Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 482

Search results for: cosmetic formulations

482 Sun Protection Factor (SPF) Determination of Sericin Cream and Niosomal Gel

Authors: Farzad Doostishoar, Abbas Pardakhty, Abdolreza Hassanzadeh, Sudeh salarpour, Elham Sharif

Abstract:

Background: Sericin is a protein extracted from silk and has antioxidant, antimicrobial, antineoplastic, wound healing and moisturizing properties. Different cosmetic formulation of sericin is available in different countries such as Japan and the other south-eastern Asian countries. We formulated and evaluated the sunscreen properties of topical formulations of sericin by an in vitro method. Method: Niosomes composed of sorbitan palmitate (Span 40), polysorbate 40 (Tween 40) and cholesterol (300 µmol, 3.5:3.5:3 molar ratio) were prepared by film hydration technique. Sericin was dissolved in normal saline and the lipid hydration was carried out at 60°C and the niosomes were incorporated in a Carbomer gel base. A W/O cream was also prepared and the release of sericin was evaluated by using Franz diffusion cell. Particle size analysis, sericin encapsulation efficiency measurement, morphological studies and stability evaluation were done in niosomal formulations. SPF was calculated by using Transpore tape in vitro method for both formulations. Results: Niosomes had high stability during 6 months storage at 4-8°C. The mean volume diameter of niosomes was less than 7 µm which is ideal for sustained release of drugs in topical formulations. The SPF of niosomal gel was 25 and higher than sericin cream with a diffusion based release pattern of active material. Conclusion: Sericin can be successfully entrapped in niosomes with sustained release pattern and relatively high SPF.

Keywords: sericin, niosomes, sun protection factor, cream, gel

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481 Toxicological Standardization of Heavy Metals and Microbial Contamination Haematinic Herbal Formulations Marketed in India

Authors: A. V. Chandewar, Sanjay Bais

Abstract:

Backgound: In India, drugs of herbal origin have been used in traditional systems of medicines such as Unani and Ayurveda since ancient times. WHO limit for Escherichia coli is 101/gm cfu, for Staphylococus aureus 105/gm cfu, and for Pseudomonas aeruginosa 103/gm cfu and for Salmonella species nil cfu. WHO mentions maximum permissible limits in raw materials only for arsenic, cadmium, and lead, which amount to 1.0, 0.3, and 10 ppm, respectively. Aim: The main purpose of the investigation was to document evidence for the users, and practitioners of marketed haematinic herbal formulations. In the present study haematinic herbal formulations marketed in Yavatmal India were determined for the presence of microbial and heavy metal content. Method: The investigations were performed by using specific medias and atomic absorption spectrometry. Result: The present work indicates the presence of heavy metal contents in herbal formulations selected for study. It was found that arsenic content in formulations was below the permissible limit in all formulations. The cadmium and lead content in six formulations were above the permissible limits. Such formulations are injurious to health of patient if consumed regularly. The specific medias were used to determining the presence of Escherichia coli 4 samples, Staphylococcus aureus 3 samples, and P. aeruginosa 4 samples. The data indicated suggest that there is requirement of in process improvement to provide better quality for consumer health in order to be competitive in international markets. Summary/Conclusion: The presence of microbial and heavy metal content above WHO limits indicates that the GMP was not followed during manufacturing of herbal formulations marketed in India.

Keywords: toxicological standardization, heavy metals, microbial contamination, haematinic herbal formulations

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480 Current Cosmetic Treatments in Pregnancy

Authors: Daniela F. Maluf, Fernanda Roters, Luma C. F. Silva

Abstract:

The goal of this work is to report the main dermatological alterations occurring during pregnancy and actual cosmetic protocols available and recommended for safe use. Throughout pregnancy, woman's body undergoes many transformations such as hormonal changes and weight gain. These alterations can result in undesirable skin aspects that end up affecting the future mother's life. The main complaints of pregnant women involve melasma advent, varicose veins, edema, and natural skin aging. Even if most of the time is recommended to wait for the birth to use cosmetics, there are some alternatives to prevent and to treat these alterations during pregnancy. For all these cases, there is a need to update information about safety and efficacy of new actives and technologies in cosmetic products. The purpose of this study was to conduct a literature review about the main skin alterations during pregnancy and actual recommended treatments, according to the current legislation.

Keywords: pregnancy, cosmetic, treatment, physiological changes

Procedia PDF Downloads 250
479 Evaluating Thailand’s Cosmetic Surgery Tourism by Taiwanese Female Tourists

Authors: Wen-Yu Chen, Chia-Yuan Hsu, Sasinee Vongsrikul

Abstract:

The present study is to explore the perception of Taiwanese females towards medical tourism in Thailand for the development of applicable marketing strategy, integrating travel motivation and cosmetic surgery trend to attract potential medical tourists from Taiwan. Since previous studies relevant to this research issue are limited, qualitative study is firstly employed by using one focus group interview and in-depth interviews with Taiwanese females. Moreover, the present research collected questionnaires from 290 Taiwanese females to provide greater understanding of research results. The top three factors that affect Taiwanese females’ decision for not going to Thailand for medical tourism are “physicians and nurses cannot speak Chinese”, “low quality of the cosmetic surgery product that I want to do”, and “the county does not have laws to protect medical tourists’ right”. The finding of the empirical part would suggest the area in medical tourism industry which Thailand should promote and emphasizes in order to increase its presence as a hub for cosmetic surgery and attract Taiwanese female market. Therefore, the study contributes to the potential development of marketing strategy for medical tourism, specifically in the area of cosmetic surgery in Thailand while targeting Taiwan market.

Keywords: Thailand, Taiwanese female tourists, medical tourism, cosmetic surgery

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478 Cosmetic Surgery on the Rise: The Impact of Remote Communication

Authors: Bruno Di Pace, Roxanne H. Padley

Abstract:

Aims: The recent increase in remote video interaction has increased the number of requests for teleconsultations with plastic surgeons in private practice (70% in the UK and 64% in the USA). This study investigated the motivations for such an increase and the underlying psychological impact on patients. Method: An anonymous web-based poll of 8 questions was designed and distributed to patients seeking cosmetic surgery through social networks in both Italy and the UK. The questions gathered responses regarding 1. Reasons for pursuing cosmetic surgery; 2. The effects of delays caused by the SARS-COV-2 pandemic; 3. The effects on mood; 4. The influence of video conferencing on body-image perception. Results: 85 respondents completed the online poll. Overall, 68% of respondents stated that seeing themselves more frequently online had influenced their decision to seek cosmetic surgery. The types of surgeries indicated were predominantly to the upper body and face (82%). Delays and access to surgeons during the pandemic were perceived as negatively impacting patients' moods (95%). Body-image perception and self-esteem were lower than in the pre-pandemic, particularly during lockdown (72%). Patients were more inclined to undergo cosmetic surgery during the pandemic, both due to the wish to improve their “lockdown face” for video conferencing (77%) and also due to the benefits of home recovery while in smart working (58%). Conclusions: Overall, findings suggest that video conferencing has led to a significant increase in requests for cosmetic surgery and the so-called “Zoom Boom” effect.

