.55μm 0.15, at day 3 it was 18.5μm 0.25 and at day 7 was 22.9μm 0.35. These results can be compared with untreated cultures in which tongue length was 3.25μm 0.35, day 3 was 9.65μm 0.25 and day 7 was 13.5μm 0.15 post-wounding. In ex-vivo proliferation and migration cells were measured by determining the expression of nuclear proliferation marker Ki-67 and the expression of Phosphorylated cortactin respectively demonstrated that L. rhamnosus GG significantly increased NHEK proliferation and migration rates relative to controls. However, the dominant mechanism was migration because in ex-vivo skin treated with the L. rhamnosus GG up-regulated the gene expression of the chemokine receptor and ligands CXCR2 and CXCL2 comparing with controls (P=0.02, P=0.03 respectively, n=3). High levels of CXCL2/CXCL2 have already been implicated in multiple aspects of stimulation of wound healing through activation of keratinocyte migration. These data demonstrate that lysates from Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG increase re-epithelialization by stimulation of keratinocyte migration. The current study identifies the partial mechanism that contribute to stimulating the wound-healing process ex vivo in response to L. rhamnosus GG lysate is an increase in the production of CXCL2/ CXCR2 in ex vivo models. The use of probiotic lysates potentially offers new options to develop treatments that could improve wound healing.

Keywords: Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, wounds, migration, lysate

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3 Inhibition of Influenza Replication through the Restrictive Factors Modulation by CCR5 and CXCR4 Receptor Ligands

Authors: Thauane Silva, Gabrielle do Vale, Andre Ferreira, Marilda Siqueira, Thiago Moreno L. Souza, Milene D. Miranda

Abstract:

The exposure of A(H1N1)pdm09-infected epithelial cells (HeLa) to HIV-1 viral particles, or its gp120, enhanced interferon-induced transmembrane protein (IFITM3) content, a viral restriction factor (RF), resulting in a decrease in influenza replication. The gp120 binds to CCR5 (R5) or CXCR4 (X4) cell receptors during HIV-1 infection. Then, it is possible that the endogenous ligands of these receptors also modulate the expression of IFITM3 and other cellular factors that restrict influenza virus replication. Thus, the aim of this study is to analyze the role of cellular receptors R5 and X4 in modulating RFs in order to inhibit the replication of the influenza virus. A549 cells were treated with 2x effective dose (ED50) of endogenous R5 or X4 receptor agonists, CCL3 (20 ng/ml), CCL4 (10 ng/ml), CCL5 (10 ng/ml) and CXCL12 (100 ng/mL) or exogenous agonists, gp120 Bal-R5, gp120 IIIB-X4 and its mutants (5 µg/mL). The interferon α (10 ng/mL) and oseltamivir (60 nM) were used as a control. After 24 h post agonists exposure, the cells were infected with virus influenza A(H3N2) at 2 MOI (multiplicity of infection) for 1 h. Then, 24 h post infection, the supernatant was harvested and, the viral titre was evaluated by qRT-PCR. To evaluate IFITM3 and SAM and HD domain containing deoxynucleoside triphosphate triphosphohydrolase 1 (SAMHD1) protein levels, A549 were exposed to agonists for 24 h, and the monolayer was lysed with Laemmli buffer for western blot (WB) assay or fixed for indirect immunofluorescence (IFI) assay. In addition to this, we analyzed other RFs modulation in A549, after 24 h post agonists exposure by customized RT² Profiler Polymerase Chain Reaction Array. We also performed a functional assay in which SAMHD1-knocked-down, by single-stranded RNA (siRNA), A549 cells were infected with A(H3N2). In addition, the cells were treated with guanosine to assess the regulatory role of dNTPs by SAMHD1. We found that R5 and X4 agonists inhibited influenza replication in 54 ± 9%. We observed a four-fold increase in SAMHD1 transcripts by RFs mRNA quantification panel. After 24 h post agonists exposure, we did not observe an increase in IFITM3 protein levels through WB or IFI assays, but we observed an upregulation up to three-fold in the protein content of SAMHD1, in A549 exposed to agonists. Besides this, influenza replication enhanced in 20% in cell cultures that SAMDH1 was knockdown. Guanosine treatment in cells exposed to R5 ligands further inhibited influenza virus replication, suggesting that the inhibitory mechanism may involve the activation of the SAMHD1 deoxynucleotide triphosphohydrolase activity. Thus, our data show for the first time a direct relationship of SAMHD1 and inhibition of influenza replication, and provides perspectives for new studies on the signaling modulation, through cellular receptors, to induce proteins of great importance in the control of relevant infections for public health.

Keywords: chemokine receptors, gp120, influenza, virus restriction factors

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2 Identification of the Target Genes to Increase the Immunotherapy Response in Bladder Cancer Patients using Computational and Experimental Approach

Authors: Sahar Nasr, Lin Li, Edwin Wang

Abstract:

Bladder cancer (BLCA) is known as the 13th cause of death among cancer patients worldwide, and ~575,000 new BLCA cases are diagnosed each year. Urothelial carcinoma (UC) is the most prevalent subtype among BLCA patients, which can be categorized into muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) and non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). Currently, various therapeutic options are available for UC patients, including (1) transurethral resection followed by intravesical instillation of chemotherapeutics or Bacillus Calmette-Guérin for NMIBC patients, (2) neoadjuvant platinum-based chemotherapy (NAC) plus radical cystectomy is the standard of care for localized MIBC patients, and (3) systematic chemotherapy for metastatic UC. However, conventional treatments may lead to several challenges for treating patients. As an illustration, some patients may suffer from recurrence of the disease after the first line of treatment. Recently, immune checkpoint therapy (ICT) has been introduced as an alternative treatment strategy for the first or second line of treatment in advanced or metastatic BLCA patients. Although ICT showed lucrative results for a fraction of BLCA patients, ~80% of patients were not responsive to it. Therefore, novel treatment methods are required to augment the ICI response rate within BLCA patients. It has been shown that the infiltration of T-cells into the tumor microenvironment (TME) is positively correlated with the response to ICT within cancerous patients. Therefore, the goal of this study is to enhance the infiltration of cytotoxic T-cells into TME through the identification of target genes within the tumor that are responsible for the non-T-cell inflamed TME and their inhibition. BLCA bulk RNA-sequencing data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and immune score for TCGA samples were used to determine the Pearson correlation score between the expression of different genes and immune score for each sample. The genes with strong negative correlations were selected (r < -0.2). Thereafter, the correlation between the expression of each gene and survival in BLCA patients was calculated using the TCGA data and Cox regression method. The genes that are common in both selected gene lists were chosen for further analysis. Afterward, BLCA bulk and single-cell RNA-sequencing data were ranked based on the expression of each selected gene and the top and bottom 25% samples were used for pathway enrichment analysis. If the pathways related to the T-cell infiltration (e.g., antigen presentation, interferon, or chemokine pathways) were enriched within the low-expression group, the gene was included for downstream analysis. Finally, the selected genes will be used to calculate the correlation between their expression and the infiltration rate of the activated CD+8 T-cells, natural killer cells and the activated dendric cells. A list of potential target genes has been identified and ranked based on the above-mentioned analysis and criteria. SUN-1 got the highest score within the gene list and other identified genes in the literature as benchmarks. In conclusion, inhibition of SUN1 may increase the tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and the efficacy of ICI in BLCA patients. BLCA tumor cells with and without SUN-1 CRISPR/Cas9 knockout will be injected into the syngeneic mouse model to validate the predicted SUN-1 effect on increasing tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes.

Keywords: data analysis, gene expression analysis, gene identification, immunoinformatic, functional genomics, transcriptomics

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1 The Pro-Reparative Effect of Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide in Chronic Inflammatory Osteolytic Periapical Lesions

Authors: Michelle C. S. Azevedo, Priscila M. Colavite, Carolina F. Francisconi, Ana P. Trombone, Gustavo P. Garlet

Abstract:

VIP (vasoactive intestinal peptide) know as a potential protective factor in the view of its marked immunosuppressive properties. In this work, we investigated a possible association of VIP with the clinical status of experimental periapical granulomas and the association with expression markers in the lesions potentially associated with periapical lesions pathogenesis. C57BL/6WT mice were treated or not with recombinant VIP. Animals with active/progressive (N=40), inactive/stable (N=70) periapical granulomas and controls (N=50) were anesthetized and the right mandibular first molar was surgically opened, allowing exposure of dental pulp. Endodontic pathogenic bacterial strains were inoculated: Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella nigrescens, Actinomyces viscosus, and Fusobacterium nucleatum subsp. polymorphum. The cavity was not sealed after bacterial inoculation. During lesion development, animals were treated or not with recombinant VIP 3 days post infection. Animals were killed after 3, 7, 14, and 21 days of infection and the jaws were dissected. The extraction of total RNA from periodontal tissues was performed and the integrity of samples was checked. qPCR reaction using TaqMan chemistry with inventoried primers were performed in ViiA7 equipment. The results, depicted as the relative levels of gene expression, were calculated in reference to GAPDH and β-actin expression. Periodontal tissues from upper molars were vested and incubated supplemented RPMI, followed by processing with 0.05% DNase. Cell viability and couting were determined by Neubauer chamber analysis. For flow cytometry analysis, after cell counting the cells were stained with the optimal dilution of each antibody; (PE)-conjugated and (FITC)-conjugated antibodies against CD4, CD25, FOXP3, IL-4, IL-17 and IFN-γ antibodies, as well their respective isotype controls. Cells were analyzed by FACScan and CellQuest software. Results are presented as the number of cells in the periodontal tissues or the number of positive cells for each marker in the CD4+FOXp3+, CD4+IL-4+, CD4+IFNg+ and CD4+IL-17+ subpopulations. The levels mRNA were measured by qPCR. The VIP expression was predominated in inactive lesions, as well part of the clusters of cytokine/Th markers identified as protective factors and a negative correlation between VIP expression and lesion evolution was observed. A quantitative analysis of IL1β, IL17, TNF, IFN, MMP2, RANKL, OPG, IL10, TGFβ, CTLA4, COL5A1, CTGF, CXCL11, FGF7, ITGA4, ITGA5, SERP1 and VTN expression was measured in experimental periapical lesions treated with VIP 7 and 14 days after lesion induction and healthy animals. After 7 days, all targets presented a significate increase in comparison to untreated animals. About migration kinetics, profile of chemokine receptors expression of TCD4+ subsets and phenotypic analysis of Tregs, Th1, Th2 and Th17 cells during the course of experimental periodontal disease evaluated by flow cytometry and depicted as the number of positive cells for each marker. CD4+IFNg+ and CD4+FOXp3+ cells migration were significate increased 7 days post VIP treatment. CD4+IL17+ cells migration were significate increased 7 and 14 days post VIP treatment, CD4+IL4+ cells migration were significate increased 14 and 21 days post VIP treatment compared to the control group. In conclusion, our experimental data support VIP involvement in determining the inactivity of periapical lesions. Financial support: FAPESP #2015/25618-2.

Keywords: chronic inflammation, cytokines, osteolytic lesions, VIP (Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide)

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