Keywords: cosmetic surgery, remote communication, telehealth, zoom boom

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477 Cosmetic Recommendation Approach Using Machine Learning

Authors: Shakila N. Senarath, Dinesh Asanka, Janaka Wijayanayake

Abstract:

The necessity of cosmetic products is arising to fulfill consumer needs of personality appearance and hygiene. A cosmetic product consists of various chemical ingredients which may help to keep the skin healthy or may lead to damages. Every chemical ingredient in a cosmetic product does not perform on every human. The most appropriate way to select a healthy cosmetic product is to identify the texture of the body first and select the most suitable product with safe ingredients. Therefore, the selection process of cosmetic products is complicated. Consumer surveys have shown most of the time, the selection process of cosmetic products is done in an improper way by consumers. From this study, a content-based system is suggested that recommends cosmetic products for the human factors. To such an extent, the skin type, gender and price range will be considered as human factors. The proposed system will be implemented by using Machine Learning. Consumer skin type, gender and price range will be taken as inputs to the system. The skin type of consumer will be derived by using the Baumann Skin Type Questionnaire, which is a value-based approach that includes several numbers of questions to derive the user’s skin type to one of the 16 skin types according to the Bauman Skin Type indicator (BSTI). Two datasets are collected for further research proceedings. The user data set was collected using a questionnaire given to the public. Those are the user dataset and the cosmetic dataset. Product details are included in the cosmetic dataset, which belongs to 5 different kinds of product categories (Moisturizer, Cleanser, Sun protector, Face Mask, Eye Cream). An alternate approach of TF-IDF (Term Frequency – Inverse Document Frequency) is applied to vectorize cosmetic ingredients in the generic cosmetic products dataset and user-preferred dataset. Using the IF-IPF vectors, each user-preferred products dataset and generic cosmetic products dataset can be represented as sparse vectors. The similarity between each user-preferred product and generic cosmetic product will be calculated using the cosine similarity method. For the recommendation process, a similarity matrix can be used. Higher the similarity, higher the match for consumer. Sorting a user column from similarity matrix in a descending order, the recommended products can be retrieved in ascending order. Even though results return a list of similar products, and since the user information has been gathered, such as gender and the price ranges for product purchasing, further optimization can be done by considering and giving weights for those parameters once after a set of recommended products for a user has been retrieved.

Keywords: content-based filtering, cosmetics, machine learning, recommendation system

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476 Development and Characterization of Novel Topical Formulation Containing Niacinamide

Authors: Sevdenur Onger, Ali Asram Sagiroglu

Abstract:

Hyperpigmentation is a cosmetically unappealing skin problem caused by an overabundance of melanin in the skin. Its pathophysiology is caused by melanocytes being exposed to paracrine melanogenic stimuli, which can upregulate melanogenesis-related enzymes (such as tyrosinase) and cause melanosome formation. Tyrosinase is linked to the development of melanosomes biochemically, and it is the main target of hyperpigmentation treatment. therefore, decreasing tyrosinase activity to reduce melanosomes has become the main target of hyperpigmentation treatment. Niacinamide (NA) is a natural chemical found in a variety of plants that is used as a skin-whitening ingredient in cosmetic formulations. NA decreases melanogenesis in the skin by inhibiting melanosome transfer from melanocytes to covering keratinocytes. Furthermore, NA protects the skin from reactive oxygen species and acts as a main barrier with the skin, reducing moisture loss by increasing ceramide and fatty acid synthesis. However, it is very difficult for hydrophilic compounds such as NA to penetrate deep into the skin. Furthermore, because of the nicotinic acid in NA, it is an irritant. As a result, we've concentrated on strategies to increase NA skin permeability while avoiding its irritating impacts. Since nanotechnology can affect drug penetration behavior by controlling the release and increasing the period of permanence on the skin, it can be a useful technique in the development of whitening formulations. Liposomes have become increasingly popular in the cosmetics industry in recent years due to benefits such as their lack of toxicity, high penetration ability in living skin layers, ability to increase skin moisture by forming a thin layer on the skin surface, and suitability for large-scale production. Therefore, liposomes containing NA were developed for this study. Different formulations were prepared by varying the amount of phospholipid and cholesterol and examined in terms of particle sizes, polydispersity index (PDI) and pH values. The pH values of the produced formulations were determined to be suitable with the pH value of the skin. Particle sizes were determined to be smaller than 250 nm and the particles were found to be of homogeneous size in the formulation (pdi<0.30). Despite the important advantages of liposomal systems, they have low viscosity and stability for topical use. For these reasons, in this study, liposomal cream formulations have been prepared for easy topical application of liposomal systems. As a result, liposomal cream formulations containing NA have been successfully prepared and characterized. Following the in-vitro release and ex-vivo diffusion studies to be conducted in the continuation of the study, it is planned to test the formulation that gives the most appropriate result on the volunteers after obtaining the approval of the ethics committee.

Keywords: delivery systems, hyperpigmentation, liposome, niacinamide

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475 Public Perception and Willingness to Undergo Cosmetic Procedures during COVID-19 Pandemic: A Questionnaire-Based Study Applied to Asymptomatic Individuals

Authors: Ibrahim Alreshidi, Aseel Albrekeit, Ruaa Alharthi

Abstract:

Background: As a result of the spread of COVID-19 at the beginning of 2020, many governments, including Saudi Arabia, have suspended operations in many agencies. Most dermatologists have restricted their practice, including cosmetic procedures, to ensure social distancing. On the 7th of May 2020, Saudi authorities reduced the restriction of COVID-19 virus preventative measures, allowing clinics to start accepting patients following the ministry of health protocols. Objectives: Evaluation of the public's perception and willingness to undergo cosmetic procedures during COVID-19 outbreaks in Saudi Arabia. Materials and methods: A descriptive, cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study was carried out among the individuals who lack typical symptoms of COVID-19 infection in Saudi Arabia. A self-designed web-based questionnaire was developed; content face validity and a pilot study were done. The questionnaire was distributed electronically from the 8th of May until the 31st of May 2020. Results: A total of 656 individuals who lack typical symptoms of COVID-19 infection were included in this analysis. Only 10.5% of participants expressed their will to do cosmetic procedures during the COVID-19 pandemic. More than 90% of the participants believed that the COVID-19 pandemic was either somewhat serious (52.9%) or very serious (38.7%). The willingness to do cosmetic procedures during the COVID-19 pandemic remained unaltered when the price was discounted (p<0.001) and when infection control measures were ensured (p<0.001). Conclusion: The COVID-19 pandemic had a negative impact on the practice of cosmetic dermatology. Fear of transferring the infection to a beloved home member is the main reason to avoid these procedures. Generating well-structured safety guidelines to decrease the risk of this unusual virus transmission in dermatology practice and creating financial incentives may help increase the public willingness to do these cosmetic procedures during this pandemic.

Keywords: COVID-19 pandemic, cosmetic procedures, questionnaire, dermatology

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474 Preparation and Evaluation of Citrus hystrix Nanoemulsion Formulation against Rice Weevil, Sitophilus oryzae

Authors: Elsayed Elmiligy, Dzolkhifili Omar, Norhayu Asib

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Sitophilus oryzae is a primary destructive insect pest. A study on nanoemulsion formulation of C. hystrix peel oil and evaluation of its insecticidal effect on the adults of S. oryzae was held in toxicology laboratory at Faculty of Agriculture, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM). Three nanoemulsion formulations (F1, F2, and F3) were prepared using C. hystrix peel oil (a.i), Tween 80 (surfactant), AMD 810 (carrier) and deionized water. The selected formulations have undergone stability tests, surface tension, zeta potential and particle size measurements. The formulations were tested for their contact and fumigant activity against the adults of S. oryzae. LC₅₀ values were obtained from Probit regressions using the Polo-PC program. All the formulations showed stability under storage temperature and centrifugation. They were characterized as nanoemulsions as they remained in the range of nanoscale 200 nm. The formulations revealed lower surface tension in the range of 29.5 to 30.4 mN/m. They showed stable of zeta potential values. The formulations showed the highest toxicity against the adults of S. oryzae. The order of decreasing toxicity was F1 > F2 > F3 with LC₅₀ values of 52.1, 58.5, and 61.7 µl/l for contact toxicity, and 71, 75.5, and 76.7 µl/l air for fumigant bioassay after 72 hours. Formulation of C. hystrix peel oil in a nanoemulsion enhance its effectiveness and reduce the amount of applied essential oil.

Keywords: Citrus hystrix peel oil, Sitophilus oryzae, nanoemulsion, contact toxicity, Fumigant bioassay

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473 A Sensitive Approach on Trace Analysis of Methylparaben in Wastewater and Cosmetic Products Using Molecularly Imprinted Polymer

Authors: Soukaina Motia, Nadia El Alami El Hassani, Alassane Diouf, Benachir Bouchikhi, Nezha El Bari

Abstract:

Parabens are the antimicrobial molecules largely used in cosmetic products as a preservative agent. Among them, the methylparaben (MP) is the most frequently used ingredient in cosmetic preparations. Nevertheless, their potential dangers led to the development of sensible and reliable methods for their determination in environmental samples. Firstly, a sensitive and selective molecular imprinted polymer (MIP) based on screen-printed gold electrode (Au-SPE), assembled on a polymeric layer of carboxylated poly(vinyl-chloride) (PVC-COOH), was developed. After the template removal, the obtained material was able to rebind MP and discriminate it among other interfering species such as glucose, sucrose, and citric acid. The behavior of molecular imprinted sensor was characterized by Cyclic Voltammetry (CV), Differential Pulse Voltammetry (DPV) and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) techniques. Then, the biosensor was found to have a linear detection range from 0.1 pg.mL-1 to 1 ng.mL-1 and a low limit of detection of 0.12 fg.mL-1 and 5.18 pg.mL-1 by DPV and EIS, respectively. For applications, this biosensor was employed to determine MP content in four wastewaters in Meknes city and two cosmetic products (shower gel and shampoo). The operational reproducibility and stability of this biosensor were also studied. Secondly, another MIP biosensor based on tungsten trioxide (WO3) functionalized by gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs) assembled on a polymeric layer of PVC-COOH was developed. The main goal was to increase the sensitivity of the biosensor. The developed MIP biosensor was successfully applied for the MP determination in wastewater samples and cosmetic products.

Keywords: cosmetic products, methylparaben, molecularly imprinted polymer, wastewater

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472 A Brief History of Kampo Extract Formulations for Prescription in Japan

Authors: Kazunari Ozaki, Mitsuru Kageyama, Kenki Miyazawa, Yoshio Nakamura

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Background: Kampo (Japanese Traditional medicine) is a medicine traditionally practiced in Japan, based on ancient Chinese medicine. Most Kampo doctors have used decoction of crude drug pieces for treatment. 93% of the Kampo drugs sold in Japan are Kampo products nowadays. Of all Kampo products, 81% of them are Kampo extract formulations for prescription, which is prepared in powdered or granulated form from medicinal crude drug extracts mixed with appropriate excipient. Physicians with medical license for Western medicine prescribe these Kampo extract formulations for prescription in Japan. Objectives: Our study aims at presenting a brief history of Kampo extract formulations for prescription in Japan. Methods: Systematic searches for relevant studies were conducted using not only printed journals but also electronic journals from the bibliographic databases, such as PubMed/Medline, Ichushi-Web, and university/institutional websites, as well as search engines, such as Google and Google Scholar. Results: The first commercialization of Kampo extract formulations for general use (or OTC (over-the-counter) Kampo extract formulation) was achieved after 1957. The number of drugs has been subsequentially increased, reaching 148 Kampo extract formulation for prescription currently. Conclusion: We provide a history of Kampo extract formulations for prescription in Japan. The originality of this research is that it analyzes the background history of Kampo in parallel with relevant transitions in the government and insurance systems.

Keywords: health insurance system, history, Kampo, Kampo extract formulation for prescription, OTC Kampo extract formulation, pattern corresponding prescription (Ho-sho-so-tai) system

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471 Increasing Solubility and Bioavailability of Fluvastatin through Transdermal Nanoemulsion Gel Delivery System for the Treatment of Osteoporosis

Authors: Ramandeep Kaur, Makula Ajitha

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Fluvastatin has been reported for increasing bone mineral density in osteoporosis since last decade. Systemically administered drug undergoes extensive hepatic first-pass metabolism, thus very small amount of drug reaches the bone tissue which is highly insignificant. The present study aims to deliver fluvastatin in the form of nanoemulsion (NE) gel directly to the bone tissue through transdermal route thereby bypassing hepatic first pass metabolism. The NE formulation consisted of isopropyl myristate as oil, tween 80 as surfactant, transcutol as co-surfactant and water as the aqueous phase. Pseudoternary phase diagrams were constructed using aqueous titration method and NE’s obtained were subjected to thermodynamic-kinetic stability studies. The stable NE formulations were evaluated for their droplet size, zeta potential, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The nano-sized formulations were incorporated into 0.5% carbopol 934 gel matrix. Ex-vivo permeation behaviour of selected formulations through rat skin was investigated and compared with the conventional formulations (suspension and emulsion). Further, in-vivo pharmacokinetic study was carried using male Wistar rats. The optimized NE formulations mean droplet size was 11.66±3.2 nm with polydispersity index of 0.117. Permeation flux of NE gel formulations was found significantly higher than the conventional formulations i.e. suspension and emulsion. In vivo pharmacokinetic study showed significant increase in bioavailability (1.25 fold) of fluvastatin than oral formulation. Thus, it can be concluded that NE gel was successfully developed for transdermal delivery of fluvastatin for the treatment of osteoporosis.

Keywords: fluvastatin, nanoemulsion gel, osteoporosis, transdermal

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470 Modified Polysaccharide as Emulsifier in Oil-in-Water Emulsions

Authors: Tatiana Marques Pessanha, Aurora Perez-Gramatges, Regina Sandra Veiga Nascimento

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Emulsions are commonly used in applications involving oil/water dispersions, where handling of interfaces becomes a crucial aspect. The use of emulsion technology has greatly evolved in the last decades to suit the most diverse uses, ranging from cosmetic products and biomedical adjuvants to complex industrial fluids. The stability of these emulsions is influenced by factors such as the amount of oil, size of droplets and emulsifiers used. While commercial surfactants are typically used as emulsifiers to reduce interfacial tension, and therefore increase emulsion stability, these organic amphiphilic compounds are often toxic and expensive. A suitable alternative for emulsifiers can be obtained from the chemical modification of polysaccharides. Our group has been working on modification of polysaccharides to be used as additives in a variety of fluid formulations. In particular, we have obtained promising results using chitosan, a natural and biodegradable polymer that can be easily modified due to the presence of amine groups in its chemical structure. In this way, it is possible to increase both the hydrophobic and hydrophilic character, which renders a water-soluble, amphiphilic polymer that can behave as an emulsifier. The aim of this work was the synthesis of chitosan derivatives structurally modified to act as surfactants in stable oil-in-water. The synthesis of chitosan derivatives occurred in two steps, the first being the hydrophobic modification with the insertion of long hydrocarbon chains, while the second step consisted in the cationization of the amino groups. All products were characterized by infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and carbon magnetic resonance (13C-NMR) to evaluate the cationization and hydrofobization degrees. These modified polysaccharides were used to formulate oil-in water (O:W) emulsions with different oil/water ratios (i.e 25:75, 35:65, 60:40) using mineral paraffinic oil. The formulations were characterized according to the type of emulsion, density and rheology measurements, as well as emulsion stability at high temperatures. All emulsion formulations were stable for at least 30 days, at room temperature (25°C), and in the case of the high oil content emulsion (60:40), the formulation was also stable at temperatures up to 100°C. Emulsion density was in the range of 0.90-0.87 s.g. The rheological study showed a viscoelastic behaviour in all formulations at room temperature, which is in agreement with the high stability showed by the emulsions, since the polymer acts not only reducing interfacial tension, but also forming an elastic membrane at the oil/water interface that guarantees its integrity. The results obtained in this work are a strong evidence of the possibility of using chemically modified polysaccharides as environmentally friendly alternatives to commercial surfactants in the stabilization of oil-in water formulations.

Keywords: emulsion, polymer, polysaccharide, stability, chemical modification

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469 Cosmetic Value of Collatamp in Breast Conserving Surgery

Authors: Chee Young Kim, Tae Hyun Kim, Anbok Lee, Hyun-Ah Kim, Woosung Lim, Ku Sang Kim, Jinsun Lee, Yoo Seok Kim, Beom Seok Ko

Abstract:

Background: CollatampTM is Gentamicin-containing collagen sponge well known for its hemostatic effect, commonly utilized in surgeries. We inserted CollatempTM wrapped by SurgicelTM (oxidized cellulose polymer) to fill up the defect after breast conserving surgery. The purpose of this study is to verify the furthermore cosmetic value of CollatampTM in breast conserving surgery conducted in breast cancer patients. Methods: 17 patients were enrolled in this study, underwent breast conserving surgery with CollatampTM wrapped by SurgicelTM insertion, in Inje University Busan Paik Hospital from October 2015 to September 2016. Patient satisfaction, cosmetic outcome, results at 6 months from operation was analyzed to verify the effectiveness and usefulness of CollatampTM for cosmetics. Patient satisfaction was investigated through interviews on a scale of good, fair, poor, and the cosmetic outcome was investigated through physical examination by a surgeon who did not participate in the operations. Results: Among 17 patients, nine of them gave ‘good’ for patient satisfaction, eight gave ‘fair’ and none of them ‘poor’. Also, cosmetic outcome came out with 11 ‘good’s, six ‘fair’s, no ‘poor’. In ‘good’ patient satisfaction group, the mean value of resection to breast volume ratio was 16%, compared to 24% of ‘fair’ group. The mean value of actual resection volume was 100.6cm3, 102.7cm3 each. In ‘good’ cosmetic outcome group, the mean value of resection to breast volume ratio was 18%, compared to 23% of ‘fair’ group. The mean value of actual resection volume was 99.2cm3, 105.9cm3 respectively. According to these results, patient satisfaction and cosmetic outcome after surgeries were more reliable on the resection to breast volume ratio, rather than the actual resection volume. There were eight cases of postoperative complications, consisting of a lymphedema, a seroma, and six patients had mild pain. Conclusions: Cosmetic effect of CollatampTM in breast conserving surgery was more reliable on the resection to breast volume ratio, rather than the actual resection volume. In this short term survey, patients were tend to be satisfied with the cosmetics, all giving either good or fair scores. However, long term outcomes should be further assessed.

Keywords: breast cancer, breast conserving surgery, collatamp, cosmetics

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468 Evaluation of Trapping Efficiency of Slow Released Formulations of Methyl Eugenol with Lanolin Wax against Bactrocera zonata

Authors: Waleed Afzal Naveed, Muhammd Dildar Gogi, Muhammad Sufian, Muhammad Amjad Ali, Muhammad Junaid Nisar, Mubashar Iqbal, Amna Jalal, Faisal Munir

Abstract:

The study was carried out to evaluate the performance of Slow-Released Formulations (SRF) of Methyl eugenol with Lanolin wax in orchard of the University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan against fruit flies. Lanolin wax was mixed with methyl eugenol in nine ratios (10:90, 20:80, 30:70, 40:60, 50:50, 60:40, 70:30, 80:20 and 90:10). The results revealed that SRFₗₗ-7 trapped 42.1 flies /day/trap, exhibited an attractancy index (AI) of 51.71%, proved strongly attractive SRFₗₗ for B. zonata and was categorized as Class-III slow-released formulation (AI > 50%). The SRFₗₗ-2, SRFₗₗ-3, SRFₗₗ-4, SRFₗₗ-5, SRFₗₗ-6, SRFₗₗ-8 and SRFₗₗ-9 trapped 17.7, 27.9, 32.3, 23.8, 28.3, 37.8 and 19.9 flies /day/trap, exhibited an attractancy index (AI) of 20.54%, 41.02%, 26.00%, 34.15%, 43.50%, 49.86% and 46.07% AI respectively, proved moderately attractive slow-released formulations for B. zonata and were categorized as Class-II slow-released formulations (AI = 11-50%). However, SRFₗₗ-1 trapped 14.8 flies /day/trap, exhibited 0.71% AI proved little or nonattractive slow-released formulation and was categorized as Class-I slow-released formulation for B. zonata (AI < 11%).

Keywords: Bactrocera zonata, slow-released formulation, lenoline wax, methyl euginol

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467 Systematic Formulation Development and Evaluation of Self-Nanoemulsifying Systems of Rosuvastatin Employing QbD Approach and Chemometric Techniques

Authors: Sarwar Beg, Gajanand Sharma, O. P. Katare, Bhupinder Singh

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The current studies entail development of self-nano emulsifying drug delivery systems (SNEDDS) of rosuvastatin, employing rational QbD-based approach for enhancing its oral bioavailability. SNEDDS were prepared using the blend of lipidic and emulsifying excipients, i.e., Peceol, Tween 80, and Transcutol HP. The prepared formulations evaluated for in vitro drug release, ex vivo permeation, in situ perfusion studies and in vivo pharmacokinetic studies in rats, which demonstrated 3-4 fold improvement in biopharmaceutical performance of the developed formulations. Cytotoxicity studies using MTT assay and histopathological studies in intestinal cells revealed the lack of cytotoxicity and thereby safety and efficacy of the developed formulations.

Keywords: SNEDDS, bioavailability, solubility, Quality by Design (QbD)

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466 Indications and Results of the Use of Facial Fat Grafting and Fillers in Complications of Cosmetic Facial Augmentation

Authors: Jose A. Foppiani, Valeria P. Bustos, Nathalia Hassel, Samuel J. Lin

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Introduction: Non-surgical cosmetic procedures have risen in popularity in the last decades. However, despite its popularity, a comprehensive comparison of the safety of fillers versus fat grafting has not been made. Therefore, this study aims to review the complication rate in the use of fat grafting and fillers in cosmetic facial augmentation. Methods: A systematic review of several databases was performed. Random-effect meta-analysis of proportions was conducted to assess the overall prevalence of fillers and fat grafting complications. Results: A total of 33 studies were included, pooling 9,537,299 patients with a range of ages between 18 and 85. Of those patients, 2,625 (0.03%) underwent fat grafting and 9,534,674 (99.97%) fillers for cosmetic facial augmentation. Both fat grafting and fillers for facial augmentation had similar complication rates. The most common complication found among papers in fillers were erythema/skin discoloration 15 (95% confidence interval [CI] 5-19%), bruising 10% (95%CI 5-18%), and discomfort/pain 10% (95%CI 2-21%). Conclusion: Based on this review, fat grafting and fillers were found to have similar safety profiles and be widely studied. We believe this study highlights the improvement made in techniques and product composition, as well as patient selection. However, the high heterogeneity found across the studies is a call for further studies to implement standardized treatment protocol and uniform definition of complications.

Keywords: facial augmentation, injectables, fat grafting, dermal filler, complications

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465 Carbonation and Mechanical Performance of Reactive Magnesia Based Formulations

Authors: Cise Unluer

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Reactive MgO hydrates to form brucite (Mg(OH)2, magnesium hydroxide), which can then react with CO2 and additional water to form a range of strength providing hydrated magnesium carbonates (HMCs) within cement-based formulations. The presented work focuses on the use of reactive MgO in a range of concrete mixes, where it carbonates by absorbing CO2 and gains strength accordingly. The main goal involves maximizing the amount of CO2 absorbed within construction products, thereby reducing the overall environmental impact of the designed formulations. Microstructural analyses including scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermogravimetry/differential thermal analysis (TG/DTA) are used in addition to porosity, permeability and unconfined compressive strength (UCS) testing to understand the performance mechanisms. XRD Reference Intensity Ratio (RIR), acid digestion and TG/DTA are utilized to quantify the amount of CO2 sequestered, with the goal of achieving 100% carbonation through careful mix design, leading to a range of carbon neutral products with high strengths. As a result, samples stronger than those containing Portland cement (PC) were produced, revealing the link between the mechanical performance and microstructural development of the developed formulations with the amount of CO2 sequestered.

Keywords: carbonation, compressive strength, reactive MgO cement, sustainability

Procedia PDF Downloads 114
464 Study on Preparation and Storage of Composite Vegetable Squash of Tomato, Pumpkin and Ginger

Authors: K. Premakumar, R. G. Lakmali, S. M. A. C. U. Senarathna

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In the present world, production and consumption of fruit and vegetable beverages have increased owing to the healthy life style of the people. Therefore, a study was conducted to develop composite vegetable squash by incorporating nutritional, medicinal and organoleptic properties of tomato, pumpkin and ginger. Considering the finding of several preliminary studies, five formulations in different combinations tomato pumpkin were taken and their physico-chemical parameters such as pH, TSS, titrable acidity, ascorbic acid content and total sugar and organoleptic parameters such as colour, aroma, taste, nature, overall acceptability were analyzed. Then the best sample was improved by using 1 % ginger (50% tomato+ 50% pumpkin+ 1% ginger). Best three formulations were selected for storage studied. The formulations were stored at 30 °C room temperature and 70-75% of RH for 12 weeks. Physicochemical parameters , organoleptic and microbial activity (total plate count, yeast and mold, E-coil) were analyzed during storage periods and protein content, fat content, ash were also analysed%.The study on the comparison of physico-chemical and sensory qualities of stored Squashes was done up to 12 weeks storage periods. The nutritional analysis of freshly prepared tomato pumpkin vegetable squash formulations showed increasing trend in titratable acidity, pH, total sugar, non -reducing sugar, total soluble solids and decreasing trend in ascorbic acid and reducing sugar with storage periods. The results of chemical analysis showed that, there were the significant different difference (p < 0.05) between tested formulations. Also, sensory analysis also showed that there were significant differences (p < 0.05) for organoleptic character characters between squash formulations. The highest overall acceptability was observed in formulation with 50% tomato+ 50% pumpkin+1% ginger and all the all the formulations were microbiologically safe for consumption. Based on the result of physico-chemical characteristics, sensory attributes and microbial test, the Composite Vegetable squash with 50% tomato+50% pumpkin+1% ginger was selected as best formulation and could be stored for 12 weeks without any significant changes in quality characteristics.

Keywords: nutritional analysis, formulations, sensory attributes, squash

Procedia PDF Downloads 129
463 Cosmetic Dermatology Procedures: Survey Results of American Society for Dermatologic Surgery

Authors: Marina S. Basta, Kirollos S. Basta

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Cosmetic dermatology procedures have witnessed exponential growth and diversification over the last 10 years. Thus, the purpose of this study was to collect data about the latest trends for cosmetic procedures reported by dermatologists during the year 2018. This study was performed by American Society for Dermatologic Surgery (ASDS) in 2018 through sending survey invitations to 3,358 practicing dermatologists in the U.S. containing streamline questions as well as statistical questions targeted to specific analysis of cosmetic dermatology trends. Out of the targeted physicians, only 596 dermatologists reply to the survey invitation (15% overall response rate). It was noted that data collected from that survey was generalized to represent all ASDS members. Results show that there is an increase in cosmetic dermatology procedures since 12.5 million procedures were reported for 2018 compared to only 7.8 million for 2012. Injectable neuromodulators and soft tissue fillers have topped the list with a 3.7 million procedure count. Body sculpting, chemical peeling, hair transplantation, and microneedling procedures were reported to be 1.57 million cases combined. Also, the top two procedures using laser were represented in wrinkle treatment as well as sun damage correction, while the lowest two trends for laser usage were for treatments of tattoos and birthmarks. Cryolipolysis was found to be at the head of body sculpting procedures with 287,435 cases, while tumescent liposuction was reported as the least performed body sculpting procedure (18,286 cases). In conclusion, comparing the procedural trends for the last 7 years has indicated that there has been a 78% increase in soft tissue filler treatment compared to 2012. In addition, it was further noted that laser procedures scored 74% increase in the last 7 years while body contouring procedures have had four folds increase in general compared to 2012.

Keywords: cosmetic dermatology, ASDS procedure survey, laser, body sculpting

Procedia PDF Downloads 48
462 Improving Lutein Bioavailability by Nanotechnology Applications

Authors: Hulya Ilyasoglu Buyukkestelli, Sedef Nehir El

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Lutein is a member of xanthophyll group of carotenoids found in fruits and vegetables. Lutein accumulates in the macula region of the retina and known as macular pigment which absorbs damaging light in the blue wavelengths. The presence of lutein in retina has been related to decreased risk of two common eye diseases, age-related macular degeneration, and cataract. Being a strong antioxidant, it may also have effects on prevention some types of cancer, cardiovascular disease, cognitive dysfunction. Humans are not capable of synthesizing lutein de novo; therefore it must be provided naturally by the diet, fortified foods, and beverages or nutritional supplement. However, poor bioavailability and physicochemical stability limit its usage in the food industry. Poor solubility in digestive fluids and sensitivity to heat, light, and oxygen are both affect the stability and bioavailability of lutein. In this context, new technologies, delivery systems and formulations have been applied to improve stability and solubility of lutein. Nanotechnology, including nanoemulsion, nanocrystal, nanoencapsulation technology and microencapsulation by complex coacervation, spray drying are promising ways of increasing solubilization of lutein and stability of it in different conditions. Bioavailability of lutein is also dependent on formulations used, starch formulations and milk proteins, especially sodium caseinate are found effective in improving the bioavailability of lutein. Designing foods with highly bioavailable and stabile lutein needs knowledge about current technologies, formulations, and further needs. This review provides an overview of the new technologies and formulations used to improve bioavailability of lutein and also gives a future outlook to food researches.

Keywords: bioavailability, formulation, lutein, nanotechnology

Procedia PDF Downloads 277
461 The Role of Organizational Culture, Work Discipline, and Employee Motivation towards Employees Performance at Personal Care and Cosmetic Department Flammable PT XYZ Cosmetics

Authors: Novawiguna Kemalasari, Ahmad Badawi Saluy

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This research is a planned activity to find an objective answer to PT XYZ problem through scientific procedure. In this study, It was used quantitative research methods by using samples taken from a department selected by researchers. This study aims to analyze the influence of organizational culture, work discipline and work motivation on employee performance of Personal Care & Cosmetic Department (PCC) Flammable PT XYZ. This research was conducted at PT XYZ Personal Care & Cosmetic Department (PCC) Flammable involving 82 employees as respondents, the data were obtained by using questionnaires filled in self-rating by respondents. The data were analyzed by multiple linear regression model processed by using SPSS version 22. The result of research showed that organizational culture variable, work discipline and work motivation had significant effect to employee performance.

Keywords: organizational culture, work discipline, employee motivation, employees performance

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460 Performance of Different Biodegradable Waxes Based Specialized Pheromone and Lure Application Technology-Male Anhelation Technique-Cue Lure Formulations in Bittergourd Field against Bactrocera cucurbitae

Authors: Amna Jalal, Muhammad Dildar Gogi, Muhammad Jalal Arif, Anum Tariq, Waleed Afzal Naveed, Talha Farooq, Mubashir Iqbal, Muhammad Junaid Nisar

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Melon fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae: Dacinae) are economically important pests of the cucurbits and are geographically distributed throughout the tropics and subtropics of the world. It causes heavy quantitative and qualitative losses in bitter gourd. The present experiment was carried out to evaluate the performance of different biodegradable waxes based SPLAT-MAT-CL (Specialized Pheromone and Lure Application Technology-Male Anhelation Technique- Cue Lure) formulations in bitter gourd field. Fourteen SPLAT-MAT emulsions/formulations were prepared by admixing different SPLAT matrices with toxicant (spinosad) and sex pheromone cuelure (attractant) in different proportionate percentage by weight. The results revealed that attraction and trapping of fruit flies of B. cucurbitae varied significantly for different SPLAT-MAT-CL formulations (p < 0.05). The maximum B. cucurbitae males were trapped in SPLAT-MAT-CL-7 (60 flies/trap/day) followed by SPLAT-MAT-CL-9 (40 flies/trap/day). The performance of all other formulations of SPLAT-MAT-CL was found in the order of SPLAT-MAT-CL-8 (30 flies/trap/day) > SPLAT-MAT-CL-3 (28 flies/trap/day) > SPLAT-MAT-CL-5 (25 flies/trap/day) > SPLAT-MAT-CL-4 (22 flies/trap/day) > SPLAT-MAT-CL-12 (20 flies/trap/day) SPLAT-MAT-CL-2 (19 flies/trap/day) > SPLAT-MAT-CL-14 (17 flies/trap/day) > SPLAT-MAT-CL-13 (15 flies/trap/day) > SPLAT-MAT-CL-11 (10 flies/trap/day) > SPLAT-MAT-CL-1 (8 flies/trap/day) > SPLAT-MAT-CL-10 (02 flies/trap/day). Overall, all the SPLAT-MAT-CL formulations, except SPLAT-MAT-CL-10, demonstrated higher density of captures of B. cucurbitae males as compared to standard (06 flies/trap/day). The results also demonstrate that SPLAT-MAT-CL-7, SPLAT-MAT-CL-9, SPLAT-MAT-CL-8, SPLAT-MAT-CL-3, SPLAT-MAT-CL-5, SPLAT-MAT-CL-4, SPLAT-MAT-CL-12, SPLAT-MAT-CL-2, SPLAT-MAT-CL-14, SPLAT-MAT-CL-13, SPLAT-MAT-CL-11 and SPLAT-MAT-CL-1 explained approximately 5, 4.6, 4.1, 3.6, 3.3, 3.1,2.8,2.5 and 1.6 times higher captures of B. cucurbitae males over standards. However, SPLAT-MAT-CL-10 demonstrated 3 times fewer captures of B. cucurbitae males over standards. In conclusion, SPLAT-MAT-CL-7, SPLAT-MAT-CL-9 can be exploited for the monitoring and trapping of B. cucurbitae in its IPM of program.

Keywords: attractancy, field conditions, melon fruit fly, SPLAT-MAT-CL

Procedia PDF Downloads 170
459 Nude Cosmetic Water-Rich Compositions for Skin Care and Consumer Emotions

Authors: Emmanuelle Merat, Arnaud Aubert, Sophie Cambos, Francis Vial, Patrick Beau

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Basically, consumers are sensitive to many stimuli when applying a cream: brand, packaging and indeed formulation compositions. Many studies demonstrated the influence of some stimuli such as brand, packaging, formula color and odor (e.g. in make-up applications). Those parameters influence perceived quality of the product. The objective of this work is to further investigate the relationship between nude skincare basic compositions with different textures and consumer experience. A tentative final step will be to connect the consumer feelings with key ingredients in the compositions. A new approach was developed to better understand touch-related subjective experience in consumers based on a combination of methods: sensory analysis with ten experts, preference mapping on one hundred female consumers and emotional assessments on thirty consumers (verbal and non-verbal through prosody and gesture monitoring). Finally, a methodology based on ‘sensorial trip’ (after olfactory, haptic and musical stimuli) has been experimented on the most interesting textures with 10 consumers. The results showed more or less impact depending on compositions and also on key ingredients. Three types of formulation particularly attracted the consumer: an aqueous gel, an oil-in-water emulsion, and a patented gel-in-oil formulation type. Regarding these three formulas, the preferences were both revealed through sensory and emotion tests. One was recognized as the most innovative in consumer sensory test whereas the two other formulas were discriminated in emotions evaluation. The positive emotions were highlighted especially in prosody criteria. The non-verbal analysis, which corresponds to the physical parameters of the voice, showed high pitch and amplitude values; linked to positive emotions. Verbatim, verbal content of responses (i.e., ideas, concepts, mental images), confirmed the first conclusion. On the formulas selected for their positive emotions generation, the ‘sensorial trip’ provided complementary information to characterize each emotional profile. In the second step, dedicated to better understand ingredients power, two types of ingredients demonstrated an obvious input on consumer preference: rheology modifiers and emollients. As a conclusion, nude cosmetic compositions with well-chosen textures and ingredients can positively stimulate consumer emotions contributing to capture their preference. For a complete achievement of the study, a global approach (Asia, America territories...) should be developed.

Keywords: sensory, emotion, cosmetic formulations, ingredients' influence

Procedia PDF Downloads 93
458 Design and Development of Mucoadhesive Buccal Film Bearing Itraconazole

Authors: Yuvraj Singh Dangi, Kamta Prasad Namdeo, Surendra Bodhake

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The purpose of this research was to develop and evaluate mucoadhesive films for buccal administration of itraconazole using film-forming and mucoashesive polymers. Buccal films of chitosan bearing Itraconazole were prepared by solvent casting technique. The films have been evaluated in terms of film weight, thickness, density, surface pH, FTIR, X-ray diffraction analysis, bioadhesion, swelling properties, and in vitro drug release studies. It was found that film formulations of 2 cm2 size having weight in the range of 204 ± 0.76 to 223 ± 2.09 mg and film thickness were in the range of 0.44 ± 0.11 to 0.57 ± 0.19 mm. Density of the films was found to be 0.102 to 0.126 g/ml. Drug content was found to be uniform in the range of 8.23 ± 0.07 to 8.73 ± 0.09 mg/cm2 for formulation A1 to A4. Maximum bioadhesion force was recorded for HPMC buccal films (A2) i.e. 0.57 ± 0.47 as compared to other films. In vitro residence time was in range of 1.7 ± 0.12 to 7.65 ± 0.15 h. The drug release studies show that formulations follow non-fickian diffusion. These mucoadhesive formulations could offer many advantages in comparison to traditional treatments.

Keywords: biovariability, buccal patches, itraconazole, Mucoadhesion

Procedia PDF Downloads 447
457 Potential Applications of Biosurfactants from Corn Steep Liquor in Cosmetic

Authors: J. M. Cruz, X. Vecıno, L. Rodrıguez-López, J. M. Dominguez, A. B. Moldes

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The cosmetic and personal care industry are the fields where biosurfactants could have more possibilities of success because in this kind of products the replacement of synthetic detergents by natural surfactants will provide an additional added value to the product, at the same time that the harmful effects produced by some synthetic surfactants could be avoided or reduced. Therefore, nowadays, consumers are disposed to pay and additional cost if they obtain more natural products. In this work we provide data about the potential of biosurfactants in the cosmetic and personal care industry. Biosurfactants from corn steep liquor, that is a fermented and condensed stream, have showed good surface-active properties, reducing substantially the surface tension of water. The bacteria that usually growth in corn steep liquor comprises Lactobacillus species, generally recognize as safe. The biosurfactant extracted from CSL consists of a lipopeptide, composed by fatty acids, which can reduce the surface tension of water in more than 30 units. It is a yellow and viscous liquid with a density of 1.053 mg/mL and pH=4. By these properties, they could be introduced in the formulation of cosmetic creams, hair conditioners or shampoos. Moreover this biosurfactant extracted from corn steep liquor, have showed a potent antimicrobial effect on different strains of Streptococcus. Some species of Streptococcus are commonly found weakly living in the human respiratory and genitourinary systems, producing several diseases in humans, including skin diseases. For instance, Streptococcus pyogenes produces many toxins and enzymes that help to stabilize skin infections; probably biosurfactants from corn steep liquor can inhibit the mechanisms of the S. pyogenes enzymes. S. pyogenes is an important cause of pharyngitis, impetigo, cellulitis and necrotizing fasciitis. In this work it was observed that 50 mg/L of biosurfactant extract obtained from corn steep liquor is able to inhibit more than 50% the growth of S. pyogenes. Thus, cosmetic and personal care products, formulated with biosurfactants from corn steep liquor, could have prebiotic properties. The natural biosurfactant presented in this work and obtained from corn milling industry streams, have showed a high potential to provide an interesting and sustainable alternative to those, antibacterial and surfactant ingredients used in cosmetic and personal care manufacture, obtained by chemical synthesis, which can cause irritation, and often only show short time effects.

Keywords: antimicrobial activity, biosurfactants, cosmetic, personal care

Procedia PDF Downloads 180
456 Study of the Potential of Raw Sediments and Sediments Treated with Lime or Cement for Use in a Foundation Layer and the Base Layer of a Roadway

Authors: Nor-Edine Abriak, Mahfoud Benzerzour, Mouhamadou Amar, Abdeljalil Zri

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In this work, firstly we have studied the potential of raw sediments and sediments treated with lime or cement for use in a foundation layer and the base layer of a roadway. Secondly, we have examined mineral changes caused by the addition of lime or cement in order to explain the mechanical performance of stabilized sediments. After determining the amount of lime and cement required stabilizing the sediments, the compaction characteristics and Immediate Bearing Capacity (IBI) were studied using the Modified Proctor method. Then, the evolution of the three parameters, which are optimum water content, maximum dry density and IBI, were determined. Mechanical performances can be evaluated through resistance to compression, resistance under traction and the elasticity modulus. The resistances of the formulations treated with ROLAC®645 increase with the amount of ROLAC®645. Traction resistance and the elastic modulus were used to evaluate the potential of the formulations as road construction materials using the classification diagram. The results show that all the other formulations with ROLAC®645 can be used in subgrades and foundation layers for roads.

Keywords: sediment, lime, cement, roadway

Procedia PDF Downloads 194
455 Nano-Pesticides: Recent Emerging Tool for Sustainable Agricultural Practices

Authors: Ekta, G. K. Darbha

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Nanotechnology offers the potential of simultaneously increasing efficiency as compared to their bulk material as well as reducing harmful environmental impacts of pesticides in field of agriculture. The term nanopesticide covers different pesticides that are cumulative of several surfactants, polymers, metal ions, etc. of nanometer size ranges from 1-1000 nm and exhibit abnormal behavior (high efficacy and high specific surface area) of nanomaterials. Commercial formulations of pesticides used by farmers nowadays cannot be used effectively due to a number of problems associated with them. For example, more than 90% of applied formulations are either lost in the environment or unable to reach the target area required for effective pest control. Around 20−30% of pesticides are lost through emissions. A number of factors (application methods, physicochemical properties of the formulations, and environmental conditions) can influence the extent of loss during application. It is known that among various formulations, polymer-based formulations show the greatest potential due to their greater efficacy, slow release and protection against premature degradation of active ingredient as compared to other commercial formulations. However, the nanoformulations can have a significant effect on the fate of active ingredient as well as may release some new ingredients by reacting with existing soil contaminants. Environmental fate of these newly generated species is still not explored very well which is essential to field scale experiments and hence a lot to be explored in the field of environmental fate, nanotoxicology, transport properties and stability of such formulations. In our preliminary work, we have synthesized polymer based nanoformulation of commercially used weedicide atrazine. Atrazine belongs to triazine class of herbicide, which is used in the effective control of seed germinated dicot weeds and grasses. It functions by binding to the plastoquinone-binding protein in PS-II. Plant death results from starvation and oxidative damage caused by breakdown in electron transport system. The stability of the suspension of nanoformulation containing herbicide has been evaluated by considering different parameters like polydispersity index, particle diameter, zeta-potential under different environmental relevance condition such as pH range 4-10, temperature range from 25°C to 65°C and stability of encapsulation also have been studied for different amount of added polymer. Morphological characterization has been done by using SEM.

Keywords: atrazine, nanoformulation, nanopesticide, nanotoxicology

Procedia PDF Downloads 192
454 Formulation of the N-Acylethanolamine, Linoleoylethanolamide into Cubosomes for Delivery across the Blood-Brain Barrier

Authors: Younus Mohammad, Anita B. Fallah, Ben J. Boyd, Shakila B. Rizwan

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N-acylethanolamines (NAEs) are endogenous lipids, which have neuromodulatory properties. NAEs have shown neuroprotective properties in various neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and ischemic stroke. However, NAEs are eliminated rapidly in vivo by enzymatic hydrolysis. We propose to encapsulate NAEs in liquid crystalline nanoparticles (cubosomes) to increase their biological half-life and explore their therapeutic potential. Recently, we have reported the co-formulation and nanostructural characterization of cubosomes containing the NAE, oleoylethanolamide and a synthetic cubosome forming lipid phytantriol. Here, we report on the formulation of cubosomes with the NAE, linoleoylethanolamide (LEA) as the core cubosome forming lipid. LEA-cubosomes were formulated in the presence of three different steric stabilisers: two brain targeting ligands, Tween 80 and Pluronic P188 and a control, Pluronic F127. Size, morphology and internal structure of formulations were characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS), cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (Cryo–TEM) and small angle X–ray scattering (SAXS), respectively. Chemical stability of LEA in formulations was investigated using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Cytotoxicity of formulations towards human cerebral microvascular endothelial cell line (hCMEC/D3) was also investigated using an MTT (3-[4, 5- dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) assay. All cubosome formulations had mean particle size of less than 250 nm and were uniformly distributed with polydispersity indices less than 0.2. Cubosomes produced had a bicontinuous cubic internal structure with an Im3m space group but different lattice parameters, indicating the different modes of interaction between the stabilisers and LEA. LEA in formulations was found to be chemically stable. At concentrations of up to 20 µg/mL LEA in the presence of all the stabilisers, greater than 80% cell viability was observed.

Keywords: blood-brain barrier, cubosomes, linoleoyl ethanolamide, N-acylethanolamines (NAEs)

Procedia PDF Downloads 133
453 Marketing and Pharmaceutical Analysis of Medical Cosmetics in Bulgaria and Japan

Authors: V. Petkova, V. Valchanova, D. Grekova, K. Andreevska, S. T. Geurguiev, V. Madgarov, D. Grekov

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Introduction: Production, distribution and sale of cosmetics is a global industry, which played a key role in the European Union (EU), the US and Japan. A major participant EU whose market cosmetics is greater than in the US and 2 times greater than that in Japan. The output value of the cosmetics industry in the EU is estimated at about € 35 billion in 2001. Nearly 5 billion cosmetic products (number of packages) are sold annually in the EU, and the main markets are France, Germany, Italy, Spain and the UK. The aim of the study is legal and marketing analysis of cosmetic products dispensed in a pharmacy. Materials and methodology: Historical legislative analysis - the method is applied in the analysis of changes in the legislative regulation of the activities of cosmetic products in Japan and Bulgaria Comparative legislative analysis - the method is applied when comparing the legislative requirements for cosmetic products in the already mentioned countries. Both methods are applied to the following regulations: 1) Japanese Pharmaceuticals Affairs Law, Tokyo, Japan, Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare; 2) Law on Medicinal Products for Human Use; effective from 3.01.2014. Results: The legislative framework for cosmetic products in Bulgaria and Japan is close and generally includes general guidelines: Definition of a medicinal product; Categorization of drugs (with differences in sub-categories); Pre-registration and marketing approval of the competent authorities; Compulsory compliance with gmp (unlike cosmetics); Regulatory focus on product quality, efficacy and safety; Obligations for labeling of such products; Created systems Pharmacovigilance and commitment of all parties - industry and health professionals; The main similarities in the regulation of products classified as cosmetics are in the following segments: Full producer responsibility for product safety; Surveillance of market regulatory authorities; No need for pre-registration or pre-marketing approval (a basic requirement for notification); Without restrictions on sales channels; GMP manuals for cosmetics; Regulatory focus on product safety (than over efficiency); General requirements in labeling: The main differences in the regulation of products classified as cosmetics are in the following segments: Details in the regulation of cosmetic products; Future convergence of regulatory frameworks can contribute to the removal of barriers to trade, to encourage innovation, while simultaneously ensuring a high level of protection of consumer safety.

Keywords: cosmetics, legislation, comparative analysis, Bulgaria, Japan

Procedia PDF Downloads 520